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Sample records for canine tracheal smooth

  1. In vivo recording of electrical activity of canine tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Tamura, K; Onoe, K; Takahira, H; Ohta, Y; Yamabayashi, H

    1992-01-01

    Electrical activity of the tracheal smooth muscle was studied using extracellular bipolar electrodes in 37 decerebrate, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated dogs. A spontaneous oscillatory potential that consisted of a slow sinusoidal wave of 0.57 +/- 0.13 (SD) Hz mean frequency but lacked a fast spike component was recorded from 15 dogs. Lung collapse accomplished by bilateral pneumothoraxes evoked or augmented the slow potentials that were associated with an increase in tracheal muscle contraction in 26 dogs. This suggests that the inputs from the airway mechanoreceptors reflexly activate the tracheal smooth muscle cells. Bilateral vagal transection abolished both the spontaneous and the reflexly evoked slow waves and provided relaxation of the tracheal smooth muscle. Electrical stimulation of the distal nerve with a train pulse (0.5 ms, 1-30 Hz) evoked slow-wave oscillatory potentials accompanied by a contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle in all the experimental animals. Our observations in this in vivo study confirm that the electrical activity of tracheal smooth muscle consists of slow oscillatory potentials and that tracheal contraction is at least partly coupled to the slow-wave activity of the smooth muscle. PMID:1537706

  2. Canine tracheal collapse.

    PubMed

    Tappin, S W

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal collapse occurs most commonly in middle-aged, small breed dogs. Clinical signs are usually proportional to the degree of collapse, ranging from mild airway irritation and paroxysmal coughing to respiratory distress and dyspnoea. Diagnosis is made by documenting dynamic airway collapse with radiographs, bronchoscopy or fluoroscopy. Most dogs respond well to medical management and treatment of any concurrent comorbidities. Surgical intervention may need to be considered in dogs that do not respond or have respiratory compromise. A variety of surgical techniques have been reported although extraluminal ring prostheses or intraluminal stenting are the most commonly used. Both techniques have numerous potential complications and require specialised training and experience but are associated with good short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:26780854

  3. Involvement of MAPKs, NF-{kappa}B and p300 co-activator in IL-1{beta}-induced cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} expression in canine tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.-F.; Lin, C.-C.; Chen, H.-C.; Lin, W.-N.; Lee, I-T.; Lee, C.-W.; Hsiao, L.-D.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-11-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) plays a pivotal role in mediating agonist-induced arachidonic acid release for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis during stimulation with interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}). However, the mechanisms underlying IL-1{beta}-induced cPLA{sub 2} expression and PGE{sub 2} synthesis by canine tracheal smooth muscle cells (CTSMCs) have not been defined. IL-1{beta} induced cPLA{sub 2} protein and mRNA expression, PGE{sub 2} production, and phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK (ATF{sub 2}), and JNK (c-Jun) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, determined by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA, which was attenuated by the inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), and JNK (SP600125), or transfection with dominant negative mutants of MEK1/2, p38, and JNK, respectively. Furthermore, IL-1{beta}-induced cPLA{sub 2} expression and PGE{sub 2} synthesis was inhibited by a selective NF-{kappa}B inhibitor (helenalin) or transfection with dominant negative mutants of NF-{kappa}B inducing kinase (NIK), I{kappa}B kinase (IKK)-{alpha}, and IKK-{beta}. Consistently, IL-1{beta} stimulated both I{kappa}B-{alpha} degradation and NF-{kappa}B translocation into nucleus in these cells. NF-{kappa}B translocation was blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126, SB202190, and SP600125. MAPKs together with NF-{kappa}B-activated p300 recruited to cPLA{sub 2} promoter thus facilitating the binding of NF-{kappa}B to cPLA{sub 2} promoter region and expression of cPLA{sub 2} mRNA. IL-1{beta}-induced cPLA{sub 2} expression and PGE{sub 2} production was inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating the involvement of transcriptional and translational events in these responses. These results suggest that in CTSMCs, IL-1{beta}-induced cPLA{sub 2} expression and PGE{sub 2} synthesis was independently mediated through activation of MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B pathways and was connected to p300 recruitment and activation.

  4. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  5. Pathways of ion movement in the canine tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Welsh, M J; Widdicombe, J H

    1980-09-01

    The pathways of ion movement across canine tracheal epithelium, a Cl-secreting tissue, were examined by three techniques. First, the measurement of simultaneous, unidirectional fluxes of Na or Cl and mannitol, a large hydrophilic molecule that serves as a marker of the paracellular pathway, indicated that a significant fraction of both the Na flux from submucosa to mucosa (J Na sm) and the flux of Cl from mucosa to submucosa (J Cl ms) traverse the cellular pathway. The ratio of the Na-to-Cl diffusion coefficients through the paracellular pathway was 0.23, in contrast to the free solution ratio of 0.63. Second, in voltage-clamp experiments we examined the effect of transepithelial voltage differences on the unidirectional fluxes of Na and Cl. The results agree with the previous findings, suggesting that there are voltage-independent, or transcellular, backfluxes of Na and Cl, and that the relative permeability of Na to Cl through the voltage-dependent (presumably paracellular) pathway was 0.28. Third, measurement of transepithelial diffusion potentials gave a Na-to-Cl permeability ratio of 0.31 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SE). These results suggest that there are significant transcellular backfluxes of Na and Cl and that the paracellular pathway in the canine trachea is anion selective. An anion-selective pathway would tend to shunt the secreted Cl back through the paracellular pathway, thus minimizing the net ion and fluid movement across the tissue in the open-circuit condition. PMID:7435560

  6. Inhibition of tracheal smooth muscle contraction and myosin phosphorylation by ryanodine

    SciTech Connect

    Gerthoffer, W.T.; Murphey, K.A.; Khoyi, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that muscarinic activation of airway smooth muscle in low Ca++ solutions increases myosin phosphorylation without increasing tension. Blocking Ca++ influx reduced phosphorylation, but not to basal levels. It was proposed that release of intracellular Ca++ contributed to dissociation of phosphorylation and contraction. To test this hypothesis the effects of ryanodine were studied under similar conditions. Ryanodine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) antagonized caffeine-induced contraction of canine tracheal smooth muscle. Ryanodine also reduced carbachol-induced contractions and carbachol-induced myosin phosphorylation. The effect of ryanodine on potassium and serotonin-induced contractions was also investigated to test for a nonspecific inhibitory effect. In contrast to the effect on carbachol responses, ryanodine (10(-5) M) potentiated the contractile response to low concentrations of serotonin and potassium, but had no effect on the maximum response to either stimulant. Carbachol (10(-6) M) and ryanodine (10(-5) M) both significantly decreased /sup 45/Ca++ content of tracheal muscle. The effect of ryanodine and carbachol together on /sup 45/Ca++ content was not greater than either drug alone suggesting that ryanodine reduces the caffeine and carbachol responses by depleting releaseable Ca++ stores. Ryanodine significantly reduced Ca++-induced contraction and myosin phosphorylation in carbachol-stimulated muscle, suggesting that some of the Ca++ responsible for elevated phosphorylation is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  7. Abnormal tracheal smooth muscle function in the CF mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Helen L; Southern, Kevin W; Connell, Marilyn G; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility is thought to underlie symptoms of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, ASM anomalies have been reported, but have not been fully characterized and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined ASM in an adult CF mouse tracheal ring preparation, and determined whether changes in contractility were associated with altered ASM morphology. We looked for inherent changes in the cellular pathways involved in contractility, and characterized trachea morphology in the adult trachea and in an embryonic lung culture model during development. Results showed that that there was a reduction in tracheal caliber in CF mice as indicated by a reduction in the number of cartilage rings; proximal cross-sectional areas of cftr−/− tracheas and luminal areas were significantly smaller, but there was no difference in the area or distribution of smooth muscle. Morphological differences observed in adult trachea were not evident in the embryonic lung at 11.5 days gestation or after 72 h in culture. Functional data showed a significant reduction in the amplitude and duration of contraction in response to carbachol (CCh) in Ca-free conditions. The reduction in contraction was agonist specific, and occurred throughout the length of the trachea. These data show that there is a loss in the contractile capacity of the CF mouse trachea due to downregulation of the pathway specific to acetylcholine (ACh) activation. This reduction in contraction is not associated with changes in the area or distribution of ASM. PMID:24400140

  8. Asymmetry of canine tracheal epithelium: osmotically induced changes.

    PubMed

    Man, S F; Hulbert, W; Park, D S; Thomson, A B; Hogg, J C

    1984-11-01

    The symmetry of osmotic conductivity of the canine tracheal epithelial cells was examined in vitro. When an osmotic load of 100 mosM sucrose was added to the serosal bathing solution, no change in the transepithelial potential difference was observed in 15 tissue preparations. In contrast, when the same osmotic load was added to the mucosal bathing solution, there was a rapid decrease in the transepithelial potential difference of 3.9 +/- 0.5 mV (n = 23); ouabain (10(-4) M) eliminated this change. Tissues that had been exposed to the osmotic load added to either the mucosal or serosal side were compared with the control using light and electron microscopy. When the osmotic load was added to the mucosal fluid, there was no change in the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic area ratio of the cell types examined. However, when the same osmotic load was added to the serosal fluid, a marked increase in the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic area ratio of the ciliated cells was observed. This finding indicated cell shrinkage. Dilution potentials measured by substituting NaCl with mannitol also showed asymmetry. The morphological features are probably caused by differences in the osmotic conductivity (Lp) of the basolateral and apical cell membranes, with the Lp of the apical membrane being less than that of the basolateral membrane. The basis for osmotically induced potentials remained undetermined. PMID:6440880

  9. Hydrogen peroxide induced responses of cat tracheal smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, V; Oike, M; Tanaka, H; Inoue, R; Ito, Y

    1997-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 (10−6 and 10−3 M) on membrane potential, membrane currents, intracellular calcium concentration, resting muscle tone and contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol were examined in cat tracheal strips and isolated smooth muscle cells. H2O2 (10−4 and 10−5 M) enhanced the amplitude of contractions and excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.) evoked by EFS without changing muscle tone and resting membrane potential of the tracheal smooth muscle, and enhanced the contraction induced by carbachol (10−8 M). At an increased concentration (10−3 M), H2O2 elevated resting muscle tone and marginally hyperpolarized the membrane in the majority of the cells. In 51 out of 56 cells examined, H2O2 (10−6–10−3 M) elicited an outward current at a holding potential of −40 mV and enhanced the frequency of the spontaneous transient outward current (STOC). In 20 cells the outward current was preceded by a small inward current. In the other cells, H2O2 elicited only an inward current or did not affect the background current. In Ca2+ free solution the action of H2O2 on the resting muscle tone, STOCs, background current and on the current induced by ramp depolarization was significantly reduced. H2O2 (10−4 M) increased the intracellular ionized calcium concentration both in the absence and presence of external Ca2+. However, the effect developed faster and was of a higher amplitude in the presence of external Ca2+. These results suggest that H2O2 increases intracellular Ca2+, with a subsequent augmentation of stimulation-evoked contractions, and enhances Ca2+ and voltage-sensitive potassium conductance. PMID:9222542

  10. Muscarinic M2 receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle: discrepancies between binding and function.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Van Amsterdam, R G; De Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1988-08-01

    Previous work showing that AF-DX 116, a cardioselective muscarinic antagonist in functional experiments, does not discriminate between muscarinic receptors in bovine cardiac and tracheal membranes has been extended. In addition to AF-DX 116 we used the muscarinic antagonists, atropine, pirenzepine, 4-DAMP methobromide, gallamine, hexahydrosiladifenidol and methoctramine, in radioligand binding experiments on bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes. The functional antagonism of the methacholine-induced contraction of bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was also evaluated. An excellent correlation was found for all compounds between the binding affinities for muscarinic receptors in cardiac and tracheal smooth muscle membranes; moreover, the affinities found in cardiac membranes correspond with the pA2 values reported for atrial preparations of rat and guinea pig. However, significant and occasionally marked discrepancies were found between binding and functional affinities of these muscarinic antagonists on bovine tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:3215279

  11. Macromolecular properties and polymeric structure of canine tracheal mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, V; Virmani, A K; Naziruddin, B; Sachdev, G P

    1991-01-01

    Two high-Mr mucus glycoproteins (mucins), CTM-A and CTM-B, were highly purified from canine tracheal pouch secretions, and their macromolecular properties as well as polymeric structure were investigated. On SDS/composite-gel electrophoresis, a diffuse band was observed for each mucin. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis using 6% gels also showed the absence of low-Mr contaminants in the mucins. Comparison of chemical and amino acid compositions revealed significant differences between the two mucins. Using a static-laser-light-scattering technique, CTM-A and CTM-B were found to have weight-average Mr values of about 11.0 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) respectively. Both mucins showed concentration-dependent aggregation in buffer containing 6 M-guanidine hydrochloride. Under similar experimental conditions, reduced-alkylated CTM-A had an Mr of 5.48 x 10(6) and showed no concentration-dependent aggregation. Hydrophobic properties of the mucins, investigated by the fluorescent probe technique using mansylphenylalanine as the probe, showed the presence of a large number of low-affinity (KD approx. 10(5) M) binding sites. These sites appeared to be located on the non-glycosylated regions of the protein core, since Pronase digestion of the mucins almost completely eliminated probe binding. Reduction of disulphide bonds of CTM-A and CTM-B did not significantly alter the probe-binding properties. Also, addition of increasing NaCl concentrations (0.03-1.0 M) to the buffer caused only a small change in the hydrophobic properties of native and reduced-alkylated mucins. CTM-A was deglycosylated, without notable in the hydrophobic properties of native and reduced-alkylated mucins. CTM-A was deglycosylated, without notable degradation, using a combination of chemical and enzymic methods. On SDS/PAGE the protein core was estimated to have an Mr of approx. 60,000. On the basis of the protein and carbohydrate contents of the major mucin CTM-A, the mucin monomer was calculated to have an

  12. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND ZINC ON CANINE TRACHEAL BIOELECTRIC PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Euminal exposure of excised tracheal epithelium to Cd(N03)2 inhibited short circuit current by 50% and increased dc conductance 500%. Zn(NO3)2 reduced conductance by 24% but did not affect short circuit current. Exposure to both salts induced a slightly greater inhibition of shor...

  13. Effects of sumatriptan nasal spray (Imigran) on isolated rat's tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Hsiang; Wu, Pei-Chuan; Liu, Shao-Cheng; Chiu, Feng-Shiang; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Ying-Nan; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2015-10-01

    Sumatriptan (Imigran) is a potent and highly selective 5-HT1 receptor agonist often used in treating acute migraine. Intranasal sumatriptan is well absorbed and is generally effective in relieving headache. However, the effects of Imigran given intratracheally have rarely been well explored. We aimed to verify the effect of Imigran, which acts on the tracheal smooth muscle directly in vitro. We examined the effectiveness of Imigran on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by testing: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10(-6) M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; (3) effect of the drugs on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results indicated that the addition of methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of Imigran at doses of 10(-5) M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10(-6) M methacholine-induced contraction. Imigran could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It also had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. The study indicated high concentrations of Imigran could cause bronchodilation to reduce asthma attacks not only by blocking parasympathetic tone, but also by directly antagonizing the effect of cholinergic receptors. PMID:25394582

  14. Anti-cholinergic effect of singulair on isolated rat's tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Hsiang; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Jia-Yi; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2012-08-01

    Singulair (Montelukast) is a potent and selective leukotriene D(4) receptor antagonist, often used in treating inflammatory conditions of the respiratory system such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, the effects of singulair given intratracheally have rarely been well explored. To verify the effect of singulair, which acts on the tracheal smooth muscle directly in vitro. We used our preparation to test the effects of singulair on isolated rat's tracheal smooth muscle. The following assessments of singulair were performed: (1) effect on the tracheal smooth muscle resting tension, (2) effect on contraction caused by 10(-6) M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and (3) effect of the drugs on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results indicated that the addition of methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of singulair at doses of 10(-5) M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10(-6) M methacholine-induced contraction. Singulair could not inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It also had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. This study showed that the high concentrations of singulair also had an anti-cholinergic effect for relieving symptoms of asthma. PMID:22203119

  15. Exposure of immature rats to hyperoxia increases tracheal smooth muscle stress generation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hershenson, M B; Wylam, M E; Punjabi, N; Umans, J G; Schumacker, P T; Mitchell, R W; Solway, J

    1994-02-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to hyperoxia causes in vivo airway muscarinic receptor hyperresponsiveness in the developing rat [Am. J. Physiol. 262 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 6): L263-L269, 1992]. To test whether airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness might result from intrinsic alterations in smooth muscle contractility, we measured the effect of in vivo hyperoxia on the contractile force elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) of isometrically mounted tracheal rings in vitro. Tracheal rings were obtained from 3-wk-old rats exposed to air or to > 95% O2 for 8 days. Muscarinic responses were determined by measuring the force elicited by exposure to increasing concentrations of ACh. Responses were normalized to the morphometrically determined tracheal smooth muscle cross-sectional area in a plane perpendicular to the axis of force generation. In vivo O2 exposure significantly increased maximal ACh-induced stress generation (response to 10(-3) M ACh: air, 15.92 +/- 1.37 g/mm2; O2, 21.78 +/- 1.52 g/mm2; P = 0.010). The ACh-induced stress generation of cylinders from hyperoxic rats was substantially reduced by both epithelial removal and treatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. We conclude that in vivo hyperoxic exposure increases tracheal smooth muscle contractile function in vitro and that epithelium-derived prostaglandin(s) contributes to the observed increase in maximal contractile responsiveness. PMID:8175585

  16. Allosteric interactions of three muscarine antagonists at bovine tracheal smooth muscle and cardiac M2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Meurs, H; Zaagsma, J

    1989-03-01

    The kinetics of [3H]dexetimide dissociation from muscarine receptors in bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes were studied in the absence and presence of three muscarine antagonists. It was found that [3H]dexetimide dissociation from cardiac muscarine receptors was monophasic and very fast (half life less than 1 min) and was slowed by the cardioselective muscarine antagonists, gallamine, methoctramine and AF-DX 116, concentration dependently. [3H]Dexetimide dissociation from tracheal muscarine receptors was biphasic, with a fast phase (half-life less than 1 min) followed after 4-5 min by a slow phase (half-life = 38.5 min). The fast component, but not the slow component, was slowed by the muscarine antagonists with concentration dependencies very similar to those found in the heart. We conclude from these data that the major population of tracheal smooth muscle muscarine receptors resembles the cardiac M2 type not only with respect to equilibrium binding affinities but also with respect to the secondary, allosteric binding site on the muscarine receptor. The results also imply that the cardiac receptor subtype is much more sensitive to allosteric modulation than the glandular/smooth muscle receptor subtype. PMID:2714370

  17. Reactivity of tracheal smooth muscles in albino rats with experimental diabetes mellitus treated with a new complex compound of oxovanadium (IV) and isonicotinic acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Khafiz'yanova, R Kh; Minnebaev, M M; Gallyamov, R M; Latypov, R S; Gosmanov, A R; Aleeva, G N

    2003-06-01

    We studied functional properties of tracheal smooth muscle cells in rats with diabetes mellitus. Reactivity of tracheal smooth muscles increased in rats with experimental alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. A new complex compound of oxovanadium (IV) and isonicotinic acid hydrazide affected reactivity of tracheal smooth muscles in albino rats with experimental type I diabetes mellitus. This new organic vanadium-containing compound reduced contractility of tracheal smooth muscles in rats and potentiated relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the trachea in response to exogenous nitric oxide. PMID:12937677

  18. beta. -Adrenoceptors in human tracheal smooth muscle: characteristics of binding and relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    van Koppen, C.J.; Hermanussen, M.W.; Verrijp, K.N.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; Beld, A.J.; Lammers, J.W.J.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-06-29

    Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol to human tracheal smooth muscle membranes was saturable, stereo-selective and of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l and R/sub T/ = 78 +/- 7 fmol/g tissue). The ..beta../sub 1/-selective antagonists atenolol and LK 203-030 inhibited specific (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol binding according to a one binding site model with low affinity in nearly all subjects, pointing to a homogeneous BETA/sub 2/-adrenoceptor population. In one subject using LK 203-030 a small ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptor subpopulation could be demonstrated. The beta-mimetics isoprenaline, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline recognized high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Isoprenaline's pK/sub H/- and pK/sub L/-values for the high and low affinity sites were 8.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.9 +/- 0.3 respectively. In functional experiments isoprenaline relaxed tracheal smooth muscle strips having intrinsic tone with a pD/sub 2/-value of 6.63 +/- 0.19. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Possible Mechanisms for Functional Antagonistic Effect of Ferula assafoetida on Muscarinic Receptors in Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kiyanmehr, Majid; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzehi, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background The contribution of histamine (H1) receptors inhibitory and/or β-adrenoceptors stimulatory mechanisms in the relaxant property of Ferula assa-foetida. (F. asafoetida) was examined in the present study. Methods We evaluated the effect of three concentrations of F. asafoetida extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL), a muscarinic receptors antagonist, and saline on methacholine concentration-response curve in tracheal smooth muscles incubated with β-adrenergic and histamine (H1) (group 1), and only β-adrenergic (group 2) receptors antagonists. Results EC50 values in the presence of atropine, extract (5 and 10 mg/mL) and maximum responses to methacholine due to the 10 mg/mL extract in both groups and 5 mg/mL extract in group 1 were higher than saline (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0477, and P = 0.0008 in group 1 and P < 0.0001, P = 0.0438, and P = 0.0107 in group 2 for atropine, 5 and 10 mg/mL extract, respectively). Values of concentration ratio minus one (CR-1), in the presence of extracts were lower than atropine in both groups (P = 0.0339 for high extract concentration in group 1 and P < 0.0001 for other extract concentrations in both groups). Conclusion Histamine (H1) receptor blockade affects muscarinic receptors inhibitory property of F. asafoetida in tracheal smooth muscle PMID:27540324

  20. Conservative management of canine tracheal collapse with stanozolol: a double blinded, placebo control clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Pardali, D; Athanasiou, L V; Prassinos, N N; Kritsepi, M; Rallis, T S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of stanozolol in the treatment of tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs, which is the analogous disease to tracheomalacia (TM) in humans. Twenty-two dogs with endoscopically confirmed and graded TC were enrolled into five groups. Groups S1 (n=5), S2 (n=5) and S3 (n=4) with grade 1, 2 and 3 TC, respectively, received stanozolol orally for 75 days, while groups P1 (n=4) and P2 (n=4) with grade 1 and 2 TC, respectively, received placebo. The clinical score was evaluated every 15 days, whereas TC grade was reassessed at the end of the experiment. Clinical improvement was detected from the 30th day in S2 and S3 group dogs and from the 45th day in S1 group dogs and continued until the end of the experiment. Also, statistically significant differences were seen between S2 and P2 dogs from the 30th day, and between S1 and P1 dogs from the 60th day, and continued until the end of the study. Amelioration of the TC grade was seen in 13 of 14 (92.9%) dogs, which received stanozolol. Of the 14 dogs, 57.1% were cured and 35.8% demonstrated a less severe TC grade, while only one dog (7.1%) did not improve at all. Stanozolol seems to be an effective drug in the management of canine TC and it may have potential for use in humans with TM. PMID:21496393

  1. Leukotriene D4 receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoinositide and mobilization of calcium in sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mong, S.; Miller, J.; Wu, H.L.; Crooke, S.T.

    1988-02-01

    A sheep tracheal smooth muscle primary culture cell system was developed to characterize leukotriene D4 (LTD4) receptor-mediated biochemical and pharmacological effects. (/sup 3/H)LTD4 binding to the enriched plasma membrane receptor was specific, stereoselective and saturable. LTE4 and high affinity receptor antagonists bound to the receptors with a rank-order potency that was expected from previous smooth muscle contraction studies. In the (/sup 3/H)myoinositol labeled cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-trisphosphate was rapid and the induction of biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-monophosphate by LTs was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited specifically by a receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. In the fura-2 loaded smooth muscle cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced transient intracellular Ca++ mobilization. The fura-2/Ca++ transient was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited by receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. These results suggest that the cultured sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells have plasma membrane receptors for LTD4. These receptors were coupled to a phospholipase C that, when activated by agonists, induced hydrolysis of inositol containing phospholipids. The hydrolysis products, e.g. diacylglycerol and inositol-trisphosphate, may serve as intracellular messengers that trigger or contribute to the contractile effect in sheep tracheal smooth muscle.

  2. Steroid receptors in canine and human female genital tract tumours with smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Millán, Y; Gordon, A; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Reymundo, C; de las Mulas, J Martín

    2007-01-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) was examined in 32 canine genital tract tumours diagnosed as smooth muscle tumours (benign or malignant, pure or mixed). The immunohistochemical expression of calponin was used to assess the smooth muscle differentiation of the tumours. Nineteen human uterine leiomyomas were also examined. Calponin expression was detected in 89.3% of canine and 100% of human genital tract tumours diagnosed as leiomyomas, as well as in the majority of other tumours examined (canine or human, genital or extragenital, benign or malignant) with the exception of canine negative control tumours (cutaneous fibroma and hepatoid gland adenoma). ERalpha was found in 56.3% of canine and 52.6% of human leiomyomas, while PR was found in 84.4% of canine and 94.7% of human tumours. These results indicate that calponin is a good marker for differentiating neoplasia of the canine genital system of uncertain origin, as in human patients. They also show that canine tumours with smooth muscle differentiation of the genital tract of the bitch express steroid hormone receptors, a finding that opens up the possibility of hormone therapy. PMID:17362977

  3. Functional identification of a sarcolemmal chloride channel from bovine tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Salvail, D; Alioua, A; Rousseau, E

    1996-11-01

    The biophysical and pharmacological characteristics of unitary Cl- currents from bovine tracheal smooth muscle cells were studied after reconstitution of microsomal vesicles into planar lipid bilayers. Two types of currents were recorded simultaneously in KCl buffer: the well-defined Ca(2+)-dependent K+ conductance [GK(Ca)] and a much smaller Cl- current, indicating that the Cl- channels under scrutiny originate from the same membrane as the GK(Ca)-type channels, the plasma membrane of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. The GK(Ca) activities were eliminated by the use of CsCl buffer. The average unitary Cl- conductance measured in 50 mM trans-250 mM cis CsCl was 77 +/- 6 pS (n = 21), and the reversal potential measured in various CsCl gradients followed the Cl- equilibrium potential as determined from the Nernst equation. In contrast with the previous reports describing the Ca2+ sensitivity of macroscopic ASM Cl- currents, this channel was found to be insensitive to cytoplasmic and extracellular Ca2+ levels. Phosphorylation cocktails, including protein kinases A, G, or C, did not alter the activity of the channel nor did changes in pH. Among a series of Cl- channel inhibitors, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid [50% effective concentration (EC50) = 30 microM] and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (EC50 = 130 microM) were the most potent blockers of the current examined. The exact role of this surface Cl- conductance remains unclear, and its involvement in cellular activity needs further investigation. PMID:8944656

  4. [Effect of the hyaluronic acid on tracheal healing. A canine experimental mode].

    PubMed

    Olmos-Zúñiga, J R; Santos-Cordero, J A; Jasso-Victoria, R; Sotres-Vega, A; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, M O; Mora-Fol, J R; Franco-Oropeza, J A; Santillan-Doherty, P

    2004-02-01

    Several drugs have been used to modulate of the tracheal healing process in order to prevent tracheal stenosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a modulator of the fibrogenesis. In this work we evaluate the effect in order the application of hyaluronic acid has on tracheal healing, after cervical tracheoplasty in dogs. A cervical tracheal resection and tracheoplasty was performed in 12 dogs and they were treated following surgery as follows: Group I (n = 6) Topical application of normal saline solution (0.9%) on the anastomosis site. Group II Topical application of hyaluronic acid on the trachea anastomosed. The animals were evaluated clinical, radiological and tracheoscopically during 4 weeks and were submitted to euthanasia. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the tracheal anastomotic healing were evaluated. Biochemical collagen quantification by the Woessner method was performed to evaluate the collagen development at the anastomotic site. All the animals survived the surgical procedure and the study time. No animal presented differences in clinical evaluation. Radiological and endoscopical findings both two showed more development of the tracheal stenosis in-group than in group II. The tracheoscopy and macroscopic studies showed major inflammation and development of fibrotic tissue with a firm consistency in the healing of the group I than in group II. Microscopic examination in group I showed severe fibrosis and inflammatory reaction. The group II presented deposits of a thin and organized collagen fibers and minimal inflammatory reaction. Biochemical collagen concentration was larger in-group I, however significantly. We conclude that the hyaluronic acid applied after cervical tracheoplasty in dogs reduces postsurgical tracheal stenosis and inflammation, as well as improve the quality of the tracheal healing. PMID:15195524

  5. Protein kinase C, arachidonate metabolism, and tracheal smooth muscle - effects of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Baraban, J.; Menkes, H.

    1986-03-01

    Cooling causes airway obstruction in asthma. Contractions of airway smooth muscle may be produced through the phosphatidylinositol cycle and the activation of protein kinase C. Protein kinase C can be activated directly with phorbol esters. The authors studied the effects of temperature on responses to phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) in guinea pig tracheal rings bathed in Krebs-Henseleit solution. At 37/sup 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA relaxed the tissue (tension fell 0.60 +/- S.E. 0.04 g). At 27/sub 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA contracted the tissue (tension rose 0.050 +/- 0.05 g). In comparison, near maximum contractions produced by 4 ..mu..M carbachol were 2.00 +/- 0.09 g at 37/sub 0/C and 1.90 +/- 0.09 g at 27/sup 0/C. Butler-Gralla et al. showed that phorbol esters may stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from cultured cells. In order to determine whether arachidonate metabolites play a role in responses observed in guinea pig trachea, the authors used indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist) and Na arachidonate. At 37/sup 0/C, 3 ..mu..M indomethacin pretreatment abolished relaxationby 1 uM PDA. At 27/sup 0/C, 10 uM FPL 55712 pretreatment abolished contractions by 1 ..mu..M PDA. Like PDA, 1 ..mu..M Na arachidonate produced relaxation at 37/sup 0/C and contraction at 27/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that the effects of PDA at different temperatures parallel the effects of Na arachidonate. These results suggest that the effects of PDA in the guinea pig trachea are related to the release of endogenous arachidonic acid and that the cyclooxygenase pathway predominates at high temperature and the lipoxygenase pathway predominates at low temperature.

  6. Regulatory pathways for the stimulation of canine tracheal ciliary beat frequency by bradykinin.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L B; Miller, I F; Yeates, D B

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of bradykinin, a potent inflammatory nanopeptide, on tracheal ciliary beat frequency in vivo were investigated using barbiturate-anaesthetized beagles. Tracheal ciliary beat frequency was measured using heterodyne mode correlation analysis laser light scattering, a technique that does not require surgical intervention. 2. Aerosolized 10(-5) M-bradykinin in 0.9% saline administered for 3 min to eight barbiturate-anaesthetized beagles stimulated tracheal ciliary beat frequency from the baseline of 5.3 +/- 0.1 Hz to a maximum of 16.6 +/- 2.0 Hz, 8 min after aerosol delivery, and ciliary beat frequency remained above baseline for the following 35 min. 3. Intravenously injected hexamethonium bromide, ipratropium bromide or indomethacin did not change baseline tracheal ciliary beat frequency. That down-regulation of ciliary beat frequency below baseline values was not observed with either the neural or the cyclooxygenase blocking agents suggests that neither of these pathways is involved in the maintenance of the observed basal ciliary beat frequency. 4. Bradykinin-induced stimulation of tracheal ciliary beat frequency is blocked by hexamethonium bromide, ipratropium bromide or indomethacin. These data suggest that the stimulation of ciliary beat frequency by bradykinin acts through both cellular cyclooxygenase and parasympathetic pathways in series. PMID:1972192

  7. Reconstruction of large tracheal defects in a canine model: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mengqing; Chen, Keneng; Yu, Peirong

    2010-08-01

    Tracheal reconstruction remains a major clinical problem owing to the need for rigid support and a lining to maintain a patent lumen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of microsurgical tracheal reconstruction in large animals. Two-stage tracheal reconstruction was attempted in six dogs and single-stage reconstruction in eight dogs. In the first-stage prelamination, tubular prosthetic material was lined with an abdominal fascial flap with skin grafting and covered with a rectus abdominis muscle flap. The construct was buried under the abdominal skin for 3 weeks, and then microsurgical tracheal reconstruction for a 6-cm-long defect was performed. Prosthetic materials tested were PolyMax mesh (Synthes, Paoli, PA), polytetrafluoroethylene graft, and polytetrafluoroethylene graft stented with PolyMax mesh. In single-stage reconstruction, supporting materials were lined with an abdominal fasciocutaneous flap for microsurgical reconstruction. Supporting materials included polytetrafluoroethylene graft stented with PolyMax mesh, polypropylene mesh with ring support, and cross-linked urinary bladder matrix. First-stage prelamination failed in three dogs because of prosthetic collapse and infection. Second-stage reconstruction was performed in the other three dogs, but fatal complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period. In single-stage reconstruction, prosthetic failure remained the major problem, resulting in early deaths. Air leakage and difficulties in providing postoperative care for dogs were other factors limiting long-term survival. We encountered significant prosthetic failures and difficulties in postoperative care in dog tracheal reconstruction. Further research is needed to develop better supporting materials. Alternative animal models may be sought to minimize complications. PMID:20221987

  8. Protective effects of anisodamine on cigarette smoke extract-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and tracheal contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Guang-Ni; Yang, Kai; Xu, Zu-Peng; Zhu, Liang; Hou, Li-Na; Qi, Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan Cui, Yong-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Anisodamine, an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), has been used therapeutically to improve smooth muscle function, including microvascular, intestinal and airway spasms. Our previous studies have revealed that airway hyper-reactivity could be prevented by anisodamine. However, whether anisodamine prevents smoking-induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation remained unclear. In this study, a primary culture of rat ASM cells was used to evaluate an ASM phenotype through the ability of the cells to proliferate and express contractile proteins in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and intervention of anisodamine. Our results showed that CSE resulted in an increase in cyclin D1 expression concomitant with the G0/G1-to-S phase transition, and high expression of M2 and M3. Functional studies showed that tracheal hyper-contractility accompanied contractile marker α-SMA high-expression. These changes, which occur only after CSE stimulation, were prevented and reversed by anisodamine, and CSE-induced cyclin D1 expression was significantly inhibited by anisodamine and the specific inhibitor U0126, BAY11-7082 and LY294002. Thus, we concluded that the protective and reversal effects and mechanism of anisodamine on CSE-induced events might involve, at least partially, the ERK, Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways associated with cyclin D1 via mAChRs. Our study validated that anisodamine intervention on ASM cells may contribute to anti-remodeling properties other than bronchodilation. -- Highlights: ► CSE induces tracheal cell proliferation, hyper-contractility and α-SMA expression. ► Anisodamine reverses CSE-induced tracheal hyper-contractility and cell proliferation. ► ERK, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways and cyclin D1 contribute to the reversal effect.

  9. Biological characteristics of tracheal smooth muscle cells regulated by NK-1R in asthmatic rat with airway remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bing; Liu, Yali; Yue, Xiaozhe; Li, Yinping; Shang, Yunxiao

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the biological characteristic changes of infant rat tracheal smooth muscle cells in asthma airway remodeling and the impact of NK-1R on the mechanism. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used to excited juvenile SD rats by 8 w. Immunofluorescence, MTT assay, transwell chambers, real time quantitative PCR, Western blot and other methods were used to observe the proliferation, migration, synthesis and secretion changes of infant airway remodeling in rat tracheal smooth muscle cell and the Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) expression. 1. NK-1R mRNA, protein expression of airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) of each asthma group were higher than that of the control group, especially the asthma 8 w group had highest expression (P<0.01). 2. The average A value of 8 w asthma group measured by MTT method were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05), WIN62577 10-8 mol/L group had the strongest inhibition of ASMC proliferation (P<0.01). 3. The number of cell migration in the asthma group significantly increased than that in the control group. The number of migrating cells in the NK-1R antagonist group significantly reduced compared with the asthma 8 w group (P<0.05). 4. The average gray value of type III collagen in each asthma group were higher than that of the control group, and the asthma 8 w group had the highest (P<0.01). After NK-1R blocking, the average gray value of type III collagen was significantly lower (P<0.05). ASMC proliferation, migration, synthesis and secretion function increased in the airway remodeling group, and NK-1R played an important role. PMID:26628953

  10. Stationary and nonstationary correlation-frequency analysis of heterodyne mode laser light scattering: magnitude and periodicity of canine tracheal ciliary beat frequency in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, T; Yeates, D B; Miller, I F; Wong, L B

    1994-01-01

    Stationary and nonstationary correlation-frequency analysis of heterodyne laser light scattering were utilized to make automated, on-line, objective measurements of tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in intact, anesthetized canines. The stationary correlation-frequency analysis laser light-scattering technique was used to assess the magnitude of the CBF stimulatory responses induced by aerosolized 10(-5) M fenoterol (sympathomimetic), and 10(-8) M and 10(-6) M methacholine (parasympathomimetic) delivered to the whole lungs of eight barbiturate-anesthetized beagles. The nonstationary correlation-frequency analysis laser light-scattering technique was used to measure the effect on tracheal CBF of increasing the cytosolic calcium ion concentration with a calcium ionophore, A23187. Aerosolized A23187 was delivered to the isolated tracheal lumens of eight beagle dogs in cumulative doses ranging from 10(-9)M to 10(-6) M. Administration of the ionophore synchronized the CBF with a period of 5.3 min. Dose dependencies were observed in both the time to the peak CBF stimulation and the magnitude of the stimulatory response. The magnitude of CBF stimulation was inhibited by prior administration of aerosolized nifedipine (2 mg/ml), a voltage-operated calcium channel blocker. The A23187-induced modulation period of tracheal CBF, was unchanged by nifedipine. These are the first data to demonstrate that the magnitude and periodicity of CBF are two independent coupled processes. The cooperativity of these two processes could be determined in the effectiveness of mucociliary transport. PMID:8011920

  11. Stationary and nonstationary correlation-frequency analysis of heterodyne mode laser light scattering: magnitude and periodicity of canine tracheal ciliary beat frequency in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chandra, T; Yeates, D B; Miller, I F; Wong, L B

    1994-03-01

    Stationary and nonstationary correlation-frequency analysis of heterodyne laser light scattering were utilized to make automated, on-line, objective measurements of tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in intact, anesthetized canines. The stationary correlation-frequency analysis laser light-scattering technique was used to assess the magnitude of the CBF stimulatory responses induced by aerosolized 10(-5) M fenoterol (sympathomimetic), and 10(-8) M and 10(-6) M methacholine (parasympathomimetic) delivered to the whole lungs of eight barbiturate-anesthetized beagles. The nonstationary correlation-frequency analysis laser light-scattering technique was used to measure the effect on tracheal CBF of increasing the cytosolic calcium ion concentration with a calcium ionophore, A23187. Aerosolized A23187 was delivered to the isolated tracheal lumens of eight beagle dogs in cumulative doses ranging from 10(-9)M to 10(-6) M. Administration of the ionophore synchronized the CBF with a period of 5.3 min. Dose dependencies were observed in both the time to the peak CBF stimulation and the magnitude of the stimulatory response. The magnitude of CBF stimulation was inhibited by prior administration of aerosolized nifedipine (2 mg/ml), a voltage-operated calcium channel blocker. The A23187-induced modulation period of tracheal CBF, was unchanged by nifedipine. These are the first data to demonstrate that the magnitude and periodicity of CBF are two independent coupled processes. The cooperativity of these two processes could be determined in the effectiveness of mucociliary transport. PMID:8011920

  12. Mechanism underlying H2O2-induced inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo

    2007-02-28

    The mechanism underlying the inhibition by H2O2 of acetylcholine-induced contraction was investigated in epithelium-denuded strips of rabbit trachea. Acetylcholine (10 microM) generated a phasic, followed by a tonic increase in both the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and force. Although the acetylcholine-induced tonic contraction was around 9 times the high K+ (80 mM)-induced one, the two stimulants induced similar [Ca2+]i increases (around 0.2 microM), indicating that acetylcholine generates tonic contraction via increases in both [Ca2+]i and myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. H2O2 (30 microM) (a) enhanced the acetylcholine-induced tonic (not phasic) increase in [Ca2+]i but attenuated both phases of the acetylcholine-induced contraction and (b) enhanced the high K+-induced increase in [Ca2+]i but did not modify the high K+-induced contraction. In beta-escin-skinned strips, application of acetylcholine in the presence of GTP enhanced the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ so that its amplitude became similar to that induced by 1 microM Ca2+. H2O2 (30 microM) attenuated the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ (alone or in the presence of acetylcholine) but not those induced by higher concentrations of Ca2+ alone (0.5 microM and 1 microM). These results indicate that H2O2 acts directly on contractile proteins in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle to inhibit the contraction induced by low concentrations of Ca2+ (<0.5 microM). An action of H2O2 that increases [Ca2+]i (and thereby masks this reactive-oxygen-induced inhibition of myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity) is apparent in the presence of high K+ but not of acetylcholine. Thus, in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle H2O2 downregulates myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity more potently during acetylcholine-induced contraction than during high-K+-induced contraction, leading to an effective inhibition of the former contraction. PMID:17188263

  13. Mechanisms of relaxant activity of the nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator BAY 41-2272 in rat tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Toque, Haroldo A; Mónica, Fabíola Z T; Morganti, Rafael P; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2010-10-25

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase is expressed in airway smooth muscle, and agents that stimulate this enzyme activity cause airway smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. The compound 5-Cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272) is a potent nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator, but little is known about its effects in airway smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the relaxations of rat tracheal smooth muscle induced by BAY 41-2272. Tracheal rings were mounted in 10-ml organ baths for isometric force recording. BAY 41-2272 concentration-dependently relaxed carbachol-precontracted tracheal rings (pEC(50)=6.68+/-0.14). Prior incubation with the NO synthesis inhibitor l-NAME (100 microM) or the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 microM) caused significant rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves to BAY 41-2272. Sodium nitroprusside caused concentration-dependent relaxations, which were greatly potentiated by BAY 41-2272 and completely inhibited by ODQ. In addition, BAY 41-2272 shifted to the right the tracheal contractile responses to either carbachol (0.01-1 microM) or electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1-32 Hz). BAY 41-2272 (1 microM) also caused a marked rightward shift and decreased the maximal contractile responses to extracellular CaCl2, and such effect was not modified by pretreatment with ODQ. In addition, BAY 41-2272 (up to 1 microM) significantly increased the cGMP levels, and that was abolished by ODQ. Our results indicate that BAY 41-2272 causes cGMP-dependent rat tracheal smooth muscle relaxations in a synergistic fashion with exogenous NO. BAY 41-2272 has also an additional mechanism independently of soluble guanylyl cyclase activation possibly involving Ca(2+) entry blockade. PMID:20670622

  14. Comparative Study of Protective Effects of Salbutamol and Beclomethasone against Insulin Induced Airway Hyper-reactivity on Isolated Tracheal Smooth Muscle of Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mahjabeen; Tayyaba Khan, Bushra; Bakhtiar, Salman; Anwar, Mohammad Asim

    2015-01-01

    Inhalational insulin was withdrawn from the market due to its potential to produce airway hyper-reactivity and bronchoconstriction. So the present study was designed to explore the acute effects of insulin on airway reactivity of guinea pigs and protective effects of salbutamol and beclomethasone against insulin induced airway hyper-responsiveness on isolated tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pig. Effects of varying concentrations of insulin (10-7 to 10-3 M), insulin pretreated with fixed concentration of salbutamol (10-7 M) and beclomethasone (10-6 M) were studied on isolated tracheal tissue of guinea pig by constructing cumulative concentration response curves. Changes in tracheal smooth muscle contractions were recorded on four channel oscillograph. The mean ± SEM of maximum amplitudes of contraction with increasing concentrations of insulin, insulin pretreated with fixed concentration of salbutamol and beclomethasone were 35 ± 1.13 mm, 14.55 ± 0.62 mm and 22 ± 1.154 mm respectively. Although salbutamol and beclomethasone both had a profound inhibitory effect on insulin induced airway hyper-reactivity, yet salbutamol is more efficacious than beclomethasone. So we suggest that pretreatment of inhaled insulin with salbutamol may be preferred over beclomethasone in amelioration of its potential respiratory adverse effects such as bronchoconstriction. PMID:25901165

  15. Stimulation by endothelin-1 of mitogen-activated protein kinases and DNA synthesis in bovine tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, K.; Chilvers, E. R.; Lawson, M. F.; Plevin, R.

    1995-01-01

    1. In cultures of bovine tracheal smooth muscle cells, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF), bradykinin (BK) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of both pp42 and pp44 kDa forms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. 2. Both ET-1 and PDGF stimulated a sustained activation of MAP kinase whilst the response to BK was transient. 3. Activation of MAP kinase occurred in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 values: ET-1, 2.3 +/- 1.3 nM; BK, 8.7 +/- 4.1 nM, PDGF, 9.7 +/- 3.2 ng ml-1). 4. Pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro-318220, significantly reduced ET-1 activation of MAP kinase at 2 and 5 min but enhanced MAP kinase activation at 60 min. 5. Following chronic phorbol ester pretreatment, BK-stimulated activation of MAP kinase was abolished whilst the responses to PDGF and ET-1 were only partly reduced (80 and 45% inhibition respectively). 6. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin reduced ET-1 stimulated activation of MAP kinase particularly at later times (60 min), but left the responses to both PDGF and BK unaffected. 7. ET-1 also stimulated a 3 fold increase in [3H]-thymidine incorporation which was abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. In contrast, PDGF stimulated a 131 fold increase in [3H]-thymidine incorporation which was not affected by pertussis toxin. 8. These results suggest that a pertussis toxin-sensitive activation of MAP kinase may play an important role in ET-1-stimulated DNA synthesis but that activation of MAP kinase alone is not sufficient to induce the magnitude of DNA synthesis observed in response to PDGF. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8564258

  16. Phosphotidylinositol turnover in vascular, uterine, fundal, and tracheal smooth muscle: effect of serotonin (5HT)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.L.; Wittenauer, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    In brain, platelets, and aorta, 5HT has been reported to increase phosphotidylinositol turnover, an effect linked to 5HT/sub 2/ receptors. The authors examined the effect of 5HT on /sup 3/H-inositol-1-phosphate (/sup 3/H-I-P) in tissues possessing 5HT/sub 2/ receptors that mediate contraction to 5HT (rat jugular vein, aorta, uterus and guinea pig trachea) and in a tissue in which contraction to 5HT is not mediated by 5HT/sub 2/ receptors (rat stomach fundus). Tissues were incubated (37/sup 0/C, 95% O/sub 2/, 5% CO/sub 2/) with /sup 3/H-inositol (90 min), washed, LiCl/sub 2/ (10 mM) and 5HT added for 90 min, extracted, and /sup 3/H-I-P eluted from a Dowex-1 column. Basal /sup 3/H-I-P was 10-fold higher in the uterus than in the other tissues. 5HT (10/sup -6/-10/sup -4/M) increased /sup 3/H-I-P in the jugular vein, aorta, and uterus but not in the trachea or fundus. Maximum increase was greatest in the jugular vein (8-fold) with an ED/sub 50/ of 0.4 ..mu..M 5HT. The selective 5HT/sub 2/ receptor blocker, LY53857 (10/sup -8/M) antagonized the increase in /sup 3/H-I-P by 5HT in the jugular vein, aorta and uterus. Pargyline (10/sup -5/M) added to the trachea and fundus did not unmask an effect of 5HT (10/sup -4/M). These data suggest that (1) the jugular vein produced the most sensitive response to 5HT-induced increases in /sup 3/H-I-P, (2) increases in /sup 3/H-I-P by 5HT in smooth muscle may be linked to 5HT/sub 2/ receptors and (3) activation of 5HT/sub 2/ receptors as occurred in the trachea will not always increase /sup 3/H-I-P.

  17. Inward rectifier potassium conductance regulates membrane potential of canine colonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Flynn, E R; McManus, C A; Bradley, K K; Koh, S D; Hegarty, T M; Horowitz, B; Sanders, K M

    1999-07-01

    1. The membrane potential of gastrointestinal smooth muscles determines the open probability of ion channels involved in rhythmic electrical activity. The role of Ba2+-sensitive K+ conductances in the maintenance of membrane potential was examined in canine proximal colon circular muscle. 2. Application of Ba2+ (1-100 microM) to strips of tunica muscularis produced depolarization of cells along the submucosal surface of the circular muscle layer. Significantly higher concentrations of Ba2+ were needed to depolarize preparations from which the submucosal and myenteric pacemaker regions were removed. 3. Elevation of extracellular [K+]o (from 5.9 to 12 mM) brought membrane potentials closer to EK (the Nernst potential for K+ ions), suggesting activation of a K+ conductance. This occurred at potentials much more negative than the activation range for delayed rectifier channels (Kv). 4. Forskolin (1 microM) caused hyperpolarization and a leftward shift in the dose-response relationship for Ba2+, suggesting that forskolin may activate a Ba2+-sensitive conductance. 5. Patch-clamp recordings from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) revealed the presence of a Ba2+-sensitive inward rectifier potassium conductance. Far less of this conductance was present in smooth muscle cells. 6. Kir2.1 was expressed in the circular muscle layer of the canine proximal colon, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Kir2.1 mRNA was expressed in greater abundance along the submucosal surface of the circular muscle layer in the colon. 7. These results demonstrate that ICC express a Ba2+-sensitive conductance (possibly encoded by Kir2.1). This conductance contributes to the generation and maintenance of negative membrane potentials between slow waves. PMID:10373706

  18. Tracheal replacement.

    PubMed

    Delaere, Pierre; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Non-malignant and malignant obstruction of the tracheal airway causes significant morbidity and mortality. With increased use of artificial airways, benign and iatrogenic complications are increasing. A tracheal stenosis that is less than 5 cm in length can be resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Longer tracheal lesions can be treated in a palliative way by placement of a stent to secure airway lumen patency. The management of tracheal defects is an evolving field. Tracheal transplantation and tracheal regeneration may bring major treatment advances to cases with long-segment tracheal involvement. This review examines the current possibilities and future prospects in the area of tracheal transplantation and regeneration. PMID:26981270

  19. Tracheal replacement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Non-malignant and malignant obstruction of the tracheal airway causes significant morbidity and mortality. With increased use of artificial airways, benign and iatrogenic complications are increasing. A tracheal stenosis that is less than 5 cm in length can be resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Longer tracheal lesions can be treated in a palliative way by placement of a stent to secure airway lumen patency. The management of tracheal defects is an evolving field. Tracheal transplantation and tracheal regeneration may bring major treatment advances to cases with long-segment tracheal involvement. This review examines the current possibilities and future prospects in the area of tracheal transplantation and regeneration. PMID:26981270

  20. Phorbol esters modulate the shape of cultured canine vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Di Salvo, J.; Kolquist, K.; Semenchuk, L.; Rengstorf, J. )

    1991-03-11

    Marked changes in the shape of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) occur during early development, repair of the vascular wall, and formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Yet, surprisingly little is known about mechanisms which regulate the shape of VSMC. Since protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in regulation of multiple cellular functions including interactions between contractile and cytoskeletal proteins, the authors suspected it might also regulate VSMC shape. Accordingly, the authors studied the influence of a known activator of PKC, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), on the shape of cultured canine carotid arterial BSMC. PMA produced time and concentration dependent changes from normal elongated shape to pronounced circular forms. Cells recovered normal shape within 24 hrs even though exposure to PMA was continued. Analogs of PMA which do not activate PKC did not alter shape, whereas phorbol 13, 14 diacetate, an analog which activates PKC, did produce changes in shape similar to those produced by PMA. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, or actinomycin D, an inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, did not alter PMA-induced changes in morphology. In contrast, however, recovery of normal shape after prolonged exposure to PMA was blocked by either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. These results suggest activation of PKC produces changes in VSMC shape that are independent of transcription or translation, whereas recovery is dependent on both transcription and translation. The results also suggest PKC may modulate in vivo changes in VSMC shape occurring during different pathophysiological states.

  1. Inhibitory effects of amiloride on alpha adrenoceptors in canine vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, A.G.; Wang, Z.L.; Kwan, C.Y.; Daniel, E.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Amiloride inhibits vascular smooth muscle contractions from canine aorta and saphenous vein. The mechanisms were studied using radioligand binding and functional techniques. Amiloride inhibited ({sup 3}H)prazosin and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine binding to alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors in a concentration-dependent manner. Amiloride increased Kd values for ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine without affecting the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)prazosin. These results suggest that the drug interacts with the alpha-1 adrenoceptor binding sites in a competitive manner and with the alpha-2 adrenoceptor binding sites in a noncompetitive manner. Amiloride reduced maximal contractile responses to agonists selective for both alpha adrenoceptors and to elevated K+, the EC50 values were increased by about 10-fold in the presence of amiloride. In Ca+(+)-free Krebs' solution, contractions induced in saphenous vein after addition of Ca++ in saphenous vein in the presence of adrenoceptor agonists were inhibited by amiloride. Our results suggest that amiloride reduced alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated responses and inhibited Ca++ influx.

  2. Time-dependent changes in Ca2+ sensitivity during phasic contraction of canine antral smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, H; Gerthoffer, W T; Publicover, N G; Fusetani, N; Sanders, K M

    1991-01-01

    1. Relationships between cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and muscle tension were examined in circular smooth muscle of canine gastric antrum. 2. Electrical slow waves induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt and muscle tension. [Ca2+]cyt increased before the initiation of contraction and reached a maximum before the peak of the phasic contractions. Following the first Ca2+ transient, a second rise in [Ca2+]cyt was often observed. The second Ca2+ transient was of similar magnitude to the first, but only in some cases was this increase in [Ca2+]cyt associated with a second phase of contraction. Relaxation occurred more rapidly than the restoration of resting levels of [Ca2+]cyt. 3. Acetylcholine (ACh; 3 x 10(-7) M) increased the amplitude of Ca2+ transients, caused MLC phosphorylation and increased the force of contraction. The decay of contraction and MLC dephosphorylation preceded that of [Ca2+]cyt. 4. Increasing external K+ (to 25-40 mM) caused a sustained increase in [Ca2+]cyt, but little change in resting tension. This suggests that the Ca2+ sensitivity decreased as [Ca2+]cyt increased. Increasing K+ to 59.5 mM further increased the level of [Ca2+]cyt, induced MLC phosphorylation and caused a transient contraction. When normal levels of K+ were restored, the rates of MLC dephosphorylation and relaxation exceeded the rate of decay in [Ca2+]cyt. 5. Removal of external Ca2+ in depolarized muscles decreased [Ca2+]cyt below the resting level without affecting resting tension. Readmission of Ca2+ to depolarized muscles caused force to develop at [Ca2+]cyt levels below the original resting level, suggesting that Ca2+ sensitivity was increased when the resting level of [Ca2+]cyt was decreased. 6. The phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin-A (10(-6) M), induced tonic contraction and MLC phosphorylation without an increase in [Ca2+]cyt. During these contractures, electrical activity caused transient increases in [Ca2+]cyt and

  3. Solving the confusion of gnaphaliin structure: gnaphaliin A and gnaphaliin B identified as active principles of Gnaphalium liebmannii with tracheal smooth muscle relaxant properties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Navarrete, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Inflorescences of Gnaphalium liebmannii, commonly known as "Gordolobo", is the most important remedy in Mexican traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases, including asthma. By a bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane extract of this plant, following the relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, the flavones 5,7-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyflavone (1) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (2) were identified as the active relaxant compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed more potent relaxant properties than aminophylline in this model. Both 1 and 2 have been described as gnaphaliin in the past; here EIMS data, NMR experiments for both compounds, and X-ray diffraction analysis for 1 provided structural information to suggest that 1 and 2 should be named gnaphaliins A and B, respectively. PMID:19505084

  4. Mechanisms of relaxant action of a crude hexane extract of Gnaphalium liebmannii in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena; Torres, Gabriela; Arrieta, Jesús; Aguilar, Abigail; Castillo-Henkel, Carlos; Navarrete, Andrés

    2007-04-20

    We investigated the mechanisms of action of Gnaphalium liebmannii which is used as a folk medicine in México for treating various respiratory diseases such as gripe, fever, asthma, cough, cold, bronchitis, expectorating, and bronchial affections. The tension changes of guinea pig tracheal segments were isometrically recorder on a polygraph. Hexane extract of Gnaphalium liebmannii was the most active relaxant extract (IC(30)=54.23+/-19.79 microg/mL with 99.5+/-3.2 % of relaxation), followed by dichloromethane extract (IC(30)=120.22+/-5.27 microg/mL) and methanol extract (IC(30)=190.25+/-30.02 microg/mL). Hexane extract produced a parallel rightward shift of the concentration-response curve of carbachol in a competitive manner (pA(2)=-2.4), but did not modify the concentration-response curves for histamine. The relaxant effect of hexane extract of Gnaphalium liebmannii was unaffected by the presence of propranolol (3x10(-6)M) or glibenclamide (10 microM). However hexane extract produced a leftward shifts of the concentration-response curve of forskolin (10(-8) to 10(-3)M), nitroprusside (10(-10) to 10(-6)M), isoproterenol (3x10(-10) to 3x10(-5)M) and aminophylline (10(-11) to 10(-2)M). The above results suggest that Gnaphalium liebmannii induce relaxation of the tracheal muscle, probably via phosphodiesterase inhibition. The bronchodilator effect of Gnaphalium liebmannii might explain in part their traditional use as anti-asthmatic remedy. PMID:17141995

  5. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Takuwa, Y.; Takuwa, N.; Rasmussen, H.

    1986-11-05

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in (/sup 3/H)inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  6. Tracheal collapse.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, C S

    1991-06-01

    Tracheal collapse, one form of tracheal obstruction, is classically described as occurring in middle-aged or older toy breed dogs with a history of chronic "goose-honk" cough. Many dogs with tracheal collapse fit this description, but others are young and may wheeze, hack, or have no cough at all. Patients with a history and physical examination compatible with tracheal collapse are definitively diagnosed based on the findings of the following respiratory tract examinations: inspiratory/expiratory radiographs, fluoroscopy, culture and susceptibility, and a thorough endoscopic evaluation. Prosthetic ring tracheoplasty relieves many of the signs of tracheal obstruction but does not cure the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are expected to give the dog a better quality life. Following prosthetic ring tracheoplasty, most dogs are more active, breathe easier, cough less, and require less medical treatment for respiratory disease. PMID:1802250

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induces VCAM-1 expression and neutrophil adhesion to human tracheal smooth muscle cells: Involvement of Src/EGFR/PI3-K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-N.; Luo, S.-F.; Wu, C.-B.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-04-15

    In our previous study, LPS has been shown to induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression through MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). In addition to these pathways, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src), EGF receptor (EGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to be implicated in the expression of several inflammatory target proteins. Here, we reported that LPS-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1 enhanced the adhesion of neutrophils onto HTSMC monolayer, which was inhibited by LY294002 and wortmannin. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases including Src, PYK2, and EGFR, which were further confirmed using specific anti-phospho-Src, PYK2, or EGFR Ab, respectively, revealed by Western blotting. LPS-stimulated Src, PYK2, EGFR, and Akt phosphorylation and VCAM-1 expression were attenuated by the inhibitors of Src (PP1), EGFR (AG1478), PI3-K (LY294002 and wortmannin), and Akt (SH-5), respectively, or transfection with siRNAs of Src or Akt and shRNA of p110. LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was also blocked by pretreatment with curcumin (a p300 inhibitor) or transfection with p300 siRNA. LPS-stimulated Akt activation translocated into nucleus and associated with p300 and VCAM-1 promoter region was further confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This association of Akt and p300 to VCAM-1 promoter was inhibited by pretreatment with PP1, AG1478, wortmannin, and SH-5. LPS-induced p300 activation enhanced VCAM-1 promoter activity and VCAM-1 mRNA expression. These results suggested that in HTSMCs, Akt phosphorylation mediated through transactivation of Src/PYK2/EGFR promoted the transcriptional p300 activity and eventually led to VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS.

  8. Endothelin-1 induces VCAM-1 expression-mediated inflammation via receptor tyrosine kinases and Elk/p300 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wei-Ning; Hou, Wei-Chen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-08-01

    The elevated level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with severe asthma, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and sepsis. ET-1 may affect vessel tone together with lung physiology and pathology. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is one kind of adhesion molecules participating in the process of polymorphonuclear leukocyte transmigration and regulating the occurrence and amplification of tissue inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ET-1-mediated expression of VCAM-1 on human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) were largely unknown. Here we reported that ET-1 stimulated expression of VCAM-1 gene on HTSMCs, which was blocked by pretreatment with the inhibitors of ET receptors, Src, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, MEK1/2, and p300, suggesting the participation of these signaling components in ET-1-regulated HTSMC responses. Furthermore, transfection with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of Src, AKT, p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p300 downregulated the respective proteins and significantly attenuated ET-1-induced VCAM-1 expression. ET-1 also stimulated phosphorylation of Src, EGFR, PDGFR, AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, and Elk-1 and acetylation of histone H4 on HTSMCs. Immunoprecipitation assay showed the association between Elk-1 and p300 in the nucleus. Adhesion assay revealed that the adhesion of THP-1 to HTSMCs challenged with ET-1 was increased, which was attenuated by the inhibitors of ET receptors, Src, MMPs, EGFR, PDGFR, PI3K, AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, and p300. Taken together, these data suggested that ET-1 promotes occurrence and amplification of pathology-related airway inflammation via enhancing VCAM-1 expression in an ET receptor/Src/MMP/EGFR, PDGFR/PI3K/AKT/p42/p44 MAPK/Elk-1/p300 pathway in HTSMCs. PMID:26071554

  9. Cell, matrix changes and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in repair of the canine meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kambic, H E; Futani, H; McDevitt, C A

    2000-01-01

    Processes in the repair of a crevice in the knee joint meniscus were investigated in 10 dogs. Two 2-mm cylindrical plugs from each medial meniscus were removed, rendered acellular by freezing and thawing, and then reinserted into the meniscus. Dogs were euthanized at intervals of 3-52 weeks after surgery. The crevice between the plug and meniscus at 3 weeks after surgery was filled with a tissue containing alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. One year after surgery, the plug had remodeled and was populated with spindle-shaped and fibrochondrocyte-like cells. The plug had an appearance intermediate between that of hyaline and fibrocartilage at this time, with a seamless integration in sites between the remodeled plug and the surrounding meniscus. alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were concentrated at the interface of the remodeled plug and adjacent meniscus and at the surface of the plug. Therefore, remodeling of both the plug and meniscal tissue and the participation of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells appear essential for integration of the plug into the adjacent meniscal tissue. Cells in the superficial zone of the meniscus seem to be active in the repair process. A change in both the phenotype of the cells and the quality of the matrix toward a more hyaline state appears to be an integral part of the remodeling process in the meniscus. PMID:11208183

  10. Tracheal rupture

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bronchial Disorders Tracheal Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  11. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.I.; Wiest, S.A.; Zimmerman, K.M.; Ertel, P.J.; Bemis, K.G.; Robertson, D.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas.

  12. Tracheal Diverticula.

    PubMed

    Gayer, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Extraluminal paratracheal air bubbles are occasionally seen on computed tomography (CT) studies that include the thoracic inlet (ie, CT of the neck, of the cervical spine, and of the chest). In most cases, these paratracheal air bubbles are tracheal diverticula (TD), sometimes also referred to as tracheal pouch, tracheocele, and tracheogenic cyst. TD are most commonly seen at the right posterolateral aspect of the upper trachea at the level T1-T3. Because of their typical location and appearance, they are easily recognized and should not be confused with pneumomediastinum or other causes of air bubbles in the same region. This article describes the prevalence, possible pathophysiology, and associated complications of TD and illustrates the spectrum of their appearance on CT. PMID:27261344

  13. Tracheal reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Srikrishna, S V; Shekar, P S; Shetty, N

    1998-12-01

    Surgical reconstruction of the trachea is a relatively complex procedure. We had 20 cases of tracheal stenosis. We have a modest experience of 16 tracheal reconstructions for acquired tracheal stenosis. Two patients underwent laser treatment while another two died before any intervention. The majority of these cases were a result of prolonged ventilation (14 cases), following organophosphorous poisoning (11 cases), Guillain-Barré syndrome, bullet injury, fat embolism and surprisingly only one tumor, a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, who had a very unusual presentation. There were 12 males and 4 females in this series, age ranging from 12-35 years. The duration of ventilation ranged from 1-21 days and the interval from decannulation to development of stridor was between 5-34 days. Six of them were approached by the cervical route, 5 by thoracotomy and cervical approach, 2 via median sternotomy and 3 by thoracotomy alone. Five of them required an additional laryngeal drop and 1 required pericardiotomy and release of pulmonary veins to gain additional length. The excised segments of trachea measured 3 to 5 cms in length. All were end to end anastomosis with interrupted Vicryl sutures. We have had no experience with stents or prosthetic tubes. Three patients developed anastomotic leaks which were controlled conservatively. Almost all of them required postoperative tracheo-bronchial suctioning with fibreoptic bronchoscope. We had one death in this series due to sepsis. PMID:9914459

  14. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro: role of cyclo-oxygenase and airway epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Rhoden, K. J.; Barnes, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (0.1 microM-3 mM) induced variable contractions of guinea-pig isolated trachea which were attenuated by catalase (100 u ml-1) and mannitol (15 mM) suggesting that contractions were induced by H2O2 and/or the hydroxyl anion. 2. Epithelial removal potentiated contractile responses of tracheal preparations to H2O2 with a leftward shift of the concentration-response curve and an increase in the maximal response. 3. Indomethacin (3 microM) inhibited contractions to H2O2 of intact preparations and preparations without epithelium suggesting that contractions may be mediated by cyclo-oxygenase products. Intact preparations (but not preparations without epithelium) contracted in response to high concentrations (greater than 0.1 mM) of H2O2 in the presence of indomethacin suggesting that other excitatory factor(s) released by the epithelium may induce contraction. 4. Preincubation of intact tracheal preparations with H2O2 (1 mM) for 1 h had no effect on responses to histamine or isoprenaline. 5. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide generated during the inflammatory process may play a role in bronchoconstriction. PMID:2508982

  15. Steroids augment relengthening of contracted airway smooth muscle: potential additional mechanism of benefit in asthma.

    PubMed

    Lakser, O J; Dowell, M L; Hoyte, F L; Chen, B; Lavoie, T L; Ferreira, C; Pinto, L H; Dulin, N O; Kogut, P; Churchill, J; Mitchell, R W; Solway, J

    2008-11-01

    Breathing (especially deep breathing) antagonises development and persistence of airflow obstruction during bronchoconstrictor stimulation. Force fluctuations imposed on contracted airway smooth muscle (ASM) in vitro result in its relengthening, a phenomenon called force fluctuation-induced relengthening (FFIR). Because breathing imposes similar force fluctuations on contracted ASM within intact lungs, FFIR represents a likely mechanism by which breathing antagonises bronchoconstriction. While this bronchoprotective effect appears to be impaired in asthma, corticosteroid treatment can restore the ability of deep breaths to reverse artificially induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. It has previously been demonstrated that FFIR is physiologically regulated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. While the beneficial effects of corticosteroids have been attributed to suppression of airway inflammation, the current authors hypothesised that alternatively they might exert their action directly on ASM by augmenting FFIR as a result of inhibiting p38 MAPK signalling. This possibility was tested in the present study by measuring relengthening in contracted canine tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) strips. The results indicate that dexamethasone treatment significantly augmented FFIR of contracted canine TSM. Canine tracheal ASM cells treated with dexamethasone demonstrated increased MAPK phosphatase-1 expression and decreased p38 MAPK activity, as reflected in reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK downstream target, heat shock protein 27. These results suggest that corticosteroids may exert part of their therapeutic effect through direct action on airway smooth muscle, by decreasing p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and thus increasing force fluctuation-induced relengthening. PMID:18768574

  16. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation

    PubMed Central

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Sinner, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia is a common congenital defect in which the walls of the trachea and bronchi lack of adequate cartilage required for support of the airways. Deletion of Wls, a cargo receptor mediating Wnt ligand secretion, in the embryonic endoderm using ShhCre mice inhibited formation of tracheal-bronchial cartilaginous rings. The normal dorsal-ventral patterning of tracheal mesenchyme was lost. Smooth muscle cells, identified by Acta2 staining, were aberrantly located in ventral mesenchyme of the trachea, normally the region of Sox9 expression in cartilage progenitors. Wnt/β-catenin activity, indicated by Axin2 LacZ reporter, was decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Proliferation of chondroblasts was decreased and reciprocally, proliferation of smooth muscle cells was increased in Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ tracheal tissue. Expression of Tbx4, Tbx5, Msx1 and Msx2, known to mediate cartilage and muscle patterning, were decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that Wnt7b and Wnt5a, expressed by the epithelium of developing trachea, and active Wnt/β-catenin signaling are required for tracheal chondrogenesis before formation of mesenchymal condensations. In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26093309

  17. Tracheal Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by Stem Cell Factor-c-Kit Coordinate the Production of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Mediated by Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 3.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luis Cezar Farias de; Danilucci, Taís Marolato; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Silva, Tereza Cristina Cardoso da; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism involved in the stem cell factor (SCF)-induced production of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) in tracheal smooth muscle cells (tSMCs) and the signaling pathway involved in the process. tSMC primary cultures were stimulated with SCF and evaluated at 24 h. Cells treated with specific antibodies did not show any immunolabeling for cytokeratin or fibroblast activation protein, but were positive for α-smooth muscle actin, indicating the purity of the primary cell line. Western blot analysis showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Kit, as well as increased total protein and phosphorylated c-Kit levels in tSMCs after SCF stimulation. Flow cytometry analysis also showed an increase in cell-surface c-Kit expression in the presence of SCF. SCF induced TGF-β mRNA expression in tSMCs, as well as the production of TGF-β1, CCL3, and FGF-2. Pretreatment with anti-CCL3 antibody blocked TGF-β1 expression and partially inhibited FGF-2 production. On the other hand, anti-c-Kit antibody blocked TGF-β1 expression and FGF-2 production. Thus, TGF-β1 and FGF-2 production were mediated by CCL3 production through c-Kit. Pretreatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1, p38, and Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitors showed that the effects mediated by SCF were involved with the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Development of inhibitors targeting CCL3 through MAPK activation could thus be an attractive strategy to inhibit tSMC activation during asthma. PMID:27123814

  18. Tracheal Reconstruction for Comlex Acute Tracheal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fatimi, Saulat H.; Qasim Raza, M.; Ghani, Alina; Shah, Nilay; Ashfaq, Awais

    2013-01-01

    Tracheal stenosis refers to a reduction in the size of the tracheal lumen and can be due to a myriad of reasons, but the most common remains trauma. In iatrogenic situations, internal trauma is the most likely culprit, resulting from prolonged intubation. Our case reviews a patient who developed severe tracheal stenosis (90% reduction in lumen size) within a month of a threeday- long intubation, and presented to the emergency room with dyspnea, orthopnea, and stridor. Tracheal reconstruction with resection of the stenosed segment and end-to-end anastomosis was done. The patient returned a month later with re-stenosis, and underwent tracheal dilatation. Subsequently, he was discharged with a tracheostomy with no problems thereafter. PMID:25628886

  19. Activation of ROS/NF-{kappa}B and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM kinase II are necessary for VCAM-1 induction in IL-1{beta}-treated human tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.-F.; Chang, C.-C.; Lee, I-T.; Lee, C.-W.; Lin, W.-N.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2009-05-15

    Histone acetylation regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in the expression of inflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Oxidative processes have been shown to induce VCAM-1 expression. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying IL-1{beta}-induced VCAM-1 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our results showed that IL-1{beta} enhanced HTSMCs-monocyte adhesion through up-regulation of VCAM-1, which was inhibited by pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKC{alpha} (Goe6976), c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO)], intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM), PI-PLC (U73122), CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II (KN62), p300 (garcinol), NF-{kappa}B (Bay11-7082), HDAC (trichostatin A), and ROS scavenger [N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] or transfection with siRNAs of MyD88, PKC{alpha}, Src, p47{sup phox}, p300, and HDAC4. Moreover, IL-1{beta} stimulated NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII phosphorylation through MyD88-dependent PI-PLC/PKC{alpha}/c-Src/ROS and PI-PLC/Ca{sup 2+}/CaM pathways, respectively. Activation of NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII may eventually lead to the acetylation of histone residues and phosphorylation of histone deacetylases. These findings suggested that IL-1{beta} induced VCAM-1 expression via these multiple signaling pathways in HTSMCs. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in airway diseases.

  20. A modified force-velocity equation for smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Jiang, H; Stephens, N L

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that in skeletal muscle the force-velocity relationship may not be a simple hyperbolic one, as defined by Hill's equation. To determine whether smooth muscle demonstrated the same properties, quick-release force-velocity curves were obtained from canine tracheal smooth muscle. The results showed that the observed data points for tracheal smooth muscle systematically deviated from a hyperbola. Such deviation occurred at values of force (P) approaching maximum isometric force (Po) for curves elicited by quick release at 2 and 10 s in the course of isometric contractions. Shortening velocities under a given afterload were overestimated at the high-force end (P > 75% Po) by Hill's equation; this implied that a relationship more complex than a simple hyperbola was involved at high loads. We next focused on finding an equation to also fit those directly measured data points that did not conform to a hyperbola. Our rationale in developing the equation was that a plot of the linearized transform of Hill's equation should yield a straight line over the entire range of loads at which velocities were measured. The plot demonstrated that, in the low-load high-velocity portion of the curve, a peak value was reached at 70-80% Po, which decreased as load increased in the high-load low-velocity portion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8175513

  1. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus.

    PubMed

    Russo, K J; Palmer, D W; Beste, D J; Carl, G A; Belson, T P; Pelc, L R; Toohill, R J

    1985-04-01

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with 99mTc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed. PMID:3921912

  2. Obstructive inflammatory tracheal pseudomembrane.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Lessmann, Astrid; Torrego-Fernández, Alfons

    2013-09-01

    Pathologies acquired after the establishment of an artificial airway include stenosis, granulomas and the formation of pseudomembranes, to name a few. The most common form of presentation in adults is circumferential stenosis, which often requires therapeutic endoscopic measures to achieve resolution. This Case Report describes the case of an obstructive inflammatory tracheal pseudomembrane in the shape of a tracheal septum secondary to repeated intubations that was resolved with conservative treatment. The clinical presentation of this entity generally includes the appearance of respiratory infection and/or atelectasis after the withdrawal of the orotracheal tube as a consequence of the accumulation of secretions between the tracheal wall and the pseudomembrane. Inflammatory pseudomembranes can resolve spontaneously with the help of glucocorticoids, although on occasion they require an invasive endotracheal procedure depending on the evolution. PMID:23419993

  3. Tracheal Resection for Symptomatic Tracheal Stenosis During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Mariam; Muniappan, Ashok; Modest, Vicki; Mathisen, Douglas J; Madapu, Manokanth; Bryant, Allison; Kaimal, Anjali

    2016-04-01

    A 31-year-old multipara was diagnosed with tracheal stenosis that developed after intubation after an intentional benzodiazepine overdose in the first trimester of pregnancy. Tracheal dilations only temporarily improved her dyspnea at rest. A definitive repair by tracheal resection and reconstruction was performed at 28 weeks' gestation. Her symptoms resolved, and she delivered vaginally at 36 weeks' gestation after spontaneous labor. PMID:27000585

  4. Advances in Tracheal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salna, Michael; Waddell, Thomas K.; Hofer, Stefan O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: A recent revival of global interest for reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects, which represents one of the most interesting and complex problems in head and neck and thoracic reconstructive surgery, has been witnessed. The trachea functions as a conduit for air, and its subunits including the epithelial layer, hyaline cartilage, and segmental blood supply make it particularly challenging to reconstruct. A myriad of attempts at replacing the trachea have been described. These along with the anatomy, indications, and approaches including microsurgical tracheal reconstruction will be reviewed. Novel techniques such as tissue-engineering approaches will also be discussed. Multiple attempts at replacing the trachea with synthetic scaffolds have been met with failure. The main lesson learned from such failures is that the trachea must not be treated as a “simple tube.” Understanding the anatomy, developmental biology, physiology, and diseases affecting the trachea are required for solving this problem. PMID:25426361

  5. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of health information. Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. ...

  6. Phosphorylation of the 27-kDa heat shock protein via p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J K; Yamboliev, I A; Weber, L A; Gerthoffer, W T

    1997-11-01

    The 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27) is expressed in a variety of tissues in the absence of stress and is thought to regulate actin filament dynamics, possibly by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanism. HSP27 has also been suggested to be involved in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. We have investigated phosphorylation of HSP27 in airway smooth muscle in response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Carbachol increased 32P incorporation into canine tracheal HSP27 and induced a shift in the distribution of charge isoforms on two-dimensional gels to more acidic, phosphorylated forms. The canine HSP27 amino acid sequence includes three serine residues corresponding to sites in human HSP27 known to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2. To determine whether muscarinic receptors are coupled to a "stress response" pathway in smooth muscle culminating in phosphorylation of HSP27, we assayed MAPKAP kinase-2 activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the enzyme thought to activate MAPKAP kinase-2. Recombinant canine HSP27 expressed in Escherichia coli was a substrate for MAPKAP kinase-2 in vitro as well as a substrate for endogenous smooth muscle HSP27 kinase, which was activated by carbachol. Carbachol also increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. SB-203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinases, reduced activation of endogenous HSP27 kinase activity and blocked the shift in HSP27 charge isoforms to acidic forms. We suggest that HSP27 in airway smooth muscle, in addition to being a stress response protein, is phosphorylated by a receptor-initiated signaling cascade involving muscarinic receptors, tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, and activation of MAPKAP kinase-2. PMID:9374719

  7. Cryopreservation of the tracheal grafts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of the trachea may become the preferred method for the reconstruction of extensive tracheal defects, however, several unresolved problems must be addressed, such as immunosuppression, preservation and donor shortage. In this manuscript, the cryopreservation of tracheal grafts is reviewed, which potentially is associated with a lessened immunological response. Cryopreservation may be used clinically for long-term preservation and may solve the donor shortage. It is very important to confirm the immunomodulatory effect of cryopreservation on tracheal allografts in order to expand the potential clinical application of tracheal transplantation in the future. The cartilage as well as the epithelium and lamina propria serve as targets for rejection. However, the effect of cryopreservation on chondrocytes could be associated with reduced allogenicity of the trachea. The long-term cryopreservation of cartilage must be investigated in basic research models of chondrocyte viability. Growth of cryopreserved tracheal allografts is less well understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic effects of both cryopreservation and adequate immunosuppression for tracheal xenografts. PMID:20046673

  8. Myocardial ischaemia during tracheal intubation and extubation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N D; Alford, A M; Dobson, P M; Peacock, J E; Reilly, C S

    1994-10-01

    The incidence of myocardial ischaemia during tracheal intubation and extubation was compared using ambulatory ECG monitoring in 60 patients undergoing a variety of different surgical operations. Seven patients had myocardial ischaemia after tracheal intubation and seven patients during tracheal extubation. The patients who developed myocardial ischaemia during tracheal extubation had significantly greater rate-pressure products immediately before tracheal extubation (P < 0.05) and 1 min after tracheal extubation (P < 0.01) compared with those patients who did not develop myocardial ischaemia during extubation. PMID:7999498

  9. Mechanisms of tracheal filling in insects.

    PubMed

    Förster, Thomas D; Woods, H Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Insects exchange respiratory gases primarily using tracheal systems that are filled with gas. However, in different developmental and environmental circumstances, liquid can occupy the tracheal system, which can significantly impair its respiratory function. Insects therefore use a suite of mechanisms for tracheal filling, which is the process of replacing tracheal liquids with gas. We review these mechanisms for liquid removal and gas filling. By integrating recent molecular work with older physiological literature, we show that liquid removal likely involves active ion transport in the whole tracheal system. Gas filling reveals fascinating interactions between geometry, surface chemistry of the tracheal walls, the tracheal liquid, and dissolved gases. The temporal proximity to moulting allows for potentially complex interdependencies between gas filling, moult-associated hormone signaling, and cuticle sclerotization. We propose a mechanistic model for tracheal filling. However, because the composition of the liquid is unknown, it remains hypothetical. PMID:22616845

  10. Thoracoscopic tracheal reconstruction without surgical field intubation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kejia; Mei, Jiandong; Hai, Yang; Liu, Chengwu; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A cross‐filed endotracheal intubation is usually applied to maintain single lung ventilation during both open and thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction. Herein, we report a case of thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction with interrupted ventilation via transoral endotracheal intubation in a patient with thoracic tracheal adenocarcinoma. Tracheal anastomosis was accomplished using a running suture with a 3‐0 Prolene stitch. PMID:27385994

  11. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Bersain A.; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H.

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds' amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD) for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR) can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63) breaths-per-minute (bpm) for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57) bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found. PMID:25196108

  12. Tracheal sounds acquisition using smartphones.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bersain A; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds' amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD) for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR) can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r² = 0.9693, 0.11 (-1.41 to 1.63) breaths-per-minute (bpm) for Galaxy S4, and r² = 0.9672, 0.097 (-1.38 to 1.57) bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found. PMID:25196108

  13. [Tracheal bronchus and contralateral pneumonectomy].

    PubMed

    Kratz, S; Russo, S G; Hinterthaner, M; Bauer, M; Bräuer, A

    2016-08-01

    One-lung ventilation is a standard procedure for many types of lung surgery. The anesthesiologist can be challenged if unknown anomalies of the bronchial tree occur. We report a patient with a tracheal bronchus on the right side presenting for left pneumonectomy, and present one possible solution to airway management. PMID:27447936

  14. Systemic overexpression of matricellular protein CCN1 exacerbates obliterative bronchiolitis in mouse tracheal allografts.

    PubMed

    Raissadati, Alireza; Nykänen, Antti I; Tuuminen, Raimo; Syrjälä, Simo O; Krebs, Rainer; Arnaudova, Ralica; Rouvinen, Eeva; Wang, Xiaomin; Poller, Wolfgang; Lemström, Karl B

    2015-12-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) involves airway epithelial detachment, fibroproliferation, and inflammation, resulting in chronic rejection and transplant failure. Cysteine-rich 61 (CCN1) is an integrin receptor antagonist with a context-dependent role in inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes. We used a mouse tracheal OB model to investigate the role of CCN1 in the development of lung allograft OB. C57Bl/6 mice received a systemic injection of CCN1-expressing adenoviral vectors 2 days prior to subcutaneous implantation of tracheal allografts from major MHC-mismatched BALB/c mice. We treated another group of tracheal allograft recipients with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide to dissect the role of αvβ3-integrin signaling in mediating CCN1 effects in tracheal allografts. Allografts were removed 4 weeks after transplantation and analyzed for luminal occlusion, inflammation, and vasculogenesis. CCN1 overexpression induced luminal occlusion (P < 0.05), fibroproliferation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Selective activation of αvβ3-integrin receptor failed to mimic the actions of CCN1, and blocking failed to inhibit the effects of CCN1 in tracheal allografts. In conclusion, CCN1 exacerbates tracheal OB by enhancing fibroproliferation via an αvβ3-integrin-independent pathway. Further experiments are required to uncover its potentially harmful role in the development of OB after lung transplantation. PMID:26174800

  15. Endoscopic laser treatment of subglottic and tracheal stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alex J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Reinisch, Lou

    1999-06-01

    The ideal laser produces discrete wounds in a reproducible manner. The CO2 laser with its 10.6 micron wavelength is highly absorbed by water, its energy concentrated at the point of impact and the longer wavelength creates less scatter in tissue. The development of binocular endoscopic delivery system for use with binocular microlaryngoscopes have aided in using CO2 laser to treat patients with subglottic and tracheal stenosis. Often, patients with these disease processes require multiple endoscopic or open reconstructive procedures and my ultimately become tracheotomy dependent. The canine model of subglottic stenosis that has been develop allows testing of new agents as adjuncts to laser treatment. Mitomycin-C is an antibiotic with antitumor activity used in chemotherapy and also in ophthalmologic surgery due to its known inhibition of fibroblast proliferation. Current studies indicate this drug to have significant potential for improving our current management of this disease process.

  16. Canine Parvovirus

    MedlinePlus

    Finally, do not let your puppy or adult dog to come into contact with the fecal waste of other dogs while walking or playing outdoors. Prompt and proper ... advisable as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that ...

  17. Tracheal tissue engineering in rats.

    PubMed

    Jungebluth, Philipp; Haag, Johannes C; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Ylva; Beltrán Rodríguez, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Bianco, Alessandra; Dehnisch, Ivar; Uhlén, Per; Baiguera, Silvia; Lemon, Greg; Lim, Mei Ling; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Tissue-engineered tracheal transplants have been successfully performed clinically. However, before becoming a routine clinical procedure, further preclinical studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of in situ tissue regeneration. Here we describe a protocol using a tissue engineering strategy and orthotopic transplantation of either natural decellularized donor tracheae or artificial electrospun nanofiber scaffolds into a rat model. The protocol includes details regarding how to assess the scaffolds' biomechanical properties and cell viability before implantation. It is a reliable and reproducible model that can be used to investigate the crucial aspects and pathways of in situ tracheal tissue restoration and regeneration. The model can be established in <6 months, and it may also provide a means to investigate cell-surface interactions, cell differentiation and stem cell fate. PMID:25122525

  18. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  19. Canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Sapierzyński, R

    2008-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is an infectious disease of zoonotic potential, caused by protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Common clinical manifestations of canine visceral leishmaniosis include decrease of appetite, progressive weight loss, exercise intolerance, peripheral lymph node and spleen enlargement, chronic renal and liver disease, muscle, atrophy, polyarthritis and others. Because the Polish literature in the field contains no information on leishmaniosis in animals the recognised case of this disease is presented. Homeless mongrel, intact female dog, 3 years of age was brought to a veterinary clinic because of apathy, and generalised dermatologic lesions to perform routine examination. Because therapeutic effect of primarily recognised scabies was unsatisfactory, the skin samples from ear margins, trunk and lesion of the area of the left gluteal region for histopatologic examination were taken. Due to suspicion of leishmaniosis, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes, skin lesions, ocular discharge and imprint samples from skin lesion were performed, and tissue collected were examined under optical microscopy for identification of Leishmania amastigotes. To confirm cytologic diagnosis, blood samples for serological tests (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay-ELISA; indirect immunofluorescence assay test-IFAT) were taken. Based on physical examination, histopatology, cytopathology and serology, canine visceral leishmaniosis was finally diagnosed. PMID:18683546

  20. Molecular responses of rat tracheal epithelial cells to transmembrane pressure.

    PubMed

    Ressler, B; Lee, R T; Randell, S H; Drazen, J M; Kamm, R D

    2000-06-01

    Smooth muscle constriction in asthma causes the airway to buckle into a rosette pattern, folding the epithelium into deep crevasses. The epithelial cells in these folds are pushed up against each other and thereby experience compressive stresses. To study the epithelial cell response to compressive stress, we subjected primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells to constant elevated pressures on their apical surface (i.e., a transmembrane pressure) and examined changes in the expression of genes that are important for extracellular matrix production and maintenance of smooth muscle activation. Northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from cells subjected to transmembrane pressure showed induction of early growth response-1 (Egr-1), endothelin-1, and transforming growth factor-beta1 in a pressure-dependent and time-dependent manner. Increases in Egr-1 protein were detected by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that airway epithelial cells respond rapidly to compressive stresses. Potential transduction mechanisms of transmembrane pressure were also investigated. PMID:10835333

  1. Biocompatibility of Experimental Polymeric Tracheal Matrices.

    PubMed

    Kiselevskii, M V; Chikileva, I O; Vlasenko, R Ya; Sitdikova, S M; Tenchurin, T Kh; Mamagulashvili, V G; Shepelev, A D; Grigoriev, T A; Chvalun, S N

    2016-08-01

    Biocompatibility of a new tracheal matrix is studied. The new matrix is based on polymeric ultra-fiber material colonized by mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. The experiments demonstrate cytoconductivity of the synthetic matrices and no signs of their degradation within 2 months after their implantation to recipient mice. These data suggest further studies of the synthetic tracheal matrices on large laboratory animals. PMID:27591876

  2. Iatrogenic tracheal stenosis presenting as persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Timothy J; Ghattas, Christian; Valino, Cherry Ann

    2013-09-01

    Although the incidence of post-intubation tracheal stenosis has markedly decreased with the advent of large volume, low pressure endotracheal tube cuffs, it still occurs, commonly in patients after prolonged intubation. We report a case of tracheal stenosis that developed after a brief period of endotracheal intubation, and that was misdiagnosed and treated as asthma and panic attacks. PMID:23345469

  3. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  4. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  5. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  6. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  7. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  8. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  9. First-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis for postintubation tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, H; Mostafa, A M; Soliman, S; Shoukry, T; El-Nori, A A; El-Bawab, H Y

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Tracheal stenosis following intubation is the most common indication for tracheal resection and reconstruction. Endoscopic dilation is almost always associated with recurrence. This study investigated first-line surgical resection and anastomosis performed in fit patients presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods Between February 2011 and November 2014, a prospective study was performed involving patients who underwent first-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis after presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Results A total of 30 patients (20 male) were operated on. The median age was 23.5 years (range: 13-77 years). Seventeen patients (56.7%) had had previous endoscopic tracheal dilation, four (13.3%) had had tracheal stents inserted prior to surgery and one (3.3%) had undergone previous tracheal resection. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had had a tracheostomy. Eight patients (26.7%) had had no previous tracheal interventions. The median time of intubation in those developing tracheal stenosis was 20.5 days (range: 0-45 days). The median length of hospital stay was 10.5 days (range: 7-21 days). The success rate for anastomoses was 96.7% (29/30). One patient needed a permanent tracheostomy. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.3%: 1 patient died from a chest infection 21 days after surgery. There was no mortality or morbidity in the group undergoing first-line surgery for de novo tracheal lesions. Conclusions First-line tracheal resection with primary anastomosis is a safe option for the treatment of tracheal stenosis following intubation and obviates the need for repeated dilations. Endoscopic dilation should be reserved for those patients with significant co-morbidities or as a temporary measure in non-equipped centres. PMID:27138847

  10. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770...

  13. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of tracheal collapse in dogs.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kidong; Moon, Kumjung; Seong, Yunsang; Oh, Taeho; Yi, Sungjoon; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Kwangho

    2008-12-01

    Tracheal ultrasonography was performed to measure the width of the tracheal ring shadow and to assess the clinical relevance of these measurements for identifying tracheal collapse. The first tracheal ring width (FTRW) and thoracic inlet tracheal ring width (TITRW) were measured on both expiration and inspiration. The mean of the FTRW width (129 dogs) was greater in expiration (10.97 plusmn; 1.02 mm, p = 0.001) than that in inspiration (9.86 plusmn; 1.03 mm). For 51 normal dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (9.05 plusmn; 1.52 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (8.02 plusmn; 1.43 mm). For 78 tracheal collapse dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (15.89 plusmn; 1.01 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (14.85 plusmn; 1.17 mm). The TITRW/FTRW ratio of the normal dogs was higher (p = 0.001) in expiration (0.81 plusmn; 0.09) than that in inspiration (0.79 plusmn; 0.10). When compared between the normal and tracheal collapse dogs, the TITRW/FTRW ratio was also increased (p = 0.001) both in expiration (1.54 plusmn; 0.09) and inspiration (1.47 plusmn; 0.08), respectively. Based on these results, the cutoff level of the TITRW/FTRW ratio was statistically analyzed according to the receiver operating characteristic curve and it could be set at 1.16 in expiration and at 1.13 in inspiration. We have demonstrated that tracheal ultrasonography is a useful technique for the evaluation of tracheal collapse and it can be a supportive tool together with the radiographic findings for making the correct diagnosis. PMID:19043316

  15. Extraneuronal Monoamine Transporter Mediates the Permissive Action of Cortisol in the Guinea Pig Trachea: Possible Involvement of Tracheal Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Qiu, Wenying; Zheng, Yiqing; Li, Hui; Li, Yijia; Feng, Bing; Guo, Shu; Yan, Li; Cao, Ji-Min

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol, a member of glucocorticoids, could potentiate the action of catecholamine by a non-genomic mechanism. Although this permissive effect has been well appreciated in the anti-asthmatic medication, the underlying signaling pathway has remained mysterious. Here, we show that extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT), a membraneous reuptake transporter for circulating catecholamine clearance, is the direct target of cortisol in its permissive effect. We found that BSA-conjugated cortisol, which functions as a cortisol but cannot penetrate cell membrane, enhanced the spasmolytic effect of β-adrenoceptor agonist (isoprenaline) in histamine-sensitized tracheal spirals of guinea pigs, and pharmacological inhibition of EMT with famotidine was powerful enough to imitate the permissive action of cortisol. To our surprise, EMT protein expression was high in the chondrocytes of tracheal cartilage, but was undetectable in tracheal smooth muscle cells. The functionality of EMT was further confirmed with measurement of catecholamine uptake by tracheal chondrocytes. Moreover, cortisol-initiated membrane signaling could activate protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates EMT and induces its internalization via a lipid raft-dependent pathway. Both of the mechanisms slow down the reuptake process by chondrocytes, leading to extracellular catecholamine accumulation and results in a more profound adrenergic signaling activation in tracheal smooth muscle cells. Thus, an EMT-centered pathway was proposed to explain the permissive action of cortisol. Collectively, our results highlight the role of EMT in the crosstalk between glucocorticoid and catecholamine. EMT may represent a promising target for adrenergic signaling modulation. PMID:24098439

  16. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery tracheal resection and carinal reconstruction for tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, Jianxing; Wang, Wei; Li, Jingpei; Yin, Weiqiang; Xu, Xin; Peng, Guilin; Chen, Youping; He, Ping

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) tracheal resection and carinal reconstruction in a patient with tracheal tumor. The patient presented with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the distal trachea, extending along the right main bronchus with carinal invasion. The reconstruction procedure was assisted with cross-field ventilation. Postoperative clinical course of this case was good. The forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) improved from 0.461 L (17% pred.) to 2.31 L (87% pred.) 1 month after the operation. VATS tracheal resection and carinal reconstruction is a feasible option for patients with tracheal tumor with carina involvement. PMID:26904230

  17. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery tracheal resection and carinal reconstruction for tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jingpei; Yin, Weiqiang; Xu, Xin; Peng, Guilin; Chen, Youping; He, Ping

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) tracheal resection and carinal reconstruction in a patient with tracheal tumor. The patient presented with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the distal trachea, extending along the right main bronchus with carinal invasion. The reconstruction procedure was assisted with cross-field ventilation. Postoperative clinical course of this case was good. The forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) improved from 0.461 L (17% pred.) to 2.31 L (87% pred.) 1 month after the operation. VATS tracheal resection and carinal reconstruction is a feasible option for patients with tracheal tumor with carina involvement. PMID:26904230

  18. Tracheal intubation: tricks of the trade.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael F; Hung, Orlando R; Law, J Adam

    2008-11-01

    This article describes the use of laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation. Maneuvers basic to successful orotracheal laryngoscopic intubation are described, which should be incorporated into the skill sets of individuals called on to manage the airway in an emergency. PMID:19059097

  19. Post Intubation Tracheal Stenosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Caruselli, Marco; Amici, Mirco; Galante, Dario; Paut, Olivier; De Francisci, Giovanni; Carboni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy. PMID:25635215

  20. Association of Oversized Tracheal Tubes and Cuff Overinsufflation With Postintubation Tracheal Ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Sudhoff, Tobias H.; Seidl, Rainer O.; Estel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Postintubation tracheal ruptures (PTR) are rare but cause severe complications. Our objective was to investigate the tracheal pattern of injury resulting from cuff inflation of the tracheal tube, to study the two main factors responsible for PTR (cuff overinsufflation and inapplicable tube sizes), and to explain the context, why small women are particularly susceptible to PTR. Methods Experimental study performed on 28 fresh human laryngotracheal specimens (16 males, 12 females) within 24 hours post autopsy. Artificial ventilation was simulated by using an underwater construction and a standard tracheal tube. Tube sizes were selected according to our previously published nomogram. Tracheal lesions were detected visually and tracheal diameters measured. The influence of body size, sex difference and appropriate tube size were investigated according to patient height. Results In all 28 cases, the typical tracheal lesion pattern was a longitudinal median rupture of the posterior trachea. Appropriate tube sizes according to body size caused PTR with significantly higher cuff pressure when compared with oversized tubes. An increased risk of PTR was found in shorter patients, when oversized tubes were used. Sex difference did not have any significant influence. Conclusion This experimental model provides information about tracheal patterns in PTR for the first time. The model confirms by experiment the observations of case series in PTR patients, and therefore emphasizes the importance of correct tube size selection according to patient height. This minimizes the risk of PTR, especially in shorter patients, who have an increased risk of PTR when oversized tubes are used. PMID:26622963

  1. Effects of successive tracheal resection and anastomosis on tracheal diameter and position of lobar bronchi in dogs.

    PubMed

    de Mello Souza, Carlos Henrique; Reinero, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of successive large-segment tracheal resection and anastomosis on tracheal diameter and position of lobar bronchi in dogs. ANIMALS 5 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Right lateral radiographs were obtained for all dogs and used to measure tracheal length. Dogs were then euthanized, and successive segmental tracheal resections (intervals of 10% from 20% to 50% of the tracheal length), each of which was followed by anastomosis, were performed in each cadaver. Tracheobronchoscopy was performed before the first tracheal resection and after each of the anastomoses to evaluate tracheal diameter and changes in position of lobar bronchi. RESULTS Tracheal diameter was minimally affected by resections up to 50% of the tracheal length. Diameter of the trachea and position of bronchi were not affected by resection of 20% of the tracheal length. Changes in the position of various lobar bronchi were detected after resection of 30% of the tracheal length. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCIAL RELEVANCE In this study, tracheal resections of 20% of the tracheal length were accommodated, possibly as a result of stretching of the annular ligament. Resections of ≥ 30% of the tracheal length altered the position of lobar bronchi. Clinical effects, if any, attributable to these changes in bronchial position remain to be elucidated. PMID:27227506

  2. Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse.

    PubMed

    Rudorf, H; Herrtage, M E; White, R A

    1997-11-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging of the cervical trachea was performed with the neck in both a neutral and a hyperextended position in 10 dogs with tracheal collapse. Tracheoscopy was used to confirm a diagnosis of tracheal collapse. The ultrasound investigation was repeated in 10 dogs of similar size but without tracheal abnormality. The ultrasonographic findings of the affected dogs were compared with those of the normal group and showed an alteration in the shape of the tracheal lumen in the ventrodorsal projection. This study highlights the possibility of identifying changes in the shape of the tracheal lumen during ultrasound investigations as an aid to the diagnosis of tracheal collapse. PMID:9403811

  3. Indications and interventional options for non-resectable tracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Jenny Louise; Patterson, Caroline Marie

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific presentation and normal examination findings in early disease often result in tracheal obstruction being overlooked as a diagnosis until patients present acutely. Once diagnosed, surgical options should be considered, but often patient co-morbidity necessitates other interventional options. Non-resectable tracheal stenosis can be successfully managed by interventional bronchoscopy, with therapeutic options including airway dilatation, local tissue destruction and airway stenting. There are common aspects to the management of tracheal obstruction, tracheomalacia and tracheal fistulae. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, presentation, investigation and management of tracheal disease, with a focus on tracheal obstruction and the role of endotracheal intervention in management. PMID:24624290

  4. Canine hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G; Steiner, J M

    2015-10-01

    Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs. Primary hyperlipidaemia is less common in the general canine population but it can be very common within certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridaemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common form of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs but other breeds are also affected. Possible complications of hyperlipidaemia in dogs include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease and seizures. Management of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs is achieved by administration of ultra low-fat diets with or without the administration of lipid lowering drugs such as omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin and statins. PMID:26456868

  5. A clinically relevant canine lung cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Benfield, J.R.; Shors, E.C.; Hammond, W.G.; Paladugu, R.R.; Cohen, A.H.; Jensen, T.; Fu, P.C.; Pak, H.Y.; Teplitz, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Research on early human lung cancer is difficult; we have sought a canine correlate. Regimens included endobronchial submucosal injections and topical focal applications of benzo(a)pyrene, nitrosomethylurea, dimethylbenzanthracene, and methylcholanthrene, singly or in combinations. Sustained-release discs were placed into lung parenchyma or sutured into major bronchi. Tracheal segments were isolated as cervical pedicle grafts. Gross and histological evolution was reproducible. Columnar and basal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia were early changes. Atypia occurred within 6 weeks and was found in all dogs within 16 to 18 weeks. Invasive cancers occurred within 8 to 65 months. No tracheal graft developed cancer. Of 15 dogs with parenchymal sustained-release implants, 1 to date has developed cancer in 8 months. Four endobronchial regimens have produced 16 cancers in 56 lungs at risk for 18 to 65 months. No cancers developed in 23 lungs at risk from eight other regimens. Of 10 dogs at risk for unilateral endobronchial cancer, 5 have had cancer. Of 23 dogs with both lungs at risk, 9 developed cancer. We have shown focal carcinogenesis with well-defined pathogenesis and an extended preneoplastic period at predictable sites in a lung cancer model.

  6. Smooth Sailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…

  7. Primary Endoscopic Repair of a Large Tracheal Rupture Through Tracheal Stoma.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Atilla; Aydin, Yener; Altuntas, Bayram; Ahiskalioglu, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We describe the case of an 83-year-old man who presented with a large trauma to the membranous wall of the trachea and was treated with endoscopic primary repair of the tracheal wall through a preexisting tracheal stoma. Assessment with an optical telescope through the tracheal stoma revealed a 5-cm laceration in the membranous wall of the trachea starting immediately above the carina. The laceration was closed using continuous 4-0 monofilament polydioxanone sutures with direct visualization of tissues through a fiberoptic telescope. This approach is particularly effective in cases of traumatic rupture of the membranous trachea. PMID:26434482

  8. Tolerance following organophophate poisoning of tracheal muscle. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, J.M.; Dwyer, T.M.

    1987-07-21

    The effects of subacute exposure to the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (diisoprophylfluorophosphate, soman, sarin, and VX) on the binding properties of muscarinic receptors, the contractile responses, and the electrophysiological properties of swine tracheal smooth muscle were studied. Subacute organophosphate treatment decreased the number of muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle homogenates and in the surface membrane of isolated cells by 50-77%. DFP was the most potent, followed by sarin, VX, and soman. The organophosphates induced a change in the coupling of the receptor to the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, which resulted in a decrease in the number of high-affinity receptors available for agonist-induced actions. The sensitivity of the muscle to acetylcholine and bethanechol was largely unchanged by any of the organophosphates. It is concluded that tolerance development is a complex process and involves: changes in receptor number and coupling of these receptors to intra-cellular processes; changes in the sensitivity of the ganglia to cholinergic agonists; and changes in the membrane processes and channels controlling membrane potential. Surprisingly, the response of the muscle to agonists is not greatly affected even though 70% of the receptors are lost from the cell surface.

  9. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  10. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  11. Fluid dynamic factors in tracheal pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K; Mortola, J P

    1981-07-01

    Because tracheal pressure measurement generally involves the use of a cannula or an endotracheal tube, fluid dynamic factors may cause a considerable artifact. We present a theoretical explanation of the observed apparent paradox in which the resistance of a tracheal cannula or an endotracheal tube is isolation was found to exceed the resistance of the airways plus the cannula or the tube in situ. By estimating the viscous dissipation and the kinetic energy change in a conduit with sudden variation of cross-sectional area, a predictive model is derived. The predictions are verified by a series of in vitro experiments with both steady and oscillatory flows. The experiments showed that the pressure recorded from the sidearm of a tracheal cannula or endotracheal tube contains an error which, in general, increased with the mean Reynolds' number of the through flow and also depends on the diameter ratio between the trachea and the tube or cannula, the position of the pressure tap, and the frequency of ventilation. When feasible, direct measurement with a needle in the trachea is suggested as a way to avoid the possible artifacts arising from the use fo a side tap of the cannula. Theoretical considerations, as well as in vitro and animal experiments, indicate that adding a properly chosen expansion to the tracheal cannula makes it possible to alter inspiratory and expiratory pressures selectively. This device may prove useful in control of breathing studies. PMID:7263418

  12. Isolated congenital tracheal stenosis in a preterm newborn.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ulrich; Rödel, Ralph M W; Paul, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Severe tracheal stenosis, resulting in functional atresia of the trachea is a rare congenital malformation with an estimated occurrence of two in 100,000 newborns. If no esophagotracheal fistula is present to allow for spontaneous breathing, this condition is usually fatal. We report on a male infant born at 32 weeks of gestation. The patient presented with respiratory distress immediately after delivery due to severe congenital tracheal stenosis resulting in functional atresia of the trachea. Endotracheal intubation failed and even emergency tracheotomy did not allow ventilation of the patient lungs. The patient finally succumbed to prolonged hypoxia due to functional tracheal atresia. The etiology of tracheal atresia and tracheal stenosis is still unclear, but both conditions are frequently combined with other anomalies of the VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, renal/radial anomalies and limb defects) and TACRD (tracheal agenesis, cardiac, renal and duodenal malformations) association. Conclusion Successful treatment of severe congenital tracheal stenosis and tracheal atresia depends on either prenatal diagnosis or recognition of this condition immediately after birth to perform tracheotomy without delay. Nevertheless, despite any efforts, the therapeutical results of severe tracheal stenosis and tracheal atresia are still unsatisfactory. PMID:21590265

  13. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea pig tracheal ring contractility.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Eboka, Chuks J; Duru, Comfort N; Uwaya, Dickson O

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam (Crassulaceae) is used as a cough remedy and for the prophylaxis of asthma. Since drugs used for the prophylaxis of asthma may be acting on airway smooth muscles, we investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of the plant on the contractile responses of isolated tracheal rings. Guinea pigs were grouped into non-sensitized, ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized, OA-sensitized but 200 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated, and OA-sensitized but 400 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated. The extract was administered orally. Tracheal rings obtained from the four groups were mounted in organ baths and used to test spasmolytic and antispasmodic effects of the extract on histamine or carbachol-induced contractions. Concentrations of 0.125-1.0 mg/ml of the extract did not relax histamine or carbachol-induced precontractions. The presence of 0.25-1.0 mg/ml of the extract in organ baths significantly reduced the maximal contractile responses (Emax) to cumulative concentrations of histamine or carbachol irrespective of the experimental group. pD2 values were significantly reduced for histamine and carbachol in rings obtained from 400 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated group. It is concluded that aqueous leaf extract of B. pinnatum possesses antispasmodic effects on the guinea pig tracheal rings. The results lend credence to the use of the extract for the prophylaxis of asthma in ethnomedicine. PMID:22314954

  14. Evaluation of magnesium-yttrium alloy as an extraluminal tracheal stent.

    PubMed

    Luffy, Sarah A; Chou, Da-Tren; Waterman, Jenora; Wearden, Peter D; Kumta, Prashant N; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2014-03-01

    Tracheomalacia is a relatively rare problem, but can be challenging to treat, particularly in pediatric patients. Due to the presence of mechanically deficient cartilage, the trachea is unable to resist collapse under physiologic pressures of respiration, which can lead to acute death if left untreated. However, if treated, the outcome for patients with congenital tracheomalacia is quite good because the cartilage tends to spontaneously mature over a period of 12 to 18 months. The present study investigated the potential for the use of degradable magnesium-3% yttrium alloy (W3) to serve as an extraluminal tracheal stent in a canine model. The host response to the scaffold included the formation of a thin, vascularized capsule consisting of collagenous tissue and primarily mononuclear cells. The adjacent cartilage structure was not adversely affected as observed by bronchoscopic, gross, histologic, and mechanical analysis. The W3 stents showed reproducible spatial and temporal fracture patterns, but otherwise tended to corrode quite slowly, with a mix of Ca and P rich corrosion product formed on the surface and observed focal regions of pitting. The study showed that the approach to use degradable magnesium alloys as an extraluminal tracheal stent is promising, although further development of the alloys is required to improve the resistance to stress corrosion cracking and improve the ductility. PMID:23554285

  15. Tracheal cartilage regeneration and new bone formation by slow release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2.

    PubMed

    Igai, Hitoshi; Chang, Sung Soo; Gotoh, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yasumichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 released slowly from gelatin sponge for tracheal cartilage regeneration. A 1-cm gap was made in the mid-ventral portion of each of 10 consecutive tracheal cartilages. In the control group (n = 4), the resulting gap was left untreated. In the gelatin group (n = 4), plain gelatin was implanted in the gap. In the BMP-2 group (n = 4), gelatin containing 100 microg BMP-2 was implanted. We euthanatized all dogs in each group at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation, respectively, and then examined the implant site macro- and microscopically. In the BMP-2 group, regenerated fibrous cartilage and newly formed bone were observed at 1 and 12 months. Regenerated cartilage was observed at the ends of the host cartilage stumps, with newly formed bone in the middle portion. The gaps were filled with regenerated cartilage and newly formed bone. At 3 and 6 months, regenerated cartilage, but not newly formed bone, was evident. The regenerated cartilage was covered with perichondrium and showed continuity with the host cartilage. We succeeded in inducing cartilage regeneration and new bone formation in canine trachea by slow release of 100 microg BMP-2 from gelatin. PMID:18204324

  16. Laryngo-tracheal profile: a new method for assessing laryngo-tracheal stenoses.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Karl; Gugatschka, Markus; Sorantin, Erich; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    We present the clinical application of a new method for objective assessment of both grade and length of laryngo-tracheal stenoses (LTS) on a CT-based skeletonization algorithm, called laryngo-tracheal profile (LTP). Extraction of the laryngo-tracheal tract (LTT)-medial axis was performed after S-CT scanning. Orthogonal to the medial axis, the LTT cross-profile was computed, and the length and degree of LTS were presented as line charts. Clinical application of this newly developed method is demonstrated on three patients who had to undergo preoperative assessment before surgical treatment of tracheal stenoses. LTP provides an objective method of assessment of both the length and degree of tracheal stenoses in precise correlation to defined anatomical landmarks. This method provides important additive information for preoperative evaluation as well as for monitoring of therapeutical success. Current methods used so far are able to evaluate the severity of LTS, but do not provide exact quantitative assessment of complex LTS. Especially in CT-scans of strong curved passages, where an overestimation of the cross-sectional area results by an oblique cut of the tubular structure, LTP may overcome this problem by a simple post processing skeletonization algorithm. PMID:17031659

  17. Tracheobronchial smooth muscle atrophy and separation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Atul C; Zaki, Khawaja Salman; Banga, Amit; Singh, Jarmanjeet; Gildea, Thomas R; Arrossi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    We report a case series involving 4 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were on an appropriate medical regimen including a high dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). During bronchoscopy, patients were found to have an excessive dynamic collapse of the posterior wall and its separation from the ends of the adjacent cartilaginous rings. This was causing a near-total occlusion of the tracheal and bronchial lumen during exhalation, thereby presenting with an obstructive pattern on the pulmonary functions. We suspect that this was caused by the atrophy of the smooth muscles of the tracheobronchial wall. We reviewed the literature to explore the mechanisms causing atrophy of the bronchial smooth muscle, focusing on the potential role of long-term ICS use. PMID:26138002

  18. Anesthesia airway management in a patient with upper tracheal tumor.

    PubMed

    Wendi, Chen; Zongming, Jiang; Zhonghua, Chen

    2016-08-01

    The main challenge for surgical resection of tumors located at the upper trachea is contemplate formulated plan for providing maximal surgical access to the trachea while ensuring patent airway and adequate oxygenation at the same time. In this report, we describe a patient who presented with an upper tracheal tumor located 3cm from the vocal cord and severe tracheal constriction, occluding tracheal lumen by 90%. Initial ventilation was established by implantation with a supreme laryngeal mask airway. An emergent tracheotomy and distal tracheal intubation were used to combat bleeding and subsequent airway obstruction. Eventually, tracheal tumor resection plus tracheal reconstruction via median sternotomy was successfully conducted under general anesthesia. The whole process is uneventful. PMID:27290961

  19. Tracheal and airway collapse in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Ann Della

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal and airway collapse (bronchomalacia) are common causes of chronic cough in middle-aged to older dogs where weakening of cartilage within the respiratory system leads to narrowing of airways, coughing, wheezing, and other secondary effects. Successful treatment involves correct identification of the problem, recognition of concurrent problems, and appropriate medical therapy. Surgical and noninvasive treatment options are becoming readily available, and it is important to understand indications for such procedures. PMID:24268337

  20. A rare complication of tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-05-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  1. A rare complication of tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  2. Effects of ozone on the cholinergic secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.; Oberdoerster, G.; Marin, M.G. )

    1991-06-01

    Oxidant air pollutants exacerbate several pulmonary diseases. Inhalation of ozone has been shown to induce airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness. Oxidant injury could also affect airway secretory mechanisms. The authors postulated that oxidant exposure would alter the glycoconjugate secretory function of airway submucosal glands. To test this hypothesis they examined the effects of in vivo ozone exposure on the in vitro secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands. Ferrets were exposed to 1 ppm ozone, 24 hr/day for 3 or 7 days. Following exposure, glandular explants, denuded of surface epithelial cells, were prepared and incubated in medium containing 3H-glucosamine for 18 hr. Basal secretion of labeled glycoconjugates was significantly increased 31% following 3 days of ozone exposure (P less than or equal to 0.05) and remained elevated 11% after 7 days of exposure compared to the air-exposed group. After 3 or 7 days of exposure to ozone, tracheal gland responsiveness to carbachol was increased as indicated by significantly lower EC50 values (log molar concentration) of -6.43 {plus minus} 0.04 (n = 6) and -6.50 {plus minus} 0.11 (n = 5), respectively; compared to -6.20 {plus minus} 0.08 (n = 6) for the air-exposed group. There was no difference in carbachol EC50 values for air and 7-day ozone-exposed animals treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone did not attenuate the ozone-induced increase in basal secretion. Tracheal gland responsiveness to {alpha}- or {beta}-adrenergic agonists was not changed by oxidant exposure. These experiments suggest that oxidant injury not only increases basal secretion of respiratory glycoconjugates but also increases tracheal gland sensitivity to a cholinergic agonist.

  3. [Design and study of carbon fiber tracheal prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Liu, D; Han, Z; Wang, F

    1998-12-01

    32 healty adult dogs were selected for this experiment. 10 of them were subjected to the tracheal biomechanics test using indices including the relation between stretcher ratio (lambda) and stress (T), the squeeze stress (delta jy) of medical silk thread on trachea, the side stress (Ts) inducing the tracheal collapse, the functional maximum angle (psi max) of tracheal, and the sever area torsion angle (theta max) of tracheal functional maximum curved. According to the indices measured, two types of tracheal prosthesis were designed, and were made of carbon fiber and silicon. They were the straight tube type tracheal prosthesis and the bifurcate type tracheal prosthesis. The straight tube type tracheal prosthesis was studied with a design of two groups comprising a total of 11 dogs. In the experiment group (n = 6), the outer surface of the tube was not coated with silicon, the average survival period was 379.8 days. In the control group (n = 5), the outer surface of the tube was coated with silicon, the average survival period was 90.4 days. The bifurcate type tracheal prosthesis was studied in 11 dogs, the average survival period was 4.32 days. The main causes of death in the experiment were infection and anastomotic dehiscent. PMID:12552773

  4. Dynamics of tracheal compression in the horned passalus beetle.

    PubMed

    Waters, James S; Lee, Wah-Keat; Westneat, Mark W; Socha, John J

    2013-04-15

    Rhythmic patterns of compression and reinflation of the thin-walled hollow tubes of the insect tracheal system have been observed in a number of insects. These movements may be important for facilitating the transport and exchange of respiratory gases, but observing and characterizing the dynamics of internal physiological systems within live insects can be challenging due to their size and exoskeleton. Using synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we observed dynamical behavior in the tracheal system of the beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus. Similar to observations of tracheal compression in other insects, specific regions of tracheae in the thorax of O. disjunctus exhibit rhythmic collapse and reinflation. During tracheal compression, the opposing sides of a tracheal tube converge, causing the effective diameter of the tube to decrease. However, a unique characteristic of tracheal compression in this species is that certain tracheae collapse and reinflate with a wavelike motion. In the dorsal cephalic tracheae, compression begins anteriorly and continues until the tube is uniformly flattened; reinflation takes place in the reverse direction, starting with the posterior end of the tube and continuing until the tube is fully reinflated. We report the detailed kinematics of this pattern as well as additional observations that show tracheal compression coordinated with spiracle opening and closing. These findings suggest that tracheal compression may function to drive flow within the body, facilitating internal mixing of respiratory gases and ventilation of distal regions of the tracheal system. PMID:23427081

  5. Intubated, ventilating patients with complete tracheal transection: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Bowley, Douglas M. G.; Plani, Frank; Murillo, Dennis; Smith, Martin; Degiannis, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Tracheal transection is a rare injury after blunt trauma. The presence of complete tracheal transection in the intubated, ventilating patient is even more rare and constitutes a major diagnostic challenge. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) scans as an adjunct to endoscopy is paramount. PMID:12855026

  6. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section 868.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section 868.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section 868.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section 868.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section 868.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  11. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system : morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, K. J.; Henry, J. R.; Kirkton, S. D.; Westneat, M. W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J. F.; North Dakota State Univ.; Arizona State Univ.; Union Coll.; Field Museum of Natural History

    2009-11-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  12. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system: morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Joanna R.; Kirkton, Scott D.; Westneat, Mark W.; Fezzaa, Kamel; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F.

    2009-01-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O2) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O2), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton. PMID:19710392

  13. Tracheal agenesis: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Desai, AV; Rao, Sudha; Shanbhag, PR; Rupani, M

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal agenesis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly involving the respiratory system. It is generally associated with anomalies of other systems. Antenatal diagnosis of this condition is difficult; therefore, it presents as a medical emergency in the labor room. Intubation in these babies is difficult. As many of these babies are born prematurely, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) adds to the management difficulties. Here, we describe two babies with this lethal anomaly and RDS where esophageal intubation and surfactant therapy proved beneficial. Furthermore, described are other associated anomalies. PMID:27424553

  14. Successful anesthetic management of a patient with thyroid carcinoma invading the trachea with tracheal obstruction, scheduled for total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jing-Yang; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chan, Kwok-Hon; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of large thyroid carcinoma with tracheal and esophageal invasion who presented with preoperative stridor scheduled for total thyroidectomy and segmental tracheal resection. Careful and comprehensive preoperative anesthetic planning was done. Extracorporeal circulation membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was set up and running prior to induction under local anesthesia, due to an increased international normalized ratio (INR) and fear of bleeding in the airway. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is the first choice in many circumstances of difficult airway. However, we twice failed to intubate under FOB guidance. Successful intubation was done with traditional laryngoscopy and a Glidescope. The operative course was smooth. The oral endotracheal tube (ETT) was changed to a nasal ETT after surgery with the Glidescope. FOB-assisted intubation carries a chance of failure, and in critical patients, the presence of other intubating modalities such as video-assisted or fiberoptic-assisted technology or safety measures, including ECMO, will greatly increase the safety of anesthesia and surgery. PMID:25150647

  15. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  16. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  17. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  19. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  1. Complications after tracheal resection and reconstruction: prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Hugh G.

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal resection and reconstruction (TRR) and laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction (LTRR) is commonly performed for post-intubation tracheal stenosis, tracheal tumor, idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS), and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Ninety-five percent of patients have a good result from surgery. Complications occur in ~20% of patients, of which half are anastomotic complications. Complications include granulation tissue formation, restenosis of the trachea, anastomotic separation, TEF and tracheoinnominate fistula (TIF), wound infection, laryngeal edema, and glottic dysfunction. Risk factors for anastomotic complication include diabetes, reoperation, previous tracheal appliance, and long-segment tracheal resection. Bronchoscopy should be part of the diagnostic workup when a complication is suspected. Anastomotic separation—the most feared complication of tracheal surgery—may present subtly with stridor and wound infection, or with respiratory distress and extremis. Prompt management is required to prevent devastating consequences. The airway should be secured, bronchoscopy should be performed to address the degree of separation, and the anastomosis should be revised if needed, usually with the addition of t-tube or tracheostomy. Anastomotic complications that are managed aggressively typically yield good results. More than half of such patients will eventually have a satisfactory airway. However, an anastomotic complication is associated with a thirteen-fold increase in the risk of death following tracheal resection. PMID:26981267

  2. Complications after tracheal resection and reconstruction: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Hugh G; Wright, Cameron D

    2016-03-01

    Tracheal resection and reconstruction (TRR) and laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction (LTRR) is commonly performed for post-intubation tracheal stenosis, tracheal tumor, idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS), and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Ninety-five percent of patients have a good result from surgery. Complications occur in ~20% of patients, of which half are anastomotic complications. Complications include granulation tissue formation, restenosis of the trachea, anastomotic separation, TEF and tracheoinnominate fistula (TIF), wound infection, laryngeal edema, and glottic dysfunction. Risk factors for anastomotic complication include diabetes, reoperation, previous tracheal appliance, and long-segment tracheal resection. Bronchoscopy should be part of the diagnostic workup when a complication is suspected. Anastomotic separation-the most feared complication of tracheal surgery-may present subtly with stridor and wound infection, or with respiratory distress and extremis. Prompt management is required to prevent devastating consequences. The airway should be secured, bronchoscopy should be performed to address the degree of separation, and the anastomosis should be revised if needed, usually with the addition of t-tube or tracheostomy. Anastomotic complications that are managed aggressively typically yield good results. More than half of such patients will eventually have a satisfactory airway. However, an anastomotic complication is associated with a thirteen-fold increase in the risk of death following tracheal resection. PMID:26981267

  3. Endoscopic laser reshaping of rabbit tracheal cartilage: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Walter; Lam, Anthony; Protsenko, Dmitry; Wong, Brian J.

    2005-04-01

    Background: Tracheal cartilage deformities due to trauma, prolonged endotracheal intubation or infection are difficult to correct. Current treatment options such as dilation, laser ablation, stent placement, and segmental resection are only temporary or carry significant risks. The objectives of this project were to design and test a laser activated endotracheal stent system that can actively modify the geometry of tracheal cartilage, leading to permanent retention of a new and desirable tracheal geometry. Methods: Ex vivo rabbit tracheal cartilage (simulating human neonate trachea) were irradiated with an Er: Glass laser, (λ= 1.54um, 0.5W-2.5W, 1 sec to 5 sec). Shape change and gross thermal injury were assessed visually to determine the best laser power parameters for reshaping. A rigid endoscopic telescope and hollow bronchoscope were used to record endoscopic images. The stent was constructed from nitinol wire, shaped into a zigzag configuration. An ex vivo testing apparatus was also constructed. Results: The best laser power parameter to produce shape change was 1 W for 6-7 seconds. At this setting, there was significant shape change with only minimal thermal injury to the tracheal mucosa, as assessed by visual inspection. The bronchoscopy system functioned adequately during testing in the ex vivo testing apparatus. Conclusion: We have successfully designed instrumentation and created the capability to endoscopically reshape tracheal cartilage in an ex vivo rabbit model. The results obtained in ex vivo tracheal cartilage indicated that reshaping using Er: Glass laser can be accomplished.

  4. Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  5. [Placement of intraluminal stents for treating tracheal collapse in dogs].

    PubMed

    Glaus, T M; Matos, J M; Baloi, P; Wenger, M

    2011-11-01

    Tracheal collapse is a progressive disease particularly of small breed dogs. In the terminal stage, when dyspnea becomes the dominating sign and is no longer manageable with medical treatment, a surgical procedure is necessary. With increasing frequency intraluminal tracheal stents are implanted minimal-invasively. In individual animals this is a lifesaving procedure, leading to immediate elimination of dyspnea. In most dogs cough for some time has to be anticipated as the stent acts as a foreign body, but severe complications like excessive formation of granulation tissue, stent migration or stent fracture are rare. Stents represent an attractive treatment modality for tracheal collapse in dogs with dyspnea. PMID:22045455

  6. Identification of the tracheal and laryngeal afferent neurones mediating cough in anaesthetized guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J; Mazzone, Stuart B; Meeker, Sonya N; Mori, Nanako; Reynolds, Sandra M; Undem, Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    We have identified the tracheal and laryngeal afferent nerves regulating cough in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Cough was evoked by electrical or mechanical stimulation of the tracheal or laryngeal mucosa, or by citric acid applied topically to the trachea or larynx. By contrast, neither capsaicin nor bradykinin challenges to the trachea or larynx evoked cough. Bradykinin and histamine administered intravenously also failed to evoke cough. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the majority of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurones (both Aδ- and C-fibres) innervating the rostral trachea and larynx have their cell bodies in the jugular ganglia and project to the airways via the superior laryngeal nerves. Capsaicin-insensitive afferent neurones with cell bodies in the nodose ganglia projected to the rostral trachea and larynx via the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Severing the recurrent nerves abolished coughing evoked from the trachea and larynx whereas severing the superior laryngeal nerves was without effect on coughing. The data indicate that the tracheal and laryngeal afferent neurones regulating cough are polymodal Aδ-fibres that arise from the nodose ganglia. These afferent neurones are activated by punctate mechanical stimulation and acid but are unresponsive to capsaicin, bradykinin, smooth muscle contraction, longitudinal or transverse stretching of the airways, or distension. Comparing these physiological properties with those of intrapulmonary mechanoreceptors indicates that the afferent neurones mediating cough are quite distinct from the well-defined rapidly and slowly adapting stretch receptors innervating the airways and lungs. We propose that these airway afferent neurones represent a distinct subtype and that their primary function is regulation of the cough reflex. PMID:15004208

  7. Tracheal resection and reconstruction for malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Zuin, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Malignant tracheal neoplasms are rare diseases, mostly represented by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Symptoms presentation is often misleading and diagnosis may be delayed for months or years, so clinical suspicion plays a fundamental role. Corner stones in the diagnostic pathway are represented by rigid endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) scan, necessary to correctly stage the patients and identify the optimal surgical candidate. When appropriate, surgical resection and reconstruction is still the best opportunity to achieve a long-term survival with a good quality of life, but this kind of surgery is always a very challenging procedure and a wide experience with an in-depth knowledge of every technical detail, from selection of patient, to choice of surgical approach to reconstruction techniques, are needed and recommended. PMID:26981265

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  9. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  10. Modulation of the contractile responses of guinea pig isolated tracheal rings after chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia with and without cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Kaveri; Fahim, M

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have documented that repetitive exposure to intermittent hypoxia, such as that encountered in preparation to high-altitude ascent, influences breathing. However, the impact of intermittent hypoxia on airway smooth muscle has not been explored. Ascents to high altitude, in addition to hypoxia, expose individuals to cold air. The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIH) and CIH combined with cold exposure (CIHC) on tracheal smooth muscle responses to various contractile and relaxant agonists. Experiments were performed on tracheal rings harvested from adult guinea pigs exposed either to CIH or CIHC [14 days (6 h/day) at barometric pressure of 350 mmHg with and without cold exposure of 5 degrees C] or to room air (normoxia). CIH and CIHC attenuated maximum contractile responses to ACh compared with normoxia. The maximum contractile response to histamine decreased with CIH, whereas CIHC restored the response back to normoxia. Both CIH and CIHC attenuated maximum contractile responses to 5-HT. Altered contractile responses after CIH and CIHC were independent of epithelium. Isoproterenol-induced relaxation was not altered by CIH, whereas it was enhanced after CIHC, and these responses were independent of the epithelium. The data demonstrate that intermittent exposure to hypoxia profoundly influences contractile response of tracheal smooth muscle, and cold exposure can further modulate the response, implying the importance of cold at high altitude. PMID:16103517

  11. An Innovative Operative Method for Correction of Tracheal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dakshesh R; Mungutwar, Varsha

    2016-09-01

    This is a case of failed attempt of hanging, resulted into cervical injury & injury to the trachea. Patient was put on the ventilator for respiratory support for long period. Poor recovery of the patient resulted into prolong tracheostomy tube. Combine effect of all resulted into suprastomal tracheal stenosis. Due to complexity of the problem a novel method was customized to correct the tracheal stenosis. Strap muscle (Sternohyoid & Sternothyroid) was raised as a flap; free cartilage was sandwiched in between and sutured to the created tracheal defect. Bovine collagen was placed over a stent and placed in the tracheal lumen. Good result was achieved post operatively in the form of adequate lumen, rigid anterior wall during respiration, good mucosal lining without fibrosis and normal speech. PMID:27508127

  12. Reresection for recurrent stenosis after primary tracheal repair

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Failure of the anastomosis after primary tracheal reconstruction for benign disease is uncommon. Here we review the available evidence on tracheal restenosis and the results of second reconstructions. Factors associated with failed primary anastomosis are examined. Temporizing immediate and alternative long-term management with T-tube or tracheostomy is described, emphasizing the role of tracheal stenting in abating the urgency for reoperation. From available evidence, elective reoperative treatment of failed tracheal reconstruction should be considered in selected patients after careful review and reversal of patient- and operation-specific factors that initiated failure. Referral to a high-volume center with a deep bench of nursing, anesthesiologic and surgical expertise is recommended for reoperation. PMID:26981266

  13. Reresection for recurrent stenosis after primary tracheal repair.

    PubMed

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia; Gaissert, Henning A

    2016-03-01

    Failure of the anastomosis after primary tracheal reconstruction for benign disease is uncommon. Here we review the available evidence on tracheal restenosis and the results of second reconstructions. Factors associated with failed primary anastomosis are examined. Temporizing immediate and alternative long-term management with T-tube or tracheostomy is described, emphasizing the role of tracheal stenting in abating the urgency for reoperation. From available evidence, elective reoperative treatment of failed tracheal reconstruction should be considered in selected patients after careful review and reversal of patient- and operation-specific factors that initiated failure. Referral to a high-volume center with a deep bench of nursing, anesthesiologic and surgical expertise is recommended for reoperation. PMID:26981266

  14. Tracheal Stenosis Because of Wegener Granulomatosis Misdiagnosed as Asthma.

    PubMed

    O'Hear, Kelley E; Ingrande, Jerry; Brodsky, Jay B; Morton, John M; Sung, Chih-Kwang

    2016-05-15

    We describe a patient with Wegener granulomatosis whose complaint of wheezing was incorrectly attributed to asthma. Anesthesiologists must recognize that tracheal stenosis is extremely common in Wegener granulomatosis and can mimic other causes of wheezing. PMID:27075424

  15. Thoracotomy for tracheal disruption after traumatic intubation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan D

    2010-10-01

    Tracheal dissection is an uncommon complication of endotracheal intubation. A large source of morbidity and mortality in anesthesia is associated with airway issues. Several airway complications can be avoided or minimized by proper technique and vigilance. Emergency thoracotomy surgery is required in patients who suffer lower tracheal trauma. A tracheal tear poses additional challenges to traditional airway management, demanding vigilant planning and collaboration among the entire operative team. This case report details the airway management strategies employed during an emergent thoracotomy for a patient who suffered tracheal perforation during endotracheal intubation. A discussion of airway anatomy, airway considerations, intubation complications, and one-lung ventilation techniques is provided. Airway management techniques for one-lung ventilation are highly variable, requiring an extensive knowledge of equipment, clinical implications, and technical challenges. It is important for clinicians to be skilled in the use of several airway devices and to be prepared for any unexpected situation such as the case being presented. PMID:21067088

  16. Postintubation tracheal injuries--case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Misak, Vilka Bekavac; Beraković, Andrea Persin; Vukusić, Ivana; Kogler, Jana; Pazanin, Leo; Ozegović, Slavica Orehovec

    2012-09-01

    SUMMARY - Post-intubation tracheal injury is a rare and potentially fatal complication. The most common causes are overinflation ofendotracheal tube cuffs and multiple intubation attempts in emergency cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological suspicion of tracheal injury confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Decision between conservative and surgical management of the injury depends on clinical presentation (respiratory instability, concomitant diseases), lesion characteristics (lesion site, size, and number), and time elapsed from injury to diagnosis. We present three cases ofpost-intubation tracheal injury. In two cases, the patients were treated conservatively; in the third case, the patient died from asphyxia caused by thrombus occlusion of the trachea after a longitudinal tracheal lesion. Pre-anesthetic examination did not indicate any possibility of difficult intubation in any of the patients; however, in one of the patients admitted through the emergency department, emergency intubation was performed. PMID:23330416

  17. Ultrastructure of tracheal epithelial cells migrating in an in vivo environment.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hajime; Tanaka, Hideo; Ono, Michio

    2008-12-01

    The tracheal epithelium can be induced to move as a cellular sheet by heterotopic transplantation, which offers the opportunity to observe migrating cells as a group in an in vivo environment. We therefor investigated the ultrastructural characteristics of migrating tracheal epithelial cells with special reference to the moving front using this transplantation. The migrating epithelial cells underwent squamous metaplasia and lost their differentiated characteristics such as cilia or secretory granules. Several unique observations were made concerning the mechanism of mobility: one is that epithelial cells in the front were elongated in a direction perpendicular to the course of movement, different from previous reports in vitro. The second is that lamellipodia, which are regarded as the major locomotive machinery in the adult wound epithelium, did not make up the major part of the front; the major portion of the anterior fringe of the moving front was usually smooth and gently curved, and actin cables parallel to the elongated cells were observed by confocal laser microscopy, indicating that the purse-string mechanism of epithelial wound healing takes place. The third finding is that the cells in the front had irregular bleb-like structures on their antero-basal surface, which were formed even in the portion where the cells did not attach to the matrix. Few organelles were recognized in these structures. From their location, one might propose that these bleb-like structures play a role in the recognition of the substrate and thus the movement of the cell sheet. PMID:19359805

  18. Obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane: a rare condition in postextubation stridor.

    PubMed

    Nakwan, Narongwit

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane (OFTP) is an airway complication that occurs after endotracheal intubation. It originates from superficial mucosal abrasion and desquamation of necrotic tracheal epithelium at the site of cuff pressure. This condition is a rare cause of postextubation stridor. We present a case of postextubation stridor secondary to OFTP, resulting in clinical features of upper airway obstruction > 8 h after extubation. The case features complete obstruction at the tip of the endotracheal tube from OFTP. PMID:24170917

  19. Thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction for adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wenjie; Zhu, Dezhang; Cheng, Zhaozhong; Zhao, Yandong

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel technique of thoracoscopic circumferential tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis. A 60-year-old woman presented with wheezing and progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography scan revealed a mass at the lower trachea, and a nitinol mesh stent was implanted by bronchoscopy. After 2 weeks, a complete thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The final pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea. PMID:25555982

  20. Measurement of tracheal mucous transport rate in the horse

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.; Hampe, D.W.

    1983-06-01

    Tracheal mucous transport rates were measured in 12 nonanesthetized horses after an intratracheal injection of 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid. The transport rate of the subsequent bolus of radioactivity was determined, using a portable scaler rate meter fitted with a high-energy gamma-scintillation probe. A gamma-scintillation camera was used to verify bolus form and movement in 1 horse. The mean tracheal mucous transport rate was 1.66 +/- 0.24 cm/min.

  1. The M2 selective antagonist AF-DX 116 shows high affinity for muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal membranes.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; in't Hout, W G; de Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1987-05-01

    We have characterized the muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal and left ventricular membranes using 3H-dexetimide/pirenzepine and 3H-dexetimide/AF-DX 116 competition studies. Pirenzepine exhibited low (M2) affinity binding to both preparations; Kd was 590 nM in left ventricle and 463 nM in trachea. AF-DX 116 exhibited high (M2) affinity binding to left ventricle (Kd = 95.6 nM); in tracheal membranes it bound with high (M2) affinity (Kd = 40.7 nM) to 74% of the receptors and with low (M3) affinity (Kd = 2.26 microM) to 26% of the receptors. It is concluded that bovine tracheal muscle membranes contain a heterogeneous population of muscarine binding sites, the majority having M2 (heart) subtype characteristics and being located on the smooth muscle membranes; a minority having M3 (exocrine gland) subtype characteristics and presumed to be located in submucosal glands. This is the first report of high affinity binding of AF-DX 116 to non-cardiac peripheral muscarine receptors. PMID:3614390

  2. dysfusion Transcriptional Control of Drosophila Tracheal Migration, Adhesion, and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lan; Crews, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    The Drosophila dysfusion basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor gene is expressed in specialized fusion cells that reside at the tips of migrating tracheal branches. dysfusion mutants were isolated, and genetic analysis of live embryos revealed that mutant tracheal branches migrate to close proximity but fail to recognize and adhere to each other. Misexpression of dysfusion throughout the trachea further indicated that dysfusion has the ability to both inhibit cell migration and promote ectopic tracheal fusion. Nineteen genes whose expression either increases or decreases in fusion cells during development were analyzed in dysfusion mutant embryos. dysfusion upregulates the levels of four genes, including the shotgun cell adhesion protein gene and the zona pellucida family transmembrane protein gene, CG13196. Misexpression experiments with CG13196 result in ectopic tracheal fusion events, suggesting that it also encodes a cell adhesion protein. Another target gene of dysfusion is members only, which inhibits protein nuclear export and influences tracheal fusion. dysfusion also indirectly downregulates protein levels of Trachealess, an important regulator of tracheal development. These results indicate that fusion cells undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they switch from migratory to fusion modes and that dysfusion regulates a discrete, but important, set of these genes. PMID:16914738

  3. Decellularized Tracheal Extracellular Matrix Supports Epithelial Migration, Differentiation, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kutten, Johannes C.; McGovern, David; Hobson, Christopher M.; Luffy, Sarah A.; Nieponice, Alejandro; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J.; Reynolds, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal loss is a source of significant morbidity for affected patients with no acceptable solution. Interest in engineering tracheal transplants has created a demand for small animal models of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Here, we examine the use of a decellularized graft in a murine model of tracheal replacement. Fresh or decellularized tracheas harvested from age-matched female donor C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tracheas were decellularized using repeated washes of water, 3% Triton X-100, and 3 M NaCl under cyclic pressure changes, followed by disinfection with 0.1% peracetic acid/4% ethanol, and terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation. Tracheas were explanted for immunolabeling at 1, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Video microscopy and computed tomography were performed to assess function and structure. Decellularized grafts supported complete reepithelialization by 8 weeks and motile cilia were observed. Cartilaginous portions of the trachea were maintained in mice receiving fresh transplants, but repopulation of the cartilage was not seen in mice receiving decellularized transplants. We observed superior postsurgical survival, weight gain, and ciliary function in mice receiving fresh transplants compared with those receiving decellularized transplants. The murine orthotopic tracheal transplant provides an appropriate model to assess the repopulation and functional regeneration of decellularized tracheal grafts. PMID:24980864

  4. [Metaplasia of aortic tissue into tracheal tissue. Surgical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Martinod, E; Zakine, G; Fornes, P; Zegdi, R; d'Audiffret, A; Aupecle, B; Goussef, N; Azorin, J; Chachques, J C; Fabiani, J N; Carpentier, A

    2000-05-01

    Tracheal reconstruction after extensive resection remains an unsolved surgical problem. Numerous attempts have been made using tracheal grafts or prosthetic conduits with disappointing results. In this study, we propose a new alternative using an aortic autograft as tracheal substitute. In a first series of experiments, a half circumference of two rings was replaced with an autologous carotid artery patch. In a second series, a complete segment of trachea was replaced with an autologous aortic graft supported by an endoluminal tracheal stent. No dehiscence or stenosis was observed. Microscopic examinations at 3 and 6 months showed the replacement of the aortic tissue by tracheal tissue comprising neoformation of cartilage and mucociliary or non-keratinizing metaplastic polystratified squamous epithelium. Although these results need to be confirmed by a larger series of experiments, they showed that a vascular tissue placed in a different environment with a different function can be submitted to a metaplastic transformation which tends to restore a normal structure adapted to its new function. These remarkable findings offer new perspectives in tracheal reconstruction in human. PMID:10879293

  5. Human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell sheets with bellows graft for rapid tracheal epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Hun; Park, Ju Young; Nam, Inn-Chul; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kim, Choung-Soo; Jung, Jin Woo; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Hyungseok; Choi, Yeongjin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Rapid functional epithelial regeneration on the luminal surface is essential when using artificial tracheal grafts to repair tracheal defects. In this study, we imposed human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell (hTMSC) sheets for tracheal epithelial regeneration, and then assessed their potential as a new clinical cell source. In vitro, hTMSCs sheets showed high capacity to differentiate into tracheal epithelium. We fabricated a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) tracheal graft by indirect three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and created a composite construct by transplanting the hTMSC sheets to its luminal surface of the tracheal graft, then applied this tissue-engineered tracheal graft to non-circumferential tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model. 4 weeks after implantation, the luminal surface of tissue-engineered tracheal graft was covered by a mature and highly-ciliated epithelium, whereas tracheal grafts without hTMSC sheets were covered by only a thin, immature epithelium. Therefore, hTMSC sheets on the luminal surface of a tissue-engineered tracheal graft can accelerate the tracheal epithelial regeneration, and the tissue-engineered tracheal graft with hTMSC sheets provides a useful clinical alternative for tracheal epithelial regeneration. PMID:26163763

  6. In vitro reactivity (“organ chamber”) of guinea pig tracheal rings—methodology considerations

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli; Carvalho, Marco Túlio Menezes; Evora, Patricia Martinez; de Nadai, Tales Rubens; Celotto, Andrea Carla

    2016-01-01

    The present text was motivated by the difficulties faced by our postgraduate students when using airways studies protocols and will take into consideration the three mechanisms of relaxation: (I) guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)/NO-dependent; (II) adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/PGI2-dependent, and (III) hyperpolarization-dependent. Tracheal rings are studied in an organ bath containing a gassed physiological salt solution, usually at a temperature of 37 °C. An agent or procedure that causes contraction [acetylcholine (Ach) or metacholine] of the smooth muscle is needed before study airway dilator drugs. The presented airways studies protocols are useful to study the bronchial epithelial-dependent reactivity. PMID:27386490

  7. In vitro reactivity ("organ chamber") of guinea pig tracheal rings-methodology considerations.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli; Carvalho, Marco Túlio Menezes; Evora, Patricia Martinez; de Nadai, Tales Rubens; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    The present text was motivated by the difficulties faced by our postgraduate students when using airways studies protocols and will take into consideration the three mechanisms of relaxation: (I) guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)/NO-dependent; (II) adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/PGI2-dependent, and (III) hyperpolarization-dependent. Tracheal rings are studied in an organ bath containing a gassed physiological salt solution, usually at a temperature of 37 °C. An agent or procedure that causes contraction [acetylcholine (Ach) or metacholine] of the smooth muscle is needed before study airway dilator drugs. The presented airways studies protocols are useful to study the bronchial epithelial-dependent reactivity. PMID:27386490

  8. Canine degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Coates, Joan R; Wininger, Fred A

    2010-09-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds. The initial upper motor neuron spastic paraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs progress to a flaccid lower motor neuron tetraparesis. Recently, a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene was found to be a risk factor for DM, suggesting that DM is similar to some forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This article reviews the current knowledge of canine DM with regard to its signalment, clinical spectrum, diagnostic approach, and treatment. The implications of the SOD1 mutation on both diseases are discussed, comparing pathogenic mechanisms while conveying perspectives to translational medicine. PMID:20732599

  9. Control of canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, G

    1995-05-01

    Control of canine distemper can realistically only be achieved by the use of vaccination. The types of vaccine in current use are described, together with some of the problems encountered such as interference by maternal antibodies, and usage in species other than dogs. Modified live viral vaccines, as used for more than thirty years, have proved very effective. Nevertheless there is scope for some improvement in vaccine efficacy and recent developments in genetic recombinant methods are described. PMID:8588329

  10. Canine ehrlichiosis in Connecticut.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Litwin, H J; Holland, C J; Anderson, J F; Ristic, M

    1990-01-01

    The first case of canine ehrlichiosis in Connecticut is reported. A female Brittany spaniel from Milford presented with lethargy, anorexia, fever, petechiae, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia. Serologic analysis revealed antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (titer, 1:2,560). This documents a more northern geographic distribution in the United States for this infectious agent than had previously been suspected. PMID:2312682

  11. Tracheal stent placement for the emergency management of tracheal collapse in dogs.

    PubMed

    Beal, Matthew W

    2013-08-01

    Dogs with tracheal collapse may present with life-threatening upper airway obstruction. In most instances, a conservative approach to treatment including oxygen support coupled with sedation and cooling measures will relieve respiratory effort and thus relieve airway obstruction. Dogs that fail this conservative approach require endotracheal intubation to ensure a patent airway. This population of patients would benefit from a more definitive, yet palliative treatment option to acutely relieve upper airway obstruction. Placement of a self-expanding metallic stent that spans the affected portion of the trachea will acutely provide the patient with a sustained patent airway and optimize the likelihood of a positive outcome. PMID:24182999

  12. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs. PMID:12885206

  13. Immunohistochemical vascular factor expression in canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Peña, L; Gil, A González; Martín-Ruiz, A; Dunner, S; Illera, J C

    2014-07-01

    Human inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) and canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) are considered the most malignant types of breast cancer. IMC has similar characteristics to IBC; hence, IMC has been suggested as a model to study the human disease. To compare the angiogenic and angioinvasive features of IMC with non-IMC, 3 canine mammary tumor xenograft models in female SCID mice were developed: IMC, comedocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of both primary canine tumors and xenografts using cellular markers pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin and vascular factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-D, VEGFR-3, and COX-2) was performed. Tumor cell proliferation index was measured by the Ki-67 marker. The xenograft models reproduced histological features found in the primary canine tumor and preserved the original immunophenotype. IMC xenografts showed a high invasive character with tumor emboli in the dermis, edema, and occasional observations of ulceration. In addition, compared with osteosarcoma and comedocarcinoma, the IMC model showed the highest vascular factor expression associated with a high proliferation index. Likewise, IMC xenografts showed higher COX-2 expression associated with VEGF-D and VEGFR-3, as well as a higher presence of dermal lymphatic tumor emboli, suggesting COX-2 participation in IMC lymphangiogenesis. These results provide additional evidence to consider vascular factors, their receptors, and COX-2 as therapeutic targets for IBC. PMID:24048323

  14. Tracheal anastomosis using indocyanine green dye enhanced fibrinogen with a near-infrared diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auteri, Joseph S.; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Oz, Mehmet C.; Libutti, Steven K.; Kirby, Thomas J.; Smith, Craig R.; Treat, Michael R.

    1990-06-01

    A major obstacle to lung transplantation and combined heart- lung transplantation is dehiscence of the tracheobronchial anastomosis. We explored the possibility of laser welded anastomoses in canine tracheas in vivo. Laser anastomoses were performed on three-quarter circumferential anterior tracheotomies. A continous wave diode laser (808 +1 nm) at a power density of 9.6 watts/cm was used. Human fibrinogen was mixed with indocyanine green dye (ICG, max absorbance 805 nm) and applied to the anastomosis site prior to laser exposure. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 21 and 28 days post-operatively. At sacrifice weld bursting pressures were measured by raising intratracheal pressure using forced ventilation via an endotracheal tube. Sutured and laser welded anastomoses had similar bursting pressures, and exhibited satisfactory histologic evidence of healing. However, compared to polypropylene sutured controls, the laser welded anastomoses exhibited less peritracheal inflammatory reaction and showed visibly smoother luminal surfaces at 21 and 28 days post- operatively. Tracheal anastomosis using ICG dye enhanced fibrinogen combined with the near-infrared diode laser is a promising extension of the technology of laser tissue fusion and deserves further study.

  15. Investigations into human tracheal cartilage osseocalcineus metaplasia II. Histopathological examination of tracheal cartilages.

    PubMed

    Sośnik, Henryk; Sośnik, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Different opinions in the literature about changes in tracheal cartilages were the basis for investigations concerning the types of morphological changes occurring in ageing tracheal cartilages. 5 micron thick specimens stained with haematoxylin-eosin and in selected cases using von Kossa method of 371 cartilages taken from 95 male (mean age 56.6 +/-13.4 years) and 279 cartilages from 70 female patients (mean age 64.9 +/-16 years) (p < 0.001) were the investigated material. The analysis demonstrated statistically significant cartilage type differences between men and women (p < 0.001). Chondrolysis and asbestoids were observed in 11.9% of male and 2.9% of female patients. Calcium deposits were seen in 13.2% of male and 9.7% of female patients, while cartilage ossification in 20.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The coexistence of calcium deposits and osseous metaplasia was observed in 8.6% of male and 3.9% of female patients. PMID:20072952

  16. Steroids and antihistamines synergize to inhibit rat's airway smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Cheng; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang; Wu, Chi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2015-06-01

    Both glucocorticoids and H1-antihistamines were widely used on patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and obstructive airway diseases. However, their direct effects on airway smooth muscle were not fully explored. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of prednisolone (Kidsolone) and levocetirizine (Xyzal) on isolated rat trachea submersed in Kreb's solution in a muscle bath. Changes in tracheal contractility in response to the application of parasympathetic mimetic agents were measured. The following assessments of the drug were performed: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10(-6) M methacholine; (3) effect of the drug on electrical field stimulation (EFS) induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The result revealed sole use of Kidsolone or Xyzal elicited no significant effect or only a little relaxation response on tracheal tension after methacholine treatment. The tension was 90.5 ± 7.5 and 99.5 ± 0.8 % at 10(-4) M for Xyzal and 10(-5) M for Kidsolone, respectively. However, a dramatically spasmolytic effect was observed after co-administration of Kidsolone and Xyzal and the tension dropped to 67.5 ± 13.6 %, with statistical significance (p < 0.05). As for EFS-induced contractions, Kidsolone had no direct effect but Xyzal could inhibit it, with increasing basal tension. In conclusion, using glucocorticoids alone had no spasmolytic effect but they can be synergized with antihistamines to dramatically relax the trachea smooth muscle within minutes. Therefore, for AR patients with acute asthma attack, combined use of those two drugs is recommended. PMID:25115316

  17. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  18. How to perform open tracheal suction via an endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Credland, Nicola

    2016-04-27

    Rationale and key points Tracheal suction involves the removal of pulmonary secretions from the respiratory tract using negative pressure under sterile conditions. Practitioners should be aware of the indications for, and risks associated with, open tracheal suction via an endotracheal tube. ▶ Respiratory assessment of the patient should be carried out to identify when tracheal suction is required. ▶ A suction pressure of 80-120mmHg is recommended, and suction should last no longer than 15 seconds. ▶ Reassurance and support should be given to the patient to minimise any discomfort and distress that might result from tracheal suction. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you think this article will change your practice when performing open tracheal suction via an endotracheal tube. 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27191318

  19. Genetic control of epithelial tube fusion during Drosophila tracheal development.

    PubMed

    Samakovlis, C; Manning, G; Steneberg, P; Hacohen, N; Cantera, R; Krasnow, M A

    1996-11-01

    During development of tubular networks such as the mammalian vascular system, the kidney and the Drosophila tracheal system, epithelial tubes must fuse to each other to form a continuous network. Little is known of the cellular mechanisms or molecular control of epithelial tube fusion. We describe the cellular dynamics of a tracheal fusion event in Drosophila and identify a gene regulatory hierarchy that controls this extraordinary process. A tracheal cell located at the developing fusion point expresses a sequence of specific markers as it grows out and contacts a similar cell from another tube; the two cells adhere and form an intercellular junction, and they become doughnut-shaped cells with the lumen passing through them. The early fusion marker Fusion-1 is identified as the escargot gene. It lies near the top of the regulatory hierarchy, activating the expression of later fusion markers and repressing genes that promote branching. Ectopic expression of escargot activates the fusion process and suppresses branching throughout the tracheal system, leading to ectopic tracheal connections that resemble certain arteriovenous malformations in humans. This establishes a simple genetic system to study fusion of epithelial tubes. PMID:8951068

  20. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C; Socha, John J

    2015-06-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  1. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C.; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  2. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  3. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil. PMID:21961746

  4. Peripartum general anasthesia without tracheal intubation: incidence of aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ezri, T; Szmuk, P; Stein, A; Konichezky, S; Hagai, T; Geva, D

    2000-05-01

    This study estimated the incidence of pulmonary aspiration during general anasthesia for obstetric procedures performed in the peripartum period (Caesarean sections were not studied). The records of 1870 patients anasthetised without tracheal intubation were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis of aspiration was based on the anasthetist's written remarks and the postoperative course. Eighty per cent of patients received ketamine and a benzodiazepine, and the remaining 20% received methohexital or thiopental and fentanyl. No cricoid pressure or tracheal intubation was performed. A single case of mild aspiration was detected in a woman anasthetised with methohexital (an incidence of 0.053%). These results suggest that the risk of aspiration during general anasthesia without tracheal intubation, during and immediately after delivery, may not be higher in obstetric patients in the peripartum period, as has been reported previously. PMID:10792131

  5. Two Fatal Complications after Parallel Tracheal-Esophageal Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, Christoph A.; Petersen, Bryan D.

    2002-03-15

    Two patients with malignant obstructions of both the trachea and esophagus underwent parallel stent placement with Gianturco-Roesch Z (GRZ) stents for palliation of symptoms. Fatal hemorrhage occurred in both patients 2 and 3 weeks after stent placement respectively. An autopsy performed on one of these patients demonstrated esophageal tissue necrosis and erosion with perforation of both the tracheal and esophageal walls at sites where the stent struts were in direct opposition, leading to bleeding from the esophageal venous plexus. GRZ stents have been successful in the treatment of both solitary tracheal and esophageal stenoses. However, parallel tracheal-esophageal stenting with GRZ stents places patients at high risk for complications due to the high radial force exerted by this particular stent and the minimal amount of intervening tissue between the two structures.

  6. Absence of canine papillomavirus sequences in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  7. RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

  8. Surgical management of atypical lateral tracheal collapse in a dog.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L R; Krahwinkel, D J; McKiernan, B C

    1993-12-15

    Tracheal collapse is often diagnosed in small-breed dogs through use of conventional radiography or fluoroscopy, by which the dorsoventral orientation of the collapse can be seen. In the dog of this report, an unusual lateral form of tracheal collapse was diagnosed by means of bronchoscopy after multiple radiographic procedures had failed to define a cause for cough and dyspnea. Surgical reinforcement of the abnormal region of the trachea resulted in resolution of clinical signs and in reduction in dynamic airway collapse, which was documented on follow-up bronchoscopy. PMID:8307818

  9. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    PubMed

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26367770

  10. [Successful Use of the i-gel and Dexmedetomidine for Tracheal Resection and Construction Surgery in a Patient with Severe Tracheal Stenosis].

    PubMed

    Kashii, Tomoko; Nabatame, Maki; Okura, Nahomi; Fujinaga, Ayumi; Namoto, Kazuko; Mori, Masafumi; Tsujimura, Shigehisa

    2016-04-01

    A 51-year-old man, 170 cm, 86 kg, was diagnosed with a tracheal tumor existing just below the glottis occupying more than 80% of his tracheal lumen, and was scheduled for tracheal resection and construction. The patient had a strider due to the severe tracheal stenosis. We could insert i-gel easily under dexmedetomidine sedation. After successful i-gel insertion, tracheotomy and endotracheal intubation were performed. Until ETT insertion, the patient maintained spontaneous respiration without any hypoxic event. Followed by ETT insertion, tracheal resection and construction were performed under general anesthesia. After the operation, the patient was extubated and transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), where he was given DEX infusion to keep the tracheal anastomosis immobilized. There was no serious complication during the perioparative period. PMID:27188107

  11. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  12. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  13. Gas Exchange Models for a Flexible Insect Tracheal System.

    PubMed

    Simelane, S M; Abelman, S; Duncan, F D

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two models for movement of respiratory gases in the insect trachea are presented. One model considers the tracheal system as a single flexible compartment while the other model considers the trachea as a single flexible compartment with gas exchange. This work represents an extension of Ben-Tal's work on compartmental gas exchange in human lungs and is applied to the insect tracheal system. The purpose of the work is to study nonlinear phenomena seen in the insect respiratory system. It is assumed that the flow inside the trachea is laminar, and that the air inside the chamber behaves as an ideal gas. Further, with the isothermal assumption, the expressions for the tracheal partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, rate of volume change, and the rates of change of oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide concentration are derived. The effects of some flow parameters such as diffusion capacities, reaction rates and air concentrations on net flow are studied. Numerical simulations of the tracheal flow characteristics are performed. The models developed provide a mathematical framework to further investigate gas exchange in insects. PMID:27209375

  14. Tracheal trauma from percutaneous tracheostomy using the Griggs method.

    PubMed

    Watters, M; Thorne, G; Cox, C; Monk, C

    2002-03-01

    In a safety evaluation study, relative force and distance measurements during percutaneous tracheostomy were recorded using specially monitored Griggs guidewire dilating tracheostomy forceps on 12 cadavers scheduled to undergo postmortem examination the same day. All measurements were recorded in millivolts and were converted to force and distance via appropriate calibration tables. Markedly more force was required for tracheal destruction than for therapeutic tracheal dilation (87.7 N +/- 19 N vs. 31.6 N +/- 17.1 N, p <0.001). Also relatively less force was required for therapeutic tracheal dilation than for dilation of the pretracheal tissues (44.4 N +/- 17.1 N vs. 31.6 N +/- 17.1 N, p <0.05). These results suggest that the Griggs tracheostomy forceps have a reasonable margin of safety in that tracheal destruction is unlikely to occur inadvertently during therapeutic dilation. Second, the dilation of pretracheal tissues can act as useful guide in knowing how much force to apply in a therapeutic dilation. PMID:11879214

  15. Intraluminal tracheal stent fracture in a Yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Woo, Heung-Myong; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Gon; Nam, Hyun-Sook; Kwak, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Joon-Seok; Park, In-Chul; Hyun, Changbaig

    2007-10-01

    An 8-year-old Yorkshire terrier was presented with tracheal collapse. Two intraluminal nitinol stents were implanted. The implanted stents were found to be fractured 4 weeks after implantation. The fractured stents were removed. To restore the collapsed trachea, ring prostheses were applied. However, the dog was euthanized because of a bad outcome following surgery. PMID:17987968

  16. Fluoroscopically Guided Balloon Dilation for Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woong Hee; Kim, Jin Hyoung Park, Jung-Hun

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Little was known about the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods: From February 2000 to November 2010, 14 patients underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. Technical success, clinical success, and complications were evaluated. Patients were followed up for recurrent symptoms. Results: In all patients, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was technically and clinically successful with no major complications. Following the initial procedure, six patients (43 %) remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period. Obstructive symptoms recurred in eight patients (57 %) within 6 months (mean, 1.7 months), who were treated with repeat balloon dilation (n = 4) and other therapies. Of the four patients who underwent repeat balloon dilation, three became asymptomatic. One patient became asymptomatic after a third balloon dilation. On long-term (mean, 74 months) follow-up, 71 % of patients experienced relief of symptoms following fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation. Conclusions: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation may be safe, is easy to perform, and resulted in effective treatment in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis.

  17. MUCUS GLYCOPROTEIN SECRETION BY TRACHEAL EXPLANTS: EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium. The authors have used anin vitro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pol...

  18. ONCOGENE ALTERNATIONS IN IN VITRO TRANSFORMED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten derivations of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, including normal cells, normal primary cultures, 7 tumorigenic cell lines and 1 non-tumorigenic cell line transformed by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and/or 12-0-tetradecanoylphor...

  19. Tracheal Resection With Carinal Reconstruction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Krantz, Seth B; Patterson, G Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary malignancies of the trachea. We present here the rare case of a lifelong nonsmoker with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, requiring tracheal resection and anterior carinal reconstruction. Patient preparation, surgical technique, and considerations to avoid airway anastomotic complications are discussed. PMID:27343542

  20. Role of meconium in the reaction of airways smooth musculature in the newborn with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).

    PubMed

    Islami, Hilmi; Bexheti, Sadi; Shabani, Ragip; Nuraj, Bajram; Zeqiri, Fehmi; Sukalo, Aziz; Kurtishi, Ilir; Kutllovci, Skender; Qorraj, Hasime; Disha, Mentor

    2009-11-01

    The role of meconium in the respiratory system was studied in newborns, who died from various causes (250 up to 3000 g of weight). We monitored tracheal rings response to dopamine, serotonin and ethanol in different concentrations (dopamine: 0,05 mg/ml, 0,5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml; serotonin (5-HT): 10-4, 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 mol/dm3; ethanol: 0,02 ml, 0,5 ml, 1,0 ml; 96%). Tracheal smooth musculature tonus (TSM) was examined in 48 tracheal preparations taken after the newborn exitus due to different reasons. Based on functional researche of isolated preparations of tracheas, it may be concluded that: aspiration of meconium has not changed the response of TSM to dopamine, serotonin and ethanol (p>0,1) in comparison with the control group, which have died due to different lung inflammatory processes (e.g. pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, atelectasis, cerebral hemorrhage). The results suggest that meconium does not potentiate the constricting action of dopamine, serotonin and ethanol in tracheobronchial system. Meconium causes mild relaxation of the TSM through a mechanism that is not intermediated by the products of cyclooxygenases (prostaglandins, prostacyclins) from the tracheal epithelium or proteins. Also, as it seems, the direct activity of many tested acids in the smooth musculature has no significant impact on increase of the airways tonus in MAS syndrome. PMID:20002002

  1. Local actions of trimebutine on canine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Kostolanska, F; Fox, J E

    1987-01-01

    The local actions of trimebutine on the circular muscle of canine gastrointestinal tract were studied after close intraarterial injection. The effects resembled those of metenkephalin at all sites. In stomach, trimebutine had no excitatory effects, but inhibited responses mediated by cholinergic post-ganglionic nerves. In small intestine, trimebutine stimulated the quiet gut by probably both neural and direct smooth muscle mechanisms, and it inhibited the field-stimulated phasic contractions. In large intestine, trimebutine had no excitatory actions and only weak inhibitory actions on the field-stimulated gut. Excitatory actions most likely seem to use the mu or delta receptors while inhibitory actions may focus on kappa opiate receptors. PMID:3038657

  2. Canine rickettsial infections.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J

    2000-09-01

    Dogs that live in tick-infested areas are at risk for contracting rickettsial infections. Clinical signs associated with ehrlichiosis or Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be dramatic or mild. Clinicians must consider the possibility of rickettsial diseases to request laboratory tests that will permit a proper diagnosis. Specific antimicrobial therapy usually brings about clinical improvement, although some dogs may not be cleared of rickettsial organisms, even with prolonged treatment. A small percentage of dogs die of rickettsial infections, either in the acute stage or owing to chronic bone marrow suppression and generalized debilitation. Ocular lesions are an important clinical sign in canine rickettsial infections and may aid the clinician in making a diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. PMID:11033879

  3. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions. PMID:27065598

  4. Review of 23 cases of postintubation tracheal obstructions in birds.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Neiffer, Donald; Terrell, Scott; Powell, David M; Newton, Alisa

    2013-09-01

    Although recognized as a potential complication after endotracheal intubation in birds, the complication rate of postintubation tracheal obstruction in this taxon is unknown. Twenty-three cases of postintubation obstruction in birds from two institutions are reported. Clinical signs were noted an average of 16.6 days postintubation and consisted primarily of indications of acute respiratory distress. Diagnosis was confirmed via tracheoscopy or radiology. Five birds died before treatment could be initiated. Medical treatment alone was successful in three birds that had mild changes consisting primarily of a luminal mucoid plug that could be manually removed without tracheal surgery but was unsuccessful in an additional six birds. Tracheal resection and anastamosis was successful in four birds and unsuccessful in five birds. Overall mortality was 70%. Postintubation tracheal obstruction in birds appears to be more common in zoo practice than is suggested by the literature, as a total of 1.8% (1.2-2.7%, 95% confidence interval) of intubations or 3.5% (2.3-5.3%, 95% confidence interval) of individual animals intubated in these institutions resulted in this complication. Multiple cases were found in Ciconiiformes (n = 4), Columbiformes (n = 4), Gruiformes (n = 4), Anseriformes (n = 3), Galliformes (n = 3), and Passeriformes (n = 2). No cases were found in Coraciiforms, Falconiforms, or Psittaciformes despite many (>40) recorded intubations. The specific cause of these lesions is unclear, but some type of tracheal mucosa trauma or irritation is suggested by histologic findings. Prevention may include selective intubation, use of a laryngeal mask airway in place of intubation, careful placement of an endotracheal tube, minimal movement of the head and neck after placement, humidification of anesthetic gases, and gentle positive-pressure ventilation. PMID:24063099

  5. Genipin cross-linked decellularized tracheal tubular matrix for tracheal tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Jiang, Yuan; Xu, Yanfei; Shi, Hongcan; Zhang, Siquan; Liu, Xingchen; Pan, Shu; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Zhong, Chonghao

    2016-01-01

    Decellularization techniques have been widely used as an alternative strategy for organ reconstruction. This study investigated the mechanical, pro-angiogenic and in vivo biocompatibility properties of decellularized airway matrices cross-linked with genipin. New Zealand rabbit tracheae were decellularized and cross-linked with genipin, a naturally derived agent. The results demonstrated that, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the secant modulus was computed for the cross-linked tracheae, compared to the decellularized samples. Angiogenic assays demonstrated that decellularized tracheal scaffolds and cross-linked tracheae treated with 1% genipin induce strong in vivo angiogenic responses (CAM analysis). Seven, 15 and 30 days after implantation, decreased (p < 0.01) inflammatory reactions were observed in the xenograft models for the genipin cross-linked tracheae matrices compared with control tracheae, and no increase in the IgM or IgG content was observed in rats. In conclusion, treatment with genipin improves the mechanical properties of decellularized airway matrices without altering the pro-angiogenic properties or eliciting an in vivo inflammatory response. PMID:27080716

  6. Smoothing error pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Clarmann, T.

    2014-09-01

    The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by a diagnostic quantity called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that, regardless of the usefulness of the smoothing error as a diagnostic tool in its own right, the concept of the smoothing error as a component of the retrieval error budget is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state; in other words, to characterize the full loss of information with respect to the true atmosphere, the effect of the representation of the atmospheric state on a finite grid also needs to be considered. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is problematic because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help, because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully discuss temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the covariance matrix involved has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation and if the averaging kernel matrices have been evaluated on a grid fine enough to capture all atmospheric variations that the instruments are sensitive to. This is, under the assumptions stated, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the

  7. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers. PMID:26053201

  8. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  9. Sonographic detection of tracheal or esophageal intubation: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Tejesh, CA; Manjunath, AC; Shivakumar, S; Vinayak, PS; Yatish, B; Geetha, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correct position of the endotracheal tube is confirmed by various modalities, most of which are not entirely reliable. Ultrasound is now increasingly available to anesthesiologists in the operating theater and is an attractive alternative. To investigate the usefulness of sonography in identifying the correct tracheal tube position in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes placed randomly into trachea or esophagus was identified with a linear ultrasound probe placed transversely just above the suprasternal notch by a single anesthesiologist. Results: Of the 100 intubations performed at random, 99 were correctly identified to give a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.9%. Conclusion: Sonography is a useful technique to identify correct position of the tracheal tube. PMID:27375387

  10. Tracheal Involvement in Crohn Disease: the First Case in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seunghyun; Park, Jongha; Kim, Hyun-Kuk; Kim, Ji Yeon; Hur, So Chong; Lee, Ju Hyung; Jung, Jae Won; Lee, Juwon

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory involvement in Crohn disease (CD) is rare condition with only about a dozen reported cases. We report the first case of CD with tracheal involvement in Korea. An 18-year-old woman with CD was hospitalized because of coughing, dyspnea, and fever sustained for 3 weeks. Because she had stridor in her neck, we performed computed tomography of the neck, which showed circumferential wall thickening of the larynx and hypopharynx. Bronchoscopy revealed mucosal irregularity, ulceration, and exudates debris in the proximal trachea, and bronchial biopsy revealed chronic inflammation with granulation tissue. Based on these findings, we suspected CD with tracheal involvement and began administering intravenous methylprednisolone at 1 mg/kg per day, after which her symptoms and bronchoscopic findings improved. PMID:26879553

  11. Tracheoesophageal fistula - a complication of prolonged tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Paraschiv, M

    2014-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal fistula most commonly occurs as a complication of prolonged tracheal intubation. The incidence decreased after the use of low pressure and high volume endotracheal cuffs, but the intensive care units continue to provide such cases. The abnormal tracheoesophageal communication causes pulmonary contamination (with severe suppuration) and impossibility to feed the patient. The prognosis is reserved, because most patients are debilitated and ventilator dependent, with severe neurological and cardiovascular diseases. The therapeutic options are elected based on respiratory, neurological and nutritional status. The aim of conservative treatment is to stop the contamination (drainage gastrostomy, feeding jejunostomy) and to treat the pulmonary infection and biological deficits. Endoscopic therapies can be tried in cases with surgical contraindication. Operation is addressed to selected cases and consists in the dissolution of the fistula, esophageal suture with or without segmental tracheal resection associated. Esophageal diversion is rarely required. The correct indication and timing of surgery, proper surgical technique and postoperative care are prerequisites for adequate results. PMID:25713612

  12. Tracheobronchomegaly associated with laryngo-tracheal amyloidosis: First case report.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kazuo; Umezaki, Toshiro; Komune, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) is a rare enlargement of the tracheal cartilage, also known as Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS). Here, we describe an unusual case of acquired TBM in an adult, caused by amyloid regeneration and associated tracheal weakening, rather than by MKS. CT scan and fiberscopic examination of a 55-year-old woman suffering from severe dyspnea revealed TBM and subglottic stenosis, which was caused by deposition of amyloid tissue. We performed a tracheostomy and vaporized the subglottic stenosis with a CO2 laser, after which we installed a silicone T-tube. After the first operation, re-stenosis occurred, and the procedure was repeated; stenosis was subsequently cured and the dyspnea disappeared, after which the tracheostomy could be closed. This is the first report of adult TBM associated with amyloid deposition in the subglottis and trachea. This diagnosis is very difficult, as amyloid deposition in the trachea can have various clinical presentations. PMID:26791590

  13. Fetal lung growth in laryngeal atresia and tracheal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Scurry, J P; Adamson, T M; Cussen, L J

    1989-02-01

    Three cases of airway obstruction in fetuses born at 21, 32 and 40 weeks gestation are reported. The first had laryngeal atresia, cystic dysplastic kidneys, oligohydramnios and immense fluid-filled lungs. The second had upper tracheal agenesis, a tracheo-oesophageal fistula, a cystic dysplastic horseshoe kidney, oligohydramnios and normal-sized lungs. The third had a pin-hole mucosal tract through an otherwise atretic larynx, normal kidneys, no oligohydramnios and normal-sized lungs. Lung weight:body weight ratios, radial alveolar or radial canalicular counts and point-counting of sections of lungs in cases 1 and 2 show that laryngeal or tracheal obstruction may prevent or reduce the pulmonary hypoplasia associated with renal dysplasia, and in cases 2 and 3, that grossly enlarged, hyperplastic lungs may not be seen unless obstruction is complete. PMID:2730470

  14. Antimycoplasmal activity of dimethylphenols in a tracheal explant culture system.

    PubMed Central

    Agee, C C; Engelhardt, J A; Gabridge, M G

    1980-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces pneumonia-like symptoms in hamsters and causes ciliostasis and cytonecrosis in hamster tracheal explants. 2,4-Dimethylphenol and, to a lesser extent, its 2,3-, 2,5-, and 2,6-dimethylphenol isomers protected tracheal explants from these changes after exposure to virulent M. pneumoniae strain PI 1428. The effect was concentration, time, and isomer dependent. At concentrations of 10(-9) M or greater, 2,4-dimethylphenol completely prevented the morphological (loss of ciliated cells) and biochemical (decreased dehydrogenase activity) changes normally observed after exposure to M. pneumoniae. Apparently, 2,4-dimethylphenol interfered with an early event in the infection process. Complete protection required that it be present during the first 2 h of exposure of the explants to the infecting mycoplasmas. These xylenols may prove to be useful tools for helping to define the mechanisms of pathogenesis in certain respiratory infections. PMID:6778378

  15. Tracheoesophageal fistula--a complication of prolonged tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Paraschiv, M

    2014-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal fistula most commonly occurs as a complication of prolonged tracheal intubation. The incidence decreased after the use of low pressure and high volume endotracheal cuffs, but the intensive care units continue to provide such cases. The abnormal tracheoesophageal communication causes pulmonary contamination (with severe suppuration) and impossibility to feed the patient. The prognosis is reserved, because most patients are debilitated and ventilator dependent, with severe neurological and cardiovascular diseases. The therapeutic options are elected based on respiratory, neurological and nutritional status. The aim of conservative treatment is to stop the contamination (drainage gastrostomy, feeding jejunostomy) and to treat the pulmonary infection and biological deficits. Endoscopic therapies can be tried in cases with surgical contraindication. Operation is addressed to selected cases and consists in the dissolution of the fistula, esophageal suture with or without segmental tracheal resection associated. Esophageal diversion is rarely required. The correct indication and timing of surgery, proper surgical technique and postoperative care are prerequisites for adequate results. PMID:25713612

  16. Use of modified silicone tracheal cannula for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strauss, M

    1990-02-01

    Experience with the original Montgomery silicone tracheal cannulas in 47 patients with obstructive sleep apnea has been reported. Further experience with 10 obstructive sleep apnea patients who used modified silicone tracheal cannulas that permit periodic self-removal, cleaning, and reinsertion was analyzed. Two patients used the tube briefly and without complications. The remaining eight patients used the modified cannula for 18 to 24 months. The average number of office visits following insertion was three. Compared to the original cannulas, there were markedly fewer difficulties with granulations, infection, and tube malposition with the modified cannulas. The improvements make this modified device a useful tool worth further study in obstructive sleep apnea patients requiring tracheostomy. PMID:2299956

  17. [Giant mediastinal thyroid follicular carcinoma with tracheal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hironori; Ohta, S; Hirose, M; Kitano, M; Kato, T; Yokoyama, J; Muro, H; Morita, T; Takagi, A

    2008-05-01

    A 76-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with dyspnea and hypertention. She had the giant thyroid tumor which had been awared but not treated for 40 years. On a computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the tumor was 14 x 10 cm and the tracheal stenosis was completely intrathoracic, which was 5 x 7 mm. Tracheal incubation was performed safety by using percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed by midsternotomy with cervical incision. The weight of the resected specimen was 340 g and the pathological diagnosis was follicular thyroid carcinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient suffered no hoarseness and dyspnea. PMID:18464485

  18. Investigations into human tracheal cartilage osseocalcineus metaplasia. I. Radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sośnik, H; Sośnik, K

    2008-05-01

    Osseocalcineus metaplasia (OCM) of the tracheal cartilages is well known, but no exact data are available relating it to age and sex. To resolve this problem we analysed tracheal teleradiograms of 99 female (age: 0.4-92; x = 59.98 +/- +/- 22.75 years) and 110 male patients (age: 0-83; x = 53.53 +/- 19.95 years). As the first step we estimated the percentage of trachea that had complete lesions, those that had trace lesions and those that were unchanged in relation to the patient's age and sex. Secondly we determined the extent and growth of developing lesions during the process of ageing. Data were collected for all the cartilages, with two cartilages with trace lesions considered to be of similar value to one cartilage with complete remodelling. This enabled us to determine the correlation coefficient for changed cartilages and patient age and also the dynamism of OCM in the trachea examined. The chi2 and Student's t tests were used in determining the mean differences between subgroups. The lesions referred to above occurred in 66.35% of men and in 33.33% of women and correlated with age (r = 0.93, p < 0.001 in men, and r = 0.27, p < 0.01 in women). Total remodelling of the OCM occurred in the oldest age group, when both sexes were taken into consideration, while cartilages with trace changes were detected in the younger group of patients. The lowest mean patient age was observed in the group without tracheal changes. Osseocalcineus metaplasia of the tracheal cartilages was conditioned by patient age and sex. In male patients it occurred twice as often as in females. Until the age of 50 it occurred as much as nine times as often, while after this age it occurred only twice as often as in female patients. PMID:18521814

  19. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-04-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with (3H) glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques.

  20. Regeneration of tracheal epithelium using mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Otsuki, Koshi; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Wada, Ikuo; Omori, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The findings demonstrated the potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells for regeneration of tracheal epithelium. Objective Autologous tissue implantation techniques using skin or cartilage are often applied in cases of tracheal defects with laryngeal inflammatory lesions and malignant tumor invasion. However, these techniques are invasive with an unstable clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate regeneration in a tracheal defect site of nude rats after implantation of ciliated epithelium that was differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Method Embryoid bodies were formed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. They were cultured with growth factors for 5 days, and then cultured at the air-liquid interface. The degree of differentiation achieved prior to implantation was determined by histological findings and the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Embryoid bodies including ciliated epithelium were embedded into collagen gel that served as an artificial scaffold, and then implanted into nude rats, creating an 'air-liquid interface model'. Histological evaluation was performed 7 days after implantation. Results The ciliated epithelial structure survived on the lumen side of regenerated tissue. It was demonstrated histologically that the structure was composed of ciliated epithelial cells. PMID:26755348

  1. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Yukioka, H; Yoshimoto, N; Nishimura, K; Fujimori, M

    1985-12-01

    Effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In study 1, 100 patients received either a placebo or 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing. The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P less than 0.01). Coughing was suppressed completely by 2 mg/kg of intravenous lidocaine. In study 2, 108 patients received 2 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously or a placebo 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 min before intubation. The same criteria for determining whether a patient did or did not cough during tracheal intubation were used as in study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) when 2 mg/kg of lidocaine was injected intravenously between 1 and 5 min before our attempting intubation. Cough reflex was suppressed completely by plasma concentrations of lidocaine in excess of 3 micrograms/ml. PMID:4061901

  2. Tracheal stent prediction using statistical deformable models of tubular shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, R.; Huysmans, T.; Vos, W.; Sijbers, J.

    2008-03-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a narrowing of the trachea that impedes normal breathing. Tracheotomy is one solution, but subjects patients to intubation. An alternative technique employs tracheal stents, which are tubular structures that push the walls of the stenotic areas to their original location. They are implanted with endoscopes, therefore reducing the surgical risk to the patient. Stents can also be used in tracheal reconstruction to aid the recovery of reconstructed areas. Correct preoperative stent length and diameter specification is crucial to successful treatment, otherwise stents might not cover the stenotic area nor push the walls as required. The level of stenosis is usually measured from inside the trachea, either with endoscopes or with image processing techniques that, eg compute the distance from the centre line to the walls of the trachea. These methods are not suited for the prediction of stent sizes because they can not trivially estimate the healthy calibre of the trachea at the stenotic region. We propose an automatic method that enables the estimation of stent dimensions with statistical shape models of the trachea. An average trachea obtained from a training set of CT scans of healthy tracheas is placed in a CT image of a diseased person. The shape deforms according to the statistical model to match the walls of the trachea, except at stenotic areas. Since the deformed shape gives an estimation of the healthy trachea, it is possible to predict the size and diameter of the stent to be implanted in that specific subject.

  3. A new endoscopic hand drill for management of tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Batzella, Sandro; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Iacono, Raffaele Dello; Battistoni, Paolo; Caterino, Umberto; Santini, Mario; Galluccio, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Tracheal resection and primary anastomosis is the treatment of choice for the management of benign tracheal stenoses. Rigid endoscopy with laser-assisted mechanical dilatation is an alternative to surgery and helps to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients unfit for surgery. Here, we describe the treatment of a simple web-like stenosis, using a new endoscopic hand drill that was assembled by sharpening the blunt tip of a standard endoscopic cotton applicator. The bronchoscopy was positioned proximally to the stenotic lesion and radial holes were made at 12, 3 and 9 o'clock. The tip of instrument touched the target area of the stenotic scar. The proximal end was handily rotated and the force, applied on the instrument's tip, and the hole was drilled. Next, endoscopic scissors was placed in the drill holes and the stenotic scar was cut. Mechanical dilatation with rigid bronchoscopes of increasing diameters completed the procedure. This procedure was successfully applied in 5 patients with simple benign tracheal stenosis and unfit for surgery. No intraoperative and/or postoperative complications occurred. No recurrence of stenosis was detected after a mean follow-up of 26 ± 2 months. PMID:27006182

  4. Pathohistological changes of tracheal epithelium in laryngectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Marinela; Prgomet, Drago; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pušeljić, Silvija; Kraljik, Nikola

    2015-11-01

    Total laryngectomy results in a permanent disconnection of the upper and lower airways. Thus, the upper airways are bypassed and can no longer condition, humidify, and filter the inhaled air, leading to damage of the tracheobronchial epithelium. There is little scientific information available about the effects of tracheostoma breathing and the degree of mucosal damage in laryngectomized patients. The aims of this study were to determine the histopathologic findings and investigate the potential impact of using a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) on the tracheal epithelium in long-term tracheostomy patients. Tracheal mucosal biopsies were taken from a total of 70 patients. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by a light microscope. Normal pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium was found in only 9 (12.9%) cases; while, 17 (24.3%) cases had some degree of basal cell hyperplasia. Squamous metaplasia was the most common finding (50%). Pre-invasive lesions (mild and moderate squamous dysplasia) were found in only one patient who used an HME, and in eight (11.4%) non-users. Although the HME cannot completely restore the physiological functions of the upper respiratory track, it delivers a better quality of air to the lower airways and has a positive effect on tracheal mucosa. PMID:25399353

  5. Low tracheal tumor and airway management: An anesthetic challenge.

    PubMed

    Saroa, Richa; Gombar, Satinder; Palta, Sanjeev; Dalal, Usha; Saini, Varinder

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case presenting with tracheal tumor wherein a Microlaryngeal tube was advanced into the trachea distal to the tumor for primary airway control followed by cannulation of both endobronchial lumen with 5.5 mm endotracheal tubes to provide independent lung ventilation post tracheal transection using Y- connector attached to anesthesia machine. The plan was formulated to provide maximal surgical access to the trachea while providing adequate ventilation at the same time. A 32 yrs non smoker male, complaining of cough, progressive dyspnea and hemoptysis was diagnosed to have a broad based mass in the trachea on computed tomography of chest. Bronchoscopy of the upper airway confirmed presence of the mass at a distance of 9 cms from the vocal cords, obstructing the tracheal lumen by three fourth of the diameter. The patient was scheduled to undergo the resection of the mass through anterolateral thoracotomy. We recommend the use of extralong, soft, small sized microlaryngeal surgery tube in tumors proximal to carina, for securing the airway before the transection of trachea and bilateral endobronchial intubation with small sized cuffed endotracheal tubes for maintenance of ventilation after the transection of trachea in patients with mass in the lower trachea. PMID:26543474

  6. A new tracheal prosthesis made from collagen grafted mesh.

    PubMed

    Okumura, N; Nakamura, T; Takimoto, Y; Natsume, T; Teramachi, M; Tomihata, K; Ikada, Y; Shimizu, Y

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the efficacy of a new tracheal prosthesis made from mesh. The prosthesis, 50 mm long and 18-22 mm in diameter, is made from a Marlex mesh cylinder reinforced with a continuous polypropylene spiral that is grafted and coated with porcine collagen to increase its biocompatibility and provide an airtight seal during the initial implantation stage. Circumferential surgical resection and replacement of a seven to nine ring segment of the cervical trachea was performed in 20 adult mongrel dogs. At the time of surgery, a silicone tube was inserted into the tracheal prosthetic lumen to promote secretory transportation until the prosthesis was covered with host tissue. The silicone tube was removed during fiber bronchoscopy 1 month after surgery. With the exception of the prostheses in 3 dogs that died of unrelated causes, all were infiltrated by connective tissue and incorporated completely by the host. One of these 17 dogs died of suffocation caused by luminal stenosis 2.5 months after surgery, but the others survived until they were killed at more than 6 months. The luminal surfaces of the reconstructed tracheae were covered with respiratory epithelium to varying degrees, and in one dog killed at 22 months after surgery, confluent epithelization throughout the length of the prosthesis was confirmed histologically. In eight dogs, prosthetic luminal stenosis occurred because of overgrowth of granulation tissue, which generally was mild in all but three dogs. The authors conclude that this tracheal prosthesis is highly biocompatible and shows promise for clinical application. PMID:8268582

  7. Muscarinic receptor size on smooth muscle cells and membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.M.; Jung, C.Y.; Grover, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    The loss of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) binding following high-energy radiation was used to compare the muscarinic receptor size on single smooth muscle cells isolated by collagenase digestion from the canine stomach and on plasma membranes derived from intact gastric smooth muscle without exposure to exogenous proteolysis. Radiation inactivation of galactose oxidase (68 kdaltons), yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (160 kdaltons), and pyruvate kinase (224 kdaltons) activities were used as molecular-weight standards. Radiation inactivation of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to rat brain membranes, which gave a target size of 86 kdaltons, served as an additional control. In isolated smooth muscle cells, the calculated size of the muscarinic receptor was 80 +/- 8 kdaltons. In contrast, in a smooth muscle enriched plasma membrane preparation, muscarinic receptor size was significantly smaller at 45 +/- 3 kdaltons. Larger molecular sizes were obtained either in the presence of protease inhibitors (62 +/- 4 kdaltons) or by using a crude membrane preparation of gastric smooth muscle 86 +/- 7 kdaltons).

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of canine ICOS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Hwan; Joo, Young-Don; Yim, Daesong; Lee, Richard; Ostrander, Elaine A; Loretz, Carol; Little, Marie-Térèse; Storb, Rainer; Kuhr, Christian S

    2004-10-01

    Inducible costimulatory receptor (ICOS) is one recently identified member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules. Evidence suggests ICOS functions as a critical immune regulator and, to evaluate these effects, we employed the canine model system that has been used to develop strategies currently in clinical use for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To investigate the effects of blocking the ICOS pathway in the canine hematopoietic cell transplantation model, we tested existing murine and human reagents and cloned the full length of the open reading frame of canine ICOS cDNA to allow the development of reagents specific for the canine ICOS. Canine ICOS contains a major open reading frame of 624 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 208 amino acids, and localizes to chromosome 37. Canine ICOS shares 79% sequence identity with human ICOS, 70% with mouse, and 69% with rat. Canine ICOS expression is limited to stimulated PBMC. PMID:15475250

  9. Equine and Canine Influenza H3N8 Viruses Show Minimal Biological Differences Despite Phylogenetic Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kurtis H.; Gonzalez, Gaelle; Deng, Lingquan; Yu, Hai; Tse, Victor L.; Huang, Lu; Huang, Kai; Wasik, Brian R.; Zhou, Bin; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit; Murcia, Pablo R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The A/H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) emerged from A/H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) around the year 2000 through the transfer of a single virus from horses to dogs. We defined and compared the biological properties of EIV and CIV by examining their genetic variation, infection, and growth in different cell cultures, receptor specificity, hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage, and infection and growth in horse and dog tracheal explant cultures. Comparison of sequences of viruses from horses and dogs revealed mutations that may be linked to host adaptation and tropism. We prepared infectious clones of representative EIV and CIV strains that were similar to the consensus sequences of viruses from each host. The rescued viruses, including HA and neuraminidase (NA) double reassortants, exhibited similar degrees of long-term growth in MDCK cells. Different host cells showed various levels of susceptibility to infection, but no differences in infectivity were seen when comparing viruses. All viruses preferred α2-3- over α2-6-linked sialic acids for infections, and glycan microarray analysis showed that EIV and CIV HA-Fc fusion proteins bound only to α2-3-linked sialic acids. Cleavage assays showed that EIV and CIV HA proteins required trypsin for efficient cleavage, and no differences in cleavage efficiency were seen. Inoculation of the viruses into tracheal explants revealed similar levels of infection and replication by each virus in dog trachea, although EIV was more infectious in horse trachea than CIV. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses can cross species barriers and cause severe disease in their new hosts. Infections with highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus and, more recently, avian H7N9 virus have resulted in high rates of lethality in humans. Unfortunately, our current understanding of how influenza viruses jump species barriers is limited. Our aim was to provide an overview and biological characterization of H3N8 equine and canine influenza viruses using

  10. Antigen expression in normal and neoplastic canine tissues defined by a monoclonal antibody generated against canine mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, K X; Bird, A E; Lenz, S D; McDonough, S P; Wolfe, L G

    1994-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3B5 generated against canine mesothelioma cells was applied to canine tumors and normal tissues via immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques to evaluate antigen binding. By use of an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex (ABC) method, immunoreactivity was noted in reactive mesothelial cells and in normal tissues was observed primarily in mesothelial cell linings, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle of blood vessels and soft tissues; the reactivity was nearly equivalent in frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Use of the ABC method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors yielded moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of neoplastic cells in 10/11 (91%) mesotheliomas, 18/23 (78%) hemangiosarcomas, 4/10 (40%) intestinal and lung carcinomas, and < or = 20% of hemangiomas, leiomyosarcomas, leiomyomas, mammary carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. No immunostaining of tumor cells was observed in fibrosarcomas, hemangiopericytomas, perianal gland carcinomas, and melanomas. Immunoblotting was performed on samples that demonstrated strong immunoreactivity with MAb 3B5 by the ABC method: mesothelioma, hemangiosarcoma, urinary bladder (smooth muscle), and lung (alveolar capillaries). These analyses showed that MAb 3B5 bound a major antigen of 78 kilodaltons (kd) and minor antigens at 56 and 54 kd in normal and neoplastic tissues. The preliminary immunohistochemical results suggest that MAb 3B5 may possess utility in diagnosis of mesotheliomas and hemangiosarcomas, discrimination of cell types in proliferative serosal lesions, and demonstration of vascularity or angiogenesis in neoplastic and inflammatory lesions. PMID:7863582

  11. Tracheal laceration as a complication of out-of-hospital emergency tracheal intubation in a patient with COPD.

    PubMed

    Üzümcügil, Filiz; Babaoğlu, Gülçin; Denizci, Ezgi; Sarıcaoğlu, Fatma; Kanbak, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial injuries related to emergency endotracheal intubations are reported to be associated with an increased risk of mortality. Many mechanical risk factors may become more frequent in an emergency setting leading to such injuries. Aside from these factors that may complicate endotracheal intubation, this procedure is not recommended a priori for ventilation due to the resulting interruptions in external chest compressions, by 2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and external chest compression guidelines. We present a 78-year-old woman with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a tracheal laceration after emergency endotracheal intubation during CPR. Thorax computed tomography revealed an overinflated tube cuff. The trachea was repaired surgically; however, our patient died on the fourth postoperative day due to multiple-organ failure. Prehospital providers must remain especially vigilant to priorities in airway management during CPR and aware of the dangers associated with field tracheal intubation under less than ideal conditions. PMID:25066906

  12. Surgical management of extrathoracic tracheal collapse in two large-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Spodnick, G J; Nwadike, B S

    1997-12-15

    Collapse of the cervical portion of the trachea was diagnosed for 2 young large-breed dogs. Clinical signs included worsening respiratory stridor and coughing exacerbated by exercise. The diagnosis was confirmed by use of conventional radiography and fluoroscopy of the trachea. A polypropylene, spiral ring, extraluminal, tracheal prosthesis was used to successfully treat tracheal collapse in each dog. Although tracheal collapse typically affects middle-aged and old small-breed dogs, tracheal collapse should be considered as a differential diagnosis for large-breed dogs with a honking cough and respiratory stridor. PMID:9412681

  13. uninflatable encodes a novel ectodermal apical surface protein required for tracheal inflation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ward, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The tracheal system of Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be an excellent model system for studying the development of branched tubular organs. Mechanisms regulating the patterning and initial maturation of the tracheal system have been largely worked out, yet important questions remain regarding how the mature tubes inflate with air at the end of embryogenesis, and how the tracheal system grows in response to the oxygen needs of a developing larva that increases nearly 1000-fold in volume over a four day period. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of uninflatable (uif), a gene that encodes a large transmembrane protein containing carbohydrate binding and cell signaling motifs in its extracellular domain. Uif is highly conserved in insect species, but does not appear to have a true ortholog in vertebrate species. uif is expressed zygotically beginning in stage 5 embryos, and Uif protein localizes to the apical plasma membrane in all ectodermally derived epithelia, most notably in the tracheal system. uif mutant animals show defects in tracheal inflation at the end of embryogenesis, and die primarily as larvae. Tracheal tubes in mutant larvae are often crushed or twisted, although tracheal patterning and maturation appear normal during embryogenesis. uif mutants larvae also show defects in tracheal growth and molting of their tracheal cuticle. PMID:19818339

  14. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient with a large tracheal tumor.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lei; Feng, Yan-Hua; Ma, Hai-Chun; Dong, Su

    2015-04-01

    In the event of a high degree of airway obstruction, endotracheal intubation can be impossible and even dangerous, because it can cause complete airway obstruction, especially in patients with high tracheal lesions. However, a smaller endotracheal tube under the guidance of a bronchoscope can be insinuated past obstructive tumor in most noncircumferential cases. Here we report a case of successful fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient undergoing surgical resection of a large, high tracheal tumor causing severe tracheal stenosis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with dyspnea, intermittent irritable cough, and sleep deprivation for one and a half years. X-rays and computed tomography scan of the chest revealed an irregular pedunculated soft tissue mass within the tracheal lumen. The mass occupied over 90% of the lumen and caused severe tracheal stenosis. Endotracheal intubation was done to perform tracheal tumor resection under general anesthesia. After several failed conventional endotracheal intubation attempts, fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation was successful. The patient received mechanical ventilation and then underwent tumor resection and a permanent tracheostomy. This case provides evidence of the usefulness of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation technique in management of an anticipated difficult airway and suggests that tracheal intubation can be performed directly in patients with a tracheal tumor who can sleep in the supine position, even if they have occasional sleep deprivation and severe tracheal obstruction as revealed by imaging techniques. PMID:25875537

  15. Multiple tracheal resections and anastomoses in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Nevarez, Javier G; Beaufrere, Hugues; Baumgartner, Wes; Reed, Scott; Tully, Thomas N; Hedlund, Cheryl; Hennig, Geoff; Huck, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    A 1.5-year-old, male blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was anesthetized for a health examination and blood collection. The following day it was returned for episodes of coughing. The bird was presented again 13 days after the initial presentation with severe dyspnea. A tracheal stenosis was diagnosed by endoscopy and treated by surgical resection of 5 tracheal rings and tracheal anastomosis. The bird was discharged but returned 2 days later with a recurrent stenosis. Bougienage and balloon dilation of the stenotic area were performed separately; each resulted in less than 48 hours' improvement in clinical signs after treatment. A second tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed, during which an additional 10 tracheal rings were removed. This second anastomosis was significantly more difficult to complete given the marked variation in diameter of the proximal and distal tracheal segments. The macaw recovered without complication and has had no recurrence of respiratory abnormalities 2 years after the second surgery. This report describes the longest total tracheal segment to be resected, followed by tracheal anastomosis, in a psittacine bird. The positive outcome in this case suggests that, when surgical therapy is elected, an aggressive approach is necessary to prevent recurrence of tracheal stenosis. In addition, macaws can recover well even after significant lengths of the trachea are resected. PMID:21302763

  16. Investigations into human tracheal cartilage osseocalcineus metaplasia III. ventro-dorsal measurement of the thickness of human tracheal cartilages.

    PubMed

    Sośnik, Henryk; Sośnik, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that osseocalcineus metaplasia present in the tracheal cartilage is conditioned by its thickness. The study group comprised 78 male tracheas (age ranging between 19 and 84 years, mean = 56.5 years ±12.6 years), and 69 female tracheas (age ranging between 18 and 90 years, mean = 65.3 ±14 years). Tracheal transverse segments (every 4 cm) were collected for histopathological examinations from organs fixed in 10% formalin solution. Typical paraffin specimens, 5 μm thick, were measured in the horizontal position using the ocular micrometer (10 : 100 Zeiss) and Semiplan 3.2/0.10 objective. Differences between mean patient group and subgroup values were statistically verified. P = 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Osseocalcineus metaplasia occurred 2.5-fold more often in male patients, in spite of the higher mean age of female patients (p < 0.001). The average male cartilage thickness was 50.32 ±7.94 × 10⁻² cm, while that of female patients was 38.44 ±4.44 × 10⁻² cm (p < 0.001). The average height of male patients (168.63 ±27.14 cm) was significantly higher in comparison to female patients (157.2 ±5.78 cm) (p < 0.001). The thickness of tracheal cartilages in men was significantly greater in metaplastic tracheas than in tracheas without metaplasia, as well as in changed cartilages as compared to unchanged ones in the same trachea. Considering both genders, the thickness of tracheal cartilages positively correlated with patient age (men: +0.44; p < 0.001; women: +0.293; p < 0.014), whereas height did not correlate with cartilage thickness. PMID:20924990

  17. Teaching tracheal intubation: Airtraq is superior to Macintosh laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracheal intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope is taught to medical students as it is a lifesaving procedure. However, it is a difficult technique to learn and the consequences of intubation failure are potentially serious. The Airtraq optical laryngoscope is a relatively novel intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic plane without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, possessing advantages over Macintosh for novice personnel. We introduced a teaching mode featured with a progressive evaluation scheme for preparation and performance of tracheal intubation with medical students in this prospective randomized crossover trial who had no prior airway management experience to find the superior one. Methods Twenty-six medical students of the 8-year programme in the 6th year participated in this trial, when they did their one-week rotation in the department of anaesthesiology. Each of the students intubated 6 patients, who were scheduled for surgeries under general anaesthesia, each laryngoscope for 3 patients respectively. One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical procedures requiring tracheal intubation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to undergo tracheal intubation using Macintosh (n = 75) or Airtraq (n =74) laryngoscope. The progressive evaluation scheme was applied to each intubation attempt. Results Intubation success rate was significantly higher in Airtraq group than Macintosh group (87.8% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.05). Duration of glottis exposure was significantly shorter in Airtraq group compared to Macintosh group (50 ± 19 s vs. 81 ± 27 s, P < 0.001). A grade I Cormack and Lehane glottic view was obtained in 94.6% of patients in the Airtraq group versus 32% of patients in the Macintosh group (P <0.001). Duration of intubation in Airtraq group was significantly shorter (68 ± 21 s vs. 96 ± 22 s, P < 0.05) compared to Macintosh group

  18. Canine lymphoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play an important role. cL is not a single disease, and a wide variation in clinical presentations and histological subtypes is recognized. Despite this potential variation, most dogs present with generalized lymphadenopathy (multicentric form) and intermediate to high-grade lymphoma, more commonly of B-cell origin. The most common paraneoplastic sign is hypercalcemia that is associated with the T-cell immunophenotype. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and a doxorubicin-based multidrug protocol is currently the standard of care. A complete remission is obtained for most dogs and lasts for a median period of 7-10 months, resulting in a median survival of 10-14 months. Many prognostic factors have been reported, but stage, immunophenotype, tumor grade, and response to chemotherapy appear of particular importance. Failure to respond to chemotherapy suggests drug resistance, which can be partly attributed to the expression of drug transporters of the ABC-transporter superfamily, including P-gp and BCRP. Ultimately, most lymphomas will become drug resistant and the development of treatments aimed at reversing drug resistance or alternative treatment modalities (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) are of major importance. This review aims to summarize the relevant data on cL, as well as to provide an update of the recent literature. PMID:26953614

  19. Smooth Programs and Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulk, Clinton R.; Juelich, Otto C.

    A smooth program is defined to be one which is "go to"-free in the sense that it can be represented by a flowchart consisting only of concatenation, alternation, and interation elements. Three methods of eliminating the "go to" statement from a program have been proposed: (1) the introduction of additional Boolean variables or the equivalent…

  20. Fetal Endoscopic Tracheal Intubation: A New Fetoscopic Procedure to Ensure Extrauterine Tracheal Permeability in a Case with Congenital Cervical Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, Rogelio; Moreno-Alvarez, Oscar; Garcia, Maritza; Méndez, Antonio; Pineda, Hugo; Cruz-Martinez, Miriam Alejandra; Cruz, Miriam A; Martinez-Morales, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Congenital neck masses are associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity secondary to airway obstruction due to a mass effect of the tumor with subsequent neonatal asphyxia and/or neonatal death. Currently, the only technique designed to establish a secure neonatal airway is the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure, which involves neonatal tracheal intubation while fetal oxygenation is maintained by the uteroplacental circulation in a partial fetal delivery under maternal general anesthesia. We present a case with a giant cervical teratoma and huge displacement and compression of the fetal trachea that was treated successfully at 35 weeks of gestation with a novel fetoscopic procedure to ensure extrauterine tracheal permeability by means of a fetal endoscopic tracheal intubation (FETI) before delivery. The procedure consisted of a percutaneous fetal tracheoscopy under maternal epidural anesthesia using an 11-Fr exchange catheter covering the fetoscope that allowed a conduit to introduce a 3.0-mm intrauterine orotracheal cannula under ultrasound guidance. After FETI, a conventional cesarean section was performed uneventfully with no need for an EXIT procedure. This report is the first to illustrate that in cases with large neck tumors involving fetal airways, FETI is feasible and could potentially replace an EXIT procedure by allowing prenatal airway control. PMID:25228387

  1. What's eating you? Canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Richard F; Elston, Dirk M

    2003-08-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, the causative strain of canine scabies, can produce a pruritic rash in humans. The rash generally manifests within 24 to 96 hours of contact with the affected pet. Scrapings are generally negative, and the correct diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. PMID:12953932

  2. The effect of tracheal tube size on air leak around the cuffs

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Han, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Joo; Park, Soo-kyung

    2011-01-01

    Background This randomized single-blinded, cross-over study was done to evaluate the influence of the size of tracheal tubes on air leaks around the cuffs. Methods In a benchtop model, the number of longitudinal folds on the cuffs was evaluated for different sizes of tracheal tubes. In an anesthetized patient study, thirty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were included. After induction of anesthesia, the trachea was intubated with two sizes of tracheal tubes in a random sequence: in men, internal diameter of 7.5 mm and 8.0 mm; in women, internal diameter of 7.0 mm and 7.5 mm. After tracheal intubation with each tube, air leak pressures were evaluated at intracuff pressures of 20, 25 and 30 cmH2O by auscultation. To calculate the tracheal tube resistance (R), an inspiratory pause of 20% was applied and the resulting peak airway pressure (Ppeak), plateau pressure (Ppl) and mean expiratory tidal volume (Flow) were inserted in the formula R = (Ppeak - Ppl)/Flow. Results More longitudinal folds of the tracheal tube cuffs occurred in larger sized tubes compared to the smaller ones in a benchtop model. Air leakage was significantly less for the smaller tracheal tubes than for the larger ones for each gender at intracuff pressures of 20, 25 and 30 cmH2O. Tracheal tube resistances were not significantly altered by the size of tracheal tube. Conclusions The use of a smaller tracheal tube within an acceptable size can reduce air leakage around the cuff without significantly changing the tracheal tube resistance. PMID:21860747

  3. Response of Smooth Bronchial Musculature in Bronchoconstrictor Substances in Newborn with Lung Atelectasis at the Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Lirim; Islami, Pëllumb; Shabani, Nora; Jashanica, Adelina; Islami, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Role of the atelectasis (hypoxia) in the respiratory system of the live and exited newborn (250 up to 3000 g. of body weight), which has died due to different causes was studied in this work. Methods: Response of tracheal rings to dopamine, serotonine and ethanol in the different molar concentrations (dopamine: 0,05 mg/ml, 0,5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml; serotonine (5-HT): 10-4, 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 mol/dm3; ethanol: 0,2 ml, 0,5 ml, 1,0 ml; 96%) was followed up. Study of the smooth tracheal musculature tone (STM) was elaborated in 16 tracheal preparations taken following the newborn death due to different causes. Results: Based on functional researches of tracheal isolated preparations, it was ascertained as follows: atelectasis (cases born with lung hypoxia) has changed the response of STM to dopamine, serotonine and ethanol in a significant manner (p<0,01) in comparison to cases of controlling group, which has died due to lung inflammatory processes (e.g. pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, cerebral hemorrhage), which have also caused significant response (p<0,05). Conclusion: Results suggest that exited cases from lung atelectasis and cases of controlling group reacts to above mentioned substances by causing significant constrictor action of tracheobronchial system. PMID:24783902

  4. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus... virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) A geometric mean titer of...

  5. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus... virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) A geometric mean titer of...

  6. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus... virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) A geometric mean titer of...

  7. Difficulty with cuff deflation of reinforced tracheal tube caused by inflation line occlusion with silk thread ligation and fixation.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Sayoko; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Imai, Eriko; Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-01-01

    A reinforced tracheal tube, ligated with silk threads, was inserted into a tracheostomy orifice and fixed to the skin. The cuff inflation line of the reinforced tracheal tube became occluded. Reinforced 'armoured' tracheal tubes have a spiral of wire embedded into the wall of the tube to give strength and flexibility, and may be sharply bent without compromising the tube lumen. The tracheal cuff attached to the tube is inflated by injecting air through a narrow-diameter tube welded to the outside of the tracheal tube. When a reinforced tracheal tube is ligated and fixed with silk threads, it should be confirmed whether the tracheal tube cuff can be deflated and inflated after fixation. Moreover, because occlusion can be eliminated by removing all silk threads used to ligate a tracheal tube, they should be removed before extubation. PMID:25743860

  8. Air-Q laryngeal airway for rescue and tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Ads, Ayman; Auerbach, Frederic; Ryan, Kelly; El-Ganzouri, Abdel R

    2016-08-01

    We report the successful use of the Air-Q laryngeal airway (Air-Q LA) as a ventilatory device and a conduit for tracheal intubation to rescue the airway in a patient with difficult airway and tracheal stenosis. This is the first case report of the device to secure the airway after two episodes of hypoxemia in the operating room and intensive care unit. Consent for submission of this case report was obtained from our institution's human studies institutional review board given that the patient died a few months after his discharge from the hospital before his personal consent could be obtained and before preparation of this report. All personal identifiers that could lead to his identification have been removed from this report. A 59-year-old man was scheduled for a flexible and rigid bronchoscopy with possible laser excision of tracheal stenosis. He had a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes. Assessment of airway revealed a thyromental distance of 6.5 cm, Mallampati class II, and body weight of 110 kg. He had hoarseness and audible inspiratory/expiratory stridor with Spo2 90% breathing room air. After induction and muscle relaxation, tracheal intubation and flexible bronchoscopy were achieved without incident. The patient was then extubated and a rigid bronchoscopy was attempted but failed with Spo2 dropping to 92%; rocuronium 60 mg was given, and reintubation was accomplished with a 7.5-mm endotracheal tube. A second rigid bronchoscopy attempt failed, with Spo2 dropping to 63%. Subsequent direct laryngoscopy revealed a bloody hypopharynx. A size 4.5 Air-Q LA was placed successfully and confirmed with capnography, and Spo2 returned to 100%. The airway was suctioned through the Air-Q LA device, and the airway was secured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope to place an endotracheal tube of 7.5-mm internal diameter. The case was canceled because of edema of the upper airway from multiple attempts with rigid bronchoscopy. The patient was transported

  9. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  10. A retrospective study of the relationship between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marolf, Angela; Blaik, Margaret; Specht, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Tracheal collapse is common in middle age toy and miniature breed dogs. Cartilaginous defects have been identified histologically and are considered a form of chondromalacia. In addition to tracheal cartilaginous changes, concurrent lower airway histologic changes indicative of inflammation have been noted in dogs with tracheal collapse and these changes may lead t o concurrent bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bronchiectasis in dogs with a previous radiographic diagnosis of tracheal collapse. The thoracic radiographs of 60 dogs with tracheal collapse were evaluated for evidence of concurrent bronchiectasis. Eighteen of 60 (30%) dogs had evidence of bronchiectasis, and all were cylindrical in morphology. The signalment of affected dogs was similar to that previously reported. The occurrence of bronchiectasis in this group of dogs with tracheal collapse (18 dogs) was six times higher (P < 0.05) than the expected prevalence within a random sample population (three dogs). The results of this study provide evidence of a link between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis. A finding of bronchiectasis with tracheal collapse should encourage further evaluation for chronic lower airway disease in these patients. PMID:17508504