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1

Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis Tandem Repeat Orthologs Contain a Major Continuous Cross-Reactive Antibody Epitope in Lysine-Rich Repeats?  

PubMed Central

A small subset of major immunoreactive proteins have been identified in Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis, including three molecularly and immunologically characterized pairs of immunoreactive tandem repeat protein (TRP) orthologs with major continuous species-specific epitopes within acidic tandem repeats (TR) that stimulate strong antibody responses during infection. In this study, we identified a fourth major immunoreactive TR-containing ortholog pair and defined a major cross-reactive epitope in homologous nonidentical 24-amino-acid lysine-rich TRs. Antibodies from patients and dogs with ehrlichiosis reacted strongly with recombinant TR regions, and epitopes were mapped to the N-terminal TR region (18 amino acids) in E. chaffeensis and the complete TR (24 amino acids) in E. canis. Two less-dominant epitopes were mapped to adjacent glutamate/aspartate-rich and aspartate/tyrosine-rich regions in the acidic C terminus of E. canis TRP95 but not in E. chaffeensis TRP75. Major immunoreactive proteins in E. chaffeensis (75-kDa) and E. canis (95-kD) whole-cell lysates and supernatants were identified with TR-specific antibodies. Consistent with other ehrlichial TRPs, the TRPs identified in ehrlichial whole-cell lysates and the recombinant proteins migrated abnormally slow electrophoretically a characteristic that was demonstrated with the positively charged TR and negatively charged C-terminal domains. E. chaffeensis TRP75 and E. canis TRP95 were immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody, demonstrating that they are tyrosine phosphorylated during infection of the host cell.

McBride, Jere W.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wakeel, Abdul; Kuriakose, Jeeba A.

2011-01-01

2

Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis Infection with Recombinant Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehrlichia canis causes a potentially fatal rickettsial disease of dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. We recently reported the cloning of two immunoreactive E. canis proteins, P28 and P140, that were applicable for serodiagnosis of the disease. In the present study we cloned a new immunoreactive E. canis

JERE W. MCBRIDE; RICHARD E. CORSTVET; EDWARD B. BREITSCHWERDT; DAVID H. WALKER

2001-01-01

3

Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis Infection with Recombinant Proteins  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia canis causes a potentially fatal rickettsial disease of dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. We recently reported the cloning of two immunoreactive E. canis proteins, P28 and P140, that were applicable for serodiagnosis of the disease. In the present study we cloned a new immunoreactive E. canis surface protein gene of 1,170 bp, which encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 42.6 kDa (P43). The P43 gene was not detected in E. chaffeensis DNA by Southern blot, and antisera against recombinant P43 (rP43) did not react with E. chaffeensis as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Forty-two dogs exhibiting signs and/or hematologic abnormalities associated with canine ehrlichiosis were tested by IFA assay and by recombinant Western immunoblot. Among the 22 samples that were IFA positive for E. canis, 100% reacted with rP43, 96% reacted with rP28, and 96% reacted with rP140. The specificity of the recombinant proteins compared to the IFAs was 96% for rP28, 88% for P43 and 63% for P140. The results of this study demonstrate that the rP43 and rP28 are sensitive and reliable serodiagnostic antigens for E. canis infections.

McBride, Jere W.; Corstvet, Richard E.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Walker, David H.

2001-01-01

4

Novel Immunoreactive glycoprotein orthologs of Ehrlichia spp.  

PubMed

We previously identified a strongly immunoreactive 43 kDa protein (p43) of Ehrlichia canis. As an immunodiagnostic antigen, the p43 had a 96% accuracy as compared with IFA and provided species-specific diagnosis of E. canis infections. Further investigation has revealed that the E. canis p43 represents the N-terminal portion of the largest immunoreactive protein described in Ehrlichia spp. with a predicted molecular mass of 153 kDa. Analysis of the recombinant N-terminal region (p43) of the p153 by protein gel electrophoresis demonstrated a larger than predicted molecular mass (approximately 30%), and presence of carbohydrate glycans, indicating that the p153 is a glycoprotein. A BLASTn search was performed on the E. chaffeensis genome sequence (95%), and the gene encoding the p153 ortholog was identified in E. chaffeensis. The E. canis p153 (4,263 bp) and E. chaffeensis p156 (4,389 bp) genes had similar chromosomal locations, downstream of the homologous (approximately 87%) deoxyguanosine-triphosphate triphosphohydrolase genes, and homologous (approximately 90%) intergenic sequences preceding the open reading frames. Nucleic acid sequence homology (52%) observed between the glycoprotein genes supported previous findings with regard to genetic divergence of the p43 gene fragment, and the p153 and p156 proteins had amino acid similarity of 32%. A native E. canis protein with a molecular mass of 200 kDa reacted with antisera produced against the N-terminal region (p43) of the p153, suggesting that the native protein was posttranslationally modified. Similarly, recombinant constructs of E. chaffeensis p156 migrated larger than predicted (approximately 200 kDa), and carbohydrate was detected on the recombinant proteins. The chromosomal location, amino acid homology, and biophysical properties support the conclusion that the p153 and p156 glycoproteins (designated gp200s) are species-specific immunoreactive orthologs. PMID:12860706

McBride, Jere W; Comer, Jason E; Walker, David H

2003-06-01

5

HSC70 blockade by the therapeutic peptide P140 affects autophagic processes and endogenous MHCII presentation in murine lupus  

PubMed Central

Background The P140 phosphopeptide issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein protein displays protective properties in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. It binds both major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) and HSC70/Hsp73 molecules. P140 peptide increases MRL/lpr peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases autoepitope recognition by T cells. Objective To explore further the mode of action of P140 peptide on HSC70+ antigen-presenting cells. Methods P140 biodistribution was monitored in real time using an imaging system and by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Fluorescence activated cell sorting and Western blotting experiments were used to evaluate the P140 effects on autophagic flux markers. Results P140 fluorescence accumulated especially in the lungs and spleen. P140 peptide reduced the number of peripheral and splenic T and B cells without affecting these cells in normal mice. Remaining MRL/lpr B cells responded normally to mitogens. P140 peptide decreased the expression levels of HSC70/Hsp73 chaperone and stable MHCII dimers, which are both increased in MRL/lpr splenic B cells. It impaired refolding properties of chaperone HSC70. In MRL/lpr B cells, it increased the accumulation of the autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 and LC3-II, consistent with a downregulated lysosomal degradation during autophagic flux. Conclusion The study results suggest that after P140 peptide binding to HSC70, the endogenous (auto)antigen processing might be greatly affected in MRL/lpr antigen-presenting B cells, leading to the observed decrease of autoreactive T-cell priming and signalling via a mechanism involving a lysosomal degradation pathway. This unexpected mechanism might explain the beneficial effect of P140 peptide in treated MRL/lpr mice.

Page, Nicolas; Gros, Frederic; Schall, Nicolas; Decossas, Marion; Bagnard, Dominique; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

2011-01-01

6

Reciprocal relationship between O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase P140K expression level and chemoprotection of hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Retroviral-mediated delivery of the P140K mutant O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K)) into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has been proposed as a means to protect against dose-limiting myelosuppressive toxicity ensuing from chemotherapy combining O(6)-alkylating agents (e.g., temozolomide) with pseudosubstrate inhibitors (such as O(6)-benzylguanine) of endogenous MGMT. Because detoxification of O(6)-alkylguanine adducts by MGMT is stoichiometric, it has been suggested that higher levels of MGMT will afford better protection to gene-modified HSC. However, accomplishing this goal would potentially be in conflict with current efforts in the gene therapy field, which aim to incorporate weaker enhancer elements to avoid insertional mutagenesis. Using a panel of self-inactivating gamma-retroviral vectors that express a range of MGMT(P140K) activity, we show that MGMT(P140K) expression by weaker cellular promoter/enhancers is sufficient for in vivo protection/selection following treatment with O(6)-benzylguanine/temozolomide. Conversely, the highest level of MGMT(P140K) activity did not promote efficient in vivo protection despite mediating detoxification of O(6)-alkylguanine adducts. Moreover, very high expression of MGMT(P140K) was associated with a competitive repopulation defect in HSC. Mechanistically, we show a defect in cellular proliferation associated with elevated expression of MGMT(P140K), but not wild-type MGMT. This proliferation defect correlated with increased localization of MGMT(P140K) to the nucleus/chromatin. These data show that very high expression of MGMT(P140K) has a deleterious effect on cellular proliferation, engraftment, and chemoprotection. These studies have direct translational relevance to ongoing clinical gene therapy studies using MGMT(P140K), whereas the novel mechanistic findings are relevant to the basic understanding of DNA repair by MGMT. PMID:18676840

Milsom, Michael D; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Harris, Chad E; Schambach, Axel; Broun, Emily; Bailey, Jeff; Jansen, Michael; Schleimer, David; Nattamai, Kalpana; Wilhelm, Jamie; Watson, Amanda; Geiger, Hartmut; Margison, Geoffrey P; Moritz, Thomas; Baum, Christopher; Thomale, Jürgen; Williams, David A

2008-08-01

7

Identification of two regions in the p140Cap adaptor protein that retain the ability to suppress tumor cell properties  

PubMed Central

p140Cap is an adaptor protein that negatively controls tumor cell properties, by inhibiting in vivo tumor growth and metastasis formation. Our previous data demonstrated that p140Cap interferes with tumor growth and impairs invasive properties of cancer cells inactivating signaling pathways, such as the tyrosine kinase Src or E-cadherin/EGFR cross-talk. In breast cancer p140Cap expression inversely correlates with tumor malignancy. p140Cap is composed of several conserved domains that mediate association with specific partners. Here we focus our attention on two domains of p140Cap, the TER (Tyrosine Enriched Region) which includes several tyrosine residues, and the CT (Carboxy Terminal) which contains a proline rich sequence, involved in binding to SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively. By generating stable cell lines expressing these two proteins, we demonstrate that both TER and CT domains maintain the ability to associate the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Src, to inhibit Src activation and Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation, and to impair in vitro and in vivo tumor cell features. In particular expression of TER and CT proteins in cancer cells inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth and directional migration at a similar extent of the full length p140Cap protein. Moreover, by selective point mutations and deletion we show that the ability of the modules to act as negative regulators of cell migration and proliferation mainly resides on the two tyrosines (Y) inserted in the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences in the TER module and in the second proline-rich stretch contained in the CT protein. Gene signature of cells expressing p140Cap, TER or CT lead to the identification of a common pattern of 105 down-regulated and 128 up-regulated genes, suggesting that the three proteins can act through shared pathways. Overall, this work highlights that the TER and CT regions of p140Cap can efficiently suppress tumor cell properties, opening the perspective that short, defined p140Cap regions can have therapeutic effects.

Sharma, Nanaocha; Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Fiorentino, Arianna; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Cabodi, Sara; Singh, Vijay; Chiorino, Giovanna; Turco, Emilia; Stefano, Paola Di; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

8

Monozoic cysts of Hepatozoon canis.  

PubMed

Small monozoic cysts found in the spleen of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis are described from naturally and experimentally infected dogs. These forms of H. canis resemble cysts formed by other Hepatozoon species that infect frogs, lizards, and grey squirrels as intermediate hosts. The H. canis cyst stage differs in size and morphology from the large cysts of H. americanum, the second Hepatozoon species known to infect dogs. PMID:12760658

Baneth, Gad; Shkap, Varda

2003-04-01

9

Identification of mammalian orthologs using local synteny  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate determination of orthology is central to comparative genomics. For vertebrates in particular, very large gene families, high rates of gene duplication and loss, multiple mechanisms of gene duplication, and high rates of retrotransposition all combine to make inference of orthology between genes difficult. Many methods have been developed to identify orthologous genes, mostly based upon analysis of the inferred protein sequence of the genes. More recently, methods have been proposed that use genomic context in addition to protein sequence to improve orthology assignment in vertebrates. Such methods have been most successfully implemented in fungal genomes and have long been used in prokaryotic genomes, where gene order is far less variable than in vertebrates. However, to our knowledge, no explicit comparison of synteny and sequence based definitions of orthology has been reported in vertebrates, or, more specifically, in mammals. Results We test a simple method for the measurement and utilization of gene order (local synteny) in the identification of mammalian orthologs by investigating the agreement between coding sequence based orthology (Inparanoid) and local synteny based orthology. In the 5 mammalian genomes studied, 93% of the sampled inter-species pairs were found to be concordant between the two orthology methods, illustrating that local synteny is a robust substitute to coding sequence for identifying orthologs. However, 7% of pairs were found to be discordant between local synteny and Inparanoid. These cases of discordance result from evolutionary events including retrotransposition and genome rearrangements. Conclusions By analyzing cases of discordance between local synteny and Inparanoid we show that local synteny can distinguish between true orthologs and recent retrogenes, can resolve ambiguous many-to-many orthology relationships into one-to-one ortholog pairs, and might be used to identify cases of non-orthologous gene displacement by retroduplicated paralogs.

2009-01-01

10

Giardia canis: ultrastructural analysis of G. canis trophozoites transfected with full length G. canis virus cDNA transcripts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Giardia canis virus (GCV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the family Totiviridae. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the G. canis virus was constructed in pPoly2/sfinot vector and RNA was transcribed in vitro. Virus-free G. canis trophozoites were transfected with in vitro transcribed ...

11

OrthologID: automation of genome-scale ortholog identification within a parsimony framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The determination of gene orthology is a prerequisite for mining and utilizing the rapidly increasing amount of sequence data for genome-scale phylogenetics and comparative genomic studies. Until now, most researchers use pairwise distance comparisons algorithms, such as BLAST, COG, RBH, RSD and INPARANOID, to determine gene orthology. In contrast, orthology determination within a character-based phylogenetic framework has not been

Joanna C. Chiu; Ernest K. Lee; Mary G. Egan; Indra Neil Sarkar; Gloria M. Coruzzi; Robert Desalle

2006-01-01

12

Serosurvey of Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in dogs at the Animal Hospital in Yamaguchi University were surveyed and potential risk factors for both pathogens were evaluated. Among 430 dogs examined, 20 (4.7%) and 18 (4.2%) dogs showed positive findings for E. canis and H. canis, respectively. Neither, sex nor age was associated with the seropositivity of either pathogen, but the positive rate in dogs kept outside was slightly higher than that in dogs kept inside for both pathogens. A higher seropositive reaction to E. canis and H. canis was observed in dogs that lived in certain cities and towns. Beagles, golden retrievers and pointers had higher seropositivity than other breeds in E. canis, whereas shibas, akitas, beagles, pointers and mongrels had higher positive rates than other breeds in H. canis. PMID:10563295

Inokuma, H; Ohno, K; Yamamoto, S

1999-10-01

13

Nearly itinerant ferromagnetism in CaNi2 and CaNi3  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of CaNi2 and CaNi3 are successfully grown out of excess Ca. Both compounds manifest a metallic ground state with enhanced, temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility. The relatively high Stoner factors of Z=0.79 and 0.87 found for CaNi2 and CaNi3, respectively, reveal their close vicinity to ferromagnetic instabilities. The pronounced field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of CaNi3 at low temperatures (T<25 K) suggests strong ferromagnetic fluctuations. A corresponding contribution to the specific heat with a temperature dependence of T3lnT is also observed.

Jesche, Anton; Dennis, Kevin W.; Kreyssig, Andreas; Canfield, Paul C.

2012-06-26

14

Assessment of orthologous splicing isoforms in human and mouse orthologous genes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent discoveries have highlighted the fact that alternative splicing and alternative transcripts are the rule, rather than the exception, in metazoan genes. Since multiple transcript and protein variants expressed by the same gene are, by definition, structurally distinct and need not to be functionally equivalent, the concept of gene orthology should be extended to the transcript level in order to describe evolutionary relationships between structurally similar transcript variants. In other words, the identification of true orthology relationships between gene products now should progress beyond primary sequence and "splicing orthology", consisting in ancestrally shared exon-intron structures, is required to define orthologous isoforms at transcript level. Results As a starting step in this direction, in this work we performed a large scale human- mouse gene comparison with a twofold goal: first, to assess if and to which extent traditional gene annotations such as RefSeq capture genuine splicing orthology; second, to provide a more detailed annotation and quantification of true human-mouse orthologous transcripts defined as transcripts of orthologous genes exhibiting the same splicing patterns. Conclusions We observed an identical exon/intron structure for 32% of human and mouse orthologous genes. This figure increases to 87% using less stringent criteria for gene structure similarity, thus implying that for about 13% of the human RefSeq annotated genes (and about 25% of the corresponding transcripts) we could not identify any mouse transcript showing sufficient similarity to be confidently assigned as a splicing ortholog. Our data suggest that current gene and transcript data may still be rather incomplete - with several splicing variants still unknown. The observation that alternative splicing produces large numbers of alternative transcripts and proteins, some of them conserved across species and others truly species-specific, suggests that, still maintaining the conventional definition of gene orthology, a new concept of "splicing orthology" can be defined at transcript level.

2010-01-01

15

[The subspecies specificity of Babesia canis].  

PubMed

The large Babesia species of dogs, Babesia canis, is transmitted by different ticks. Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi are the known main vectors. Four B. canis isolates of different geographic origin were investigated for their transmission specificity and pathogenicity in infection trials. R. sanguineus ticks exclusively transmitted the Babesia isolate from Egypt. D. reticulatus was the vector for isolates from Hungary and France. Transmission of an South-African isolate was only possible by H. laechi. The B. canis isolates differed markedly in their pathogenicity. The South-African isolate was highly pathogenic and resulted in nearly complete mortality. Infections with the isolate from Hungary transmitted by D. reticulatus, also resulted in severe clinical disease which often ended fatal without treatment with an anti-Babesia drug. Clinical disease also resulted from infections with the French isolate while the isolate from Egypt was largely non-pathogenic. Challenge trials for investigations of cross-immunity demonstrated immunogenic differences between the individual isolates. The degree of immunogenicity appeared to be related to the pathogenicity of the Babesia isolates. Serological investigations revealed that antigen of the isolate from Hungary in ELISA reacted markedly higher than the other three antigens. Due to their vector specificity B. canis classification into three groups is possible: B. canis canis transmitted by D. reticulatus, B. canis vogeli transmitted by R. sanguineus and B. canis rossi transmitted by H. laechi. PMID:8765536

Hauschild, S; Schein, E

16

Retinal vasculitis in Toxocara canis neuroretinitis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this case report is to describe clinical and angiographic findings of retinal vasculitis in acute Toxocara canis neuroretinitis associated with systemic infection. Findings A 16-year-old male presented with a 1 week history of left eye pain, floaters, and decreased visual acuity. Ocular examination was consistent with neuroretinitis and retinal vasculitis. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated leakage of fluorescein from the optic nerve and the retinal veins. Clinical and laboratory evaluation were consistent with systemic Toxocara canis infection. Conclusions Ocular T. canis may present with retinal vasculitis in young patients in the setting of acute systemic infection.

2013-01-01

17

The quest for orthologs: finding the corresponding gene across genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthology is a key evolutionary concept in many areas of genomic research. It provides a framework for subjects as diverse as the evolution of genomes, gene functions, cellular networks and functional genome annotation. Although orthologous proteins usually perform equivalent functions in different species, establishing true orthologous relationships requires a phylogenetic approach, which combines both trees and graphs (networks) using reliable

Arnold Kuzniar; Sándor Pongor; Jack A. M. Leunissen

2008-01-01

18

Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies  

PubMed Central

Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.

Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickael; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

2005-01-01

19

Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in dogs in a village of eastern Sudan by using a screening PCR and sequencing methodologies.  

PubMed

Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis. PMID:16275954

Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

2005-11-01

20

Zebrafish orthologs of human muscular dystrophy genes  

PubMed Central

Background Human muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders which cause decreased muscle strength and often result in premature death. There is no known cure for muscular dystrophy, nor have all causative genes been identified. Recent work in the small vertebrate zebrafish Danio rerio suggests that mutation or misregulation of zebrafish dystrophy orthologs can also cause muscular degeneration phenotypes in fish. To aid in the identification of new causative genes, this study identifies and maps zebrafish orthologs for all known human muscular dystrophy genes. Results Zebrafish sequence databases were queried for transcripts orthologous to human dystrophy-causing genes, identifying transcripts for 28 out of 29 genes of interest. In addition, the genomic locations of all 29 genes have been found, allowing rapid candidate gene discovery during genetic mapping of zebrafish dystrophy mutants. 19 genes show conservation of syntenic relationships with humans and at least two genes appear to be duplicated in zebrafish. Significant sequence coverage on one or more BAC clone(s) was also identified for 24 of the genes to provide better local sequence information and easy updating of genomic locations as the zebrafish genome assembly continues to evolve. Conclusion This resource supports zebrafish as a dystrophy model, suggesting maintenance of all known dystrophy-associated genes in the zebrafish genome. Coupled with the ability to conduct genetic screens and small molecule screens, zebrafish are thus an attractive model organism for isolating new dystrophy-causing genes/pathways and for use in high-throughput therapeutic discovery.

Steffen, Leta S; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Vogel, Emily D; Beltre, Rosanna; Pusack, Timothy J; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I; Kunkel, Louis M

2007-01-01

21

ORAL PAPILLOMATOSIS IN COYOTES (Canis latrans) AND WOLVES (Canis lupus) OF ALBERTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of oral papillomatosis were detected in wild carnivores of Alberta, ten in coyotes (Canis latrans) and two in wolves (Canis lupus). Lesions ranged from mild with a few small papillomas to severe with much of the surface of the lips, tongue and buccal cavity covered with papillomas. Three of five coyotes with severe papillomatosis were in obvious poor

W. M. SAMUEL; G. A. CHALMERS; J. R. GUNSON

1978-01-01

22

Detection of erythrocyte binding IgM and IgG by flow cytometry in sick dogs with Babesia canis canis or Babesia canis vogeli infection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine by means of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) if sick dogs infected with Babesia canis canis (B. c. canis) or Babesia canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli) had anti-erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and/or IgM at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis of Babesia infection was assessed by blood smear and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 30 sick dogs. Signalment, clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests of B. c. canis (n=24) and of B. c. vogeli (n=6) infected dogs were studied. The majority of B. c. canis infected dogs showed anemia (92%) predominantly non-regenerative (94%), while the B. c. vogeli infected dogs had a regenerative anemia (67%). Eccentrocytosis was present in 33% of the B. c. canis infections. Four of six B. c. vogeli infected dogs had erythrocytes membrane antibodies. One dog resulted uncertain and one resulted negative to FCI. In contrast, all the B. c. canis infected dogs were negative for erythrocytes membrane binding immunoglobulins detection. In addition, the mean percentages of erythrocytes binding IgG and IgM were statistically much lower in B. c. canis than in B. c. vogeli infected dogs. At the time of the diagnosis, the formation of erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and IgM by immune mechanisms appears not to be involved in B. c. canis infections while it is present in the majority of B. c. vogeli infections. PMID:19269745

Carli, E; Tasca, S; Trotta, M; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M; Solano-Gallego, L

2009-02-12

23

Comparative genomics on Sonic hedgehog orthologs.  

PubMed

Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Indian hedgehog (IHH), and Desert hedgehog (DHH) are key molecules for the integrome network in oncology and regenerative medicine. Soluble Hedgehog ligands bind to Patched receptor to activate Smoothened seven-transmembrane receptor with Frizzled domain. KIF27 and KIF7 are human homologs of Drosophila Costal-2 (Cos2), associating with Smoothened, GLI homolog, Fused, and microtubule. Smoothened activation leads to GLI1, GLI2, or GLI3-dependent transcription of Hedgehog target genes. Here, comparative proteomics analyses and comparative genomics analyses on SHH orthologs were performed by using bioinformatics. Human SHH representative transcript was assembled by using BX461534 EST, NM_000193.2 RefSeq, AA503654 EST, and AC078834.5 genome sequence. Human SHH mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, and also in colorectal cancer. Chimpanzee SHH gene, consisting of three exons, was located within AC147335.2 genome sequence. Human SHH and chimpanzee SHH (462 aa) showed E284G and T416P amino-acid substitutions. Vertebrate SHH orthologs shared the common domain architecture, consisting of N-terminal signal peptide, Hedgehog signaling domain, Hint domain, and C-terminal HPLGMxxxxS motif. Evolutionarily conserved SHH promoter region (nucleotide position 104429-104083 of human genome sequence AC078834.5) was identified. Double bHLH binding sites, CCAAT box, and TATA box were conserved among human SHH promoter, chimpanzee SHH promoter, rat Shh promoter, and mouse Shh promoter. PMID:16142377

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2005-10-01

24

Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36. PMID:23490559

Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

2013-02-27

25

Molecular detection of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs from Cuiabá, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to report for the first time infection by Hepatozoon spp. and Babesia spp. in 10 dogs from the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, central-western Brazil. A pair of primers that amplifies a 574 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA of Hepatozoon spp., and a pair of primers that amplifies a 551 bp fragment of the gene 18S rRNA for Babesia spp. were used. Six dogs were positive for Babesia spp., and 9 were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Co?infection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. was seen in 5 dogs. Sequenced samples revealed 100% identity with B. canis vogeli, and H. canis. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in domestic dogs from Cuiabá. Additionally, it is described for the first time the presence of B. canis vogeli circulating among dogs in Cuiabá. PMID:21961759

Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Torres, Mariana de Medeiros; Campos, Wilma Neres da Silva; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Igarashi, Michelle; Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

26

Mixed Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, and presumptive Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a dog.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old, female, mongrel dog was admitted to the Clinic of Companion Animal Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, with depression, anorexia, fever, peripheral lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, oculonasal discharge, nonregenerative anemia, and mild thrombocytopenia. Cytology of Giemsa-stained buffy coat, bone marrow, and lymph node aspiration smears revealed numerous morulae in mononuclear leukocytes and in neutrophils, and Hepatozoon canis gamonts in neutrophils. The dog was seropositive to Ehrlichia canis (immunofluorescence assay [IFA]) and Hepatozoon canis (ELISA) but not to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (IFA). A nested polymerase chain reaction performed on bone marrow aspirates was positive for E canis. This method was not applied for the detection of A phagocytophilum. Treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate resulted in both clinical and parasitologic cure. This is the first reported case of a mixed infection with E canis, H canis, and presumptive A phagocytophilum. The findings emphasize the value of cytology in offering a quick and inexpensive diagnosis in mixed tick-borne infections of dogs. PMID:15570564

Mylonakis, Mathio E; Koutinas, Alex F; Baneth, Gad; Polizopoulou, Zoe; Fytianou, Anna

2004-01-01

27

Coyotes ( Canis latrans) and the matching law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them

Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton; Timothy A. Shahan; John A. Shivik

2009-01-01

28

The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.

Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

2008-01-01

29

Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Understand Invisible Displacement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) perform above chance on invisible displacement tasks despite showing few other signs of possessing the necessary representational abilities. Four experiments investigated how dogs find an object that has been hidden in 1 of 3 opaque boxes. Dogs passed the task under a variety of control conditions, but only if the device used to displace the object

Emma Collier-Baker; Joanne M. Davis; Thomas Suddendorf

2004-01-01

30

Incentive Contrast in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food (dog pellets). Dogs downshifted from dry liver to pellets rejected food more frequently than nonshifted controls. Gaze duration also decreased in downshifted dogs below the level of a group

Mariana Bentosela; Adriana Jakovcevic; Angel M. Elgier; Alba E. Mustaca; Mauricio R. Papini

2009-01-01

31

Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

32

Improving the specificity of high-throughput ortholog prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Orthologs (genes that have diverged after a speciation event) tend to have similar function, and so their prediction has become an important component of comparative genomics and genome annotation. The gold standard phylogenetic analysis approach of comparing available organismal phylogeny to gene phylogeny is not easily automated for genome-wide analysis; therefore, ortholog prediction for large genome-scale datasets is typically performed using a reciprocal-best-BLAST-hits (RBH) approach. One problem with RBH is that it will incorrectly predict a paralog as an ortholog when incomplete genome sequences or gene loss is involved. In addition, there is an increasing interest in identifying orthologs most likely to have retained similar function. Results To address these issues, we present here a high-throughput computational method named Ortholuge that further evaluates previously predicted orthologs (including those predicted using an RBH-based approach) – identifying which orthologs most closely reflect species divergence and may more likely have similar function. Ortholuge analyzes phylogenetic distance ratios involving two comparison species and an outgroup species, noting cases where relative gene divergence is atypical. It also identifies some cases of gene duplication after species divergence. Through simulations of incomplete genome data/gene loss, we show that the vast majority of genes falsely predicted as orthologs by an RBH-based method can be identified. Ortholuge was then used to estimate the number of false-positives (predominantly paralogs) in selected RBH-predicted ortholog datasets, identifying approximately 10% paralogs in a eukaryotic data set (mouse-rat comparison) and 5% in a bacterial data set (Pseudomonas putida – Pseudomonas syringae species comparison). Higher quality (more precise) datasets of orthologs, which we term "ssd-orthologs" (supporting-species-divergence-orthologs), were also constructed. These datasets, as well as Ortholuge software that may be used to characterize other species' datasets, are available at (software under GNU General Public License). Conclusion The Ortholuge method reported here appears to significantly improve the specificity (precision) of high-throughput ortholog prediction for both bacterial and eukaryotic species. This method, and its associated software, will aid those performing various comparative genomics-based analyses, such as the prediction of conserved regulatory elements upstream of orthologous genes.

Fulton, Debra L; Li, Yvonne Y; Laird, Matthew R; Horsman, Benjamin GS; Roche, Fiona M; Brinkman, Fiona SL

2006-01-01

33

Transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).  

PubMed

Two strains of Rhipicephalus sanguineus acquired Ehrlichia canis by feeding as either larvae or nymphs on acutely infected dogs and, in subsequent instars, transmitted the agent to normal dogs. Three strains of R sanguineus transmitted E canis as adults after their larval and nymphal stages fed on infected dogs. More than 400 adult female ticks were fed on infected dogs as larvae or nymphs or both, but none transmitted E canis transovarially. PMID:1147359

Groves, M G; Dennis, G L; Amyx, H L; Huxsoll, D L

1975-07-01

34

Identification and serotyping of Microsporum canis isolates by monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Hybridoma cells were produced by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice primed with an exoantigen of Microsporum canis. Three clones produced antibodies which were examined by the Western blot technique for their potential usefulness in the identification of M. canis isolates and differentiation of strains within the species. Based on reactions with immunological determinants, all of the M. canis isolates tested presented either species- or strain-specific domains. Monoclonal antibodies proved to be useful reagents for the identification of M. canis isolates and for the differentiation of strains within the species. A purified antigen depleted of common antigenic determinants was obtained in affinity chromatography by using monoclonal antibody. Images

Polonelli, L; Castagnola, M; Morace, G

1986-01-01

35

Recent trends in human Brucella canis infection.  

PubMed

There is little information in the literature regarding the clinical progress of brucellosis in patients affected by other diseases. We report Brucella canis human infection link to Gaucher's disease and Guillain Barré syndrome and discuss complications observed in a case with infective endocarditis. The three cases described came from areas of socio-economic deprivation and scarce epidemiological information where the healthcare personnel did not even consider such diagnosis. The growth of large urban populations deprived from basic services has created a new set of global health challenges. Changes in the urban environment due to slum communities' expansion have resulted in increased dog populations in the peridomiciliary environment. Eleven laboratory employees working with the strains found and their identification were examined. Sanitary authorities should focus on the zoonotic aspect of B. canis considering the dramatic increase of canine roamers near urban centers. PMID:23040615

Marzetti, Sandra; Carranza, Cristina; Roncallo, Mariela; Escobar, Gabriela I; Lucero, Nidia E

2012-10-04

36

Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.  

PubMed

Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections. PMID:9368899

Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

1997-11-01

37

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-11-16

38

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

Utrata, Ewelina; Viranyi, Zsofia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

39

Development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood.  

PubMed

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection of canine blood parasites, Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp and Hepatozoon canis, from blood samples in a single reaction. The multiplex PCR primers were specific to E. canis VirB9, Babesia spp 16S rRNA and H. canis 16S rRNA genes. Specificity of the amplicons was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The assay was evaluated using normal canine and infected blood samples, which were detected by microscopic examination. This multiplex PCR offers scope for simultaneous detection of three important canine blood parasites and should be valuable in monitoring parasite infections in dogs and ticks. PMID:19323031

Kledmanee, Kan; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Krajangwong, Sakranmanee; Chatsiriwech, Jarin; Suksai, Parut; Suwannachat, Pongpun; Sariya, Ladawan; Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Charoonrut, Phingphol; Chaichoun, Kridsada

2009-01-01

40

A serosurvey of Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis antibodies in wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Israel.  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis antigens in free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel. Of 84 fox sera assayed, 36% were seropositive for E. canis by the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and 24% were positive for H. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosrbent assay (ELISA). Canine ehrlichiosis and hepatozoonosis appear to be endemic in the wild red fox populations in Israel, and foxes may serve as a reservoir for infection of domestic dogs and other wild canine species. PMID:15036573

Fishman, Zohar; Gonen, Liat; Harrus, Shimon; Strauss-Ayali, Dalit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

2004-01-01

41

Some Algorithmic Challenges in Genome-Wide Ortholog Assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-scale assignment of orthologous genes is a fundamental and challenging problem in computational biology and has a wide\\u000a range of applications in comparative genomics, functional genomics, and systems biology. Many methods based on sequence similarity,\\u000a phylogenetic analysis, chromosomal syntenic information, and genome rearrangement have been proposed in recent years for ortholog\\u000a assignment. Although these methods produce results that largely agree

Tao Jiang

2009-01-01

42

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2007-11-17

43

Beyond the bounds of orthology: functional inference from metagenomic context.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of the computational inference of function by genomic context is bounded by the diversity of known microbial genomes. Although metagenomes offer access to previously inaccessible organisms, their fragmentary nature prevents the conventional establishment of orthologous relationships required for reliably predicting functional interactions. We introduce a protocol for the prediction of functional interactions using data sources without information about orthologous relationships. To illustrate this process, we use the Sargasso Sea metagenome to construct a functional interaction network for the Escherichia coli K12 genome. We identify two reliability metrics, target intergenic distance and source interaction count, and apply them to selectively filter the predictions retained to construct the network of functional interactions. The resulting network contains 2297 nodes with 10 072 edges with a positive predictive value of 0.80. The metagenome yielded 8423 functional interactions beyond those found using only the genomic orthologs as a data source. This amounted to a 134% increase in the total number of functional interactions that are predicted by combining the metagenome and the genomic orthologs versus the genomic orthologs alone. In the absence of detectable orthologous relationships it remains feasible to derive a reliable set of predicted functional interactions. This offers a strategy for harnessing other metagenomes and homologs in general. Because metagenomes allow access to previously unreachable microorganisms, this will result in expanding the universe of known functional interactions thus furthering our understanding of functional organization. PMID:20419183

Vey, Gregory; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

2010-04-23

44

Systemic Infection by Pasteurella canis Biotype 1 in Newborn Puppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasteurella canis biotype 1, usually associated with the oral cavity of dogs and cats, or with human wound infections following dog bites, was isolated from newborn puppies with a fatal systemic infection. The identity ofP. canis was confirmed by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction and the organism was susceptible to all the penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones tested and to

V. A. de la Puente Redondo; C. B. Gutiérrez Mart??n; N. Garc??a del Blanco; M. I. Antol??n Ayala; P. Alonso Alonso; E. F. Rodr??guez Ferri

2000-01-01

45

A new perspective on barking in dogs (Canis familaris.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disparity in bark frequency and context between dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves (Canis lupus) has led some researchers to conclude that barking in the domestic dog is nonfunctional. This conclusion attributes the differences primarily to genetic variation caused by domestication rather than to the influence of social environment on ontogeny. Other researchers, however, have concluded that vocal usage and

Sophia Yin

2002-01-01

46

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF MESOCESTOIDES SPP. (CESTODA: MESOCESTOIDIDAE) FROM DOMESTIC DOGS ( CANIS FAMILIARIS ) AND COYOTES ( CANIS LATRANS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n 5 10), as well as

Paul R. Crosbie; Steven A. Nadler; Edward G. Platzer; Cynthia Kerner; J. Mariaux; Walter M. Boyce

2000-01-01

47

USEFULNESS OF TOUCHDOWN PCR ASSAY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ATYPICAL CASES OF BABESIA CANIS CANIS INFECTIONS IN DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate usefulness of PCR assay for the diagnosis of atypical cases of the Babesia canis infections. Primers designed based on the 18 S RNA gene sequence of B. canis. The location of the primers was targeted to evolutionary conserved region. Blood samples from dogs suspected for babesiosis were analysed microscopically and then

AGNIESZKA S. SOBCZYK; GRZEGORZ KOTOMSKI

48

Multiplex real-time qPCR for the detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli are two tick-borne canine pathogens with a worldwide importance. Both pathogens are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, which has an increasing global distribution. A multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the tick-borne pathogens E. canis and B. canis vogeli was developed using dual-labeled probes. The target genes were the 16S rRNA of E. canis and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) of B. canis vogeli. The canine beta actin (ACTB) gene was used as an internal control gene. The assay was conducted without using any pre-amplification steps such as nested reactions. The sensitivity of each reaction in the multiplex qPCR assay was tested in the presence of high template concentrations of the other amplified genes in the same tube and in the presence of canine DNA. The detection threshold of the multiplex assay was 1-10 copies/?l in all channels and the amplifications of the B. canis hsp70 and ACTB were not affected by the other simultaneous reactions, while minor interference was observed in the amplification of the E. canis 16S rRNA gene. This assay would be useful for diagnostic laboratories and may save time, labor and costs. PMID:20674177

Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

2010-07-31

49

Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon canis. Five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with H. canis, and all became infected with H. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. Antibodies reactive with H. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), with IgM detected initially in all dogs 16 to 39 days post infection (PI) and IgG 22 to 43 days PI. The presence of gametocytes was first observed within peripheral blood neutrophils in Giemsa-stained blood smears between days 28 and 43 PI. Gametocyte-reactive antibodies were detected before the appearance of blood gametocytes in three of the four parasitemic dogs and also in a dog with no observed parasitemia. The detection of serum antibodies prior to the detection of blood gametocytes, or without apparent parasitemia, suggests that antibodies reactive with gametocytes may be formed against earlier forms of the parasite developing in the parenchymal tissues. Sera of dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni and Ehrlichia canis exhibited no reactivity when tested with H. canis antigen. Additionally, sera positive for H. canis were not reactive with antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania donovani and E. canis. In conclusion, incoculation of dogs with ticks infected with H. canis results in production of antibodies reactive with peripheral blood gametocytes. Detection of IgG titres would be beneficial for the diagnosis of progressive infections with undetectable parasitemia, for seroprevalence studies, and as an adjunct to IgM titres in early infections. PMID:9561714

Baneth, G; Shkap, V; Samish, M; Pipano, E; Savitsky, I

1998-01-31

50

Stellar populations in the Canis Major overdensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a photometric multicolour survey of the core of the Canis Major overdensity at , reaching V ~ 22 and covering 0.3 × 1.0 arcmin2. The main aim is to unravel the complex mixture of stellar populations toward this Galactic direction, where in the recent past important signatures of an accretion event have been claimed to be detected. While our previous investigations were based on disjointed pointings aimed at revealing the large-scale structure of the third Galactic Quadrant, we now focus on a complete coverage of a smaller field centred on the Canis Major overdensity. A large wavelength baseline, in the UBVRI bands, allows us to build up a suite of colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, providing a much better diagnostic tool to disentangle the stellar populations of the region. In fact, the simple use of one colour-magnitude diagram, widely employed in all the previous studies defending the existence of the Canis Major galaxy, does not allow one to separate the effects of the different parameters (reddening, age, metallicity and distance) involved in the interpretation of data, forcing to rely on heavy modelling. In agreement with our previous studies, in the same general region of the Milky Way, we recognize a young stellar population compatible with the expected structure and extension of the Local (Orion) and Outer (Norma-Cygnus) spiral arms in the Third Galactic Quadrant. Moreover, we interpret the conspicuous intermediate-age metal-poor population as belonging to the Galactic thick disc, distorted by the effect of strong disc warping at this latitude, and to the Galactic halo.

Carraro, Giovanni; Moitinho, André; Vázquez, Ruben A.

2008-04-01

51

ZZ Canis Minoris as a symbiotic star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-aplha and Na I D-line regions of the M6 giant star ZZ Canis Minoris (ZZ CMi) were observed with the Kitt Peak coude feed telescope and a CCD detector. It is shown that ZZ CMi has similar spectroscopic and photoproperties to the symbiotic star EG And. The data are used to argue for the classification of ZZ CMi as a symbiotic star despite its current listing in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) as a semi-regular variable. The infrared magnitudes of ZZ CMi and the known symbiotic stars are compared in a table.

Bopp, B. W.

1984-11-01

52

Soluble parasite antigens from Babesia canis do not directly activate the kallikrein system in dogs infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Soluble parasite antigens (SPA) from Babesia canis have been shown to induce protective immunity when used as vaccine. In order to explain the immune mechanisms of vaccination, the precise role of SPA in the pathogenesis of canine babesiosis is under investigation. Earlier studies suggested that the plasma kallikrein system is central in the pathogenesis of babesiosis, malaria and trypanosomosis, and significant plasma kallikrein activation during acute B. bovis and P. knowlesi infections has been described. In the studies presented here dogs were experimentally infected with B. canis to investigate whether the plasma kallikrein system is activated during babesiosis infection. Results showed that prekallikrein levels decreased during episodes of peak parasitaemia. No effect was found on the kallikrein levels. In order to determine whether B. canis SPA could activate plasma kallikrein, dogs were infused with variable amounts of B. canis SPA and plasma samples were taken for (pre-) kallikrein determination. The results indicated that B. canis SPA did not affect plasma (pre-) kallikrein levels. In addition, the effect of B. canis SPA on (pre-) kallikrein levels in normal dog plasma was determined in vitro. Again, no effect on (pre-) kallikrein levels was found. The results suggest that, although the kallikrein pathway may be involved in B. canis-associated pathology, the system is not directly activated by B. canis SPA. Furthermore, infusion of B. canis SPA as well as stroma of normal dog erythrocytes triggered the production of the acute phase reactant, C-reactive protein. This suggests that the inflammatory response that is triggered during B. canis infection could be in part due to the release and exposure of self molecules. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21130577

Finizio, A-L; Kleuskens, J A G M; Van De Crommert, J; Gorenflot, A; Carcy, B; Schetters, Th P M

2010-11-11

53

Intestinal helminth parasite community in wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.  

PubMed

From 1987 to 1993, 89 wolves (Canis lupus) collected throughout the whole Italian range were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. Twelve species were found, including 5 nematodes (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Toxascaris leonina) and 7 cestodes (Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. ovis, Mesocestoides lineatus and Dipylidium caninum). No significant differences were detected between sexes. T. canis showed higher prevalence and numbers in youngs, while E. granulosus and T. vulpis in adults. Interference between U. stenocephala and A. caninum was detected. Parasite biocenosis was stable in respect to geographical and ecological variables. PMID:8065823

Guberti, V; Stancampiano, L; Francisci, F

1993-12-01

54

A Framework for Comparing Phenotype Annotations of Orthologous Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Animal models are a key resource for the investi- gation of human diseases. In contrast to functional annota- tion, phenotype annotation is less standard, and comparing phenotypes across species remains challenging. The objective of this paper is to propose a framework for comparing pheno- type annotations of orthologous genes based on the MeSH indexing of biomedical articles in which

Olivier Bodenreider; Anita Burgun

2010-01-01

55

OrthoMCL: identification of ortholog groups for eukaryotic genomes.  

PubMed

The identification of orthologous groups is useful for genome annotation, studies on gene/protein evolution, comparative genomics, and the identification of taxonomically restricted sequences. Methods successfully exploited for prokaryotic genome analysis have proved difficult to apply to eukaryotes, however, as larger genomes may contain multiple paralogous genes, and sequence information is often incomplete. OrthoMCL provides a scalable method for constructing orthologous groups across multiple eukaryotic taxa, using a Markov Cluster algorithm to group (putative) orthologs and paralogs. This method performs similarly to the INPARANOID algorithm when applied to two genomes, but can be extended to cluster orthologs from multiple species. OrthoMCL clusters are coherent with groups identified by EGO, but improved recognition of "recent" paralogs permits overlapping EGO groups representing the same gene to be merged. Comparison with previously assigned EC annotations suggests a high degree of reliability, implying utility for automated eukaryotic genome annotation. OrthoMCL has been applied to the proteome data set from seven publicly available genomes (human, fly, worm, yeast, Arabidopsis, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and Escherichia coli). A Web interface allows queries based on individual genes or user-defined phylogenetic patterns (http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/gene-family). Analysis of clusters incorporating P. falciparum genes identifies numerous enzymes that were incompletely annotated in first-pass annotation of the parasite genome. PMID:12952885

Li, Li; Stoeckert, Christian J; Roos, David S

2003-09-01

56

OrthoInspector: comprehensive orthology analysis and visual exploration  

PubMed Central

Background The accurate determination of orthology and inparalogy relationships is essential for comparative sequence analysis, functional gene annotation and evolutionary studies. Various methods have been developed based on either simple blast all-versus-all pairwise comparisons and/or time-consuming phylogenetic tree analyses. Results We have developed OrthoInspector, a new software system incorporating an original algorithm for the rapid detection of orthology and inparalogy relations between different species. In comparisons with existing methods, OrthoInspector improves detection sensitivity, with a minimal loss of specificity. In addition, several visualization tools have been developed to facilitate in-depth studies based on these predictions. The software has been used to study the orthology/in-paralogy relationships for a large set of 940,855 protein sequences from 59 different eukaryotic species. Conclusion OrthoInspector is a new software system for orthology/paralogy analysis. It is made available as an independent software suite that can be downloaded and installed for local use. Command line querying facilitates the integration of the software in high throughput processing pipelines and a graphical interface provides easy, intuitive access to results for the non-expert.

2011-01-01

57

Isolation of Moraxella canis from an Ulcerated Metastatic Lymph Node  

PubMed Central

Moraxella canis was isolated in large numbers from an ulcerated supraclavicular lymph node of a terminal patient, who died a few days later. Although the patient presented with septic symptoms and with a heavy growth of gram-negative diplococci in the lymph node, blood cultures remained negative. M. canis is an upper-airway commensal from dogs and cats and is considered nonpathogenic for humans, although this is the third reported human isolate of this species.

Vaneechoutte, Mario; Claeys, Geert; Steyaert, Sophia; De Baere, Thierry; Peleman, Renaat; Verschraegen, Gerda

2000-01-01

58

The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, the gray wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecieslupus oritalicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dogCanis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves\\u000a from the Italian Peninsula, 91

Ronald M. Nowak

2002-01-01

59

Experimentally Induced Clinical Cystoisospora canis Coccidiosis in Dogs with Prior Natural Patent Cystoisospora ohioensis-like or C. canis Infections.  

PubMed

Abstract :? Diarrhea caused by intestinal coccidia (Cystoisospora species) is a common problem in pet dogs and in dogs in animal shelters. Cystoisospora canis has the largest oocysts of the 4 named species of coccidia infecting dogs. The present study examined an isolate of C. canis obtained from a dog from Săo Paulo, SP, Brazil. Oocysts sporulated within 2 days at room temperature, and 20 sporulated oocysts were measured at 37.6 by 28.6 ?m (range 35-42 by 26-31 ?m). Most sporulated oocysts contained 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites, although a few (<1%) were Caryospora-like and contained 1 sporocyst with 8 sporozoites. Two experiments using a total of 11 female 6-wk-old beagles were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of oral infection with 5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of this isolate of C. canis. Five of the 11 dogs had natural infections with Cystoisospora ohioensis-like (n = 4) or C. canis (n = 1) species prior to the predicted patent period of 9-10 days. Ten of the dogs developed diarrhea with occasional blood, and 3 dogs were affected to the extent that clinical treatment for coccidiosis using sulfadimethoxine was recommended. Dog CRU had a natural C. canis infection and did not develop clinical disease after oral infection with C. canis oocysts. This dog had a prepatent period of 9 days and a patent period of 3 days, corresponding to experimental infection with the new isolate of C. canis. It excreted fewer C. canis oocysts than did the other dogs. The 4 dogs with natural C. ohioensis-like infection all developed clinical disease, and 1 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 10-11 days in these dogs. All 6 dogs not naturally infected with Cystoisospora developed clinical disease, and 2 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 8-12 days. The present study confirms that C. canis is a primary pathogen for young dogs. It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis. PMID:23517349

Houk, Alice E; O'Connor, Thomas; Pena, Hilda F J; Gennari, Solange Maria; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

2013-03-21

60

The prevention of transmission of Babesia canis canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs using a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene.  

PubMed

Four groups of seven dogs were treated topically with a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene in a spot-on formulation (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) on 28, 21, 14 and 7 days prior to tick infestation, respectively and acaricidal efficacy and transmission blocking compared with an untreated control group (seven dogs). All dogs were infested with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks harbouring Babesia canis canis. Babesia canis canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all seven untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of clinical signs, by the detection of B. canis parasites in thin blood smears and B. canis canis PCR-RLB DNA assay on blood and the development of B. canis canis antibody titres by 14-21 days after tick infestation. The majority of treated dogs remained sero-negative for 42 days after infestation. Therefore, the treatment of dogs with CERTIFECT applied up to 28 days prior to infestation with D. reticulatus harbouring B. canis canis, successfully prevented the development of clinical signs of canine babesiosis. PMID:21777737

Jongejan, Frans; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, S Theodore; Manavella, Coralie; Mallouk, Yasmina; Pollmeier, Matthias G; Baggott, Derek

2011-07-15

61

Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Babesia canis vogeli in ticks from Israel.  

PubMed

: Ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. Therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of Israel. Non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. A total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ten ticks per pool)-were included in this study. In addition, 13 single free-roaming Hyalomma spp. ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B. canis vogeli and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA sequences were detected in R. sanguineus ticks. Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA was also detected in Hyalomma spp. ticks. Neither Hepatozoon spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in any of the ticks examined. This study describes the first detection of E. canis in the tick R. turanicus, which may serve as a vector of this canine pathogen; E. canis was the most common pathogen detected in the collected questing ticks. It also describes the first detection of A. bovis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in Israel. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of DNA of the latter two pathogens in R. sanguineus, and of A. bovis in R. turanicus. PMID:20636417

Harrus, S; Perlman-Avrahami, A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Morick, D; Eyal, O; Baneth, G

2011-03-01

62

SirA Orthologs Affect both Motility and Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis. SirA orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but

ROBERT I. GOODIER; BRIAN M. M. AHMER

2001-01-01

63

KIF27 is one of orthologs for Drosophila Costal-2.  

PubMed

Signals of Hedgehog family proteins (SHH, IHH and DHH) are transduced through Patched family receptors (PTCH1 and PTCH2) and Smoothened (SMO) to GLI family transcription factors (GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3). SHH plays a key role in development and progression of pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and brain tumors. Drosophila Costal-2 (Cos2) is implicated in the Hedgehog pathway through the interaction with Smoothened (Smo), Cubitus interruptus (Ci), Fused (Fu), and microtubule; however, mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 remained to be identified. Here we identified and characterized human ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 by using bioinformatics. Full-length Drosophila Cos2 was most homologous to human KIF27, followed by mouse Kif7, and other KIF family members. KIF27 gene at human chromosome 9q22.1 and KIF7 gene at human chromosome 15q26.1 were paralogs within the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KIF27, Kif7, KIF4A, KIF4B and KIF21A constitute the KIF27 subfamily among mammalian Kinesin family. Drosophila Cos2 protein consists of Kinesin motor (KISc) domain, Ci-binding domain, and Smo-binding domain. KIF27 itself shared the common domain structure with Drosophila Cos2, while other members of KIF27 subfamily shared partial domain structure with Drosophila Cos2. These facts indicate that KIF27 is one of mammalian orthologs for Drosophila Cos2. PMID:15547729

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2004-12-01

64

Outbreaks of Keratoconjunctivitis in a Camel Herd Caused by a Specific Biovar of Moraxella canis?  

PubMed Central

Two tributyrin hydrolysis-negative Moraxella isolates obtained in cases of keratoconjunctivitis in Camelus dromedarius in the Canary Islands showed highest degrees of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Moraxella canis. A level of DNA relatedness to the M. canis type strain of 79% confirmed the identity of the isolates as a tributyrin hydrolysis-negative biovar of M. canis.

Tejedor-Junco, Maria Teresa; Gutierrez, Carlos; Gonzalez, Margarita; Fernandez, Ana; Wauters, Georges; De Baere, Thierry; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2010-01-01

65

Environmental detection of Microsporum canis arthrospores in the households of infected cats and dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus

F. Mancianti; S. Nardoni; M. Corazza; P. D'Achille; C. Ponticelli

2003-01-01

66

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and the matching law.  

PubMed

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them to survive and extend their range in stochastic environments remains unknown. We tested eight wild-born, captive coyotes individually on an operant two-choice test using concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules. We held the overall rate of reinforcement constant but manipulated the ratio of reinforcement available from the two choices. We analyzed sensitivity of coyotes' tracking of resource change by fitting the generalized matching equation to the data. Results showed all coyotes efficiently tracked changes in reinforcement ratios within the first few sessions of each new condition and matched their relative rate of foraging time to relative rate of resources. We suggest the matching paradigm provides a methodology to explore coyote foraging strategies, and a potential framework to compare behavioral flexibility across species, by measuring the ability to track resource change under variable resource conditions. PMID:19555745

Gilbert-Norton, Lynne B; Shahan, Timothy A; Shivik, John A

2009-06-23

67

Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.88±0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14+0.11-0.09kpc. This is the most accurate determined distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a previously accepted distance. With our result, we re-estimated the luminosity of VY CMa to be (3±0.5) × 105Lodot using the bolometric flux integrated over optical and IR wavelengths. This improved luminosity value makes the location of VY CMa on the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram much closer to the theoretically allowable zone (i.e. the left side of the Hayashi track) than previous ones, though the uncertainty in the effective temperature of the stellar surface still does not permit us to make a final conclusion.

Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji; Kameya, Osamu; Kamohara, Ryuichi; Kan-Ya, Yukitoshi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Masachika; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kuji, Seisuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Manabe, Seiji; Maruyama, Kenta; Matsui, Makoto; Matsumoto, Naoko; Miyaji, Takeshi; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakamura, Kayoko; Oh, Chung Sik; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sakai, Satoshi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Sato, Katsuhisa; Sato, Mayumi; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tsushima, Miyuki; Yamashita, Kazuyoshi

2008-10-01

68

Polymerase chain reaction confirmation of Babesia canis canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs suspected of babesiosis in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis was considered an imported tick transmitted disease until the first case of autochthonous canine babesiosis in Slovakia was described in 2002. Since then, the number of cases kept increasing every year. The causative agent of babesiosis in dogs is not yet characterized; therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the agent and the rate of infection in the vector tick D. reticulatus in Slovakia. Babesia canis canis was detected in 80 out of 87 blood samples from dogs with clinical manifestations of babesiosis. Six dogs suspected of babesiosis tested positive for presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and one mixed infection of B. c. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected. B. c. canis was detected in 35.6% questing adults of D. reticulatus. The obtained sequences from blood samples showed 99.7% and from D. reticulatus, 99.4% similarity with the B. c. canis (AY072926) from dogs infected in Croatia. In our study, we characterized the agent of canine babesiosis from blood samples of naturally infected dogs and D. reticulatus, the vector tick. Further, the presence of A. phagocytophilum, bacterium responsible for the canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, was recorded in dogs for the first time in Slovakia. PMID:21736486

Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Víchová, Bronislava; Gul'ová, Ivana; Derdáková, Markéta; Sesztáková, Edina; Pet'ko, Branislav

2011-07-07

69

Hepatozoon canis infection in a litter of Dalmatian dogs.  

PubMed

Infection with Hepatozoon canis is described in a litter of seven Dalmatians. Four littermates were presented with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis and the remaining three puppies were parasitemic with H. canis with no other concurrent disease. Parasitemia ranged between 3% and 67% of the blood neutrophils. The mean number of parasitized neutrophils per microliter among littermates with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis was 1139 (+/-447 SD) on the day of admission, compared with 470 (+/-379) among littermates with hepatozoonosis only. Puppies with hepatozoonosis and parvovirus infection at admission differed significantly in their degree of H. canis parasitemia from their littermates which were not infected with parvovirus (P = 0.0286). Concurrent parvoviral enteritis and hepatozoonosis in the dog are reported here for the first time. PMID:9195724

Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Presentey, B

1997-06-01

70

Cutaneous Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog from New Jersey.  

PubMed

A 7-month-old mixed-breed intact female dog was presented to a private veterinarian with a 2 cm in diameter raised, pruritic, alopecic, subcutaneous, fluctuant swelling over the right eye. Cytology of the mass revealed many degenerate neutrophils, moderate numbers of eosinophils, moderate numbers of macrophages, rare mast cells, and few erythrocytes. Rare neutrophils contained a protozoal agent compatible with a Hepatozoon gamont. Real-time polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood was positive for Hepatozoon canis. The complete sequence identity of the amplified 18S ribosomal RNA fragment from the dog's blood confirmed H. canis and proved it was relatively distant from the corresponding fragment sequence of Hepatozoon americanum. This case is important in documenting an unusual presentation of infection with H. canis outside of the southern United States. PMID:21908296

Little, Liz; Baneth, Gad

2011-05-01

71

Characteristic genotypes discriminate between Babesia canis isolates of differing vector specificity and pathogenicity to dogs.  

PubMed

The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA gene were characterized in eight Babesia canis isolates of differing geographic origin, vector specificity, and pathogenicity to dogs. The genotypes determined by sequencing segregated into three clearly separated groups close to or near the species level and correspond to the previously proposed subspecies B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi. The three genotypes can be distinguished by Sau96I digestion of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified rDNA target. PMID:9694369

Zahler, M; Schein, E; Rinder, H; Gothe, R

1998-07-01

72

A PCR-based epidemiological survey of Hepatozoon canis in dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infections in dogs in Nigeria was surveyed using molecular methods. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 400 dogs. A primer set that amplified the Babesia canis 18S rRNA gene, which has high similarity to the H. canis 18S rRNA gene, was used for the PCR. As a result, samples from 81 dogs (20.3%) produced 757 bp bands, which differed from the 698 bp band that corresponded to B. canis infection. The sequence of the PCR products of 10 samples were determined, all of which corresponded with the H. canis sequence. PMID:18685252

Sasaki, Mizuki; Omobowale, Olutayo; Ohta, Kaisaku; Tozuka, Morito; Matsuu, Aya; Hirata, Haruyuki; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Ikadai, Hiromi; Oyamada, Takashi

2008-07-01

73

Hepatozoon canis infection of wild carnivores in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis was diagnosed in a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) found on a highway in the region of Botucatu, Săo Paulo, Brazil, after being hit by a car. The fox had bilateral fractures of the olecranon, which was corrected by osteosynthesis. Hematologic findings included a neutrophilia, eosinophilia, monocytosis and mild anemia. In the Leishman-stained blood film, gametocytes of Hepatozoon canis in neutrophils were identified measuring 9.1 +/- 0.54 x 5.3 +/- 0.46 microns. PMID:9211653

Alencar, N X; Kohayagawa, A; Santarém, V A

1997-07-01

74

Meningitis by Toxocara canis after ingestion of raw ostrich liver.  

PubMed

Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antigen but had no symptoms or signs suggesting toxocariasis. This is the first report of toxocariasis in a family due to ingestion of raw ostrich liver in Korea. PMID:22969260

Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S

2012-08-22

75

Meningitis by Toxocara canis after Ingestion of Raw Ostrich Liver  

PubMed Central

Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antigen but had no symptoms or signs suggesting toxocariasis. This is the first report of toxocariasis in a family due to ingestion of raw ostrich liver in Korea.

Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun

2012-01-01

76

SirA Orthologs Affect both Motility and Virulence  

PubMed Central

The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis. SirA orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of SirA regulation has never been identified. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sirA may be an ancient member of the flagellar regulon. We examined the effect of a sirA mutation on transcriptional fusions to flagellar promoters (flhD, fliE, fliF, flgA, flgB, fliC, fliD, motA, and fliA) while using fusions to the virulence gene sopB as a positive control. SirA had only small regulatory effects on all fusions in liquid medium (less than fivefold). However, in various types of motility agar plates, sirA was able to activate a sopB fusion by up to 63-fold while repressing flagellar fusions by values exceeding 100-fold. Mutations in the sirA orthologs of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in defects in either motility or motility gene regulation, suggesting that control of flagellar regulons may be an evolutionarily conserved function of sirA orthologs. The implications for our understanding of virulence gene regulation in the gamma Proteobacteria are discussed.

Goodier, Robert I.; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

2001-01-01

77

Use of chimeric DNA-RNA primers in quantitative PCR for detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis.  

PubMed

To overcome the problem of nonspecific by-products in quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, we constructed DNA-RNA chimeric primers and evaluated their use in the detection and quantification of the Ehrlichia canis 16S rRNA, Babesia canis Hsp70, and canine beta-actin genes. Several RNA bases were incorporated into specific positions in the DNA primers, while no RNA stretches were allowed. qPCR reactions were carried out without preamplification steps. This resulted in decreased formation of undesirable by-products and a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. PMID:19633128

Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

2009-07-24

78

Use of Chimeric DNA-RNA Primers in Quantitative PCR for Detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis? †  

PubMed Central

To overcome the problem of nonspecific by-products in quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, we constructed DNA-RNA chimeric primers and evaluated their use in the detection and quantification of the Ehrlichia canis 16S rRNA, Babesia canis Hsp70, and canine ?-actin genes. Several RNA bases were incorporated into specific positions in the DNA primers, while no RNA stretches were allowed. qPCR reactions were carried out without preamplification steps. This resulted in decreased formation of undesirable by-products and a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity.

Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

2009-01-01

79

A Case Report of an Epidermal Papilloma in 'Mustelus canis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A white, raised mass present on the caudal fin of a smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis) was identified as an epidermal papilloma with areas suggestive of carcinoma in situ. When examined by electron microscopy no structures or particles of viral origin ...

R. E. Wolke R. A. Murchelano

1976-01-01

80

Dogs' ( Canis familaris ) responsiveness to human pointing gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 3 experiments, dogs (Canis familiaris) were presented with variations of the human pointing gesture: gestures with reversed direction of movement, cross-pointing, and different arm extensions. Dogs performed at above chance level if they could see the hand (and index finger) protruding from the human body contour. If these minimum requirements were not accessible, dogs still could

Krisztina Soproni; Ádám Miklósi; József Topál; Vilmos Csányi

2002-01-01

81

Wolf, Canis lupus, Den Site Selection in the Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because mortality of Wolves, Canis lupus, is highest during the first six months of life, den site selection may affect reproductive success of Wolf populations. We studied fine-scale denning habitat selection (within 100 m of den site) by comparing field- measured characteristics of 22 dens in Idaho, Montana, and Alberta with 22 paired random contrast locations within pack home ranges.

JON R. TRAPP; PAUL BEIER; CURT MACK; DAVID R. PARSONS; PAUL C. PAQUET; Gray Wolf

82

RABIES AND MORTALITY IN ETHIOPIAN WOLVES (CANIS SIMENSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1991 and February 1992, 41 of 53 known adult and subadult Ethiopian wolves (Canis sinien.s'u) in five adjacent packs in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, died or disappeared. Brain smears from two carcasses were positive for rabies by the immunofluorescence test, and rabies virus was isolated from the brains by mouse inoculation. Based on monoclonal antibody tests

C. Sillero-Zubiri; A. A. King; D. W. Macdonald

1996-01-01

83

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

84

EXPERIMENTAL SALMON POISONING DISEASE IN JUVENILE COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon poisoning disease (SPD) was experimentally induced in juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans). The disease was lethal in 11 of 12 coyotes within 15 days after inoculation with 1,000 or 4,000 metacercariae of Nanophyetus salmincola. Clinical manifestations of the disease included lymph node enlargement, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea and death. Coccoid bodies indistinguishable from rickettsiae were observed in macrophages of spleen, liver,

WILLIAM J. FOREYT; J. R. GORHAM

85

REPRODUCTION AND BODY CONDITION OF CALIFORNIA COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population dynamics and life-history evolution depend heavily on fecundity, which, in the coyote (Canis latrans), can vary substantially according to environmental conditions. Although well studied in the central part of its range, little is known about coyote reproduction in the Mediterranean climates associated with Pacific- coastal North America. I used postmortem examinations of 441 coyotes collected throughout central California to

Benjamin N. Sacks

2005-01-01

86

Personality traits in the domestic dog ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has been subjected to a huge range of selection pressures during domestication that has resulted in a considerable diversity in morphology and behaviour. This, together with the many uses the dog is put to in our society, makes the dog an interesting model for studies of animal personality. However, only a few attempts have been

Kenth Svartberg; Björn Forkman

2002-01-01

87

Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?  

PubMed

Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

2007-01-01

88

Allozyme variability in the Italian wolf (Canis lupus) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilocus protein electrophoresis was used to estimate genetic variability in a sample of 38 Italian wolves (Canis lupus). Percentage of polymorphic loci was p = 10.0 per cent (four polymorphic loci out of 40 examined), and average observed heterozygosity was Ho = 0.028. Genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Electrophoretic analysis does not indicate a significant reduction of genetic variability at

E Randi; V Lucchini; F Francisci; Ettore Randi

1993-01-01

89

Anthelmintic tests on Toxocara canis infection in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and forty mice were infected orally with 1000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Groups of 10 mice were then treated with high doses of piperazine, mebendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole and diethylcarbamazine for four days, either immediately after infection or three weeks after infection. The mice were killed three to six weeks after treatment and the number of larvae in

PE Holt; MJ Clarkson; M Kerslake

1981-01-01

90

Establishment and migration pattern of Toxocara canis larvae in chickens.  

PubMed

Migrations of Toxocara canis larvae were observed in experimentally infected chickens. Three groups of three chickens were inoculated orally with T. canis eggs. Within each group, individual chickens received either 5,000, 10,000, or 20,000 eggs. A group of infected chickens was then necropsied at either 1, 3 or 6 days post infection (dpi). The entire duodenum, spleen, liver, heart, lungs, right inner pectoral muscle, and brain were subjected to pepsin digestion for larval recovery. Larvae were predominantly (>87%) recovered from the liver and lungs, and only a few larvae were seen in other organs or tissues in all chickens, with the exception of the duodenum at 1 dpi of chickens inoculated with 20,000 eggs. The percentage of total larval recovery varied widely among chickens (range: 0.4-16.7%). Similar numbers of larvae were distributed in the liver and lungs at 1 dpi. Subsequently, more larvae were found in the lungs than the liver at 3 dpi, whereas the larval distributions in the liver and lungs were reversed at 6 dpi. These observations suggest that T. canis larvae can migrate by a hepatopulmonary route in the chicken, and reinforces the possibility that chickens harboring migrating T. canis larvae may pose a zoonotic risk, especially if the liver is consumed. PMID:12827506

Taira, Kensuke; Permin, Anders; Kapel, Christian M O

2003-06-26

91

Spatial Encoding of Hidden Objects in Dogs (Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the type of spatial information that controls domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) search behavior in a situation in which they have to locate a spatial position where they saw an object move and disappear. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors manipulated all local and global sources of allocentric spatial information surrounding the hiding location. The results revealed

Sylvain Fiset; Sylvain Gagnon; Claude Beaulieu

2000-01-01

92

Comprehension of Human Communicative Signs in Pet Dogs (Canis familiaris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a study by D. J. Povinelli, D. T. Bierschwale, and C. G. Cech (1999), the performance of family dogs (Canis familiaris) was examined in a 2-way food choice task in which 4 types of directional cues were given by the experimenter: pointing and gazing, head-nodding (\\

Krisztina Soproni; Ádám Miklósi; József Topál; Vilmos Csányi

2001-01-01

93

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

94

Dating the early evolution of plants: detection and molecular clock analyses of orthologs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthologs generally are under selective pressure against loss of function, while paralogs usually accumulate mutations and\\u000a finally die or deviate in terms of function or regulation. Most ortholog detection methods contaminate the resulting datasets\\u000a with a substantial amount of paralogs. Therefore we aimed to implement a straightforward method that allows the detection\\u000a of ortholog clusters with a reduced amount of

Andreas Zimmer; Daniel Lang; Sandra Richardt; Wolfgang Frank; Ralf Reski; Stefan A. Rensing

2007-01-01

95

Life cycle of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

The life cycle of the apicomplexan protozoon Hepatozoon canis in its natural hosts Rhipicephalus sanguineus (tick) and Canis familiaris (domestic dog) was studied in an experimental infection. Tick nymphs were fed on a naturally infected dog, or they were infected by percutaneous injection of blood. Dogs were inoculated by ingestion of adult ticks containing mature oocysts. Gamonts were in syzygy 24 hr after percutaneous injection of ticks. Early oocysts were detected 96 hr after nymph repletion, and mature oocysts in adult ticks were infective to dogs 40 days postmolt. Merogony was detected in dog bone marrow from 13 days postinoculation (PI) and included meronts containing 20-30 micromerozoites, and a second type with 2-4 macromerozoites. Monozoic cysts were observed in the spleen in conjunction with merogony. Gamontogony with infection of leukocytes by micromerozoites occurred from 26 days PI, and gamont parasitemia, which completed the life cycle, was detected 28 days PI. The length of the life cycle from nymphal attachment to parasitemia in dogs was 81 days. Increased body temperatures were evident from 16 to 27 days PI and paralleled the time of intensive bone marrow merogony. Skeletal pain and recumbency were manifested in 2 dogs. This study further elucidates the life cycle of H. canis and provides a sequential morphologic description of H. canis merogony, gamontogony, and sporogony. PMID:17539411

Baneth, Gad; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

2007-04-01

96

Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals ( Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect

Trevor Waner; Gad Baneth; Carmella Strenger; Avi Keysary; Roni King; Shimon Harrus

1999-01-01

97

RIGUI, a putative mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila period gene.  

PubMed

The molecular components of mammalian circadian clocks are elusive. We have isolated a human gene termed RIGUI that encodes a bHLH/PAS protein 44% homologous to Drosophila period. The highly conserved mouse homolog (m-rigui) is expressed in a circadian pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master regulator of circadian clocks in mammals. Circadian expression in the SCN continues in constant darkness, and a shift in the light/dark cycle evokes a proportional shift of m-rigui expression in the SCN. m-rigui transcripts also appear in a periodic pattern in Purkinje neurons, pars tuberalis, and retina, but with a timing of oscillation different from that seen in the SCN. Sequence homology and circadian patterns of expression suggest that RIGUI is a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila period gene, raising the possibility that a regulator of circadian clocks is conserved. PMID:9323128

Sun, Z S; Albrecht, U; Zhuchenko, O; Bailey, J; Eichele, G; Lee, C C

1997-09-19

98

Analysis of septins across kingdoms reveals orthology and new motifs  

PubMed Central

Background Septins are cytoskeletal GTPase proteins first discovered in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they organize the septum and link nuclear division with cell division. More recently septins have been found in animals where they are important in processes ranging from actin and microtubule organization to embryonic patterning and where defects in septins have been implicated in human disease. Previous studies suggested that many animal septins fell into independent evolutionary groups, confounding cross-kingdom comparison. Results In the current work, we identified 162 septins from fungi, microsporidia and animals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. There was support for five groups of septins with orthology between kingdoms. Group 1 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc10p and human Sept9) and Group 2 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc3p and human Sept7) contain sequences from fungi and animals. Group 3 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc11p) and Group 4 (which includes S. cerevisiae Cdc12p) contain sequences from fungi and microsporidia. Group 5 (which includes Aspergillus nidulans AspE) contains sequences from filamentous fungi. We suggest a modified nomenclature based on these phylogenetic relationships. Comparative sequence alignments revealed septin derivatives of already known G1, G3 and G4 GTPase motifs, four new motifs from two to twelve amino acids long and six conserved single amino acid positions. One of these new motifs is septin-specific and several are group specific. Conclusion Our studies provide an evolutionary history for this important family of proteins and a framework and consistent nomenclature for comparison of septin orthologs across kingdoms.

Pan, Fangfang; Malmberg, Russell L; Momany, Michelle

2007-01-01

99

Anti-Hepatozoon canis serum antibodies and gamonts in naturally-occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.  

PubMed

The prevalence of IgG antibodies to Hepatozoon canis and the presence of gamonts in the blood and hemolymphatic tissues were studied in dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) caused by Ehrlichia canis. Both pathogens are transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Forty-five out of 69 (65.2%) dogs with CME were seropositive to H. canis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intra-neutrophilic gamonts of H. canis were found in 2 out of 69 dogs (2.9%) comprising 4.5% of the seropositive dogs. The present study indicated that the prevalence of antibodies to H. canis was high among dogs with CME in an area where both infections are endemic. However, previous exposure to H. canis was not found as an important contributor to clinical or clinicopathologic abnormalities found in dogs with CME. PMID:15845277

Mylonakis, Mathios E; Leontides, Leonidas; Gonen, Liat; Billinis, Charalambos; Koutinas, Alexander F; Baneth, Gad

2005-05-15

100

Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

101

Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

2006-06-01

102

A new perspective on barking in dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

The disparity in bark frequency and context between dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves (Canis lupus) has led some researchers to conclude that barking in the domestic dog is nonfunctional. This conclusion attributes the differences primarily to genetic variation caused by domestication rather than to the influence of social environment on ontogeny. Other researchers, however, have concluded that vocal usage and response to vocalizations in mammals are strongly guided by social interactions. Closer evaluation of dog vocalizations with respect to social environment reveals developmental factors that lead to both frequent barking and barking in many contexts. Additionally, spectrographic analysis indicates that bark structure varies predictably with context, suggesting that barks can be divided into contextual subtypes and may be a more complex form of communication than given credit. PMID:12083615

Yin, Sophia

2002-06-01

103

Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

2010-01-01

104

Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs.  

PubMed

The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around the small intestine and to some extent also from the lymph nodes around the large intestine, and from the lungs and the liver. On day 14, the majority of larvae were recovered from the lungs and the lymph nodes around the small intestine, and by day 28 p.i. most larvae were found in the lungs. Larvae were recovered from the brain on days 14 and 21, with a maximum on day 14 p.i. No larvae were found in the eyes. Severe pathological changes were observed in the liver and lungs, especially on day 14 p.i.; also, development of granulomas was observed in the kidneys. Finally, a strong specific antibody response towards T. canis L2/L3 ES products was observed from day 14 p.i. until termination of the experiment, and the maximum eosinophil response was observed 14 days p.i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response in the pig. However, the importance of the pig as a paratenic host is probably minor, because of the relatively early death of most of the larvae. PMID:10428632

Helwigh, A B; Lind, P; Nansen, P

1999-04-01

105

Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60?000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain.

Anne B Helwigh; Peter Lind; Peter Nansen

1999-01-01

106

Altai wolf phylogeography ( Canis lupus L.) studied by microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic positions, origin, and kinship of various forms of the Altai gray wolf remain debatable. A protocol for simple\\u000a sequence repeat analysis, which is among the basic tools in phylogeographical studies, has been developed and tested. The\\u000a study was conducted with 97 gray wolf (Canis lupus L.) individuals from populations inhabiting the plain-steppe, foothill forest-steppe, and mountain-taiga ecotopes of

E. A. Vorobyevskaya; S. N. Baldina

2011-01-01

107

The tryptic peptides of coyote ( Canis latrans ) hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tryptic peptides from a- and ß-chains of coyote (Canis latrans) hemoglobin have been isolated and their amino acid compositions determined. The compositions are identical to those previously found for dog hemoglobin in all respects except one: the aT-13 peptide of coyote has only threonine at residue 130 of the chain. This indicates only one a-chain in coyote instead of

Douglas Runkel; S. L. Dresler; B. Brimhall; R. T. Jones

1974-01-01

108

Food habits of wolves Canis lupus in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet of wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 in Latvia was studied from 1997 to 2001 based on 302 scats and 107 stomachs. Wild ungulates (cervids and wild\\u000a boarSus scrofa) and beaverCastor fiber were the dominant prey. Cervids were found in 50% of samples (62% biomass), wild boar in 25% (21% biomass), beavers in 14%\\u000a (12% biomass). Wolves selected for wild boar,

Žanete Andersone; Jănis Ozoli?š

2004-01-01

109

Galactic Warp in the Overdensity of the Canis Major Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bellazzini et al. (2006b) claim that Lopez-Corredoira et al.'s (2002) warp model is totally unable to reproduce the Canis Major structure in the red clump stars. However, slight variations in the azimuth of the Lopez-Corredoira et al. (2002) warp model, justified by the uncertainties in the parameter as well as the local irregularities with respect to the average model, derive a result much closer to the observations of the overdensity south/north. The bump of red clump stars with m_K=13-13.5 around l=241 deg., b=-8.5 deg. and the depth of the Canis Major structure are also explainable in terms of the warp with an appropriate extrapolation of constant height between galactocentric radii of 13 and 16 kpc, as observed roughly in the southern warp, instead of a monotonically increasing height like the northern warp; and the observed velocity distribution of stars cannot exclude the warp possibility. A warp model is therefore still a possible explanation of the Canis Major overdensity, and the hypothesis of the existence of a dwarf galaxy is unnecessary, although still a possibility too.

López-Corredoira, M.

2006-08-01

110

Galactic warp in the overdensity of the Canis Major region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bellazzini et al. claim that López-Corredoira et al. warp model is totally unable to reproduce the Canis Major structure in the red clump stars. However, slight variations in the azimuth of the López-Corredoira et al. warp model, justified by the uncertainties in the parameter as well as the local irregularities with respect to the average model, derive a result much closer to the observations of the overdensity south/north. The bump of red clump stars with mK = 13-13.5 around l = 241°,b = -8.5° and the depth of the Canis Major structure are also explainable in terms of the warp with an appropriate extrapolation of constant height between Galactocentric radii of 13 and 16 kpc, as observed roughly in the southern warp, instead of a monotonically increasing height like the northern warp; and the observed velocity distribution of stars cannot exclude the warp possibility. A warp model is therefore still a possible explanation of the Canis Major overdensity, and the hypothesis of the existence of a dwarf galaxy is unnecessary, although still a possibility too.

López-Corredoira, M.

2006-07-01

111

Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.  

PubMed

Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia. PMID:22068216

Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

2011-11-09

112

Antigenic analysis of gamonts of Hepatozoon canis purified from leukocytes.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite of dogs that infects neutrophils and parenchymal tissues. To study the antigenic characteristics of this parasite, a technique was devised for the purification of gamonts from peripheral blood neutrophils. White blood cells were separated on Ficoll-Hypaque density gradients and the gamonts were released from the host neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation. The blood used for purification originated from dogs with natural or experimental infections of H. canis with a parasitemia of 1.4-33%. The number of parasites collected ranged from 1.5 X 10(6) to 4.2 X 10(7). Portions of purified gamonts were separated and examined under phase and scanning electron microscopy, and the remaining purified parasites were then used as a source of antigens to characterize the humoral immune response by western blot analysis. Serum antibodies from infected dogs recognized more than 15 gamont antigens, and the antigenic patterns observed with sera from naturally and experimentally infected dogs were nearly similar. Four immunodominant protein bands of relative molecular weights of 107, 88, 63, and 28 kDa were recognized by all of the sera examined. The technique applied here for the isolation of host cell-free gamonts will facilitate studies on antigenic composition and immune responses against H. canis and on antigenic relationships between Hepatozoon from different host species and geographic regions. PMID:10780547

Baneth, G; Shkap, V; Samish, M; Jaffe, C L

2000-04-01

113

Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel.  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to E. canis were detected in 35.8% serum samples while 26.4% of the samples tested were positive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Twenty-six percent of the jackals tested were seropositive to E. phagocytophila, of which 5.7% were seropositive to E. phagocytophila alone without any seroreactivity to either E. canis or E. chaffeensis. Fifty-five percent of the jackals were seropositive to the SFG-rickettsiae antigens. The results suggest a high exposure rate of jackals in Israel to E. canis. Positive reactivity to E. chaffeensis was considered to be due to antigenic cross-reactions with E. canis. The study demonstrated for the first time the presence of E. phagocytophila antibodies in free-range jackals. The high incidence of antibodies to the SFG-rickettsiae and their relatively high antibody titers was suggestive of either recent or persistent infection. The possibility that jackals may play a role in the transmission of E. canis, E. phagocytophila and the SFG-rickettsiae for human and canine infections is discussed. PMID:10321583

Waner, T; Baneth, G; Strenger, C; Keysary, A; King, R; Harrus, S

1999-03-31

114

Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors  

PubMed Central

Background A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and of the cellular components of the olfactory system. Results We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs. Conclusion Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining receptor conformation or regulating receptor activity. We anticipate that the identification of vertebrate OR orthologs in amphioxus will lead to an improved understanding of OR gene family evolution, OR gene function, and the mechanisms that control cell-specific expression, axonal guidance, signal transduction and signal integration.

Churcher, Allison M; Taylor, John S

2009-01-01

115

Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli clinicopathological findings and DNA detection by means of PCR-RFLP in blood from Italian dogs suspected of tick-borne disease.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Babesia spp. in blood samples from Italian dogs with clinical signs compatible with tick-borne diseases by means of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and describe the clinicopathological findings of dogs with Babesia infection. We evaluated the majority of canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological, biochemical, serum electrophoresis, urinalysis and hemostatic tests. Forty-five out of 164 canine blood samples studied were positive to Babesia PCR-RFLP with the following results: Babesia canis canis (n=34) and Babesia canis vogeli (n=11). The majority of B. c. canis infections were detected in Northern Italy (29.1%; 30/103). B. c. vogeli cases were detected mainly in Central and Southern Italy (16.3%; 10/61). Only one B. c. vogeli was detected in Northern Italy (0.9%; 1/103). Three positive samples to B. c. canis and four positive samples to B. c. vogeli were selected for sequencing of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (410bp) for further molecular characterization. The sequence obtained from all seven dogs was 99/100% homologous to sequences from B. c. canis and B. c. vogeli, respectively, present in GenBank. Sixty-two percent of dogs infected with B. c. canis had recently travelled on a hunting trip to East European countries. The main acute clinical signs were dehydration, apathy, anorexia and fever. The majority of dogs infected with B. c. canis presented at initial clinical examination mild to severe thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinogenemia, mild to moderate normocytic-normochromic non-regenerative anemia, hemolysis and neutropenia. The urinalysis showed hemoglobinuria in 13/19 dogs suggesting intravascular hemolysis. Dogs with B. c. canis infection had high levels of C-reactive protein. Hypoalbuminemia was present in 17/26 dogs. The 11 cases of B. c. vogeli infection did not present a homogenous clinicopathological pattern. B. c. vogeli infections were observed in young dogs causing hemolytic anemia and in adult/old does that frequently presented predisposing factors such as splenectomy or immunocompromised conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the presence of B. c. canis and B. c. vogeli in Italian sick dogs and differences in clinicopathological pattern in these two species of B. canis. PMID:18789581

Solano-Gallego, L; Trotta, M; Carli, E; Carcy, B; Caldin, M; Furlanello, T

2008-07-26

116

Bovine ICM derived cells express the Oct4 ortholog.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to define conditions for the successful isolation of embryonic stem cells from bovine blastocysts. Expression of the Pit-Oct-Unc (POU) transcription factor Oct4 was employed to monitor the pluripotent status of cultured cells. No expression of the previously identified bovine Oct4 pseudogene was found, and transcription of the Oct4 ortholog correlated with the proliferative potential of bovine ICM derived cells. Two methods to isolate pluripotent inner cell mass were compared; 90% of trypsin isolated ICMs formed growing cultures, whereas only 12%-23% of the ICMs isolated by immunosurgery attached and grew. Colony formation from complete blastocysts was 55%. The bovine ICM derived cells could be grown for 4-7 passages. However, Oct4 transcripts were only present in the primary cultures, indicating that the initial culture period of bovine ICM derived cells is critical and needs to be optimized to yield true ES cells. In contrast to bovine ICMs, murine ICMs yielded rapidly growing cells, which proliferated for more than 60 passages. PMID:15973686

Yadav, Prem S; Kues, Wilfried A; Herrmann, Doris; Carnwath, Joseph W; Niemann, Heiner

2005-10-01

117

OrthoDB: a hierarchical catalog of animal, fungal and bacterial orthologs  

PubMed Central

The concept of orthology provides a foundation for formulating hypotheses on gene and genome evolution, and thus forms the cornerstone of comparative genomics, phylogenomics and metagenomics. We present the update of OrthoDB—the hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org). From its conception, OrthoDB promoted delineation of orthologs at varying resolution by explicitly referring to the hierarchy of species radiations, now also adopted by other resources. The current release provides comprehensive coverage of animals and fungi representing 252 eukaryotic species, and is now extended to prokaryotes with the inclusion of 1115 bacteria. Functional annotations of orthologous groups are provided through mapping to InterPro, GO, OMIM and model organism phenotypes, with cross-references to major resources including UniProt, NCBI and FlyBase. Uniquely, OrthoDB provides computed evolutionary traits of orthologs, such as gene duplicability and loss profiles, divergence rates, sibling groups, and now extended with exon–intron architectures, syntenic orthologs and parent–child trees. The interactive web interface allows navigation along the species phylogenies, complex queries with various identifiers, annotation keywords and phrases, as well as with gene copy-number profiles and sequence homology searches. With the explosive growth of available data, OrthoDB also provides mapping of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes to the current orthologous groups.

Waterhouse, Robert M.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

2013-01-01

118

Genetic and Antigenic Evidence Supports the Separation of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum at the Species Level  

PubMed Central

Recognition of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum as distinct species was supported by the results of Western immunoblotting of canine anti-H. canis and anti-H. americanum sera against H. canis gamonts. Sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3? end of the 18S rRNA gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%.

Baneth, Gad; Barta, John R.; Shkap, Varda; Martin, Donald S.; Macintire, Douglass K.; Vincent-Johnson, Nancy

2000-01-01

119

Genetic and antigenic evidence supports the separation of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum at the species level.  

PubMed

Recognition of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum as distinct species was supported by the results of Western immunoblotting of canine anti-H. canis and anti-H. americanum sera against H. canis gamonts. Sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3' end of the 18S rRNA gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%. PMID:10699047

Baneth, G; Barta, J R; Shkap, V; Martin, D S; Macintire, D K; Vincent-Johnson, N

2000-03-01

120

Calculating Orthologs in Bacteria and Archaea: A Divide and Conquer Approach  

PubMed Central

Among proteins, orthologs are defined as those that are derived by vertical descent from a single progenitor in the last common ancestor of their host organisms. Our goal is to compute a complete set of protein orthologs derived from all currently available complete bacterial and archaeal genomes. Traditional approaches typically rely on all-against-all BLAST searching which is prohibitively expensive in terms of hardware requirements or computational time (requiring an estimated 18 months or more on a typical server). Here, we present xBASE-Orth, a system for ongoing ortholog annotation, which applies a “divide and conquer” approach and adopts a pragmatic scheme that trades accuracy for speed. Starting at species level, xBASE-Orth carefully constructs and uses pan-genomes as proxies for the full collections of coding sequences at each level as it progressively climbs the taxonomic tree using the previously computed data. This leads to a significant decrease in the number of alignments that need to be performed, which translates into faster computation, making ortholog computation possible on a global scale. Using xBASE-Orth, we analyzed an NCBI collection of 1,288 bacterial and 94 archaeal complete genomes with more than 4 million coding sequences in 5 weeks and predicted more than 700 million ortholog pairs, clustered in 175,531 orthologous groups. We have also identified sets of highly conserved bacterial and archaeal orthologs and in so doing have highlighted anomalies in genome annotation and in the proposed composition of the minimal bacterial genome. In summary, our approach allows for scalable and efficient computation of the bacterial and archaeal ortholog annotations. In addition, due to its hierarchical nature, it is suitable for incorporating novel complete genomes and alternative genome annotations. The computed ortholog data and a continuously evolving set of applications based on it are integrated in the xBASE database, available at http://www.xbase.ac.uk/.

Halachev, Mihail R.; Loman, Nicholas J.; Pallen, Mark J.

2011-01-01

121

Complete genome sequence of Brucella canis strain 118, a strain isolated from canine.  

PubMed

Brucella canis infects several species of animals, and canine is the preferred host. Genome sequences of strains from different hosts are valuable for comparative analysis of host adaptation and microevolution. Here, we report the genome sequence of Brucella canis strain 118, a strain isolated from canine. PMID:23144418

Gao, Guangjun; Li, Jing; Li, Tiefeng; Zhang, Zhengfang; Wang, Liping; Yuan, Xitong; Wang, Yufei; Xu, Jie; Ke, Yuehua; Huang, Liuyu; Wang, Dali; Chen, Zeliang; Xu, Xingran

2012-12-01

122

A Fluoroquinolone Induces a Novel Mitogen-Encoding Bacteriophage in Streptococcus canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the recently recognized emergence of canine streptococcal toxic shock syn- drome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) might be partly attributed to the use of fluoroquinolones to treat Streptococcus canis infections in dogs. Both mitomycin and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin caused bacterio- phage-induced lysis of S. canis strain 34, an isolate from a case of canine STSS and

Keely T. Ingrey; Jun Ren; John F. Prescott

2003-01-01

123

Reproductive biology of the coyote (Canis latrans): integration of mating behavior, reproductive hormones, and vaginal cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of wild Canis species is often described as unique among mammals because an unusual combination of behavioral and physiological characteristics including a seasonally monestrous cycle, copulatory lock or tie, obligatory pseudopregnancy, social monogamy, and biparental care of the young. We investigated social behavior, endocrine profiles, and vaginal cytology of female coyotes (Canis latrans) during 4 breeding seasons,

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2008-01-01

124

Genic variation in the coyote, Canis latrans, in Tennessee, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein variation, levels of heterozygosity, and interlocality gene variation were studied in the coyote, Canis latrans, using starch gel electrophoresis. Canis latrans were obtained from 27 counties in Tennessee. Eleven of 20 loci examined were found to be polymorphic with the remaining nine loci fixed for the same gene in all populations. Mean heterozygosity (\\\\-H) varied from 0.0% to 1.9%

M. J. Hamilton; M. L. Kennedy

1986-01-01

125

Hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne protozoan that infects dogs and has been reported throughout the world. Manifestation of H. canis infection varies from being sub-clinical in apparently healthy dogs to severe illness. The main vector of the infection is the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus although other species may also transmit this agent. H. canis has been reported previously in Brazil, but mostly as an occasional finding during laboratory exams and always associated with other diseases. The prevalence of H. canis in dogs of rural areas of Brazil has been little studied. For this study, 250 dogs from seven counties of Rio de Janeiro state were examined. All the dogs were from rural areas, near forest. Of the dogs examined, 26 dogs were from Seropédica, 82 from Itaguaí, 41 from Paracambi, 26 from Mangaratiba, 32 from Barra do Piraí, 32 from Piraí and 11 from Miguel Pereira. Blood smears from the peripheral blood of the ear were taken and ticks found on the dogs were collected for identification in the laboratory. Using blood smear evaluation, H. canis was identified in 39.2% of the animals examined. Other hemoparasites identified were Babesia canis (5.2%) and Ehrlichia canis (4.8%). Four tick species were found parasitizing the dogs: Amblyomma cajennense (23.6%), R. sanguineus (12.4%), Amblyomma aureolatum (2.8%) and Amblyomma ovale (2.0%). There was a positive correlation between the presence of A. cajennense and H. canis infection. PMID:11113545

O'Dwyer, L H; Massard, C L; Pereira de Souza, J C

2001-01-01

126

The efficacy of Advantix® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks  

PubMed Central

The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix®) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix® prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment.

Fourie, Josephus Johannes; Luus, Herman Gerhardus; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

2013-01-01

127

Clinical and Histopathological Evaluation of Terbinafine Treatment in Cats Experimentally Infected with Microsporum canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

T. Kotnik, M. âerne: Clinical and Histopathological Evaluation of Terbinafine Treatment in Cats Experimentally Infected with Microsporum canis. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 541-547. The efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil ® , Novartis) in the treatment of 27 M. canis- infected cats was followed. Treatment was started on the 17 th day post inoculation (p.i.), when successful experimental infection was

T. Kotnik; M. ?erne

2006-01-01

128

Proximal white subungual onychomycosis caused by Microsporum canis in systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a Mexican lupus patient who developed proximal white subungual onychomycosis on multiple toenails. Microsporum canis was the causative agent. Both nail invasion by M. canis and proximal white subungual onychomycosis are rare conditions indicative of an underlying immunodeficiency.

Alberto Tlacuilo-Parra; Elizabeth Guevara-Gutiérrez; Jorge Mayorga; Mario Salazar-Páramo

2002-01-01

129

A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?  

PubMed

The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

2013-01-08

130

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraba?BA state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog’s environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Elide; de Azevedo, Adilio Santos; de Sousa Americo Batista, Carolina; Alves, Clebert Jose

2011-01-01

131

Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:19501969

Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H

2009-05-19

132

Neutropenia associated with osteomyelitis due to Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old, intact male Shiba dog was referred to Yamaguchi University Animal Medical Center, Yamaguchi, Japan, for the following complaints: anorexia, lethargy, intermittent fever, gingival bleeding and abdominal purpura. The dog presented with persistent neutropenia. Histopathological examination of a bone marrow sample revealed round to oval structures that resembled Hepatozoon micromerozoites and formed a "wheel-spoke" pattern. Furthermore, mature neutrophils were observed around these structures. PCR and sequencing using bone marrow aspirate confirmed Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) infection. These findings suggest that the neutropenia observed in this case was associated with osteomyelitis due to H. canis infection. This is the first report of neutropenia associated with H. canis infection. H. canis infection can be included in the differential diagnosis in canine cases of neutropenia in areas where the disease is endemic. PMID:21697643

Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Umeki, Saori; Baba, Kenji; Sada, Kumiko; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

2011-06-21

133

Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an 340-bp fragment

Adam J. Birkenheuer; Michael G. Levy; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

134

Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an 340-bp fragment

Adam J. Birkenheuer; Michael G. Levy; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2003-01-01

135

ANTIBODY RESPONSES TO TOXOCARA CANIS USING SERA FROM PARASITE-INFECTED MICE AND PROTECTION FROM TOXOCARIASIS BY IMMUNISATION WITH ES ANTIGENS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for serological cross-reactions between Toxocara canis and related nematode parasites has been sought using sera from infected mice and the immunodiagnostic excretory\\/secretory (ES) antigen of T. canis larvae. Sera from mice experimentally infected with either T. canis, T. cati, T. pteropodis, Toxascaris leonina or Ascaris suum were tested for the presence of antibodies to T. canis ES antigen by

WL Nicholas; AC Stewart; GF Mitchell

1984-01-01

136

Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters: toward Defining the Minimum Essential Poxvirus Genome  

PubMed Central

Increasingly complex bioinformatic analysis is necessitated by the plethora of sequence information currently available. A total of 21 poxvirus genomes have now been completely sequenced and annotated, and many more genomes will be available in the next few years. First, we describe the creation of a database of continuously corrected and updated genome sequences and an easy-to-use and extremely powerful suite of software tools for the analysis of genomes, genes, and proteins. These tools are available free to all researchers and, in most cases, alleviate the need for using multiple Internet sites for analysis. Further, we describe the use of these programs to identify conserved families of genes (poxvirus orthologous clusters) and have named the software suite POCs, which is available at www.poxvirus.org. Using POCs, we have identified a set of 49 absolutely conserved gene families—those which are conserved between the highly diverged families of insect-infecting entomopoxviruses and vertebrate-infecting chordopoxviruses. An additional set of 41 gene families conserved in chordopoxviruses was also identified. Thus, 90 genes are completely conserved in chordopoxviruses and comprise the minimum essential genome, and these will make excellent drug, antibody, vaccine, and detection targets. Finally, we describe the use of these tools to identify necessary annotation and sequencing updates in poxvirus genomes. For example, using POCs, we identified 19 genes that were widely conserved in poxviruses but missing from the vaccinia virus strain Tian Tan 1998 GenBank file. We have reannotated and resequenced fragments of this genome and verified that these genes are conserved in Tian Tan. The results for poxvirus genes and genomes are discussed in light of evolutionary processes.

Upton, Chris; Slack, Stephanie; Hunter, Arwen L.; Ehlers, Angelika; Roper, Rachel L.

2003-01-01

137

Tinea capitis due to Microsporum canis in infants.  

PubMed

Three cases of scalp involvement by M. canis in infants are briefly reported. The first was a 2-month-old female with a few erythematous spots on the scalp, the second an 8-month-old male with lesions resembling seborrhoeic dermatitis and the third an 11-month-old male having areas of folliculitis of a kerion type. The father of the second case was found to have a tinea barbae infection due to the same fungus. Stray kittens were the most probable source of infection in all these cases. PMID:6738675

Alteras, I; Feuerman, E J; Grunwald, M; Shvili, D

1984-05-30

138

Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of ‘excretory–secretory’ products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured larvae. However, these appear to be produced once the parasite has entered the mammalian host, as they are recognised by specific antibodies in infected patients. Elucidating the function of these genes, or analysing if micro-RNA translational silencing suppresses production of the proteins, may point towards new drug targets for tissue-phase parasites in humans.

Maizels, Rick M.

2013-01-01

139

Toxocara canis: molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of 'excretory-secretory' products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured larvae. However, these appear to be produced once the parasite has entered the mammalian host, as they are recognised by specific antibodies in infected patients. Elucidating the function of these genes, or analysing if micro-RNA translational silencing suppresses production of the proteins, may point towards new drug targets for tissue-phase parasites in humans. PMID:23351972

Maizels, Rick M

2012-12-20

140

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-08-19

141

Comparative Analysis of SOX3 Protein Orthologs: Expansion of Homopolymeric Amino Acid Tracts During Vertebrate Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand more fully the structure and evolution of the SOX3 protein, we comparatively analyzed its orthologs in vertebrates.\\u000a Since complex disorders are associated with human SOX3 polyalanine expansions, our investigation focused on both compositional\\u000a and evolutionary analysis of various homopolymeric amino acid tracts observed in SOX3 orthologs. Our analysis revealed that\\u000a the observed homopolymeric alanine, glycine, and proline tracts

Marija Mojsin; Natasa Kovacevic-Grujicic; Aleksandar Krstic; Jelena Popovic; Milena Milivojevic; Milena Stevanovic

2010-01-01

142

A bacterial ortholog of class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase activates lysine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases produce aminoacyl-tRNAs, essential substrates for accurate protein synthesis. Beyond their central role in translation some of these enzymes or their orthologs are recruited for alternative functions, not always related to their primary cellular role. We investigate here the enzymatic properties of GenX (also called PoxA and YjeA), an ortholog of bacterial class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase. GenX is present

Alexandre Ambrogelly; Patrick O’Donoghue; Dieter Söll; Sarath Moses

2010-01-01

143

Arabidopsis orthologs of maize chloroplast splicing factors promote splicing of orthologous and species-specific group II introns.  

PubMed

Chloroplast genomes in plants and green algae contain numerous group II introns, large ribozymes that splice via the same chemical steps as spliceosome-mediated splicing in the nucleus. Most chloroplast group II introns are degenerate, requiring interaction with nucleus-encoded proteins to splice in vivo. Genetic approaches in maize (Zea mays) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated distinct sets of proteins that assemble with chloroplast group II introns and facilitate splicing. Little information is available, however, concerning these processes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether the paucity of data concerning chloroplast splicing factors in Arabidopsis reflects a fundamental difference between protein-facilitated group II splicing in monocot and dicot plants, we examined the mutant phenotypes associated with T-DNA insertions in Arabidopsis genes encoding orthologs of the maize chloroplast splicing factors CRS1, CAF1, and CAF2 (AtCRS1, AtCAF1, and AtCAF2). We show that the splicing functions and intron specificities of these proteins are largely conserved between maize and Arabidopsis, indicating that these proteins were recruited to promote the splicing of plastid group II introns prior to the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. We show further that AtCAF1 promotes the splicing of two group II introns, rpoC1 and clpP-intron 1, that are found in Arabidopsis but not in maize; AtCAF1 is the first splicing factor described for these introns. Finally, we show that a strong AtCAF2 allele conditions an embryo-lethal phenotype, adding to the body of data suggesting that cell viability is more sensitive to the loss of plastid translation in Arabidopsis than in maize. PMID:17071648

Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

2006-10-27

144

OrthoMCL-DB: querying a comprehensive multi-species collection of ortholog groups.  

PubMed

The OrthoMCL database (http://orthomcl.cbil.upenn.edu) houses ortholog group predictions for 55 species, including 16 bacterial and 4 archaeal genomes representing phylogenetically diverse lineages, and most currently available complete eukaryotic genomes: 24 unikonts (12 animals, 9 fungi, microsporidium, Dictyostelium, Entamoeba), 4 plants/algae and 7 apicomplexan parasites. OrthoMCL software was used to cluster proteins based on sequence similarity, using an all-against-all BLAST search of each species' proteome, followed by normalization of inter-species differences, and Markov clustering. A total of 511,797 proteins (81.6% of the total dataset) were clustered into 70,388 ortholog groups. The ortholog database may be queried based on protein or group accession numbers, keyword descriptions or BLAST similarity. Ortholog groups exhibiting specific phyletic patterns may also be identified, using either a graphical interface or a text-based Phyletic Pattern Expression grammar. Information for ortholog groups includes the phyletic profile, the list of member proteins and a multiple sequence alignment, a statistical summary and graphical view of similarities, and a graphical representation of domain architecture. OrthoMCL software, the entire FASTA dataset employed and clustering results are available for download. OrthoMCL-DB provides a centralized warehouse for orthology prediction among multiple species, and will be updated and expanded as additional genome sequence data become available. PMID:16381887

Chen, Feng; Mackey, Aaron J; Stoeckert, Christian J; Roos, David S

2006-01-01

145

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to Hepatozoon canis.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne protozoal disease caused in the Old World and South America by Hepatozoon canis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified H. canis gamont antigen was applied for the detection of antibodies reactive with H. canis. Evaluation of the ELISA with sera from naturally infected parasitemic dogs indicated that it was sensitive (86%), specific (97%), and comparable to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of H. canis antibodies. A variable degree of serologic cross-reactivity was found between sera from H. americanum-infected dogs and the H. canis antigen. Dogs experimentally infected with H. canis seroconverted 1-4 weeks post-infection (PI). Antibody levels peaked at 7-9 weeks PI and gradually declined thereafter remaining above the cut-off value until the conclusion of the study 7 months PI. The ELISA will be valuable for serological evaluation of dogs suspected of exposure to H. canis and for epidemiological studies. PMID:15177718

Gonen, L; Strauss-Ayali, D; Shkap, V; Vincent-Johnson, N; Macintire, D K; Baneth, G

2004-06-21

146

Quantitative comparison of various methods for detecting eggs of Toxocara canis in samples of sand.  

PubMed

Six techniques for recovering unembryonated Toxocara canis eggs from sand samples were tested for efficiency and suitability for routine use. The tests were done under standardised conditions on 50g of sand samples contaminated experimentally with 10, 100 and 500 eggs of T. canis. Best result was achieved by the method of Dunsmore et al. [Dunsmore, J.D., Thompson, R.C.A., Bates, I.A., 1984. Vet. Parasitol. 16, 303-311]. The results were expressed as the number of T. canis eggs recorded and percentage rates of recovery in sand samples. PMID:10936547

Oge, H; Oge, S

2000-09-10

147

A database of annotated tentative orthologs from crop abiotic stress transcripts.  

PubMed

A minimal requirement to initiate a comparative genomics study on plant responses to abiotic stresses is a dataset of orthologous sequences. The availability of a large amount of sequence information, including those derived from stress cDNA libraries allow for the identification of stress related genes and orthologs associated with the stress response. Orthologous sequences serve as tools to explore genes and their relationships across species. For this purpose, ESTs from stress cDNA libraries across 16 crop species including 6 important cereal crops and 10 dicots were systematically collated and subjected to bioinformatics analysis such as clustering, grouping of tentative orthologous sets, identification of protein motifs/patterns in the predicted protein sequence, and annotation with stress conditions, tissue/library source and putative function. All data are available to the scientific community at http://intranet.icrisat.org/gt1/tog/homepage.htm. We believe that the availability of annotated plant abiotic stress ortholog sets will be a valuable resource for researchers studying the biology of environmental stresses in plant systems, molecular evolution and genomics. PMID:17597893

Balaji, Jayashree; Crouch, Jonathan H; Petite, Prasad V N S; Hoisington, David A

2006-10-07

148

Orthologous transcription factors in bacteria have differentfunctions and regulate different genes  

SciTech Connect

Transcription factors (TFs) form large paralogous genefamilies and have complex evolutionary histories. Here, we ask whetherputative orthologs of TFs, from bidirectional best BLAST hits (BBHs), areevolutionary orthologs with conserved functions. We show that BBHs of TFsfrom distantly related bacteria are usually not evolutionary orthologs.Furthermore, the false orthologs usually respond to different signals andregulate distinct pathways, while the few BBHs that are evolutionaryorthologs do have conserved functions. To test the conservation ofregulatory interactions, we analyze expression patterns. We find thatregulatory relationships between TFs and their regulated genes areusually not conserved for BBHs in Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillussubtilis. Even in the much more closely related bacteria Vibrio choleraeand Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, predicting regulation from E. coli BBHshas high error rates. Using gene-regulon correlations, we identify geneswhose expression pattern differs between E. coli and S. oneidensis. Usingliterature searches and sequence analysis, we show that these changes inexpression patterns reflect changes ingene regulation, even forevolutionary orthologs. We conclude that the evolution of bacterialregulation should be analyzed with phylogenetic trees, rather than BBHs,and that bacterial regulatory networks evolve more rapidly thanpreviously thought.

Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

2007-07-25

149

Narrow-Band, Slowly Varying Decimetric Radiation from the Dwarf M Flare Star YZ Canis Minoris.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Narrow-band slowly varying microwave radiation has been detected from the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris at frequencies near 1465 MHz. This quiescent, or nonflaring, emission cannot be attributed to gyroresonant radiation from coronal loops; the loops woul...

K. R. Lang R. F. Willson

1986-01-01

150

Results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test using three different strains of Ehrlichia canis.  

PubMed

An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test is usually performed to detect antibodies in dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis. In this work, results obtained using three different E. canis strains as antigen (a commercial antigen, the E. canis Oklahoma strain and the E. canis Madrid strain) were compared. One hundred and forty-nine serum samples obtained from dogs living in the centre of Spain were analysed. When qualitative results were evaluated, identical results were detected in 87.2% of samples for the three antigens tested. When comparing antibody titre results, differences between the Madrid strain and the commercial antigen, and between the Madrid and Oklahoma strains were statistically significant (P<0.0001). No differences were found when comparing the Oklahoma strain with the commercial antigen (P=0.562). Subtle intra-laboratory variations shown in this study suggest a higher sensitivity of the IFA test when an autochthonous strain is used as antigen. PMID:18760641

Aguirre, Enara; Ayllón, Tania; Sainz, Angel; Amusategui, Inmaculada; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Tesouro, Miguel A

2008-08-28

151

Decontamination by anaerobic stabilisation of the environment contaminated with enteronematode eggs Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out under operating conditions of Field Composting Factory in Brezno (Slovak Republic) to determine the effect of anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes from public areas on the survival of model helminth Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs. Due to anaerobic conditions, low temperature, low C:N ratio and changes in physical and chemical properties of organic waste, less than 64% of A. suum eggs remained viable after 150 days of stabilisation. The anaerobic stabilisation had a greater effect on the viability of T. canis eggs than on A. suum eggs. The infectivity of T. canis eggs was confirmed by a follow-up experiment in laboratory mice. A small number of T. canis larvae were found in their brain and muscles on day 28 after infection. The results refer to the risks of dissemination, survival and potential spread of endoparasitic developmental stages in the environment through organic wastes subjected to low temperature stabilisation. PMID:17976979

Papajová, I; Juris, P; Szabová, E; Venglovský, J; Sasáková, N; Sefcíková, H; Martinez, J; Gábon, T

2007-10-31

152

Reisolation of Ehrlichia canis from blood and tissues of dogs after doxycycline treatment.  

PubMed Central

We present evidence that supports the carrier status of dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis after treatment with doxycycline. Canine ehrlichiosis was induced in five dogs by intravenous inoculation with E. canis-infected DH82 cells. All animals developed mild clinical signs of transient fever, body weight loss, thrombocytopenia, and increased gamma globulin levels in plasma. An indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) revealed that all dogs had seroconverted (titer, 5,120) by day 10 postinoculation (p.i.). E. canis was reisolated from blood samples collected at intervals throughout the 2-month period p.i. Doxycycline was administered orally once daily at 10 mg/kg of body weight per day for 1 week starting at 2 months p.i. Following treatment, gamma globulin levels in plasma were decreased. At necropsy on days 54 to 59 after the start of treatment, spleen, liver, kidney, and lymph nodes were collected for E. canis culture and histopathologic examination. Although the dogs did not show significant clinical signs during or after treatment with the antibiotic, E. canis was reisolated from the blood and tissue samples of three of five dogs. A 16-fold reduction in IFA titer was noted in two dogs which were negative for E. canis reisolation at day 49 after the start of treatment, whereas a zero- to fourfold reduction in IFA titer was seen in the remaining three dogs. Western immunoblot reactions to higher-molecular-size E. canis antigens in the sera of two dogs which were negative for E. canis on blood culture decreased, whereas they remained continuously high or only transiently decreased for the duration of the study for antigens in the sera of three dogs from which E. canis was reisolated. Histopathologically, prominent plasmacytosis in the kidney cortex was present in three dogs from which E. canis was reisolated, whereas the kidney cortices of two dogs had moderate to minor plasmacytosis. These findings pose questions regarding the efficacy, dosage and duration of doxycycline treatment in dogs with E. canis infection. In addition, it was shown that IFA and Western immunoblotting may aid in assessing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy when definitive reisolation procedures are not readily available. Images

Iqbal, Z; Rikihisa, Y

1994-01-01

153

Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings  

PubMed Central

Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI). Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the thrombocytopenia resolved. Despite immunosuppression, neither A. platys nor E. canis DNA was PCR amplified from doxycycline-treated dogs. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that simultaneous or sequential infection with A. platys and E. canis can alter various pathophysiological parameters in experimentally infected dogs, and because natural exposure to multiple tick-borne pathogens occurs frequently in dogs, awareness of co-infection is important in clinical practice.

2010-01-01

154

A conserved, transcriptionally active p28 multigene locus of Ehrlichia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigenic diversity of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis may involve independent or differential expression of the P28 outer membrane proteins genes, enabling persistent infections of the natural hosts. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional activity of a five gene locus in E. canis encoding homologous, but non-identical, p28 genes. The p28 multigene locus contained three previously identified complete gene

Jere W McBride; Xue-jie Yu; David H Walker

2000-01-01

155

Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response. PMID:23328726

Queiroz, Maisa Leite de; Viel, Tânia Araujo; Papa, Cássio Henrique Gomide; Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

156

Virulence of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent recognition of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in dogs caused by Streptococcus canis highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of virulence of this organism. Fifteen isolates of S.canis from cases of canine STSS and\\/or NF were examined for the presence of 10 Streptococcuspyogenes-associated virulence genes by Southern hybridizations using gene probes generated

L. M DeWinter; D. E Low; J. F Prescott

1999-01-01

157

Allozyme variability in the Italian wolf (Canis lupus) population.  

PubMed

Multilocus protein electrophoresis was used to estimate genetic variability in a sample of 38 Italian wolves (Canis lupus). Percentage of polymorphic loci was p = 10.0 per cent (four polymorphic loci out of 40 examined), and average observed heterozygosity was Ho = 0.028. Genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Electrophoretic analysis does not indicate a significant reduction of genetic variability at nuclear gene loci following at least one century of isolation from other European populations and demographic fluctuations suggested by recent range contraction and expansion. These findings are compared with published allozyme and mitochondrial DNA data for dogs, Canadian wolves, and introgressed wolf x coyote populations from Minnesota and Isle Royale (U.S.A.). PMID:8276634

Randi, E; Lucchini, V; Francisci, F

1993-11-01

158

Cardiac markers: profile in rats experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Wistar rats infected with 250 (GI, n = 24) or 1000 (GII, n = 24) Toxocara canis eggs. Animals were evaluated on days 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 post-infection (DPI). Only the GI rats showed an increase in CK and CK-MB, at 15 and 30 DPI, respectively. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in infected animals. Despite of the presence of eosinophilic infiltrate in the heart of three infected animals, none larva was recovered from the organ neither by acid digestion nor by Baermann procedure. Eosinophilia was observed in both groups but there was no significant difference in the eosinophil counts between GI and GII (p = 0.2239). It is possible to consider that cardiac lesion is an eventual finding in murine model for toxocariasis. PMID:23070442

Laposy, Cecília Braga; Freitas, Selma de Bastos Zambelli; Louzada, André Nogueira; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Giuffrida, Rogério; Nogueira, Rosa Maria Barili; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares

159

Results from the Coded Aperture Neutron Imaging System (CANIS).  

SciTech Connect

Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays ({approx}1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging- a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter

2010-11-01

160

An Investigation of the Canis Major Over-Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 2MASS colors, Martin et al. (2004) uncovered evidence for a remnant dwarf galaxy in Canis Major, in the form of an over-density of M-giant stars. The spatial distribution of the M-giants indicate an extended, and likely disrupted, group of stars extending over roughly 30 degrees of the sky. Alternative explanations of the origin of this over-density invoke the warp of the Galactic disk or other sub-structure of the Milky Way (Momany et al. (2004, 2006), Lopez-Corredoira (2006)). We present new color-magnitude diagrams for various fields near the center of the over-density, obtained at McDonald Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. We also obtained spectra at McDonald Observatory of a preliminary sample of blue plume stars selected from the photometry. I present kinematic results.

Powell, William L.; Wilhelm, R.; Carrell, K.

2007-12-01

161

Detection of gene orthology from gene co-expression and protein interaction networks  

PubMed Central

Background Ortholog detection methods present a powerful approach for finding genes that participate in similar biological processes across different organisms, extending our understanding of interactions between genes across different pathways, and understanding the evolution of gene families. Results We exploit features derived from the alignment of protein-protein interaction networks and gene-coexpression networks to reconstruct KEGG orthologs for Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the DIP repository and Mus musculus and Homo sapiens and Sus scrofa gene coexpression networks extracted from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus using the decision tree, Naive-Bayes and Support Vector Machine classification algorithms. Conclusions The performance of our classifiers in reconstructing KEGG orthologs is compared against a basic reciprocal BLAST hit approach. We provide implementations of the resulting algorithms as part of BiNA, an open source biomolecular network alignment toolkit.

2010-01-01

162

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis infections.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. Babesia canis belongs to the Piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis rossi and B. canis vogeli. They are each transmitted by a different tick-species, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. There are also differences in the geographical distribution and pathogenicity to dogs of each subspecies. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and easy to perform DNA-based test using loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect all three Babesia canis subspecies in one assay. PMID:20537107

Müller, H; Aysul, N; Liu, Z; Salih, D A; Karagenc, T; Beyer, D; Kullmann, B; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

2010-04-01

163

A conserved, transcriptionally active p28 multigene locus of Ehrlichia canis.  

PubMed

Antigenic diversity of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis may involve independent or differential expression of the P28 outer membrane proteins genes, enabling persistent infections of the natural hosts. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional activity of a five gene locus in E. canis encoding homologous, but non-identical, p28 genes. The p28 multigene locus contained three previously identified complete gene sequences and one partial gene sequence. A new p28 gene was identified and sequenced, and the complete sequence of a second partial p28 gene was determined. The new p28 gene joined two previously separate loci, forming the single p28 multigene locus. The amino acid homology of the E. canis P28 proteins ranged from 51 to 74%. The nucleic acid sequence of regions compared within the locus spanning four p28 genes from two geographically distinct E. canis isolates was completely conserved. Analysis of the five p28 genes demonstrated that all were transcriptionally active in in-vitro cultures of E. canis incubated at the vertebrate host (37 degrees C) and ambient tick temperatures (27 degrees C). Polycistronic copies of multiple p28 genes were not detected by RT-PCR, but monocistronic p28 mRNA transcripts were detected by Northern blotting from E. canis infected DH82 cells, indicating that the genes are transcribed as monocistronic messages. PMID:10974556

McBride, J W; Yu, X J; Walker, D H

2000-08-22

164

IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i. PMID:22634886

Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

165

Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.  

PubMed

A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis. PMID:23962826

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

2013-08-03

166

Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation. This study has also demonstrated that H. canis infection can spread among young dogs infested by R. sanguineus and be present in the majority of the exposed population within 6 months.

2011-01-01

167

Probing the boundaries of orthology: the unanticipated rapid evolution of Drosophila centrosomin.  

PubMed

The rapid evolution of essential developmental genes and their protein products is both intriguing and problematic. The rapid evolution of gene products with simple protein folds and a lack of well-characterized functional domains typically result in a low discovery rate of orthologous genes. Additionally, in the absence of orthologs it is difficult to study the processes and mechanisms underlying rapid evolution. In this study, we have investigated the rapid evolution of centrosomin (cnn), an essential gene encoding centrosomal protein isoforms required during syncytial development in Drosophila melanogaster. Until recently the rapid divergence of cnn made identification of orthologs difficult and questionable because Cnn violates many of the assumptions underlying models for protein evolution. To overcome these limitations, we have identified a group of insect orthologs and present conserved features likely to be required for the functions attributed to cnn in D. melanogaster. We also show that the rapid divergence of Cnn isoforms is apparently due to frequent coding sequence indels and an accelerated rate of intronic additions and eliminations. These changes appear to be buffered by multi-exon and multi-reading frame maximum potential ORFs, simple protein folds, and the splicing machinery. These buffering features also occur in other genes in Drosophila and may help prevent potentially deleterious mutations due to indels in genes with large coding exons and exon-dense regions separated by small introns. This work promises to be useful for future investigations of cnn and potentially other rapidly evolving genes and proteins. PMID:23749319

Eisman, Robert C; Kaufman, Thomas C

2013-06-07

168

The Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD): A Comparative Genomics Analysis Tool for Biologists  

PubMed Central

Many biological databases that provide comparative genomics information and tools are now available on the internet. While certainly quite useful, to our knowledge none of the existing databases combine results from multiple comparative genomics methods with manually curated information from the literature. Here we describe the Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD, http://ortholog.princeton.edu), a user-friendly database system that allows users to find and visualize the phylogenetic relationships among predicted orthologs (based on the OrthoMCL method) to a query gene from any of eight eukaryotic organisms, and to see the orthologs in a wider evolutionary context (based on the Jaccard clustering method). In addition to the phylogenetic information, the database contains experimental results manually collected from the literature that can be compared to the computational analyses, as well as links to relevant human disease and gene information via the OMIM, model organism, and sequence databases. Our aim is for the P-POD resource to be extremely useful to typical experimental biologists wanting to learn more about the evolutionary context of their favorite genes. P-POD is based on the commonly used Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) schema and can be downloaded in its entirety for installation on one's own system. Thus, bioinformaticians and software developers may also find P-POD useful because they can use the P-POD database infrastructure when developing their own comparative genomics resources and database tools.

Kang, Fan; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; White, Owen; Botstein, David; Dolinski, Kara

2007-01-01

169

Rapid Genome Evolution Revealed by Comparative Sequence Analysis of Orthologous Regions from Four Triticeae Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid species, consisting of three subgenomes (A, B, and D). To study the molecular evolution of these closely related genomes, we compared the sequence of a 307-kb physical contig covering the high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenin locus from the A genome of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, AABB) with the orthologous regions from the B genome

Yong Qiang Gu; Devin Coleman-Derr; Xiuying Kong; Olin D. Anderson

2004-01-01

170

A methodology for detecting the orthology signal in a PPI network at a functional complex level  

PubMed Central

Background Stable evolutionary signal has been observed in a yeast protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. These finding suggests more connected regions of a PPI network to be potential mediators of evolutionary information. Because more connected regions of PPI networks contain functional complexes, we are motivated to exploit the orthology relation for identifying complexes that can be clearly attributed to such evolutionary signal. Results We proposed a computational methodology for detecting the orthology signal present in a PPI network at a functional complex level. Specifically, we examined highly functionally coherent putative protein complexes as detected by a clustering technique in the complete yeast PPI network, in the yeast sub-network which spans only ortholog proteins as determined by a given second organism, and in yeast sub-networks induced by a set of proteins randomly selected. We proposed a filtering technique for extracting orthology-driven clusters with unique functionalities, that is, neither enriched by clusters identified using the complete yeast PPI network nor identified using random sampling. Moreover, we extracted functional categories that can be clearly attributed to the presence of evolutionary signal as described by these clusters. Conclusions Application of the proposed methodology to the yeast PPI network indicated that evolutionary information at a functional complex level can be retrieved from the structure of the network. In particular, we detected protein complexes whose functionality could be uniquely attributed to the evolutionary signal. Moreover, we identified functions that are over-represented in these complexes due the evolutionary signal.

2012-01-01

171

Inferring Nonneutral Evolution from Human-Chimp-Mouse Orthologous Gene Trios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though human and chimpanzee gene sequences are nearly 99% identical, sequence comparisons can nevertheless be highly informative in identifying biologically important changes that have occurred since our ancestral lineages diverged. We analyzed alignments of 7645 chimpanzee gene sequences to their human and mouse orthologs. These three-species sequence alignments allowed us to identify genes undergoing natural selection along the human

Andrew G. Clark; Stephen Glanowski; Rasmus Nielsen; Paul D. Thomas; Anish Kejariwal; Melissa A. Todd; David M. Tanenbaum; Daniel Civello; Fu Lu; Brian Murphy; Steve Ferriera; Gary Wang; Xianqgun Zheng; Thomas J. White; John J. Sninsky; Mark D. Adams; Michele Cargill

2003-01-01

172

Using orthologous and paralogous proteins to identify specificity-determining residues in bacterial transcription factors.  

PubMed

Concepts of orthology and paralogy are become increasingly important as whole-genome comparison allows their identification in complete genomes. Functional specificity of proteins is assumed to be conserved among orthologs and is different among paralogs. We used this assumption to identify residues which determine specificity of protein-DNA and protein-ligand recognition. Finding such residues is crucial for understanding mechanisms of molecular recognition and for rational protein and drug design. Assuming conservation of specificity among orthologs and different specificity of paralogs, we identify residues that correlate with this grouping by specificity. The method is taking advantage of complete genomes to find multiple orthologs and paralogs. The central part of this method is a procedure to compute statistical significance of the predictions. The procedure is based on a simple statistical model of protein evolution. When applied to a large family of bacterial transcription factors, our method identified 12 residues that are presumed to determine the protein-DNA and protein-ligand recognition specificity. Structural analysis of the proteins and available experimental results strongly support our predictions. Our results suggest new experiments aimed at rational re-design of specificity in bacterial transcription factors by a minimal number of mutations. PMID:12139929

Mirny, Leonid A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

2002-08-01

173

OrthoSelect: a protocol for selecting orthologous groups in phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic studies using expressed sequence tags (EST) are becoming a standard approach to answer evolutionary questions. Such studies are usually based on large sets of newly generated, unannotated, and error-prone EST sequences from different species. A first crucial step in EST-based phylogeny reconstruction is to identify groups of orthologous sequences. From these data sets, appropriate target genes are selected, and redundant sequences are eliminated to obtain suitable sequence sets as input data for tree-reconstruction software. Generating such data sets manually can be very time consuming. Thus, software tools are needed that carry out these steps automatically. Results We developed a flexible and user-friendly software pipeline, running on desktop machines or computer clusters, that constructs data sets for phylogenomic analyses. It automatically searches assembled EST sequences against databases of orthologous groups (OG), assigns ESTs to these predefined OGs, translates the sequences into proteins, eliminates redundant sequences assigned to the same OG, creates multiple sequence alignments of identified orthologous sequences and offers the possibility to further process this alignment in a last step by excluding potentially homoplastic sites and selecting sufficiently conserved parts. Our software pipeline can be used as it is, but it can also be adapted by integrating additional external programs. This makes the pipeline useful for non-bioinformaticians as well as to bioinformatic experts. The software pipeline is especially designed for ESTs, but it can also handle protein sequences. Conclusion OrthoSelect is a tool that produces orthologous gene alignments from assembled ESTs. Our tests show that OrthoSelect detects orthologs in EST libraries with high accuracy. In the absence of a gold standard for orthology prediction, we compared predictions by OrthoSelect to a manually created and published phylogenomic data set. Our tool was not only able to rebuild the data set with a specificity of 98%, but it detected four percent more orthologous sequences. Furthermore, the results OrthoSelect produces are in absolut agreement with the results of other programs, but our tool offers a significant speedup and additional functionality, e.g. handling of ESTs, computing sequence alignments, and refining them. To our knowledge, there is currently no fully automated and freely available tool for this purpose. Thus, OrthoSelect is a valuable tool for researchers in the field of phylogenomics who deal with large quantities of EST sequences. OrthoSelect is written in Perl and runs on Linux/Mac OS X. The tool can be downloaded at

Schreiber, Fabian; Pick, Kerstin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Worheide, Gert; Morgenstern, Burkhard

2009-01-01

174

Impact of Orthologous Gene Replacement on the Circuitry Governing Pilus Gene Transcription in Streptococci  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history of several genes of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes strongly suggests an origin in another species, acquired via replacement of the counterpart gene (ortholog) following a recombination event. An example of orthologous gene replacement is provided by the nra/rofA locus, which encodes a key regulator of pilus gene transcription. Of biological importance is the previous finding that the presence of the nra- and rofA-lineage alleles, which are ?35% divergent, correlates strongly with genetic markers for streptococcal infection at different tissue sites in the human host (skin, throat). Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, the impact of orthologous gene replacement targeting the nra/rofA locus is experimentally addressed. Replacement of the native nra-lineage allele with a rofA-lineage allele, plus their respective upstream regions, preserved the polarity of Nra effects on pilus gene transcription (i.e., activation) in the skin strain Alab49. Increased pilus gene transcription in the rofA chimera correlated with a higher rate of bacterial growth at the skin. The transcriptional regulator MsmR, which represses nra and pilus gene transcription in the Alab49 parent strain, has a slight activating effect on pilus gene expression in the rofA chimera construct. Conclusions/Significance Data show that exchange of orthologous forms of a regulatory gene is stable and robust, and pathogenicity is preserved. Yet, new phenotypes may also be introduced by altering the circuitry within a complex transcriptional regulatory network. It is proposed that orthologous gene replacement via interspecies exchange is an important mechanism in the evolution of highly recombining bacteria such as S. pyogenes.

Lizano, Sergio; Luo, Feng; Tengra, Farah K.; Bessen, Debra E.

2008-01-01

175

Dynamics of IgG1 and IgG2 subclass response in dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclasses were measured in dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). In this study, a higher IgG2 subclass response was noticed to natural and experimental E. canis infection in dogs. Anti-E. canis-IgG2 optic density (OD) values were found to be significantly higher than anti-E. canis-IgG1 during the different phases of the

Shimon Harrus; Trevor Waner; Dalit Strauss-Ayali; Hylton Bark; Frans Jongejan; Gil Hecht; Gad Baneth

2001-01-01

176

The Ortholog Conjecture Is Untestable by the Current Gene Ontology but Is Supported by RNA Sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

The ortholog conjecture posits that orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes. This conjecture is a cornerstone of phylogenomics and is used daily by both computational and experimental biologists in predicting, interpreting, and understanding gene functions. A recent study, however, challenged the ortholog conjecture on the basis of experimentally derived Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and microarray gene expression data in human and mouse. It instead proposed that the functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context in which the genes act, explaining why a greater functional similarity of (within-species) paralogs than (between-species) orthologs was observed. Here we show that GO-based functional similarity between human and mouse orthologs, relative to that between paralogs, has been increasing in the last five years. Further, compared with paralogs, orthologs are less likely to be included in the same study, causing an underestimation in their functional similarity. A close examination of functional studies of homologs with identical protein sequences reveals experimental biases, annotation errors, and homology-based functional inferences that are labeled in GO as experimental. These problems and the temporary nature of the GO-based finding make the current GO inappropriate for testing the ortholog conjecture. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is known to be superior to microarray for comparing the expressions of different genes or in different species. Our analysis of a large RNA-Seq dataset of multiple tissues from eight mammals and the chicken shows that the expression similarity between orthologs is significantly higher than that between within-species paralogs, supporting the ortholog conjecture and refuting the cellular context hypothesis for gene expression. We conclude that the ortholog conjecture remains largely valid to the extent that it has been tested, but further scrutiny using more and better functional data is needed.

Chen, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Jianzhi

2012-01-01

177

Enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 in inflammatory cells and secretory granules in Paneth cells in the small intestine of mice infected with Toxocara canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small intestine is the initial organ which Toxocara canis larvae invade. Information on intestinal pathological changes associated with transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and secretory granules (SG) in Paneth cells (PCs) caused by T. canis is unclear. Mice orally inoculated with 250 T. canis infective eggs were evaluated by pathological and immunohistochemical assessments with a 294-day investigation. Pathologically, the inflammatory

Chia-Kwung Fan; Chien-Ching Hung; Yun-Ho Lin; Ming-Hsien Li; Kua-Eyre Su

2004-01-01

178

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

Romero Nunez, Camilo; Mendoza Martinez, German David; Yanez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramirez Duran, Ninfa

2013-01-01

179

Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop. PMID:23990425

Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Weso?owska, Agnieszka; W?drychowicz, Halina

2013-08-29

180

Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256) and 19.4% (49/256), respectively; while 5.47% (14/256) of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection). Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs. PMID:23207986

da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Girotto, Aline; Taroda, Alessandra; Vidotto, Marilda Carlos; Garcia, Joăo Luis; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Arlington, Selwyn Headley; Vidotto, Odilon

2012-12-04

181

Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.  

PubMed

Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles. PMID:19138449

Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoli?s, J

2009-01-13

182

Visual discrimination of species in dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

In most social interactions, an animal has to determine whether the other animal belongs to its own species. This perception may be visual and may involve several cognitive processes such as discrimination and categorization. Perceptual categorization is likely to be involved in species characterized by a great phenotypic diversity. As a consequence of intensive artificial selection, domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, present the largest phenotypic diversity among domestic mammals. The goal of our study was to determine whether dogs can discriminate any type of dog from other species and can group all dogs whatever their phenotypes within the same category. Nine pet dogs were successfully trained through instrumental conditioning using a clicker and food rewards to choose a rewarded image, S+, out of two images displayed on computer screens. The generalization step consisted in the presentation of a large sample of paired images of heads of dogs from different breeds and cross-breeds with those of other mammal species, included humans. A reversal phase followed the generalization step. Each of the nine subjects was able to group all the images of dogs within the same category. Thus, the dogs have the capacity of species discrimination despite their great phenotypic variability, based only on visual images of heads. PMID:23404258

Autier-Dérian, Dominique; Deputte, Bertrand L; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Coulon, Marjorie; Mounier, Luc

2013-02-14

183

78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered...Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as...published a proposal to remove the gray wolf from the List of Endangered and...

2013-10-02

184

Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.  

PubMed

A group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with Babesia canis. The ability of the collar to prevent transmission of B. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. All 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with B. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. All control dogs developed clinical signs of babesiosis and were rescue-treated with imidocarb dipropionate. These dogs also developed specific B. canis antibodies as identified by serology (IFA test) and were confirmed PCR/RLB positive. None of the 8 dogs treated with the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar became infected with B. canis, which was confirmed by the absence of specific B. canis antibodies and babesial DNA as confirmed by PCR/RLB. The collar caused 96.02% of the ticks to die within 48h post challenge and this increased to 100% within 4 days. Although a high percentage of 44% of the Dermacentor ticks were infected with B. canis, they were unable to transmit the infection to the treated group. Hence, the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar effectively prevented transmission of B. canis 1 month after application onto the dogs. PMID:23158840

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

2012-10-26

185

Cross-infection between cats and cows: origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd.  

PubMed

Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including use of a common udder cloth and failure to use postmilking teat disinfection. Infected cows had macroscopically normal udders and milk, but significantly higher somatic cell counts than Strep. canis-negative herd mates. The outbreak was controlled through antibiotic treatment of lactating cows, early dry-off with dry cow therapy, culling of infected animals, and implementation of standard mastitis prevention measures. Cure was significantly more likely in dry-treated cows (87.5%) and cows treated during lactation (67%) than in untreated cows (9%). Whereas mastitis due to group G streptococci or Strep. canis in dairy cows is usually limited to sporadic cases of environmental (canine or feline) origin, this case study shows that crossing of the host species barrier by Strep. canis may result in an outbreak of mastitis if management conditions are conducive to contagious transmission. In such a situation, measures that are successful in control of Strep. agalactiae can also be used to control Strep. canis mastitis. PMID:16027183

Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

2005-08-01

186

Sequence variability of Rhizobiales orthologs and relationship with physico-chemical characteristics of proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosomal orthologs can reveal the shared ancestral gene set and their evolutionary trends. Additionally, physico-chemical properties of encoded proteins could provide information about functional adaptation and ecological niche requirements. Results We analyzed 7080 genes (five groups of 1416 orthologs each) from Rhizobiales species (S. meliloti, R. etli, and M. loti, plant symbionts; A. tumefaciens, a plant pathogen; and B. melitensis, an animal pathogen). We evaluated their phylogenetic relationships and observed three main topologies. The first, with closer association of R. etli to A. tumefaciens; the second with R. etli closer to S. meliloti; and the third with A. tumefaciens and S. meliloti as the closest pair. This was not unusual, given the close relatedness of these three species. We calculated the synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitution rates of these orthologs, and found that informational and metabolic functions showed relatively low dN rates; in contrast, genes from hypothetical functions and cellular processes showed high dN rates. An alternative measure of sequence variability, percentage of changes by species, was used to evaluate the most specific proportion of amino acid residues from alignments. When dN was compared with that measure a high correlation was obtained, revealing that much of evolutive information was extracted with the percentage of changes by species at the amino acid level. By analyzing the sequence variability of orthologs with a set of five properties (polarity, electrostatic charge, formation of secondary structures, molecular volume, and amino acid composition), we found that physico-chemical characteristics of proteins correlated with specific functional roles, and association of species did not follow their typical phylogeny, probably reflecting more adaptation to their life styles and niche preferences. In addition, orthologs with low dN rates had residues with more positive values of polarity, volume and electrostatic charge. Conclusions These findings revealed that even when orthologs perform the same function in each genomic background, their sequences reveal important evolutionary tendencies and differences related to adaptation. This article was reviewed by: Dr. Purificación López-García, Prof. Jeffrey Townsend (nominated by Dr. J. Peter Gogarten), and Ms. Olga Kamneva.

2011-01-01

187

In vitro isolation and molecular characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Ehrlichia canis isolate was obtained from an naturally infected dog exhibiting clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in Săo Paulo Municipality, state of Săo Paulo, Brazil. The isolate was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the ehrlichial genes dsb, 16SrRNA, and p28. Partial dsb and 16S rRNA sequences were identical to three and five other E. canis strains, respectively, from different countries and continents (including North America, Africa, Asia and Europe). Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for this E. canis (Săo Paulo) differed by 1, 2, and 2 nucleotides from the corresponding sequences of the E. canis strains Jake (from USA), Oklahoma (USA), and VHE (Venezuela), respectively. The results in this study indicate that E. canis is the only recognized Ehrlichia species infecting dogs in Brazil.

Aguiar, Daniel M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

2008-01-01

188

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

189

Antigenic and immunogenic studies on cell culture-derived Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Babesia canis antigens derived from cell culture reacted specifically with immune serum from dogs convalescing from babesiosis. The antigens were heterogenous as compared to antigens elaborated in vivo. The major antigenic moiety from cell culture eluted in the first peak of Sephadex G-200 is indicative of a molecular weight around 900 000. In contrast, in vivo-derived antigen coeluted with albumin and hemoglobin suggesting a molecular weight of 67 000. The major antigenic mass is proteinacious and contains disulfide bonds as indicated by thermolability and sensitivity to 2-mercaptoethanol. Both particulate and soluble B. canis antigens were immunogenic, particularly when emulsified in Saponin as an adjuvant. Such antigens conferred a considerable degree of protection in Saponin as an adjuvant. Such antigens conferred a considerable degree of protection in susceptible dogs and it suggested that immunoprophylaxis to B. canis may be feasible. PMID:6179286

Molinar, E; James, M A; Kakoma, I; Holland, C; Ristic, M

1982-03-01

190

A case report: a dog with acute onset of Hepatozoon canis infection.  

PubMed

We present a clinical overview of a dog with acute onset of Hepatozoon canis infection. A stray female beagle dog of unknown age was referred to Kagoshima University showing anemia. Blood tests revealed the presence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, polyclonal gammopathy, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities. In addition, capsule-like organisms were detected in the cytoplasm of approximately 50% of neutrophils in blood smears. H. canis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyses. Amplified DNA fragments revealed 100% identity to the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of H. canis. The clinical symptoms improved after the administration of antibiotics. Hepatozoonosis in dogs is rare, but veterinarians should be alert to its possible acute onset. PMID:19578300

Sakuma, Masato; Nakahara, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Masato; Sekiya, Zin; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

2009-06-01

191

Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

We compare differences in the reproductive strategies of "free-living" dogs with their wild relatives in the genus Canis, of which the dog is a very recently evolved member. The members of this genus display a greater range of parental motor patterns than generally seen in other species of Carnivora, including pair-bonding and extended parental care; parents regurgitate to offspring and provision them with food for months to as long as a year. But the domestic dog does not routinely display these genus-typical behaviors. While this has generally been assumed to be a result of direct human intervention, humans have little reproductive control over the vast majority of domestic dogs. We analyze the low frequency of display of genus-typical behaviors and postulate that the dog's reproductive behaviors are an adaptation to permanent human settlement and the waste resources associated with it. Adaptation to this environment has decreased seasonality, increased the fecundity of unrestrained dogs and reduced the need for prolonged parental care. The consequences of greater fecundity and reduced parental care are compared to the reproductive behavior of other species of the genus. PMID:23124015

Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond

2012-10-30

192

Environmental detection of Microsporum canis arthrospores in the households of infected cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus the environment. The environments inhabited by 30 symptomatic animals (21 cats and 9 dogs) infected by M canis were examined by sampling both surfaces and indoor air. The surfaces were examined by means of contact plates; the air sampling was performed with a Sas super-100 AIR SAMPLER (PBI, Italy). Environmental contamination was detected in all households with cats, while only four out of nine houses harbouring dogs were found positive. The frequence of isolation in each sampling, and the results in terms of colony forming units per plate in the different houses appeared to be quite homogeneous. Heavily infected environments harboured kittens only. Infected owners were observed in eight households, in all of which at least one infected cat was present. No history of human dermatophytosis in households harbouring dogs was found. On the basis of our results, infected cats appear to cause substantial environmental contamination, and provoke a substantial presence of viable airborne fungal elements. Dogs seem to be of lower importance in the spread of M CANIS: they contaminated surfaces, but they never contaminated the air. The results of this study confirm the potential leading role of the feline species in the environmental spread of M canis. PMID:14623201

Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Corazza, M; D'Achille, P; Ponticelli, C

2003-12-01

193

Rice OsSIPK and its orthologs: a "central master switch" for stress responses.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a central role in controlling a vast array of plant biochemical and physiological processes. It is regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three kinases phosphorylate and activate each other. Over the past years, several plants MAPKs have been identified and characterized. Of these, rice OsSIPK (Salicylic acid (SA)-Induced Protein Kinase) and its orthologs in other plants are of particular interest. A large body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of SIPKs in fine-tuned regulation of the plant responses to ozone, wounding, SA, and jasmonic acid (JA). Interestingly, their function appears to be conserved across reference plants, such as rice, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. In this minireview, we discuss the recent progress on rice OsSIPK and its orthologs as a "central master switch" for mediating plant responses against ozone, wounding, and JA as examples. PMID:19116133

Cho, Kyoungwon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Kubo, Akihiro; Rakwal, Randeep

2008-12-29

194

A bacterial ortholog of class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase activates lysine.  

PubMed

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases produce aminoacyl-tRNAs, essential substrates for accurate protein synthesis. Beyond their central role in translation some of these enzymes or their orthologs are recruited for alternative functions, not always related to their primary cellular role. We investigate here the enzymatic properties of GenX (also called PoxA and YjeA), an ortholog of bacterial class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase. GenX is present in most Gram-negative bacteria and is homologous to the catalytic core of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, but it lacks the amino terminal anticodon binding domain of the latter enzyme. We show that, in agreement with its well-conserved lysine binding site, GenX can activate in vitro l-lysine and lysine analogs, but does not acylate tRNA(Lys) or other cellular RNAs. PMID:20580719

Ambrogelly, Alexandre; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter; Moses, Sarath

2010-05-24

195

Annotation of hypothetical proteins orthologous in Pongo abelii and Sus scrofa  

PubMed Central

A hypothetical protein is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame without known experimental evidence of translation. They constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes. Domain extraction from these hypothetical sequences helps to search for protein coding genes for protein structural and functional annotation. We describe the analysis of prediction data in a sequence dataset of hypothetical protein orthologs of Pongo abelii (orangutan) and Sus scrofa (pig). It should be noted that these orangutan-pig orthologs are also non-homologous to human proteins. These predicted data find application in the genome wide annotation of proteins in poorly understood genomes. Abbreviations PDB - Protein Data Bank, DEG - Database of Essential Genes, CDD - Conserved Domain Database, IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Jitendra, Singh; Narula, Ranjana; Agnihotri, Shefali; Singh, Maneet

2011-01-01

196

Tissue stages of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs from Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 222 dogs were examined by blood smear examination and Hepatozoon canis infection was detected in 13 dogs (5.9%). Five H. canis-infected dogs were necropsied to observe tissue stages in the organs. Fragments of spleen, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, lymph nodes, bone marrow and skeletal muscles were used to made touch-impression smears. No macroscopic lesions were found in the organs. Two dogs had gamonts within polymorphonuclear cells and schizonts in various stages of development within the spleen and the bone marrow. Nevertheless, no mature meronts were found. PMID:15338284

O'dwyer, Lucia Helena; Saito, Mere Erika; Hasegawa, Márcia Yumiko; Kohayagawa, Aguemi

2004-08-26

197

Cosuppression and RNAi induced by Arabidopsis ortholog gene sequences in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis ?-3 fatty acid desaturase (AtFAD7) catalyzes the synthesis of trienoic fatty acids (TA). A transgenic tobacco line, T15,\\u000a was produced by a sense AtFAD7 construct and showed a cosuppression-like phenotype, namely extremely low TA levels. The sequence similarity between AtFAD7 and a tobacco ortholog gene, NtFAD7, was moderate (about 69%) in the coding sequences. AtFAD7 siRNAs accumulated at

Shin-ichiro Oka; Kaoru Midorikawa; Hiroaki Kodama

2010-01-01

198

Molecular characterization and embryonic expression of the even-skipped ortholog of Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In short germ insects, the procephalon and presumptive anterior segments comprise most of the embryonic rudiment which lengthens as posterior segments are added during development (Sander, K. (1976) Adv. Insect Physiol. 12, 125–238). The expression pattern of a grasshopper ortholog of the primary pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) suggests that it is not relevant to segmentation in this short germ insect

Susan J. Brown; Janet K. Parrish; Richard W. Beeman; Robin E. Denell

1997-01-01

199

Conservation and immunogenicity of the mosquito ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of arthropod vectors of pathogens that affect human and animal health is important for the eradication of vector-borne\\u000a diseases. The ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin, was identified in Aedes albopictus and found to have conserved epitopes in ticks and mosquitoes. RNA interference with the tick and mosquito double-stranded\\u000a RNA in three tick species resulted in significant gene

Mario Canales; Victoria Naranjo; Consuelo Almazán; Ricardo Molina; Suzana A. Tsuruta; Matias P. J. Szabó; Raúl Manzano-Roman; José M. Pérez de la Lastra; Katherine M. Kocan; María Isabel Jiménez; Javier Lucientes; Margarita Villar; José de la Fuente

2009-01-01

200

WDTC1, the Ortholog of Drosophila Adipose Gene, Associates With Human Obesity, Modulated by MUFA Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose (adp) is an obesity gene in Drosophila and mice with crucial functions in fat metabolism. We investigated the correlation between genetic variation of the WDTC1 locus, the ortholog of adp, and human obesity. Five WDTC1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 935 and 1,115 adults of two ethnically diverse US populations. In the Boston Puerto Rican population, we demonstrated

Chao-Qiang Lai; Laurence D. Parnell; Donna K. Arnett; Bibiana García-Bailo; Michael Y. Tsai; Edmond K. Kabagambe; Robert J. Straka; Michael A. Province; Ping An; Ingrid B. Borecki; Katherine L. Tucker; José M. Ordovás

2009-01-01

201

Chromosomal location of murine Disabled2 gene and structural comparison with its human ortholog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disabled-2 (Dab2) is one of the two mammalian orthologs of the Drosophila Disabled. The three spliced forms, p96, p93, and p67 of murine Dab2 cDNAs were first isolated as phosphoproteins functioning in the macrophage CSF-1 signal transduction pathway. Subsequently, the involvement of Dab2 in ovarian cancer development has been investigated: Dab2 expression is lost or greatly diminished in breast and

Zejuan Sheng; Elizabeth R Smith; Junqi He; Joseph A Tuppen; W. David Martin; Feng B Dong; Xiang-Xi Xu

2001-01-01

202

Lepidopteran Ortholog of Drosophila Breathless Is a Receptor for the Baculovirus Fibroblast Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) encodes a gene homologous to the mammalian fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. We report the cloning of B. mori and Spodoptera frugiperda orthologous genes (Bmbtl and Sfbtl, respectively) of Drosophila melanogaster breathless (btl) encoding a receptor for Branchless\\/ FGF and show that these genes encode the receptor for a baculovirus-encoded FGF (vFGF). Sequence analysis showed

Susumu Katsuma; Takaaki Daimon; Kazuei Mita; Toru Shimada

2006-01-01

203

The Use of Orthologous Sequences to Predict the Impact of Amino Acid Substitutions on Protein Function  

PubMed Central

Computational predictions of the functional impact of genetic variation play a critical role in human genetics research. For nonsynonymous coding variants, most prediction algorithms make use of patterns of amino acid substitutions observed among homologous proteins at a given site. In particular, substitutions observed in orthologous proteins from other species are often assumed to be tolerated in the human protein as well. We examined this assumption by evaluating a panel of nonsynonymous mutants of a prototypical human enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), in a yeast cell-based functional assay. As expected, substitutions in human MTHFR at sites that are well-conserved across distant orthologs result in an impaired enzyme, while substitutions present in recently diverged sequences (including a 9-site mutant that “resurrects” the human-macaque ancestor) result in a functional enzyme. We also interrogated 30 sites with varying degrees of conservation by creating substitutions in the human enzyme that are accepted in at least one ortholog of MTHFR. Quite surprisingly, most of these substitutions were deleterious to the human enzyme. The results suggest that selective constraints vary between phylogenetic lineages such that inclusion of distant orthologs to infer selective pressures on the human enzyme may be misleading. We propose that homologous proteins are best used to reconstruct ancestral sequences and infer amino acid conservation among only direct lineal ancestors of a particular protein. We show that such an “ancestral site preservation” measure outperforms other prediction methods, not only in our selected set for MTHFR, but also in an exhaustive set of E. coli LacI mutants.

Rine, Jasper

2010-01-01

204

Unique Evolution of Symbiobacterium thermophilum Suggested from Gene Content and Orthologous Protein Sequence Comparisons  

PubMed Central

Comparisons of gene content and orthologous protein sequence constitute a major strategy in whole-genome comparison studies. It is expected that horizontal gene transfer between phylogenetically distant organisms and lineage-specific gene loss have greater influence on gene content-based phylogenetic analysis than orthologous protein sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. To determine the evolution of the syntrophic bacterium Symbiobacterium thermophilum, we analyzed phylogenetic relationships among Clostridia on the basis of gene content and orthologous protein sequence comparisons. These comparisons revealed that these 2 phylogenetic relationships are topologically different. Our results suggest that each Clostridia has a species-specific gene content because frequent genetic exchanges or gene losses have occurred during evolution. Specifically, the phylogenetic positions of syntrophic Clostridia were different between these 2 phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that large diversity in the living environments may cause the observed species-specific gene content. S. thermophilum occupied the most distant position from the other syntrophic Clostridia in the gene content-based phylogenetic tree. We identified 32 genes (14 under relaxed selection and 18 under functional constraint) evolving under Symbiobacterium-specific selection on the basis of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution ratios. Five of the 14 genes under relaxed selection are related to transcription. In contrast, none of the 18 genes under functional constraint is related to transcription.

Oshima, Kenro; Ueda, Kenji; Beppu, Teruhiko; Nishida, Hiromi

2011-01-01

205

Null mutations in human and mouse orthologs frequently result in different phenotypes  

PubMed Central

One-to-one orthologous genes of relatively closely related species are widely assumed to have similar functions and cause similar phenotypes when deleted from the genome. Although this assumption is the foundation of comparative genomics and the basis for the use of model organisms to study human biology and disease, its validity is known only from anecdotes rather than from systematic examination. Comparing documented phenotypes of null mutations in humans and mice, we find that >20% of human essential genes have nonessential mouse orthologs. These changes of gene essentiality appear to be associated with adaptive evolution at the protein-sequence, but not gene-expression, level. Proteins localized to the vacuole, a cellular compartment for waste management, are highly enriched among essentiality-changing genes. It is probable that the evolution of the prolonged life history in humans required enhanced waste management for proper cellular function until the time of reproduction, which rendered these vacuole proteins essential and generated selective pressures for their improvement. If our gene sample represents the entire genome, our results would mean frequent changes of phenotypic effects of one-to-one orthologous genes even between relatively closely related species, a possibility that should be considered in comparative genomic studies and in making cross-species inferences of gene function and phenotypic effect.

Liao, Ben-Yang; Zhang, Jianzhi

2008-01-01

206

Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time. PMID:17679509

Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

2007-06-01

207

Toxocara canis in experimentally infected silver and arctic foxes.  

PubMed

In two experiments, thirty-six farm foxes of two species were inoculated with various doses of infective Toxocara canis eggs or tissue larvae isolated from mice. In experiment I, six adult arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus; 11-month old) were each inoculated with 20,000 eggs and sacrificed 100, 220, or 300 days post infection (dpi), while ten silver fox cubs (Vulpes vulpes; 6-9-week old) were infected with varying doses of eggs (30-3000) and necropsied 120 dpi. In experiment II, two groups of five cubs and two groups of five adult silver foxes received both a primary inoculation and either one or two challenge inoculations: primary inoculation (day 0) with 400 embryonated eggs were administered to five cubs and five adults and another five cubs and five adults received 400 larvae. At 50 dpi, the first challenge inoculation (400 eggs) was inoculated in all animals. At 100 dpi, three animals from each group were necropsied. The remaining two animals in each group were received a second challenge inoculation of 400 tissue larvae on 100 dpi and were subsequently necropsied at 150 dpi. In both experiments, the highest numbers of larvae per gram (lpg) of tissue was found in the kidneys (100-300 dpi). In adult foxes receiving a high dose (20,000 eggs), increasing larval burdens were found in the kidneys over the course of the experiment (up to 300 dpi). The larval migration from the lungs to other tissues appeared to be dose-dependent with the highest larval burdens found in adult foxes. The faecal egg excretion, larval burden and intestinal worm burdens decreased from the first to the second challenge infection. PMID:15986242

Saeed, Isam; Taira, Kensuke; Kapel, Christian M O

2005-06-29

208

Evolutionary conservation and selection of human disease gene orthologs in the rat and mouse genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Model organisms have contributed substantially to our understanding of the etiology of human disease as well as having assisted with the development of new treatment modalities. The availability of the human, mouse and, most recently, the rat genome sequences now permit the comprehensive investigation of the rodent orthologs of genes associated with human disease. Here, we investigate whether human disease genes differ significantly from their rodent orthologs with respect to their overall levels of conservation and their rates of evolutionary change. Results Human disease genes are unevenly distributed among human chromosomes and are highly represented (99.5%) among human-rodent ortholog sets. Differences are revealed in evolutionary conservation and selection between different categories of human disease genes. Although selection appears not to have greatly discriminated between disease and non-disease genes, synonymous substitution rates are significantly higher for disease genes. In neurological and malformation syndrome disease systems, associated genes have evolved slowly whereas genes of the immune, hematological and pulmonary disease systems have changed more rapidly. Amino-acid substitutions associated with human inherited disease occur at sites that are more highly conserved than the average; nevertheless, 15 substituting amino acids associated with human disease were identified as wild-type amino acids in the rat. Rodent orthologs of human trinucleotide repeat-expansion disease genes were found to contain substantially fewer of such repeats. Six human genes that share the same characteristics as triplet repeat-expansion disease-associated genes were identified; although four of these genes are expressed in the brain, none is currently known to be associated with disease. Conclusions Most human disease genes have been retained in rodent genomes. Synonymous nucleotide substitutions occur at a higher rate in disease genes, a finding that may reflect increased mutation rates in the chromosomal regions in which disease genes are found. Rodent orthologs associated with neurological function exhibit the greatest evolutionary conservation; this suggests that rodent models of human neurological disease are likely to most faithfully represent human disease processes. However, with regard to neurological triplet repeat expansion-associated human disease genes, the contraction, relative to human, of rodent trinucleotide repeats suggests that rodent loci may not achieve a 'critical repeat threshold' necessary to undergo spontaneous pathological repeat expansions. The identification of six genes in this study that have multiple characteristics associated with repeat expansion-disease genes raises the possibility that not all human loci capable of facilitating neurological disease by repeat expansion have as yet been identified.

Huang, Hui; Winter, Eitan E; Wang, Huajun; Weinstock, Keith G; Xing, Heming; Goodstadt, Leo; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Smith, Douglas; Alba, M Mar; Ponting, Chris P; Fechtel, Kim

2004-01-01

209

Expression patterns of mouse and human CYP orthologs (families 1–4) during development and in different adult tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the relative expression pattern of 10 orthologous CYP forms from families 1–4 in cDNA panels of human and mouse fetal and adult tissues. Except for CYP1A2, all of these CYPs exhibited specific patterns of expression during mouse ontogeny, suggesting possible involvement in development. Cyp1a1 and Cyp2r1 were the only two of the orthologs to be expressed

Dharamainder Choudhary; Ingela Jansson; Ivaylo Stoilov; Mansoor Sarfarazi; John B. Schenkman

2005-01-01

210

Functionally Orthologous Viral and Cellular MicroRNAs Studied by a Novel Dual-Fluorescent Reporter System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research raised the possibility that some viral microRNAs (miRNAs) may function as orthologs of cellular miRNAs. In the present work, to study the functional orthologous relationships of viral and cellular miRNAs, we first constructed a dual-fluorescent protein reporter vector system for the easy determination of miRNA function. By expressing the miRNAs and the indicator and internal control fluorescent proteins

Xiangyu You; Zhiping Zhang; Jinyu Fan; Zongqiang Cui; Xian-En Zhang

2012-01-01

211

argC Orthologs from Rhizobiales Show Diverse Profiles of Transcriptional Efficiency and Functionality in Sinorhizobium meliloti? †  

PubMed Central

Several factors can influence ortholog replacement between closely related species. We evaluated the transcriptional expression and metabolic performance of ortholog substitution complementing a Sinorhizobium meliloti argC mutant with argC from Rhizobiales (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium etli, and Mesorhizobium loti). The argC gene is necessary for the synthesis of arginine, an amino acid that is central to protein and cellular metabolism. Strains were obtained carrying plasmids with argC orthologs expressed under the speB and argC (S. meliloti) and lac (Escherichia coli) promoters. Complementation analysis was assessed by growth, transcriptional activity, enzymatic activity, mRNA levels, specific detection of ArgC proteomic protein, and translational efficiency. The argC orthologs performed differently in each complementation, reflecting the diverse factors influencing gene expression and the ability of the ortholog product to function in a foreign metabolic background. Optimal complementation was directly related to sequence similarity with S. meliloti, and was inversely related to species signature, with M. loti argC showing the poorest performance, followed by R. etli and A. tumefaciens. Different copy numbers of genes and amounts of mRNA and protein were produced, even with genes transcribed from the same promoter, indicating that coding sequences play a role in the transcription and translation processes. These results provide relevant information for further genomic analyses and suggest that orthologous gene substitutions between closely related species are not completely functionally equivalent.

Diaz, Rafael; Vargas-Lagunas, Carmen; Villalobos, Miguel Angel; Peralta, Humberto; Mora, Yolanda; Encarnacion, Sergio; Girard, Lourdes; Mora, Jaime

2011-01-01

212

Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection among children in Swaziland, southern Africa.  

PubMed

As there appeared to be no data available on Toxocara canis infection in the children of Swaziland, a serological survey of T. canis infection was recently conducted among 92 children aged 3-12 years from rural slums in the low- and middle-veld. A child was considered seropositive if, in western blots based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis, his or her serum gave a positive result when diluted 1 : 64. Forty-one (44.6%) of the children were found seropositive. There were no statistically significant differences in seroprevalence between the 49 boys and 43 girls investigated (46.9% v. 41.8%) or between the eight subjects aged 12 years and the 47 aged < or = 5 years (62.5% v. 38.3%); the corresponding odds ratios were 0.81 (95% confidence interval=0.36-1.86; P=0.62) and 2.69 (95% confidence interval=0.57-12.62; P=0.20), respectively. The 66 subjects from the middleveld were, however, significantly more likely to be seropositive than the 26 subjects from the lowveld (54.5% v. 19.2%; odds ratio=5.04, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.70-14.98; P<0.01). It seems likely that T. canis infection is common among the children who live in slums in Swaziland, particularly in the country's middleveld, probably as the result of poor hygiene and poor sanitation. PMID:20149294

Liao, C-W; Sukati, H; D'Lamini, P; Chou, C-M; Liu, Y-H; Huang, Y-C; Chung, M-H; Mtsetfwa, J S; Jonato, J; Chiu, W-T; Chang, P W-S; Du, W-Y; Chan, H-C; Chu, T-B; Cheng, H-C; Su, W-W; Tu, C-C; Cheng, C-Y; Fan, C-K

2010-01-01

213

Daily activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest of western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the activity patterns of the coyote (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mexican Pacific coast over 3 years. Fifteen coyotes (six females, nine males) were fitted with radio-collars equipped with activity sensors to determine the influence of seasonality (dry vs. wet), gender (males vs. females) and diel intervals (dusk, night, dawn, and day) on activity

Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart; Lisette Cantú-Salazar; Samia E. Carrillo-Percastegui; Carlos A. López-González

2009-01-01

214

Breed differences in dogs’ ( Canis familiaris) gaze to the human face  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been submitted to a vast process of artificial selection and to date, there are hundreds of breeds that differ in their physical and behavioral features. In addition, dogs possess important skills to communicate with humans. Previous evidence indicates that those abilities are related to the domestication process and are modulated by instrumental learning processes. Very

Adriana Jakovcevic; Angel M. Elgier; Alba E. Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela

2010-01-01

215

Communication between domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris) and humans: Dogs are good learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication involves a wide range of behaviours that animals emit in their daily lives and can take place between different species, as is the case of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans. Dogs have shown to be successful at following human cues to solve the object choice task. The question is what are the mechanisms involved in these communicative abilities.

Angel M. Elgier; Adriana Jakovcevic; Gabriela Barrera; Alba E. Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela

2009-01-01

216

ÚLTIMOS DATOS SOBRE EL LOBO ( Canis lupus) EN EL PAÍS VASCO Y NAVARRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data about the wolf (Canis lupus) in the Basque Country and Navarra In this article preliminary information about wolf's status at the Basque Country and Navarra during August 1995-August 1997 period is offered. The data have been obtained following a methodology based on personal interviews, hunting drives' results analysis and livestock damages inspections. The presence of wolves was verified

M. SÁENZ DE BURUAGA; M. A. CAMPOS; E. ARBERAS; Y A. ONRUBIA

217

A 3-decade Dearth of Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Wolf (Canis lupus)–dominated Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio- tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and

MICHAEL E. NELSON; L. DAVID MECH

2006-01-01

218

Predation on European wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by wolves (Canis lupus) in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that predation by wolves Canis lupus is one of the major factors limiting densities of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou in North America. Conversely, little is known about the role of European wild forest reindeer R. t. fennicus as wolf prey, or about the influence of wolf predation on populations of this rare subspecies. This relationship

Ilpo Kojola; Otso Huitu; Katri Toppinen; Kalevi Heikura; Samuli Heikkinen; Seppo Ronkainen

2004-01-01

219

Multicolour photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of the WN5 star EZ Canis Majoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyse photometric and spectroscopic observations of the WN5 star EZ Canis Majoris obtained over a period of 7years. We discuss the changing light curve, the shift in phase of the maxima and point to flare type variability seen in one night. Small amplitude variations are reported in another night. We have investigated the change of the average

M. F. J. Duijsens; K. A. van der Hucht; A. M. van Genderen; H. E. Schwarz; H. P. J. Linders; O. M. Kolkman

1996-01-01

220

Gray wolf ( Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy. N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. Oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out

J. P. Dubey; M. C. Jenkins; C. Rajendran; K. Miska; L. R. Ferreira; J. Martins; O. C. H. Kwok; S. Choudhary

2011-01-01

221

Modeling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Habitat in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were once widespread throughout most of North America including the Pacific Northwest. Wolves were extirpated from the Pacific Northwest in the early 20th century and have been absent for over 60 years. The success of reintroduction efforts in Idaho and the greater Yellowstone area, however, has caused wolf populations in these regions to rise dramatically, giving

Tad Larsen; William J. Ripple

2006-01-01

222

A Case of Visceral Leishmaniosis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leish- mania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, con-

A. Beck; R. Beck; J. Kusak; A. Gudan; F. Martinkovic; B. Artukovic; M. Hohs; A. Marinculic

223

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS) TO INFECTION WITH THE LYME DISEASE AGENT, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four juvenile gray wolves (Canis lupu.s) were inoculated with live Borrelia burg- dorferi. One received an intravenous inoculum, a second was inoculated subcutaneously, and two more were fed Peromyscus maniculatus sucklings which had earlier been inoculated with B. burgdorferi. The intravenously inoculated wolf developed a generalized !ymphadenopathy and a persistent serum antibody titer to the spirochete which peaked at 1:512.

James J. Kazmierczak; Elizabeth C. Burgess; Terry E. Amundson

224

Reintroduction of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) to the Southwestern United States: An economic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998 the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was reintroduced to the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area (BRWRA), located in east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico, as a result of efforts to reestablish a wild population of Mexican gray wolves in the species' former home range. Because the gray wolf is a large predator and a species that elicits

Timm Kroeger; Frank Case; Chris Haney

2006-01-01

225

Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves ( Canis lupus) from the Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney, liver and bone samples were taken from 19 wolves (Canis lupus) collected from two locations in the Yukon Territory. Liver samples pooled by age and sex were analyzed for 22 organochlorine pesticides and 101 PCB congeners. Individual kidney and liver samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium and zinc. Thirteen individual bone samples were analyzed

Mary Gamberg; Birgit M. Braune

1999-01-01

226

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils,

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; John Kilgo; Scott Ray; Karl V. Miller

2007-01-01

227

BLINDNESS IN A COYOTE, Canis latrans, FROM THE ROLLING PLAINS OF TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross and histopathologiclesionsin the eyes of a blind coyote, Canis \\/atrans, collectedin King County, Texas are discussed.The animal was in good condition and its age estimated at 7 years. The left globe presented with a superficial corneal erosion, a small punctate erosion, and an apparent lenticular opacity. Histo- logically, there was a mild anterior uveitis and lenticular degeneration with thicken-

DANNY B. PENCEE; WYMAN P. MEINZEREU

228

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2007-01-01

229

Effects of temperature and humidity on the development of eggs of Toxocara canis under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature and humidity on the survival and development of Toxocara canis eggs in an in vitro model system was investigated. Two soil samples were inoculated with T. canis eggs and maintained at 3% and 50% humidity and temperatures of 19-24 degrees C. Nine soil samples were inoculated with T. canis eggs of which three samples were kept at 4 degrees C with humidities at 3%, 15%, and 30%; three were maintained at 21 degrees C and three more were incubated at 34 degrees C, and at the same three humidity levels. Samples were monitored every 7 days for a total of 2 months, for the presence and development of eggs. With increasing temperature, the number of eggs undergoing development increased (P<0.01); the number of deformed eggs decreased, the number of infective eggs increased (P<0.01), and egg maturation was accelerated. A decrease in the survival of infective eggs occurred at 34 degrees C. An increase in humidity produced a rise in the number of developed eggs at all three temperatures (P<0.01). This study suggests that elevated temperatures accelerated the development as well as the degradation of eggs of T. canis, whereas the range in humidity was directly correlated with egg development. PMID:16336716

Gamboa, M I

2005-12-01

230

Application of 10% imidacloprid\\/50% permethrin to prevent Ehrlichia canis exposure in dogs under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) caused by Ehrlichia canis is the most known canine tick-borne disease (TBD) spread throughout the world. Preventing tick bites is a priority to reduce the risk of TBDs and it was the aim of the present study to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer) (Advantix®; Bayer AG, Germany) in

Domenico Otranto; Paola Paradies; Gabriella Testini; Maria Stefania Latrofa; Stefania Weigl; Cinzia Cantacessi; Norbert Mencke; Donato de Caprariis; Antonio Parisi; Gioia Capelli; Dorothee Stanneck

2008-01-01

231

Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Are Sensitive to the Attentional State of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial (control condition), whereas in others, the human (a) left the room, (b) turned her back, (c) engaged in a distracting activity, or (d)

Josep Call; Juliane Bräuer; Juliane Kaminski; Michael Tomasello

2003-01-01

232

Congenital bone deformities and the inbred wolves ( Canis lupus) of Isle Royale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf (Canis lupus) population on Isle Royale, a remote island in Lake Superior, North America, is extremely inbred. Nevertheless, the consequences of genetic deterioration have not been detected for this intensively studied population, until now. We found that 58% (n=36) of Isle Royale wolves exhibited some kind of congenital malformation in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column and

Jannikke Räikkönen; John A. Vucetich; Rolf O. Peterson; Michael P. Nelson

2009-01-01

233

Forest composition around wolf ( Canis lupus ) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Den-site selection is a poorly understood aspect of wolf (Canis lupus) ecology, particularly for populations in forested ecosystems. Using a geographic information system and remote-sensing imagery, we examined patterns of habitat use around wolf dens in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Sixteen den sites were sampled for eight habitat types in their immediately vicinity, as well as at radii of

D. Ryan Norris; Mary T. Theberge; John B. Theberge

2002-01-01

234

Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPopulation densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi)

Frank Hailer; Jennifer A. Leonard; Henry Harpending

2008-01-01

235

Oocysts of Hepatozoon canis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from a naturally infected dog.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon. Several tick species have been implicated as potential vectors. Therefore, extensive studies are needed to determine the 'natural' endemic cycle of this parasite. This paper presents the first report of the presence of Hepatozoon canis oocysts in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from an infected dog. PMID:21324597

de Miranda, Renata Lima; de Castro, Jacqueline Ribeiro; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Mundim, Antonio Vicente; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Eyal, Osnat; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Baneth, Gad

2011-01-31

236

First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America. PMID:23273677

Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Vezzani, Darío; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

2012-12-27

237

Hepatozoon canis infection in ticks during spring and summer in Italy.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a common protozoan of dogs, being among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs around the world. It is primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick. In this study we tested ticks collected from dogs and from the environment in order to track the origin of an outbreak of H. canis infection detected in October 2009 in a private dog shelter in southern Italy. Ticks from dogs (n?=?267) were collected during the spring of 2009, whereas ticks from environment (n?=?300) were found on sticky traps placed in the same shelter during the summer of 2009. All ticks were tested by PCR for the detection of a H. canis 18S ribosomal RNA gene fragment. Four (1.5%, one female and three males) ticks collected from dogs were PCR positive. None of the larvae collected from the environment were positive, but a relatively high infection rate (8.0%) was detected in nymphs. These findings point out that dogs became infected during the summer, when ticks were abundant and highly infected by H. canis. Moreover, this study suggests that castor oil sticky traps might be useful to collect engorged immature ticks in highly infested environments (e.g., dog shelters). This might be particularly interesting to evaluate the level of infection by certain pathogens in free-ranging ticks R. sanguineus, as done in the present study. PMID:21769649

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

2011-07-19

238

Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxocara canis is a widely distributed nematode parasite which reaches maturity in dogs. However, eggs voided by canid animals are infective to a very wide range of paratenic hosts including humans. In noncanid hosts, infective larvae emerge from the eggs and invade the soft tissues, often entering the brain and musculature. Such larvae may remain for many months or years

Rick M. Maizels; Kevin K. A. Tetteh; Alex Loukas

2000-01-01

239

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T.

J. P. Dubey; R. Zarnke; N. J. Thomas; S. K. Wong; W. Van Bonnd; M. Briggs; J. W. Davis; R. Ewing; M. Menseh; O. C. H. Kwok; S. Romand; P. Thulliez

2003-01-01

240

Helicobacter canis Bacteremia in a Patient with Fever of Unknown Origin  

PubMed Central

A 57-year-old woman with common variable immune deficiency and liver failure of unknown etiology presented with recurrent fevers over a 5-month period. She was found to have Helicobacter canis bacteremia. Immunocompromised hosts with exposure to cats or dogs may be at risk for infection with this organism, which may be challenging to diagnose.

Abidi, Maheen Z.; Wilhelm, Mark P.; Neff, Jadee L.; Hughes, John G.; Cunningham, Scott A.

2013-01-01

241

Playing at bullying: The postmodern ethic of Bully (Canis Canem Edit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses Bully (Canis Canem Edit), considering the game's antecedents (narratives involving young people in school settings) and the features which set it apart from other teen texts. It discusses the controversy surrounding the game and comes to the conclusion that the principal reason for unease on the part of parents and educational authorities is that Bully's postmodernist ethic

Clare Bradford

242

Association, Inhibition, and Object Permanence in Dogs' (Canis familiaris) Spatial Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative role of associative processes and the use of explicit cues about object location in search behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris) was assessed by using a spatial binary discrimination reversal paradigm in which reversal conditions featured: (1) a previously rewarded location and a novel location, (2) a previously nonrewarded location and a novel location, or (3) a previously rewarded

Rebecca L. Ashton; Carlo De Lillo

2011-01-01

243

The Magic Cup: Great Apes and Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Individuate Objects According to Their Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite current interest in dog (Canis familiaris) cognition, very little is known about how dogs represent objects and how they compare with other species, such as the great apes. Therefore, we investigated how dogs and great apes (chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], bonobos [Pan paniscus], orangutans [Pongo pygmaeus], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla]) individuate objects in a classical violation of expectation paradigm. We used

Juliane Bräuer; Josep Call

2011-01-01

244

Search Behavior in Various Breeds of Adult Dogs (Canis familiaris ): Object Permanence and Olfactory Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human analog tests of object permanence were administered to various breeds of adult dogs (Canis familiaris). Experiment 1 showed that the performance of terriers, sporting, and working dogs did not differ. Dogs succeeded in solving invisible displacement problems, but performance was lower than in visible displacement tests. Familiarity with the task had some influence because invisible displacement tests were more

Sylvain Gagnon; François Y. Doré

1992-01-01

245

The Effect of Human Command Phonetic Characteristics on Auditory Cognition in Dogs (Canis familiaris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six dogs (Canis familiaris) were trained to sit and come reliably in response to tape-recorded commands. The phonemes within these commands were then changed, and the dogs' behavior in response to these modified commands was recorded. Performance markedly declined in all cases, with the type of alteration affecting response to the modified sit command but not to the modified come

M. Fukuzawa; D. S. Mills; J. J. Cooper

2005-01-01

246

Attachment Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris ): A New Application of Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one owner–dog pairs were observed in a modified version of M. D. S. Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test. The results demonstrate that adult dogs (Canis familiaris) show patterns of attachment behavior toward the owner. Although there was considerable variability in dogs' attachment behavior to humans, the authors did not find any effect of gender, age, living conditions, or breed on

József Topál; Ádám Miklósi; Vilmos Csányi; Antal Dóka

1998-01-01

247

Spatial Memory of Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) for Hidden Objects in a Detour Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial memory of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) for hidden objects was investigated via a visible displacement problem of object permanence with a detour paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that dogs were able to spontaneously locate a disappearing object in a detour situation. In Experiments 2 and 3, dead reckoning and allocentric spatial information were put in conflict. Results revealed that dogs

Sylvain Fiset; Claude Beaulieu; Valérie LeBlanc; Lucie Dubé

2007-01-01

248

Behavioral and Glucocorticoid Responses of Adult Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) to Companionship and Social Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of 1 member of a long-standing pair of adult domestic dog (Canis familiaris) kennel mates from the home run for 4 hr had no effect on the behavior or plasma glucocorticoid levels of the remaining dog. When tested in a novel environment, dogs showed increased activity and elevated glucocorticoid levels at the end of the session, but these responses

David S. Tuber; Michael B. Hennessy; Suzanne Sanders; Julia A. Miller

1996-01-01

249

Attachment Behavior of Adult Dogs (Canis familiaris) Living at Rescue Centers: Forming New Bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 60 shelter dogs (Canis familiaris) were observed in the modified version of the Strange Situation Test, which has proved to be a useful method for studying dogs’ attachment behavior toward humans (J. Topál, Á. Miklósi, V. Csányi, & A. Dóka, 1998). Before testing, 40 dogs were handled 3 times for 10 min. In the test, handled dogs

Márta Gácsi; József Topál; Ádám Miklósi; Antal Dóka; Vilmos Csányi

2001-01-01

250

Dogs (Canis familiaris) Learn From Their Owners via Observation in a Manipulation Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-seven pet dogs (Canis familiaris) were involved in an experiment in which they had to solve a task to obtain a ball. After witnessing a full demonstration by their owner (10 times pushing the handle of the box, which released a ball), most dogs preferred to touch the handle sooner and more frequently in comparison with other parts of the

Enik? Kubinyi; József Topál; Ádám Miklósi; Vilmos Csányi

2003-01-01

251

Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) and the Radial Arm Maze: Spatial Memory and Serial Position Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated spatial memory in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) through the use of a radial arm maze. The study consisted of a total of three separate experiments. In the first two experiments, the ability of the dogs to successfully remember previously unentered arms was evaluated. The third experiment was similar to the first two, but also examined the

Marlyse Craig; Jacquie Rand; Rita Mesch; Melissa Shyan-Norwalt; John Morton; Elizabeth Flickinger

2012-01-01

252

Babesia canis infection in canine-red blood cell-substituted SCID mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a mouse model for Babesia canis infection using severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice whose circulating red blood cells had been substituted with canine red blood cells. Substitution of red blood cells in SCID mice was achieved by repetitive transfusions of canine red blood cells, together with administration of an anti-mouse red blood cell monoclonal antibody. Following inoculation

Satoru Arai; Masayoshi Tsuji; Sam-Ju Kim; Tetsuya Nakade; Yasunori Kanno; Chiaki Ishihara

1998-01-01

253

Chemical scent constituents in feces of wild Iberian wolves ( Canis lupus signatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the importance of feces in scent marking and intraspecific chemical communication of many mammals, only a few studies have examined the chemical constituents of feces that could have a signaling function. We described here the chemicals found in feces recently deposited in the wild by adult and pup Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus). By means of analyses

José Martín; Isabel Barja; Pilar López

2010-01-01

254

Congenital defects in a highly inbred wild wolf population ( Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wild populations negative effects from inbreeding are usually difficult to assess. The contemporary Scandinavian wolf population (Canis lupus) was established in 1983. With only three founders this population, with approximately 100 individuals, exhibits lower genetic variability than the neighbouring eastern population. Congenital malformations of the backbone were found in this highly inbred population. This study assesses the frequency and

Jannikke Räikkönen; A. Bignert; P. Mortensen; B. Fernholm

2006-01-01

255

Dynamic evolution of bz orthologous regions in the Andropogoneae and other grasses.  

PubMed

Genome structure exhibits remarkable plasticity within Zea mays. To examine how haplotype structure has evolved within the Andropogoneae tribe, we have analyzed the bz gene-rich region of maize (Zea mays), the Zea teosintes mays ssp. mexicana, luxurians and diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides, Coix lacryma-jobi and Sorghum propinquum. We sequenced and annotated BAC clones from these species and re-annotated the orthologous Sorghum bicolor region. Gene colinearity in the region is well conserved within the genus Zea. However, the orthologous regions of Coix and Sorghum exhibited several micro-rearrangements relative to Zea, including addition, truncation and deletion of genes. The stc1 gene, involved in the production of a terpenoid insect defense signal, is evolving particularly fast, and its progressive disappearance from some species is occurring by microhomology-mediated recombination. LTR retrotransposons are the main contributors to the dynamic evolution of the bz region. Common transposon insertion sites occur among haplotypes from different Zea mays sub-species, but not outside the species. As in Zea, different patterns of interspersion between genes and retrotransposons are observed in Sorghum. We estimate that the mean divergence times between maize and Tripsacum, Coix and Sorghum are 8.5, 12.1 and 12.4 million years ago, respectively, and that between Coix and Sorghum is 9.3 million years ago. A comparison of the bz orthologous regions of Zea, Sorghum and Coix with those of Brachypodium, Setaria and Oryza allows us to infer how the region has evolved by addition and deletion of genes in the approximately 50 million years since these genera diverged from a common progenitor. PMID:22621343

Wang, Qinghua; Dooner, Hugo K

2012-08-01

256

Semantic integration of information about orthologs and diseases: the OGO system.  

PubMed

Semantic Web technologies like RDF and OWL are currently applied in life sciences to improve knowledge management by integrating disparate information. Many of the systems that perform such task, however, only offer a SPARQL query interface, which is difficult to use for life scientists. We present the OGO system, which consists of a knowledge base that integrates information of orthologous sequences and genetic diseases, providing an easy to use ontology-constrain driven query interface. Such interface allows the users to define SPARQL queries through a graphical process, therefore not requiring SPARQL expertise. PMID:21864715

Mińarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio; Egańa Aranguren, Mikel; Martínez Béjar, Rodrigo; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Madrid, Marisa

2011-08-16

257

Functional conservation of wheat orthologs of maize rough sheath1 and rough sheath2 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize rough\\u000a sheath2 (RS2) and Arabidopsis\\u000a ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) both encode a Myb transcription factor and repress Knotted1-type homeobox (KNOX) genes. The RS2\\/AS1-KNOX relationship is functionally conserved between maize and Arabidopsis. Here, we cloned wheat orthologs of RS2\\/AS1 and of a maize rough\\u000a sheath1 (rs1) KNOX gene and named them WRS2 and WRS1, respectively. WRS1 mRNA was detected at leaf

Ryoko Morimoto; Emi Nishioka; Koji Murai; Shigeo Takumi

2009-01-01

258

Detection of the DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in Warsaw.  

PubMed

Each month, from March 2003 to February 2004, 34 blood samples from dogs were randomly selected from the blood samples delivered to two veterinary laboratories in Warsaw and tested for the DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Borrelia DNA was detected in seven of the 408 dogs, A phagocytophilum DNA was found in two, and B canis DNA was found in 48 (11.8 per cent). The DNA of H canis was not found in any of the blood samples. Sequencing of the seven Borrelia amplicons showed that only the genospecies Borrelia afzelii was present, the first time it has been detected in dogs in Poland. PMID:19363228

Zygner, W; Górski, P; Wedrychowicz, H

2009-04-11

259

Comparison of Babesia rossi and Babesia canis isolates with emphasis on effects of vaccination with soluble parasite antigens: a review.  

PubMed

Babesia canis and B. rossi are large Babesia species that infect dogs and cause clinical disease. The spectrum of disease is highly diverse with either parasite, but upon evaluation of field cases it has been suggested that in general B. rossi is more virulent than B. canis. This difference was also found in experimental infections using B. canis and B. rossi isolates and appeared to be related to a difference in parasitaemia. Whether this difference reflects the essential difference between B. canis and B. rossi species in general, or merely reflects the variability in virulence of individual isolates cannot be discerned. Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a number of qualitative differences between the B. canis and B. rossi isolates studied; however, more research is required to determine any causal relationship between in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Vaccination with a bivalent vaccine (containing soluble parasite antigen [SPA] from supernatants of in vitro cultures of B. canis and B. rossi) induced protection against clinical babesiosis upon challenge infection with either parasite. The dynamics of parasitaemia upon challenge infection of vaccinated animals indicated a biological difference between the B. canis and B. rossi isolates studied. Vaccinated dogs that were challenged with B. rossi parasites (2 isolates tested) effectively controlled parasitaemia. By contrast, in vaccinated dogs that were challenged with B. canis isolates (2 isolates tested) there was little or no effect on parasitaemia but levels of SPA in plasma were reduced. Apparently the nature of vaccine-induced immunity differs with respect to the challenge species. PMID:19831266

Schetters, T P M; Moubri, K; Cooke, B M

2009-06-01

260

Comparison of Nested PCR with Immunofluorescent-Antibody Assay for Detection of Ehrlichia canis Infection in Dogs Treated with Doxycycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified in Ehrlichia canis-infected cells by nested PCR. The assay was specific and did not amplify the closely related Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris, Neorickettsia helminthoeca, and SF agent 16S rRNA genes. The assay was as sensitive as Southern hybridization, detecting as little as 0.2 pg of E. canis DNA. By this method, all blood

BOHAI WEN; YASUKO RIKIHISA; JASON M. MOTT; RUSSELL GREENE; HYUNG-YONG KIM; NING ZHI; GUILLERMO C. COUTO; AHMET UNVER; ROBERT BARTSCH

1997-01-01

261

Molecular Cloning of the Gene for a Conserved Major Immunoreactive 28-Kilodalton Protein of Ehrlichia canis: a Potential Serodiagnostic Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding a 28-kDa protein of Ehrlichia canis was cloned, sequenced, and expressed, and a compar- ative molecular analysis with homologous genes of E. canis, Cowdria ruminantium, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was performed. The complete gene has an 834-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 278 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 30.5 kDa. An N-terminal signal

JERE W. MCBRIDE; XUE-JIE YU; DAVID H. WALKER

1999-01-01

262

The Genome of the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium Ehrlichia canis Reveals Themes of Complex Membrane Structure and Immune Evasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, -proteobacterium, is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of noncoding sequence (27%). Interesting genome

K. Mavromatis; C. Kuyler Doyle; A. Lykidis; N. Ivanova; M. P. Francino; Patrick S Chain; M. Shin; Stephanie Malfatti; Frank W Larimer; A. Copeland; J. C. Detter; Miriam L Land; P. M. Richardson; X. J. Yu; D. H. Walker; J. W. McBride; N C Kyripides

2006-01-01

263

Standardisation of nomenclature for dog mtDNA D-loop: a prerequisite for launching a Canis familiaris database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Domestic dogs are increasingly involved, often as protagonists, in the forensic scene. Acknowledging this fact and benefiting from the accumulated experience on human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses, we propose a standard for Canis familiaris mtDNA sequences as a prerequisite for the launching of the corresponding,database. # 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Canis familiaris; Dogs; Database; mtDNA

Lu? sa Pereira; B arbara Van Asch; Anto nio Amorim

264

Development of Experimental Cystoisospora canis Infection Models in Beagle Puppies and Efficacy Evaluation of 5?% Ponazuril (Toltrazuril sulfone) Oral Suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pilot study, three pairs of Beagle puppies were inoculated with 2.5, 3.75 or 5?x?104 sporulated oocysts of Cystoisospora canis. All exhibited patent infections within ten days post-inoculation. In an efficacy study, 33 puppies were given 5?x?104 oocysts of C. canis and randomly allocated to receive 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg\\/kg ponazuril on day 0, or 30 mg\\/kg ponazuril or

C. R. Reinemeyer; D. S. Lindsay; S. M. Mitchell; H.-C. Mundt; S. D. Charles; R. G. Arther; T. L. Settje

2007-01-01

265

Transmission of hepatozoon canis to dogs by naturally-fed or percutaneously-injected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite of dogs, prevalent in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe. Experimental transmission of H. canis to dogs was performed with laboratory-reared Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs that fed on a naturally infected dog or were percutaneously injected with canine blood containing H. canis gamonts. Dogs were inoculated by oral ingestion of adult ticks containing H. canis oocysts. Transstadial transmission of H. canis was recorded, whereas transovarial transmission could not be demonstrated. Oocysts were detected in 85% of the adult ticks that had engorged as nymphs on an infected dog and in 61% of the adult ticks resulting from nymphs injected percutaneously with blood from the same dog. Nine of 12 dogs (75%) inoculated with naturally fed or percutaneously injected ticks became parasitologically positive, and all showed seroconversion. Meronts were initially detected in the bone marrow 13 days postinoculation and gamonts 28 days after infection. The variation in the time of initial detection of parasitemia among infected dogs and the rapid appearance of gamonts in dogs immunosuppressed with corticosteroids suggest that immune mechanisms play an important role in controlling H. canis parasitism. The artificial acquisition of Hepatozoon parasites by percutaneous injection of ticks, demonstrated here for the first time, may serve as a useful tool for studies on transmission, vector-host relationships, and the immunology of infection with Hepatozoon species. PMID:11426725

Baneth, G; Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Aroch, I; Shkap, V

2001-06-01

266

Analysis of Orthologous Gene Expression between Human Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma and a Carcinogen-Induced Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Human adenocarcinoma (AC) is the most frequently diagnosed human lung cancer, and its absolute incidence is increasing dramatically. Compared to human lung AC, the A/J mouse-urethane model exhibits similar histological appearance and molecular changes. We examined the gene expression profiles of human and murine lung tissues (normal or AC) and compared the two species’ datasets after aligning ?7500 orthologous genes. A list of 409 gene classifiers (P value <0.0001), common to both species (joint classifiers), showed significant, positive correlation in expression levels between the two species. A number of previously reported expression changes were recapitulated in both species, such as changes in glycolytic enzymes and cell-cycle proteins. Unexpectedly, joint classifiers in angiogenesis were uniformly down-regulated in tumor tissues. The eicosanoid pathway enzymes prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and inducible prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGES) were joint classifiers that showed opposite effects in lung AC (PGIS down-regulated; PGES up-regulated). Finally, tissue microarrays identified the same protein expression pattern for PGIS and PGES in 108 different non-small cell lung cancer biopsies, and the detection of PGIS had statistically significant prognostic value in patient survival. Thus, the A/J mouse-urethane model reflects significant molecular details of human lung AC, and comparison of changes in orthologous gene expression may provide novel insights into lung carcinogenesis.

Stearman, Robert S.; Dwyer-Nield, Lori; Zerbe, Laura; Blaine, Stacy A.; Chan, Zeng; Bunn , Paul A.; Johnson, Gary L.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Baron, Anna E.; Keith, Robert L.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.; Malkinson, Alvin M.; Geraci, Mark W.

2005-01-01

267

DNA Rearrangement in Orthologous Orp Regions of the Maize, Rice and Sorghum Genomes  

PubMed Central

The homeologous Orp1 and Orp2 regions of maize and the orthologous regions in sorghum and rice were compared by generating sequence data for >486 kb of genomic DNA. At least three genic rearrangements differentiate the maize Orp1 and Orp2 segments, including an insertion of a single gene and two deletions that removed one gene each, while no genic rearrangements were detected in the maize Orp2 region relative to sorghum. Extended comparison of the orthologous Orp regions of sorghum and japonica rice uncovered numerous genic rearrangements and the presence of a transposon-rich region in rice. Only 11 of 27 genes (40%) are arranged in the same order and orientation between sorghum and rice. Of the 8 genes that are uniquely present in the sorghum region, 4 were found to have single-copy homologs in both rice and Arabidopsis, but none of these genes are located near each other, indicating frequent gene movement. Further comparison of the Orp segments from two rice subspecies, japonica and indica, revealed that the transposon-rich region is both an ancient and current hotspot for retrotransposon accumulation and genic rearrangement. We also identify unequal gene conversion as a mechanism for maize retrotransposon rearrangement.

Ma, Jianxin; SanMiguel, Phillip; Lai, Jinsheng; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.

2005-01-01

268

Human and chicken TLR pathways: manual curation and computer-based orthology analysis.  

PubMed

The innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide an evolutionarily well-conserved first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In the Reactome Knowledgebase we previously integrated annotations of human TLR molecular functions with those of over 4000 other human proteins involved in processes such as adaptive immunity, DNA replication, signaling, and intermediary metabolism, and have linked these annotations to external resources, including PubMed, UniProt, EntrezGene, Ensembl, and the Gene Ontology to generate a resource suitable for data mining, pathway analysis, and other systems biology approaches. We have now used a combination of manual expert curation and computer-based orthology analysis to generate a set of annotations for TLR molecular function in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Mammalian and avian lineages diverged approximately 300 million years ago, and the avian TLR repertoire consists of both orthologs and distinct new genes. The work described here centers on the molecular biology of TLR3, the host receptor that mediates responses to viral and other doubled-stranded polynucleotides, as a paradigm for our approach to integrated manual and computationally based annotation and data analysis. It tests the quality of computationally generated annotations projected from human onto other species and supports a systems biology approach to analysis of virus-activated signaling pathways and identification of clinically useful antiviral measures. PMID:21052677

Gillespie, Marc; Shamovsky, Veronica; D'Eustachio, Peter

2010-10-30

269

KEGG OC: a large-scale automatic construction of taxonomy-based ortholog clusters  

PubMed Central

The identification of orthologous genes in an increasing number of fully sequenced genomes is a challenging issue in recent genome science. Here we present KEGG OC (http://www.genome.jp/tools/oc/), a novel database of ortholog clusters (OCs). The current version of KEGG OC contains 1 176 030 OCs, obtained by clustering 8 357 175 genes in 2112 complete genomes (153 eukaryotes, 1830 bacteria and 129 archaea). The OCs were constructed by applying the quasi-clique-based clustering method to all possible protein coding genes in all complete genomes, based on their amino acid sequence similarities. It is computationally efficient to calculate OCs, which enables to regularly update the contents. KEGG OC has the following two features: (i) It consists of all complete genomes of a wide variety of organisms from three domains of life, and the number of organisms is the largest among the existing databases; and (ii) It is compatible with the KEGG database by sharing the same sets of genes and identifiers, which leads to seamless integration of OCs with useful components in KEGG such as biological pathways, pathway modules, functional hierarchy, diseases and drugs. The KEGG OC resources are accessible via OC Viewer that provides an interactive visualization of OCs at different taxonomic levels.

Nakaya, Akihiro; Katayama, Toshiaki; Itoh, Masumi; Hiranuka, Kazushi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Moriya, Yuki; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Michihiro; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Akiyasu C.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu

2013-01-01

270

Orthologous Gene Clusters and Taxon Signature Genes for Viruses of Prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and encompass a vast amount of genetic diversity. The recent rapid increase in the number of sequenced viral genomes has created unprecedented opportunities for gaining new insight into the structure and evolution of the virosphere. Here, we present an update of the phage orthologous groups (POGs), a collection of 4,542 clusters of orthologous genes from bacteriophages that now also includes viruses infecting archaea and encompasses more than 1,000 distinct virus genomes. Analysis of this expanded data set shows that the number of POGs keeps growing without saturation and that a substantial majority of the POGs remain specific to viruses, lacking homologues in prokaryotic cells, outside known proviruses. Thus, the great majority of virus genes apparently remains to be discovered. A complementary observation is that numerous viral genomes remain poorly, if at all, covered by POGs. The genome coverage by POGs is expected to increase as more genomes are sequenced. Taxon-specific, single-copy signature genes that are not observed in prokaryotic genomes outside detected proviruses were identified for two-thirds of the 57 taxa (those with genomes available from at least 3 distinct viruses), with half of these present in all members of the respective taxon. These signatures can be used to specifically identify the presence and quantify the abundance of viruses from particular taxa in metagenomic samples and thus gain new insights into the ecology and evolution of viruses in relation to their hosts.

Kristensen, David M.; Waller, Alison S.; Yamada, Takuji; Bork, Peer; Mushegian, Arcady R.

2013-01-01

271

Membrane Thickness Sensitivity of Prestin Orthologs: The Evolution of a Piezoelectric Protein  

PubMed Central

How proteins evolve new functionality is an important question in biology; prestin (SLC26A5) is a case in point. Prestin drives outer hair cell somatic motility and amplifies mechanical vibrations in the mammalian cochlea. The motility of mammalian prestin is analogous to piezoelectricity, in which charge transfer is coupled to changes in membrane area occupied by the protein. Intriguingly, nonmammalian prestin orthologs function as anion exchangers but are apparently nonmotile. We previously found that mammalian prestin is sensitive to membrane thickness, suggesting that prestin's extended conformation has a thinner hydrophobic height in the lipid bilayer. Because prestin-based motility is a mammalian specialization, we initially hypothesized that nonmotile prestin orthologs, while functioning as anion transporters, should be much less sensitive to membrane thickness. We found the exact opposite to be true. Chicken prestin was the most sensitive to thickness changes, displaying the largest shift in voltage dependence. Platypus prestin displayed an intermediate response to membrane thickness and gerbil prestin was the least sensitive. To explain these observations, we present a theory where force production, rather than displacement, was selected for the evolution of prestin as a piezoelectric membrane motor.

Izumi, Chisako; Bird, Jonathan E.; Iwasa, Kuni H.

2011-01-01

272

PANTHER version 7: improved phylogenetic trees, orthologs and collaboration with the Gene Ontology Consortium.  

PubMed

Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations. PMID:20015972

Mi, Huaiyu; Dong, Qing; Muruganujan, Anushya; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewis, Suzanna; Thomas, Paul D

2009-12-16

273

Membrane thickness sensitivity of prestin orthologs: the evolution of a piezoelectric protein.  

PubMed

How proteins evolve new functionality is an important question in biology; prestin (SLC26A5) is a case in point. Prestin drives outer hair cell somatic motility and amplifies mechanical vibrations in the mammalian cochlea. The motility of mammalian prestin is analogous to piezoelectricity, in which charge transfer is coupled to changes in membrane area occupied by the protein. Intriguingly, nonmammalian prestin orthologs function as anion exchangers but are apparently nonmotile. We previously found that mammalian prestin is sensitive to membrane thickness, suggesting that prestin's extended conformation has a thinner hydrophobic height in the lipid bilayer. Because prestin-based motility is a mammalian specialization, we initially hypothesized that nonmotile prestin orthologs, while functioning as anion transporters, should be much less sensitive to membrane thickness. We found the exact opposite to be true. Chicken prestin was the most sensitive to thickness changes, displaying the largest shift in voltage dependence. Platypus prestin displayed an intermediate response to membrane thickness and gerbil prestin was the least sensitive. To explain these observations, we present a theory where force production, rather than displacement, was selected for the evolution of prestin as a piezoelectric membrane motor. PMID:21641306

Izumi, Chisako; Bird, Jonathan E; Iwasa, Kuni H

2011-06-01

274

Mapping of orthologous genes in the context of biological pathways: An application of integer programming  

PubMed Central

Mapping biological pathways across microbial genomes is a highly important technique in functional studies of biological systems. Existing methods mainly rely on sequence-based orthologous gene mapping, which often leads to suboptimal mapping results because sequence-similarity information alone does not contain sufficient information for accurate identification of orthology relationship. Here we present an algorithm for pathway mapping across microbial genomes. The algorithm takes into account both sequence similarity and genomic structure information such as operons and regulons. One basic premise of our approach is that a microbial pathway could generally be decomposed into a few operons or regulons. We formulated the pathway-mapping problem to map genes across genomes to maximize their sequence similarity under the constraint that the mapped genes be grouped into a few operons, preferably coregulated in the target genome. We have developed an integer-programming algorithm for solving this constrained optimization problem and implemented the algorithm as a computer software program, p-map. We have tested p-map on a number of known homologous pathways. We conclude that using genomic structure information as constraints could greatly improve the pathway-mapping accuracy over methods that use sequence-similarity information alone.

Mao, Fenglou; Su, Zhengchang; Olman, Victor; Dam, Phuongan; Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Ying

2006-01-01

275

From Mouse to Human: Evolutionary Genomics Analysis of Human Orthologs of Essential Genes  

PubMed Central

Understanding the core set of genes that are necessary for basic developmental functions is one of the central goals in biology. Studies in model organisms identified a significant fraction of essential genes through the analysis of null-mutations that lead to lethality. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing efforts have provided unprecedented data on genetic variation in human. However, evolutionary and genomic characteristics of human essential genes have never been directly studied on a genome-wide scale. Here we use detailed phenotypic resources available for the mouse and deep genomics sequencing data from human populations to characterize patterns of genetic variation and mutational burden in a set of 2,472 human orthologs of known essential genes in the mouse. Consistent with the action of strong, purifying selection, these genes exhibit comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, skew in allele frequency towards more rare, and exhibit increased conservation across the primate and rodent lineages relative to the remainder of genes in the genome. In individual genomes we observed ?12 rare mutations within essential genes predicted to be damaging. Consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in essential genes are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disease, we show that de novo variants in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to occur in this collection of genes. While incomplete, our set of human orthologs shows characteristics fully consistent with essential function in human and thus provides a resource to inform and facilitate interpretation of sequence data in studies of human disease.

Georgi, Benjamin; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bucan, Maja

2013-01-01

276

From mouse to human: evolutionary genomics analysis of human orthologs of essential genes.  

PubMed

Understanding the core set of genes that are necessary for basic developmental functions is one of the central goals in biology. Studies in model organisms identified a significant fraction of essential genes through the analysis of null-mutations that lead to lethality. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing efforts have provided unprecedented data on genetic variation in human. However, evolutionary and genomic characteristics of human essential genes have never been directly studied on a genome-wide scale. Here we use detailed phenotypic resources available for the mouse and deep genomics sequencing data from human populations to characterize patterns of genetic variation and mutational burden in a set of 2,472 human orthologs of known essential genes in the mouse. Consistent with the action of strong, purifying selection, these genes exhibit comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, skew in allele frequency towards more rare, and exhibit increased conservation across the primate and rodent lineages relative to the remainder of genes in the genome. In individual genomes we observed ~12 rare mutations within essential genes predicted to be damaging. Consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in essential genes are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disease, we show that de novo variants in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to occur in this collection of genes. While incomplete, our set of human orthologs shows characteristics fully consistent with essential function in human and thus provides a resource to inform and facilitate interpretation of sequence data in studies of human disease. PMID:23675308

Georgi, Benjamin; Voight, Benjamin F; Bu?an, Maja

2013-05-09

277

The Impact of Gene Duplication, Insertion, Deletion, Lateral Gene Transfer and Sequencing Error on Orthology Inference: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

The identification of orthologous genes, a prerequisite for numerous analyses in comparative and functional genomics, is commonly performed computationally from protein sequences. Several previous studies have compared the accuracy of orthology inference methods, but simulated data has not typically been considered in cross-method assessment studies. Yet, while dependent on model assumptions, simulation-based benchmarking offers unique advantages: contrary to empirical data, all aspects of simulated data are known with certainty. Furthermore, the flexibility of simulation makes it possible to investigate performance factors in isolation of one another. Here, we use simulated data to dissect the performance of six methods for orthology inference available as standalone software packages (Inparanoid, OMA, OrthoInspector, OrthoMCL, QuartetS, SPIMAP) as well as two generic approaches (bidirectional best hit and reciprocal smallest distance). We investigate the impact of various evolutionary forces (gene duplication, insertion, deletion, and lateral gene transfer) and technological artefacts (ambiguous sequences) on orthology inference. We show that while gene duplication/loss and insertion/deletion are well handled by most methods (albeit for different trade-offs of precision and recall), lateral gene transfer disrupts all methods. As for ambiguous sequences, which might result from poor sequencing, assembly, or genome annotation, we show that they affect alignment score-based orthology methods more strongly than their distance-based counterparts.

Dalquen, Daniel A.; Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Dessimoz, Christophe

2013-01-01

278

Ehrlichia canis-like agent isolated from a man in Venezuela: antigenic and genetic characterization.  

PubMed

We report the first isolation and molecular and antigenic characterization of a human ehrlichial species in South America. A retrospective study was performed with serum specimens from 6 children with clinical signs suggestive of human ehrlichiosis and 43 apparently healthy adults who had a close contact with dogs exhibiting clinical signs compatible with canine ehrlichiosis. The evaluation was performed by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay with Ehrlichia chaffeensis Arkansas, Ehrlichia canis Oklahoma, and Ehrlichia muris antigens. The sera from two apparently healthy humans were positive by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay for all three antigens. Of the three antigens, samples from humans 1 and 2 showed the highest antibody titers against E. chaffeensis and E. muris, respectively. The remaining serum samples were negative for all three antigens. One year later examination of a blood sample from subject 1 revealed morulae morphologically resembling either E. canis, E. chaffeensis, or E. muris in monocytes in the blood smear. The microorganism, referred to here as Venezuelan human ehrlichia (VHE), was isolated from the blood of this person at 4 days after coculturing isolated blood leukocytes with a dog macrophage cell line (DH82). The organism was also isolated from mice 10 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of blood leukocytes from subject 1. Analysis by electron microscopy showed that the human isolate was ultrastructurally similar to E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. muris. When the virulence of VHE in mice was compared with those of E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. muris, only VHE and E. muris induced clinical signs in BALB/c mice at 4 and 10 days, respectively, after intraperitoneal inoculation. VHE was reisolated from peritoneal exudate cells of the mice. Only E. chaffeensis- and E. muris-infected mice developed significant splenomegaly. Western immunoblot analysis showed that serum from subject 1 reacted with major proteins of the VHE antigen of 110, 80, 76, 58, 43, 35, and 34 kDa. Human serum against E. chaffeensis reacted strongly with 58-, 54-, 52-, and 40-kDa proteins of the VHE antigen. Anti-E. canis dog serum reacted strongly with 26- and 24-kDa proteins of VHE. In contrast, anti-E. sennetsu rabbit and anti-E. muris mouse sera did not react with the VHE antigen. Serum from subject 1 reacted with major proteins of 90, 64, or 47 kDa of the E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. muris antigens. This reaction pattern suggests that this serum sample was similar to serum samples from E. chaffeensis-infected human patients in Oklahoma. The base sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of VHE was most closely related to that of E. canis Oklahoma. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that VHE is a new strain or a subspecies of E. canis which may cause asymptomatic persistent infection in humans. PMID:8862572

Perez, M; Rikihisa, Y; Wen, B

1996-09-01

279

Contact-free inactivation of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis by cold atmospheric plasma treatment.  

PubMed

Aim: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has already proven efficient at disinfection of microorganisms including biofilms. The objective of the present study is to assess the efficacy of CAP against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis in vitro. Materials & methods:T. rubrum and M. canis were exposed to CAP for different treatment times and time intervals in vitro. Treatment with ciclopirox olamine or UVC radiation (0.120 J/cm(2)) served as controls. CAP was generated by the surface microdischarge technology. Fungal colony growth was measured upon CAP treatment. Results: Repeated daily CAP treatments of 10 min demonstrated an inhibition of growth during the treatment period of 9 days. Single CAP treatment sessions for 5, 8 and 10 min, as well as treatments for 5 or 8 min daily, resulted in less fungal growth inhibition. UVC radiation treatment failed, but not ciclopirox olamine. Conclusion: CAP shows promising potential for future application in the treatment of dermatophyte infections. PMID:24020738

Heinlin, Julia; Maisch, Tim; Zimmermann, Julia L; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Holzmann, Thomas; Simon, Michaela; Heider, Judith; Landthaler, Michael; Morfill, Gregor; Karrer, Sigrid

2013-09-01

280

Diet and prey selection of wolves ( Canis lupus) recolonising Western and Central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolf Canis lupus diet was studied by scat analysis in four main and several other locations recolonised by this species in Central and Western Poland between 2002 and 2009. Wild ungulates made up 94.8% of the total biomass of food consumed, with the most common being roe deer Capreolus capreolus (42.8%), wild boar Sus scrofa (22.6%) and red deer Cervus

Sabina Nowak; Robert W. Mys?ajek; Aleksandra K?osi?ska; Grzegorz Gabry?

2011-01-01

281

Use of human-given cues by domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and four horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to use human-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task. Two of the four horses\\u000a used touch as a cue and one horse successfully used pointing. The performance of the dogs was considerably better, with 12\\u000a subjects able to use pointing as a cue,

Jean McKinley; Thomas D. Sambrook

2000-01-01

282

[Toxocara canis infection in dogs in Cracow's Shelter for Stray Animals].  

PubMed

A coprologic examination of dogs in Cracow's Shelter for Stray Animals, carried out between January and November 1999-2000 showed that the dogs were infected with Toxocara canis from 2.4% to 16.2%. The puppies were more infected that adult dogs: 30-72.7% and 3,3-12.2% respectively. The females are also more infected than males: 6.3-15.2% and 4.8-18.2% respectively. PMID:16886422

Korna?, S; Nowosad, B; Skalska, M

2001-01-01

283

Wilderness Discount on Livestock Compensation Costs for Imperiled Gray Wolf Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that Wilderness reduces costs for livestock depredations caused by the endangered and threatened gray wolf (Canis lupus) in the northern Rockies and upper Midwest, U.S.A. From 1995 to 2004, direct costs for compensation in the northern Rockies came to only 47 to 78 percent of losses anticipated at wolf reintroduction and projected from non-wilderness habitat. Compensation was

J. Christopher Haney; Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey; Alysa Quarforth; Gina Schrader; Suzanne Asha Stone

284

Interactions between cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large carnivore populations are recovering in many protected areas in North America, but the effect of increasing carnivore numbers on existing predator-prey and predator-predator interactions is poorly understood. We studied diet and spatial overlap among cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta (1993-2004) to evaluate how wolf recovery in the park influenced diet choice

Andrea D. KORTELLO; Thomas E. HURD; Dennis L. MURRAY

2007-01-01

285

New light curves and analysis of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observations of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris made between 25 Dec. 1992 and 1 Mar. 1993. Two new epochs of minimum light were determined and an improved ephemeris is given. Analysis of the observations with the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney program shows that the system is semidetached. Our solution does not indicate the presence of third light, whereas some previously published solutions required large amounts of third light.

Terrell, Dirk; Gunn, J. B.; Kaiser, Daniel H.

1994-02-01

286

Active use of coyotes ( Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a

A. R. Berentsen; M. R. Dunbar; S. R. Johnson; S. Robbe-Austerman; L. Martinez; R. L. Jones

2011-01-01

287

INTERSPECIFIC TRANSMISSION OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO PARTURIENT CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four separate trials, 10 coyotes (Canis latrans) which had been individually fed mascerated bovine placental tissue experimentally inoculated with Brucella abortus strain 2308 were placed in a 1 ha isolation area with six parturient, non-B. abortus vaccinated, Brucella spp. seronegativeHereford heifers.During thesecond trial, three of the heifers became Brucella spp. seroreactive (as determined by the card, standard agglutination tube,

Donald S. Davis; Fred C. Heck; John D. Williams; T. R. Simpson; L. Garry Adams

288

Recombinant Major Antigenic Protein 2 of Ehrlichia canis: a Potential Diagnostic Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major antigenic protein 2 (MAP2) of Ehrlichia canis was cloned and expressed. The recombinant protein was characterized and tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format for potential application in the serodiagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The recombinant protein, which contained a C-terminal polyhistidine tag, had a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa. The antigen was clearly identified by

A. RICK ALLEMAN; LEO J. MCSHERRY; ANTHONY F. BARBET; EDWARD B. BREITSCHWERDT; HEATHER L. SORENSON; MICHAEL V. BOWIE; MYRIAM BELANGER

2001-01-01

289

A simple quantitative assay for the killing of in vitro culture cells by Ehrlichia canis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple colorimetric assay, on the basis of bioreduction of the substrate XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt) by dehydrogenases of actively metabolizing mammalian cells, was assessed for measurement of in vitro killing of canine macrophage-like cells by Ehrlichia canis infection. Formation of a highly colored, water soluble formazan which resulted from bioreduction by the test cells was significantly enhanced by phenazine

Jianneng Ma; Maria W. Nicholl

1996-01-01

290

Conservation and control strategies for the wolf ( Canis lupus) in western Europe based on demographic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Securing the long-term acceptance of large carnivores such as the wolf (Canis lupus) in Europe and North America raises a difficult challenge to conservation biologists: planning removals to reduce depredations on livestock while ensuring population viability. We use stochastic-stage-structured population models to investigate wolf population dynamics and to assess alternative management strategies. Among the various management strategies advocated by agencies,

Guillaume Chapron; Stéphane Legendre; Régis Ferričre; Jean Clobert; Robert G. Haight

2003-01-01

291

Antigenic characterization of ehrlichiae: protein immunoblotting of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia sennetsu, and Ehrlichia risticii.  

PubMed Central

In recent years a febrile illness apparently associated with tick bite in patients in the United States has been attributed to infection by an Ehrlichia species. This implication is based on serologic responses to E. canis, morphologic demonstration of ehrlichiae in clinical materials, and a single isolate distinct from E. canis which was obtained from a human patient by the Centers for Disease Control. Little is known about the antigens of the ehrlichiae. This report expands the breadth of available knowledge concerning the antigenic components and serologic responses to component antigens of E. canis, E. sennetsu, and E. risticii. Protein immunoblotting after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by using density gradient-purified ehrlichiae and homologous antisera demonstrated reproducible and characteristic antigens within each species (for E. sennetsu, 91, 64, 54, 44, 36, 34, 28, 25, and 24 kDa; for E. risticii, 70, 52, 48, 44, 35, 28, 24, 23, and 20 kDa; for E. canis, 110, 64, 52, 42, 33, 28, 24, 23, and 20 kDa). When antisera were reacted with heterologous antigens, cross-reactivity among these species was virtually restricted to the 70-kDa antigen. Furthermore, when serum samples obtained from 10 patients who were convalescing from ehrlichiosis were tested against each antigen, only three serum samples had any reactivities, and these serum samples reacted with only a few of the antigenic bands. These results documented the molecular sizes of electrophoretically separated antigens of the three Ehrlichia species, confirm their serologic relationships, and support the novel nature of the agent(s) of human ehrlichiosis in the United States. Images

Brouqui, P; Dumler, J S; Raoult, D; Walker, D H

1992-01-01

292

Verbal Attention Getting as a Key Factor in Social Learning Between Dog (Canis familiaris) and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pet dogs (Canis familiaris) learn to detour a V-shaped fence effectively from an unfamiliar human demonstrator. In this article, 4 main features of the demonstrator’s behavior are highlighted: (a) the manipulation of the target, (b) the familiarity of the demonstrator, (c) the role of verbal attention-getting behavior, and (d) whether a strange trained dog could also be an effective demonstrator.

Péter Pongrácz; Ádám Miklósi; Katalin Timár-Geng; Vilmos Csányi

2004-01-01

293

Eastern Coyote\\/Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon) Movement Patterns: Lessons Learned in Urbanized Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity and movement patterns represent a fundamental aspect of a species natural history. Twenty four-hour movements of eastern coyotes or coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon; hereafter eastern coyote for consistency purposes) ranged up to 31.9 linear km and averaged 23.5 + 7.3 (SD) km from 5-14 radio-fixes during each 24 hr monitoring period. Coyotes moved mostly at night and through

2011-01-01

294

Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans : the influence of social and ecological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 49 coyotes,Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456h and five transient coyotes for 51h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident

ERIC M. GESE; ROBERT L. RUFF

1997-01-01

295

Comparative genomics on SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3 orthologs.  

PubMed

SLIT1 gene at human chromosome 10q24.1, SLIT2 gene at 4p15.31, and SLIT3 gene at 5q34-q35.1 encode large secreted proteins functioning as ligands for Roundabout (Robo) receptors. SLIT-ROBO signaling pathway is implicated in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and immune response through the regulation of axonal guidance, endothelial cell migration, and denderitic cell migration, respectively. GREMLIN (CKTSF1B1 or GREM1) and DANTE (CKTSF1B3 or GREM3) are secreted antagonists for BMPs and SLITs. Here, comparative integromics analyses on SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3 orthologs were performed by using bioinformatics. Rat Slit2 gene, consisting of 36 exons, was located within rat genome sequences AC098362.4 and AC111627.6. Mouse Slit3 complete coding sequence was determined by assembling BB634238 EST, AF144629 cDNA, and AK129223 cDNA. Leucine-rich repeats with nine conserved cysteine (LRRCC) domains and SLIT C-terminal cysteine-rich (SLITCCR) domain were identified in this study. CPxxCxCxxxxVxCxxxxLxxxPxxxPx(10~58) Nx(19,20)LxxNx(9)Fx(8)LxLxxNxxxCxxxxxFxxLxxx xxLxLxxNx(9)Fx(13)NxxxCxCxxxWLx(15)CxxPx(17)C was the consensus sequence of LRRCC domain. Mammalian SLIT1, SLIT2 and SLIT3 orthologs were large secreted proteins with four LRRCC domains, nine EGF domains, Laminin G (LamG) domain, and SLITCCR domain. SLIT1 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and Jurkat T cells. SLIT2 and SLIT3 mRNAs were co-expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells with embryoid body formation, and diffuse type gastric cancer with signet ring cell features. Double TCF/LEF and bHLH-binding sites were conserved among mammalian SLIT1 promoters. FOXJ2, E47, ETS1, and FOXA2-binding sites and CCAAT box were conserved among mammalian SLIT3 promoters. Mammalian SLIT1 orthologs were identified as evolutionarily conserved targets of the WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:16211308

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2005-11-01

296

Postmortem small babesia-like morphology of Babesia canis - short communication.  

PubMed

Here we report a case of canine babesiosis with unusual morphology of the causative agent. A male, seven-week-old Labrador retriever puppy, exhibiting severe anaemia and haemoglobinuria, was presented at the Clinic of Internal Medicine in February 2011. The puppy was euthanised. The most relevant pathological changes were icterus, severe splenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and haemoglobin nephrosis. Samples were collected from various organs for histology within one hour post mortem. Impression smears were also prepared from the spleen after overnight storage at 4 °C. Tissue sections and smears showed the presence of multiple, coccoid intraerythrocytic bodies that measured 1-2 ?m and resembled small babesiae. No large piroplasms were seen. DNA was extracted from the spleen, and a conventional PCR was performed for the amplification of a 450-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasms. The causative agent was identified as Babesia canis canis, with 99% sequence identity to other European isolates. Sequence identity to B. gibsoni was only 91%. This is the first account to verify that the morphology of the large canine piroplasm, B. canis, can be uniformly small babesia-like post mortem or following the storage of tissue samples. PMID:22079703

Demeter, Zoltán; Palade, Elena Alina; Balogh, Eva; Jakab, Csaba; Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Hornok, Sándor

2011-12-01

297

Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed Central

In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

1990-01-01

298

Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. PMID:2349964

Cookston, M; Stober, M; Kayes, S G

1990-05-01

299

Sequence analysis of a Torque teno canis virus isolated in China.  

PubMed

In the present study, a total of 158 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal dogs younger than 1 year old in pet clinic in China. 20 specimens (20/158, 13%) were positive for Torque teno canis virus DNA using detection PCR. One representative positive isolate designated LDL was randomly selected, cloned and sequenced. The complete genome of the LDL Chinese strain was 2799 nucleotides in length and contains three open reading frames (ORFs), which encode 576 (ORF1), 101 (ORF2), and 243 (ORF3) aa. Compared with the human and other animal TTV genomes, the genome of the LDL strain is clearly smaller and shares 95% identity with Japanese cf-TTV10 strain (AB076002). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present Chinese Torque teno canis virus LDL strain was also closely clustered with the previous Japanese cf-TTV10 strain, and formed a different branch together with Torque teno sus viruses 1 and 2 compared with other Torque teno viruses, Torque teno mini virus, and Torque teno midi virus. Our study demonstrated that Torque teno canis virus is present in China. PMID:21645561

Lan, Daoliang; Hua, Xiuguo; Cui, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Liu, Zhijie; San, Tongling; Zhu, CaiXia; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Zhibiao

2011-05-27

300

Identification of Streptococcus canis Isolated from Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus canis was isolated from 31 milk samples from 11 cows in a dairy herd (with 49 lactating cows) affected by subclinical mastitis in north Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Thirty-one isolates from the infected udder quarters were further characterized for their phenotypic and molecular properties. Most isolates (83.9%) produced ?-galactosidase, and all were negative for ?-d-glucuronidase. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene by the PCR method and digestion with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and AvaII yielded species-specific patterns. Additional identification by species-specific amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region, the CAMP factor-encoding gene cfg, and the internal fragments of the sodA gene was consistent with S. canis. Macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the S. canis isolates originated from a single clone or were very closely related.

Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Akineden, Omer; Usleber, Ewald

2005-01-01

301

Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.  

PubMed

The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host. PMID:22691463

Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

2012-06-13

302

Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission. PMID:23568921

Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan J

2013-04-01

303

Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.  

PubMed

An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus. PMID:20646832

Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curkovi?, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljevi?, Zeljko; Cvetni?, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

2010-06-02

304

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia.

Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho

2013-01-01

305

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia. PMID:24039286

Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

2013-08-30

306

Within-host evolution of Brucella canis during a canine brucellosis outbreak in a kennel  

PubMed Central

Background Little is currently known about Brucella evolution within the host during infection. The current study is the first to employ fine-scale genotyping on an isolate collection derived from a Brucella canis outbreak. Eight isolates of B. canis, cultured from different tissues of three dogs (female, stud dog, puppy of another female) from a single kennel over three months were genetically characterized with a 15-marker multi-locus, variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates and potential rapid mutational changes. Results MLVA discriminated among the otherwise indistinguishable isolates from different animals and from isolates collected at different time points within each host, with different VNTR alleles being detected at multiple dates and tissue sites. We suspect that all isolates cultured from the female, puppy, and stud dogs originated from the same strain, with subsequent rapid in vivo mutations. However, high mutation rates and apparent in several of the loci prevented making definitive epidemiological relationships among isolates. Conclusions This investigation highlights the rapid in vivo genetic mutations of several VNTRs of B. canis over a short time period in the host and the emergence of alternate alleles. However, this work also suggests the challenges of using highly mutable VNTRs to infer epidemiological relationships of strains within a short duration outbreak.

2013-01-01

307

BLM helicase ortholog Sgs1 is a central regulator of meiotic recombination intermediate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Summary The BLM helicase has been shown to maintain genome stability by preventing accumulation of aberrant recombination intermediates. We show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLM ortholog, Sgs1, plays an integral role in normal meiotic recombination, beyond its documented activity limiting aberrant recombination intermediates. In wild type meiosis, temporally and mechanistically distinct pathways produce crossover and noncrossover recombinants. Crossovers form late in meiosis I prophase, by polo kinase-triggered resolution of Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates. Noncrossovers form earlier, via processes that do not involve stable HJ intermediates. In contrast, sgs1 mutants abolish early noncrossover formation. Instead, both noncrossovers and crossovers form by late HJ intermediate resolution, using an alternate pathway requiring the overlapping activities of Mus81-Mms4, Yen1, and Slx1–Slx4, nucleases with minor roles in wild-type meiosis. We conclude that Sgs1 is a primary regulator of recombination pathway choice during meiosis, and suggest a similar function in the mitotic cell cycle.

De Muyt, Arnaud; Jessop, Lea; Kolar, Elizabeth; Sourirajan, Anuradha; Chen, Jianhong; Dayani, Yaron; Lichten, Michael

2012-01-01

308

Utility of the bacteriophage RB69 polymerase gp43 as a surrogate enzyme for herpesvirus orthologs.  

PubMed

Viral polymerases are important targets in drug discovery and development efforts. Most antiviral compounds that are currently approved for treatment of infection with members of the herpesviridae family were shown to inhibit the viral DNA polymerase. However, biochemical studies that shed light on mechanisms of drug action and resistance are hampered primarily due to technical problems associated with enzyme expression and purification. In contrast, the orthologous bacteriophage RB69 polymerase gp43 has been crystallized in various forms and therefore serves as a model system that provides a better understanding of structure-function relationships of polymerases that belong the type B family. This review aims to discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities of the phage surrogate with emphasis placed on its utility in the discovery and development of anti-herpetic drugs. PMID:23299784

Bennett, Nicholas; Götte, Matthias

2013-01-08

309

A Cdc42 ortholog is required for penetration and virulence of Magnaporthe grisea.  

PubMed

Cdc42, a member of the Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins, is a pivotal signaling switch that cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound forms, controlling actin cytoskeleton organization and cell polarity. In this report, we show that MgCdc42, a Cdc42 ortholog in Magnaporthe grisea, is required for its plant penetration. Consequently, the deletion mutants show dramatically decreased virulence to rice due to the arrest of penetration and infectious growth, which may be attributed to the defect of turgor and superoxide generation during the appressorial development in Mgcdc42 deletion mutants. In addition, the mutants also exhibit pleotropic defects including gherkin-shaped conidia, delayed germination as well as decreased sporulation. Furthermore, dominant negative mutation leads to a similar phenotype to that of the deletion mutants, lending further support to the conclusion that MgCdc42 is required for the penetration and virulence of M. grisea. PMID:19298860

Zheng, Wu; Zhao, Zhiying; Chen, Jisheng; Liu, Wende; Ke, Haiyan; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Guodong; Darvill, Alan G; Albersheim, Peter; Wu, Shengcheng; Wang, Zonghua

2009-03-17

310

The Fission Yeast FANCM Ortholog Directs Non-Crossover Recombination During Meiosis  

PubMed Central

The formation of healthy gametes depends on programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are each repaired as a crossover (CO) or non-crossover (NCO) from a homologous template. Although most of these DSBs are repaired without giving COs, little is known about the genetic requirements of NCO-specific recombination. We show that Fml1, the Fanconi anemia complementation group M (FANCM)-ortholog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, directs the formation of NCOs during meiosis in competition with the Mus81-dependent pro-CO pathway. We also define the Rad51/Dmc1-mediator Swi5-Sfr1 as a major determinant in biasing the recombination process in favour of Mus81, to ensure the appropriate amount of COs to guide meiotic chromosome segregation. The conservation of these proteins from yeast to Humans suggests that this interplay may be a general feature of meiotic recombination.

Lorenz, Alexander; Osman, Fekret; Sun, Weili; Nandi, Saikat; Steinacher, Roland; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

311

Phyletic profiling with cliques of orthologs is enhanced by signatures of paralogy relationships.  

PubMed

New microbial genomes are sequenced at a high pace, allowing insight into the genetics of not only cultured microbes, but a wide range of metagenomic collections such as the human microbiome. To understand the deluge of genomic data we face, computational approaches for gene functional annotation are invaluable. We introduce a novel model for computational annotation that refines two established concepts: annotation based on homology and annotation based on phyletic profiling. The phyletic profiling-based model that includes both inferred orthologs and paralogs-homologs separated by a speciation and a duplication event, respectively-provides more annotations at the same average Precision than the model that includes only inferred orthologs. For experimental validation, we selected 38 poorly annotated Escherichia coli genes for which the model assigned one of three GO terms with high confidence: involvement in DNA repair, protein translation, or cell wall synthesis. Results of antibiotic stress survival assays on E. coli knockout mutants showed high agreement with our model's estimates of accuracy: out of 38 predictions obtained at the reported Precision of 60%, we confirmed 25 predictions, indicating that our confidence estimates can be used to make informed decisions on experimental validation. Our work will contribute to making experimental validation of computational predictions more approachable, both in cost and time. Our predictions for 998 prokaryotic genomes include ~400000 specific annotations with the estimated Precision of 90%, ~19000 of which are highly specific-e.g. "penicillin binding," "tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation," or "pathogenesis"-and are freely available at http://gorbi.irb.hr/. PMID:23308060

Skunca, Nives; Bošnjak, Matko; Kriško, Anita; Panov, Pan?e; Džeroski, Sašo; Smuc, Tomislav; Supek, Fran

2013-01-03

312

Suiformes orthologous satellite DNAs as a hallmark of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari (Tayassuidae) evolutionary rearrangements.  

PubMed

In a broad general way, eukaryotic satellite DNA sequences are characterized by a highly dynamic molecular behavior due to concerted evolution that leads to rapid change between repeat sequences of different species, achieved by amplification of new variants during speciation or by gradual sequence evolution due to the accumulation of nucleotide substitutions. There are, although exceptions for this almost universal rule. We isolated variants from both the Mc1 and Ac2 pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) satellite DNA families from the genomes of two Tayassuidae members: Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari, which have highly derived karyotypes. The presence of these sequences in both families' genomes (Suidae and Tayassuidae) implies their existence in a common ancestor, what confers to the variants the status of orthology and the approximate age of, at least 40 million years. While at the molecular composition level these orthologous sequences are highly homologous, cross-species physical mapping revealed a completely different chromosomal location in Suidae versus Tayassuidae families, most probably, reflecting the high level of divergence and chromosomes evolution pathways after radiation of each family. Detailed comparative analysis of the satellites assignment on the peccary's chromosomes revealed its co-localization with homologous evolutionary breakpoints in both species, suggesting their involvement in the rearrangement events. The complex behavior of the repeats evolution in the pig/peccaries genomes is here clearly illustrated. These sequences are molecularly preserved for a considerable period of time and display slow rates of sequence change, but show a dynamic motion behavior throughout the peccary's genomes that accompanied the great architectonic reorganization of Tayassuidae chromosomes during evolution. PMID:18440236

Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

2008-03-20

313

On the artefactual parasitic eubacteria clan in conditioned logdet phylogenies: heterotachy and ortholog identification artefacts as explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic reconstruction methods based on gene content often place all the parasitic and endosymbiotic eubacteria (parasites for short) together in a clan. Many other lines of evidence point to this parasites clan being an artefact. This artefact could be a consequence of the methods used to construct ortholog databases (due to some unknown bias), the methods used to estimate

Ajanthah Sangaralingam; Edward Susko; David Bryant; Matthew Spencer

2010-01-01

314

Negative correlation of G+C content at silent substitution sites between orthologous human and mouse protein-coding sequences.  

PubMed

We conducted a genome-wide analysis of variations in guanine plus cytosine (G+C) content at the third codon position at silent substitution sites of orthologous human and mouse protein-coding nucleotide sequences. Alignments of 3776 human protein-coding DNA sequences with mouse orthologs having >50 synonymous codons were analyzed, and nucleotide substitutions were counted by comparing sequences in the alignments extracted from gap-free regions. The G+C content at silent sites in these pairs of genes showed a strong negative correlation (r = -0.93). Some gene pairs showed significant differences in G+C content at the third codon position at silent substitution sites. For example, human thymine-DNA glycosylase was A+T-rich at the silent substitution sites, while the orthologous mouse sequence was G+C-rich at the corresponding sites. In contrast, human matrix metalloproteinase 23B was G+C-rich at silent substitution sites, while the mouse ortholog was A+T-rich. We discuss possible implications of this significant negative correlation of G+C content at silent sites. PMID:17046958

Takahashi, Naoki; Nakashima, Hiroshi

2006-10-17

315

HomoMINT: an inferred human network based on orthology mapping of protein interactions discovered in model organisms  

PubMed Central

Background The application of high throughput approaches to the identification of protein interactions has offered for the first time a glimpse of the global interactome of some model organisms. Until now, however, such genome-wide approaches have not been applied to the human proteome. Results In order to fill this gap we have assembled an inferred human protein interaction network where interactions discovered in model organisms are mapped onto the corresponding human orthologs. In addition to a stringent assignment to orthology classes based on the InParanoid algorithm, we have implemented a string matching algorithm to filter out orthology assignments of proteins whose global domain organization is not conserved. Finally, we have assessed the accuracy of our own, and related, inferred networks by benchmarking them against i) an assembled experimental interactome, ii) a network derived by mining of the scientific literature and iii) by measuring the enrichment of interacting protein pairs sharing common Gene Ontology annotation. Conclusion The resulting networks are named HomoMINT and HomoMINT_filtered, the latter being based on the orthology table filtered by the domain architecture matching algorithm. They contains 9749 and 5203 interactions respectively and can be analyzed and viewed in the context of the experimentally verified interactions between human proteins stored in the MINT database. HomoMINT is constantly updated to take into account the growing information in the MINT database.

Persico, Maria; Ceol, Arnaud; Gavrila, Caius; Hoffmann, Robert; Florio, Arnaldo; Cesareni, Gianni

2005-01-01

316

Transcription Factor Binding Probabilities in Orthologous Promoters: An Alignment-Free Approach to the Inference of Functional Regulatory Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physically principled method of scoring genomic sequences for the potential to be bound by transcription factors, we have developed an algorithm for assessing the conservation of predicted binding occupancy that does not rely on sequence alignment of promoters. The method, which we call ortholog-weighting, assesses the degree to which the predicted binding occupancy of a transcription factor in a reference gene is also predicted in the promoters of orthologous genes. The analysis was performed separately for over 100 different transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Statistical significance was evaluated by simulation using permuted versions of the position weight matrices. Ortholog-weighting produced about twice as many significantly high scoring genes as were obtained from the S. cerevisiae genome alone. Gene Ontology analysis found a similar two-fold enrichment of genes. Both analyses suggest that ortholog-weighting improves the prediction of true regulatory targets. Interestingly, the method has only a marginal effect on the prediction of binding by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We suggest several possibilities for reconciling this result with the improved enrichment that we observe for functionally related promoters and for promoters that are under positive selection.

Liu, Xiao; Clarke, Neil D.

317

A novel zebrafish kelchlike gene klhl and its human ortholog KLHL display conserved expression patterns in skeletal and cardiac muscles.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel gene, kelchlike (klhl) was identified in zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization screen for important genes involved in embryogenesis. A full-length klhl cDNA was cloned and characterized. We found that klhl was a member of the kelch-repeat superfamily, containing two evolutionary conserved domains--broad-complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain, and kelch motif. Database mining revealed the presence of putative orthologs of klhl in human, mouse, rat, and pufferfish. klhl was determined to map to zebrafish linkage group (LG) 13 and was found to be syntenic with the proposed orthologs of klhl in human, mouse, and rat. In an effort to elucidate the function of klhl, klhl expression was investigated by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. klhl is specifically expressed in the fast skeletal and cardiac muscle. Northern blot analyses show that the human ortholog, KLHL, is also specifically expressed in the skeletal muscles and heart. In silico analyses of rat expressed sequence tag (EST) clones corresponding to rat Klhl ortholog also indicate that its expression is also restricted to rat muscle tissues, suggesting a conserved role of klhl in vertebrates. The expression pattern of klhl, as well as the presence of the kelch repeats indicates a possible role for Klhl in the organization of striated muscle cytoarchitecture. PMID:15302408

Wu, Yi Lian; Gong, Zhiyuan

2004-08-18

318

Cloning, pharmacology, and tissue distribution of G-protein-coupled receptor GPR105 (KIAA0001) rodent orthologs.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that UDP-glucose is a potent agonist of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) KIAA0001. Here we report cloning and analysis of the rat and mouse orthologs of this receptor. In accordance with GPCR nomenclature, we have renamed the cDNA clone, KIAA0001, and its orthologs GPR105 to reflect their functionality as G-protein-coupled receptors. The rat and mouse orthologs show 80% and 83% amino acid identity, respectively, to the human GPR105 protein. We demonstrate by genomic Southern blot analysis that there are no genes in the mouse or rat genomes with higher sequence similarity. Chromosomal mapping shows that the mouse and human genes are located on syntenic regions of chromosome 3. Further analyses of the rat and mouse GPR105 proteins show that they are activated by the same agonists as the human receptor, responding to UDP-glucose and closely related molecules with similar affinities. The mouse and rat receptors are widely expressed, as is the human receptor. Thus we conclude that we have identified the rat and mouse orthologs of the human gene GPR105. PMID:11735218

Freeman, K; Tsui, P; Moore, D; Emson, P C; Vawter, L; Naheed, S; Lane, P; Bawagan, H; Herrity, N; Murphy, K; Sarau, H M; Ames, R S; Wilson, S; Livi, G P; Chambers, J K

2001-12-01

319

Morphological, biometrical, and molecular characterization of Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis isolated from dogs from different geographical regions.  

PubMed

In the present work, a comparative morphological, biometrical and molecular study of Ctenocephalides spp. isolated from dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) from different geographical regions (Spain, Iran, and South Africa) has been carried out. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences of Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis collected from dogs from different geographical regions have been determined to clarify the taxonomic status of these species and to assess intraspecific variation and interspecific sequence differences. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1 sequences has been performed. Four different morphological populations were observed in the individuals of C. felis collected from dogs from different geographical locations. Nevertheless, the comparative study of the ITS1 sequences of the different morphological populations observed in C. felis did not show molecular differences. The results showed clear molecular differences between C. felis and C. canis and some specific recognition sites for endonucleases were detected between both species. Thus, BfrBI and DraI sites have diagnostic value for specific determination in C. felis. The phylogenetic tree based on the ITS1 sequences of C. felis and C. canis revealed that all the populations of C. felis from different geographical regions clustered together and separated, with high bootstrap values, from C. canis. We conclude that ITS1 region is a useful tool to approach different taxonomic and phylogenetic questions in Ctenocephalides species. PMID:23525642

Marrugal, A; Callejón, R; de Rojas, M; Halajian, A; Cutillas, C

2013-03-23

320

[The prevalence of Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) in dogs and red foxes in north-west Poland].  

PubMed

One of the most dangerous parasites, not only for carnivores but also for human being is Toxocara canis. It is presented very commonly all over the world, so spread its into the humans organisms, especially childrens is very easy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis in dogs and red foxes in area of north-west Poland. The dog coproscopy was provided according to Willis-Schlaff method. Post mortem examination of red foxes was conducted according to Eckert and Amman (1990), Eckert et al. (1991) and Ewald (1993). In examined area dogs were infected with Toxocara canis from 2.67 to 55% (Table 1). The highest prevalence was observed in Gorzów Wielkopolski in its neighborhood (villages) and in urban places. The lowest extensity (2.67%) was determined in urban area of S?upsk city. In examined forest regions the prevalence of Toxocara canis in red foxes was 43% (Table 2). To sum up, north-west Poland is a region where Toxocara canis is common, both in domesticated and wild environment. There should be provided regular monitoring of this zoonozis as well as pharmacological treatment of dogs. PMID:16865980

Cisek, Agnieszka; Ramisz, Alojzy; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Laurans, Lukasz

2004-01-01

321

Seroprevalence of IgG anti-Toxocara canis antibodies and anti-Fasciola sp. antibodies in patients with urticaria.  

PubMed

Aims. Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined by recurrent episodes occurring at least twice a week for 6 weeks and generally characterized by the rapid appearance of wheals and/or angioedema and may be associated with parasitic infections. We aimed to investigate the seroprevalance of Toxocara canis and Fasciola species in patients with CU. Materials and Methods. We included 55 patients (in age 16-55) with urticaria admitted in study. As a control group we recruited 30 healthy volunteers they had no history of urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS), or other relevant diseases. IgG antibodies to Toxocara canis and Fasciola species were investigated by ELISA method. Results. In a total of 55 patients (mean age: 31.85±8.92), 8 patients (14.5%) were positive for IgG antibodies to Toxocara canis. Among seropositive patients (mean age: 38.62±12.46) 6 patients were female. No patient was positive for Fasciola by ELISA. Six of Toxocara canis seropositive cases were frequently visited or lived in rural areas and had contact with pets. Conclusions. Patients with urticaria, should be tested for Toxocara canis and treated with anthelminthic drugs in endemics areas for toxocariasis. PMID:24045514

Dal, T; Ciçek, M; Uçmak, D; Akkurt, M; Tekin, A; Dal, M S; Tekin, R; Kalkanl, S T

322

Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

PubMed

Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

2013-04-01

323

The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.  

PubMed

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

324

Cooperative Plasminogen Recruitment to the Surface of Streptococcus canis via M Protein and Enolase Enhances Bacterial Survival  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Streptococcus canis is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans. Surface-exposed M proteins and metabolic enzymes have been characterized as major virulence determinants in various streptococcal species. Recently, we have identified SCM, the M-like protein of S. canis, as the major receptor for miniplasminogen localized on the bacterial surface. The present study now characterizes the glycolytic enzyme enolase as an additional surface-exposed plasminogen-binding protein. According to its zoonotic properties, purified S. canis enolase binds to both human and canine plasminogen and facilitates degradation of aggregated fibrin matrices after activation with host-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Unlike SCM, which binds to the C terminus of human plasminogen, the S. canis enolase interacts N terminally with the first four kringle domains of plasminogen, representing angiostatin. Radioactive binding analyses confirmed cooperative plasminogen recruitment to both surface-exposed enolase and SCM. Furthermore, despite the lack of surface protease activity via SpeB in S. canis, SCM is released and reassociated homophilically to surface-anchored SCM and heterophilically to surface-bound plasminogen. In addition to plasminogen-mediated antiphagocytic activity, reassociation of SCM to the bacterial surface significantly enhanced bacterial survival in phagocytosis analyses using human neutrophils.

Fulde, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Polok, Andy; Preissner, Klaus T.; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Bergmann, Simone

2013-01-01

325

High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus  

PubMed Central

Background Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar) are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12) between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41). Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary. Estimated silent substitution rates were 1.28 × 10-9 and 1.68 × 10-9 per site and year, which are close to rates found in other perennials but much lower than rates in annuals.

2010-01-01

326

Retrospective Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Conditioned Laboratory Dogs (Canis familiaris) with Serologic Reactions to Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii  

PubMed Central

Dogs are susceptible to different tickborne infections, including members of the Anaplasmataceae (Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys), Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii. These diseases can manifest with clinical signs including fever, anorexia, malaise, lameness, rash, and bleeding episodes; however, these signs are nonpathognomonic, and infections can occur in the absence of clinical signs. Hematologic abnormalities can include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In biomedical research, diseases such as canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever may cause morbidity among exposed dogs and confound research results. Random-source dogs are susceptible to these diseases because of their increased risk of arthropod exposure. Nonpurpose bred, randomly selected conditioned dogs (n = 21) were examined; blood samples were taken for hematology, biochemistry analysis, tickborne pathogen serology, and PCR. Of these, 2 dogs (10% of the population) presented with illness characterized by fever, malaise, lameness, or hemostatic abnormalities, and 15 (71%) had antibodies to one or more tickborne pathogens. No specific hematologic or biochemical differences were apparent between seronegative dogs and seropositive dogs reactive to all 3 pathogens. E. canis and B. burgdorferi PCR of tissues and blood were negative for all dogs. PCR amplification of several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genes yielded no positive samples. From this cohort of dogs, serologic and molecular results indicate prior exposure without active infection or clinical disease. Exposure to and potential for infection with these bacteria and other pathogens may contribute to blood and tissue alterations that could confound experiments and lead to misinterpretation of data in canine models.

Scorpio, Diana G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Tunin, Richard S; Barat, Nicole C; Garyu, Justin W; Dumler, J Stephen

2008-01-01

327

Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.  

PubMed

The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. PMID:20444549

Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

2010-04-08

328

The first report of Hepatozoon canis identified in Vulpes vulpes and ticks from Italy.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the presence of Hepatozoon canis in Vulpes vulpes in Italy. During the years 2005 and 2006, a total of 119 foxes were collected and their spleen tissues were screened by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. In the same area, 290 ticks were picked off from dogs or collected from the environment. Microscopy detected inclusion bodies regarded as belonging to the genus Hepatozoon in four samples, whereas molecular diagnostics evidenced 16 foxes (13.4%) and 6 ticks (2.1%) positive to H. canis. The H. canis isolates we found in foxes, compared with the strains we previously detected in dogs from the same area and with the strains found in foxes from other European countries, show a certain genetic heterogeneity. In fact, seven isolates cluster with the Italian dog strain and nine isolates cluster with the fox strain found in Spain and Slovakia; moreover, the dog's strain is closely related to one tick's isolate, and the strain found in three Rhipicephalus sanguineus and in one Ixodes ricinus collected from the environment cluster with the aforementioned Spanish and Slovak fox strains. Our findings confirm the importance of R. sanguineus as final host and suggest that I. ricinus might also be implicated in parasite transmission, explaining in that way the occurrence of hepatozoonosis in areas considered R. sanguineus-free. The peridomestic habits of V. vulpes and the increasing global temperature are expected to amplify the impact of this vector-borne disease and to enforce the transmission of Hepatozoon to domestic animals. PMID:20420538

Gabrielli, Simona; Kumlien, Susanna; Calderini, Pietro; Brozzi, Alberto; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

2010-04-26

329

In vivo evaluation of albendazole microspheres for the treatment of Toxocara canis larva migrans.  

PubMed

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with proven efficacy against many parasites such as intestinal helminths. Toxocariasis is one of the important parasitic diseases in humans and animals caused by Toxocara canis. It is well known that T. canis larvae migrate in paratenic hosts, including humans where it may cause visceral larva migrans. Thus, the present research was carried out using in vivo experiments with the aim of finding whether novel albendazole microparticles would be active against migrating larvae of the parasite. Albendazole-chitosan microparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation with sodium lauryl sulphate or by a liquid-liquid phase separation with sodium hydroxide. Mice were infected with T. canis and then treated with both albendazole-chitosan microparticles. After treatment (28days post-infection), it was examined the anthelmintic effect in mice after oral administration of microparticulate preparations. The number of larvae recovered from mice treated with albendazole formulations were compared with placebo. The results showed that albendazole microparticles were easily prepared in high yield using both aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulphate or sodium hydroxide. In vivo evaluation of larva migration showed that albendazole microparticles exhibited a greater anthelmintic effect in the brain (0 larva/mouse). In addition, it was also found that liver and lung showed a significant decrease in the number of larvae. Therefore, these data suggest that albendazole-chitosan microparticles are effective formulations for the treatment of toxocariasis infection by reducing the number of larvae in liver and lung. Particularly, these polymeric preparations were able to totally prevent migration of larvae to the mice brain. PMID:20347973

Barrera, María G; Leonardi, Darío; Bolmaro, Raul E; Echenique, Claudia G; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Salomon, Claudio J; Lamas, María C

2010-03-27

330

Isolation of a Microsporum canis gene family encoding three subtilisin-like proteases expressed in vivo.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats and is responsible for frequent zoonosis. The pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown, however. Among potential fungal virulence factors are secreted keratinolytic proteases, whose molecular characterization would be an important step towards the understanding of dermatophytic infection pathogenesis. M. canis secretes a 31.5 kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease as the major component in a culture medium containing cat keratin as the sole nitrogen source. Using a probe corresponding to a gene's internal fragment, which was obtained by polymerase chain reaction, the entire gene encoding this protease named SUB3 was cloned from a M. canislambdaEMBL3 genomic library. Two closely related genes, termed SUB1 and SUB2, were also cloned from the library using as a probe the gene coding for Aspergillus fumigatus 33 kDa alkaline protease (ALP). Deduced amino acid sequence analysis revealed that SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 are secreted proteases and show large regions of identity between themselves and with subtilisin-like proteases of other filamentous fungi. Interest ingly, mRNA of SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 were detected by reverse transcriptase nested-polymerase chain reaction from hair of experimentally infected guinea pigs. These results show that SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 encode a family of subtilisin-like proteases and strongly suggest that these proteases are produced by M. canis during the invasion of keratinized structures. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12406327

Descamps, Frédéric; Brouta, Frédéric; Monod, Michel; Zaugg, Christophe; Baar, Didier; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

2002-10-01

331

Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland.  

PubMed

Eighty-nine samples of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) faeces were collected between 2002 and 2004 from two areas in the western Beskidy Mts (south Poland). Helminth eggs were observed in 56.2% of faeces examined. These included: Alaria alata (2.2%), taeniid eggs (11.2%), Toxocara canis (5.6%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (14.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (37%) and unidentified roundworm eggs of the family Strongyloididae (1.1%). Eucoleus aerophilus is recorded for the first time from Poland. The results are compared with the helminth fauna of other wolf populations in Europe. PMID:18251025

Popio?ek, Marcin; Szczesnaa, Justyna; Nowaka, Sabina; Mys?ajeka, Robert W

2007-12-01

332

Genetic Variability in Six Mexican Gray Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Populations Determined by Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaramillo-Jaimes, M.T., Sifuentes-Rincón, A.M., Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M.T., Mendoza-Martínez, G.D., Clemente-Sánchez, F., Olivera-López, J.I., Molina Hernández, M. and Martínez-Tripp, S.C. 2007. Genetic variability in six Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) populations determined by microsatellite markers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 31: 131–136.A study was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity in six Mexican gray wolf populations based on six microsatellite loci. Allelic

M. T. Jaramillo-Jaimes; A. M. Sifuentes-Rincón; M. T. Sánchez Torres-Esqueda; G. D. Mendoza-Martínez; F. Clemente-Sánchez; J. I. Olivera-López; M. Molina Hernández; S. C. Martínez-Tripp

2007-01-01

333

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with parasites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and parasites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguination. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote. PMID:17939363

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V

2007-09-01

334

Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

From May 2007 to March 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. In addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. A mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify fragments of the 18S rDNA gene of Babesia spp or Hepatozoon spp revealed amplicons of the expected size in 20 (21.7%) dogs for Babesia, and 54 (58.7%) dogs for Hepatozoon. All Babesia-positive dogs were also Hepatozoon-positive. Among the 21 households, 15 (71.4%) from 3 counties had at least one PCR-positive dog, including 13 farms (rural area) and 2 homes (urban area). A total of 40 PCR products from the Hepatozoon-PCR, and 19 products from the Babesia-PCR were submitted to DNA sequencing. All generated sequences from Hepatozoon-PCR were identical to each other, and to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Surprisingly, all generated sequences from the Babesia PCR were also identical to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Dogs from 10 rural and 2 urban households were found infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Immature of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were found in dogs from only 4 rural households (also infested by R. sanguineus). All but one household with R. sanguineus-infested dogs had at least one Hepatozoon-infected dog. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ticks (i.e. R. sanguineus) infesting dogs in the households was significantly (P<0.05) associated with at least one PCR-positive dog. There was no significant association (P>0.05) between PCR-positive dogs and urban or rural households. Canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis is a high frequent infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is possibly vectored by R. sanguineus. Since all infected dogs were found apparently healthy, the pathogenicity of H. canis for dogs in Espírito Santo is yet to be elucidated. PMID:19482427

Spolidorio, Mariana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zago, Augusto M; Donatele, Dirlei M; Caliari, Késia M; Yoshinari, Natalino H

2009-05-15

335

First notification in Italy of cardiopulmonary filariosis (heartworm disease) in a wolf (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

The authors report on the first notification of filariosis (heartworm disease) caused by Dirofilaria immitis in a wolf (Canis lupus) in Italy. On account of this exceptional finding, the parasite was typed not only using traditional methods, such as stereomicroscopic examination, but also using highly innovative diagnostic methods, such as scanning electron microscope and molecular identification with the application of various recently developed methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Certain aspects regarding the epidemiology of the disease are discussed in the light of this first case in Italy that occurred in an area in which cardiopulmonary filiariasis had not previously been reported in wild or domestic carnivores. PMID:20422563

Pascucci, Ilaria; Fico, Rosario; D'Angelo, Anna Rita; Serini, Sabrina; Cammŕ, Cesare

336

Inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia canis cysts by combined and free chlorine.  

PubMed Central

Free chlorine and a combined organic N-chloramine (3-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone, compound 1) were compared for efficacy as disinfectants against an admixture of cysts of Giardia lamblia and Giardia canis in water solution under a variety of test conditions; variables were pH, temperature, and water quality. In general, compound 1 was found to reduce the giardial excystation in the solutions at lower concentration or shorter contact time at a given total chlorine concentration than did free chlorine.

Kong, L I; Swango, L J; Blagburn, B L; Hendrix, C M; Williams, D E; Worley, S D

1988-01-01

337

Epidemiological characteristics of Toxocara canis zoonotic infection of children in a Caribbean community  

PubMed Central

The study reports the results of a summary of the prevalence and symptomatology of paediatric toxocariasis in Anse-la-Raye, St. Lucia. The seroprevalence of Toxocara canis among the children, as determined by ELISA, was 86%, the highest level recorded to date. In contrast, the prevalence of infection in dogs was not abnormally high, although the canine population was large and unconstrained compared to that in industrial countries. The presence of infective ova in peridomestic areas and the widespread practice of pica among children in the village probably combine to enhance exposure to infection.

Thompson, D. E.; Bundy, D. A. P.; Cooper, E. S.; Schantz, P. M.

1986-01-01

338

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

2007-07-01

339

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

340

Ect2, an ortholog of Drosophila Pebble, regulates formation of growth cones in primary cortical neurons.  

PubMed

In collaboration with Marshall Nirenberg, we performed in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) genome-wide screening in Drosophila embryos. Pebble has been shown to be involved in Drosophila neuronal development. We have also reported that depletion of Ect2, a mammalian ortholog of Pebble, induces differentiation in NG108-15 neuronal cells. However, the precise role of Ect2 in neuronal development has yet to be studied. Here, we confirmed in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells that inhibition of Ect2 expression by RNAi stimulated neurite outgrowth, and in the mouse embryonic cortex that Ect2 was accumulated throughout the ventricular and subventricular zones with neuronal progenitor cells. Next, the effects of Ect2 depletion were studied in primary cultures of mouse embryonic cortical neurons: Loss of Ect2 did not affect the differentiation stages of neuritogenesis, the number of neurites, or axon length, while the numbers of growth cones and growth cone-like structures were increased. Taken together, our results suggest that Ect2 contributes to neuronal morphological differentiation through regulation of growth cone dynamics. PMID:22366651

Tsuji, Takahiro; Higashida, Chiharu; Aoki, Yoshihiko; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Dohmoto, Mitsuko; Higashida, Haruhiro

2012-02-15

341

Gene body methylation is conserved between plant orthologs and is of evolutionary consequence  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes and is especially common in noncoding regions of plants. Protein coding regions of plants are often methylated also, but the extent, function, and evolutionary consequences of gene body methylation remain unclear. Here we investigate gene body methylation using an explicit comparative evolutionary approach. We generated bisulfite sequencing data from two tissues of Brachypodium distachyon and compared genic methylation patterns to those of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). Gene body methylation was strongly conserved between orthologs of the two species and affected a biased subset of long, slowly evolving genes. Because gene body methylation is conserved over evolutionary time, it shapes important features of plant genome evolution, such as the bimodality of G+C content among grass genes. Our results superficially contradict previous observations of high cytosine methylation polymorphism within Arabidopsis thaliana genes, but reanalyses of these data are consistent with conservation of methylation within gene regions. Overall, our results indicate that the methylation level is a long-term property of individual genes and therefore of evolutionary consequence.

Takuno, Shohei; Gaut, Brandon S.

2013-01-01

342

High-resolution cardiovascular function confirms functional orthology of myocardial contractility pathways in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Phenotype-driven screens in larval zebrafish have transformed our understanding of the molecular basis of cardiovascular development. Screens to define the genetic determinants of physiological phenotypes have been slow to materialize as a result of the limited number of validated in vivo assays with relevant dynamic range. To enable rigorous assessment of cardiovascular physiology in living zebrafish embryos, we developed a suite of software tools for the analysis of high-speed video microscopic images and validated these, using established cardiomyopathy models in zebrafish as well as modulation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Quantitative analysis in wild-type fish exposed to NO or in a zebrafish model of dilated cardiomyopathy demonstrated that these tools detect significant differences in ventricular chamber size, ventricular performance, and aortic flow velocity in zebrafish embryos across a large dynamic range. These methods also were able to establish the effects of the classic pharmacological agents isoproterenol, ouabain, and verapamil on cardiovascular physiology in zebrafish embryos. Sequence conservation between zebrafish and mammals of key amino acids in the pharmacological targets of these agents correlated with the functional orthology of the physiological response. These data provide evidence that the quantitative evaluation of subtle physiological differences in zebrafish can be accomplished at a resolution and with a dynamic range comparable to those achieved in mammals and provides a mechanism for genetic and small-molecule dissection of functional pathways in this model organism.

Pomerantsev, Eugene V.; Mably, John D.; MacRae, Calum A.

2010-01-01

343

High-resolution cardiovascular function confirms functional orthology of myocardial contractility pathways in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Phenotype-driven screens in larval zebrafish have transformed our understanding of the molecular basis of cardiovascular development. Screens to define the genetic determinants of physiological phenotypes have been slow to materialize as a result of the limited number of validated in vivo assays with relevant dynamic range. To enable rigorous assessment of cardiovascular physiology in living zebrafish embryos, we developed a suite of software tools for the analysis of high-speed video microscopic images and validated these, using established cardiomyopathy models in zebrafish as well as modulation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Quantitative analysis in wild-type fish exposed to NO or in a zebrafish model of dilated cardiomyopathy demonstrated that these tools detect significant differences in ventricular chamber size, ventricular performance, and aortic flow velocity in zebrafish embryos across a large dynamic range. These methods also were able to establish the effects of the classic pharmacological agents isoproterenol, ouabain, and verapamil on cardiovascular physiology in zebrafish embryos. Sequence conservation between zebrafish and mammals of key amino acids in the pharmacological targets of these agents correlated with the functional orthology of the physiological response. These data provide evidence that the quantitative evaluation of subtle physiological differences in zebrafish can be accomplished at a resolution and with a dynamic range comparable to those achieved in mammals and provides a mechanism for genetic and small-molecule dissection of functional pathways in this model organism. PMID:20388839

Shin, Jordan T; Pomerantsev, Eugene V; Mably, John D; MacRae, Calum A

2010-04-13

344

The Tribolium castaneum ortholog of Sex combs reduced controls dorsal ridge development.  

PubMed

In insects, the boundary between the embryonic head and thorax is formed by the dorsal ridge, a fused structure composed of portions of the maxillary and labial segments. However, the mechanisms that promote development of this unusual structure remain a mystery. In Drosophila, mutations in the Hox genes Sex combs reduced and Deformed have been reported to cause abnormal dorsal ridge formation, but the significance of these abnormalities is not clear. We have identified three mutant allele classes of Cephalothorax, the Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) ortholog of Sex combs reduced, each of which has a different effect on dorsal ridge development. By using Engrailed expression to monitor dorsal ridge development in these mutants, we demonstrate that Cephalothorax promotes the fusion and subsequent dorsolateral extension of the maxillary and labial Engrailed stripes (posterior compartments) during dorsal ridge formation. Molecular and genetic analysis of these alleles indicates that the N terminus of Cephalothorax is important for the fusion step, but is dispensable for Engrailed stripe extension. Thus, we find that specific regions of Cephalothorax are required for discrete steps in dorsal ridge formation. PMID:16849608

Shippy, Teresa D; Rogers, Carmelle D; Beeman, Richard W; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin E

2006-07-18

345

Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains.  

PubMed

A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-?-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

2013-08-05

346

The rodent Four-jointed ortholog Fjx1 regulates dendrite extension.  

PubMed

The extrinsic and intrinsic factors that regulate the size and complexity of dendritic arborizations are still poorly understood. Here we identify Fjx1, the rodent ortholog of the Drosophila planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Four-jointed (Fj), as a new inhibitory factor that regulates dendrite extension. The Drosophila gene four-jointed (fj) has been suggested to provide directional information in wing discs, but the mechanism how it acts is only poorly understood and the function of its mammalian homolog Fjx1 remains to be investigated. We analyzed the phenotype of a null mutation for mouse Fjx1. Homozygous Fjx1 mutants show an abnormal morphology of dendritic arbors in the hippocampus. In cultured hippocampal neurons from Fjx1 mutant mice, loss of Fjx1 resulted in an increase in dendrite extension and branching. Addition of Fjx1 to cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons had the opposite effect and reduced the length of dendrites and decreased dendritic branching. Rescue experiments with cultured neurons showed that Fjx1 can act both cell-autonomously and non-autonomously. Our results identify Fjx1 as a new inhibitory factor that regulates dendrite extension. PMID:18028897

Probst, Barbara; Rock, Rebecca; Gessler, Manfred; Vortkamp, Andrea; Püschel, Andreas W

2007-10-04

347

Otoc1: A Novel Otoconin-90 Ortholog Required For Otolith Mineralization In Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Within the vestibular system of virtually all vertebrate species, gravity and linear acceleration are detected via coupling of calcified masses to the cilia of mechanosensory hair cells. The mammalian ear contains thousands of minute biomineralized particles called otoconia, whereas the inner ear of teleost fish contains three large ear stones called otoliths that serve a similar function. Otoconia and otoliths are composed of calcium carbonate crystals condensed on a core protein lattice. Otoconin-90 (Oc90) is the major matrix protein of mammalian and avian otoconia, while otolith matrix protein (OMP) is the most abundant matrix protein found in the otoliths of teleost fish. We have identified a novel gene, otoc1, which encodes the zebrafish ortholog of Oc90. Expression of otoc1 was detected in the ear between 15 hpf and 72 hpf, and was restricted primarily to the macula and the developing epithelial pillars of the semicircular canals. Expression of otoc1 was also detected in epiphysis, optic stalk, midbrain, diencephalon, flexural organ, and spinal cord. During embryogenesis, expression of otoc1 mRNA preceded the appearance of omp-1 transcripts. Knockdown of otoc1 mRNA translation with antisense morpholinos produced a variety of aberrant otolith phenotypes. Our results suggest that Otoc1 may serve to nucleate calcium carbonate mineralization of aragonitic otoliths.

Petko, Jessica A.; Millimaki, Bonny B.; Canfield, Victor A.; Riley, Bruce B.; Levenson, Robert

2009-01-01

348

Isolation of a CONSTANS Ortholog from Pharbitis nil and Its Role in Flowering1  

PubMed Central

The short-day plant Pharbitis nil is a model plant for the study of photoperiodic control of floral initiation. Flower formation can be induced at the cotyledon stage by a single long night of at least 14 h in duration. Using differential display of mRNA we identified a P. nil ortholog of the Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO) gene, which will be referred to as PnCO. Expression of PnCO was high after a 14-h night, but low when the dark period was 12 h or less. Our results indicate that the level of the PnCO transcript is photoperiodically regulated. After transfer from continuous light to darkness, PnCO showed a circadian pattern of expression. Expression of the CAB gene, which is a molecular marker for the circadian clock, exhibited a different pattern of expression than did PnCO and was not subject to the same photoperiodic control. A major portion of the PnCO transcripts contained an unspliced intron. Only the intron-free PnCO was able to complement the co mutant of Arabidopsis by shortening the time to flower.

Liu, Jiayou; Yu, Jianping; McIntosh, Lee; Kende, Hans; Zeevaart, Jan A.D.

2001-01-01

349

The molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birds.  

PubMed

Palaeognathous birds (Struthioniformes and Tinamiformes) have morphologically conserved karyotypes and less differentiated ZW sex chromosomes. To delineate interspecific chromosome orthologies in palaeognathous birds we conducted comparative chromosome painting with chicken (Gallus gallus, GGA) chromosome 1-9 and Z chromosome paints (GGA1-9 and GGAZ) for emu, double-wattled cassowary, ostrich, greater rhea, lesser rhea and elegant crested tinamou. All six species showed the same painting patterns: each probe was hybridized to a single pair of chromosomes with the exception that the GGA4 was hybridized to the fourth largest chromosome and a single pair of microchromosomes. The GGAZ was also hybridized to the entire region of the W chromosome, indicating that extensive homology remains between the Z and W chromosomes on the molecular level. Comparative FISH mapping of four Z- and/or W-linked markers, the ACO1/IREBP, ZOV3 and CHD1 genes and the EE0.6 sequence, revealed the presence of a small deletion in the proximal region of the long arm of the W chromosome in greater rhea and lesser rhea. These results suggest that the karyotypes and sex chromosomes of palaeognathous birds are highly conserved not only morphologically, but also at the molecular level; moreover, palaeognathous birds appear to retain the ancestral lineage of avian karyotypes. PMID:17605112

Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Tsuda, Yayoi; Ishijima, Junko; Ando, Junko; Fujiwara, Atushi; Matsuda, Yoichi; Griffin, Darren K

2007-07-03

350

Gene body methylation is conserved between plant orthologs and is of evolutionary consequence.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes and is especially common in noncoding regions of plants. Protein coding regions of plants are often methylated also, but the extent, function, and evolutionary consequences of gene body methylation remain unclear. Here we investigate gene body methylation using an explicit comparative evolutionary approach. We generated bisulfite sequencing data from two tissues of Brachypodium distachyon and compared genic methylation patterns to those of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). Gene body methylation was strongly conserved between orthologs of the two species and affected a biased subset of long, slowly evolving genes. Because gene body methylation is conserved over evolutionary time, it shapes important features of plant genome evolution, such as the bimodality of G+C content among grass genes. Our results superficially contradict previous observations of high cytosine methylation polymorphism within Arabidopsis thaliana genes, but reanalyses of these data are consistent with conservation of methylation within gene regions. Overall, our results indicate that the methylation level is a long-term property of individual genes and therefore of evolutionary consequence. PMID:23319627

Takuno, Shohei; Gaut, Brandon S

2013-01-14

351

Induction of reaper ortholog mx in mosquito midgut cells following baculovirus infection.  

PubMed

Many vertebrate and insect viruses possess antiapoptotic genes that are required for their infectivity. This led to the hypothesis that apoptosis is an innate immunoresponse important for limiting virus infections. The role of apoptosis may be especially important in insect antiviral defense because of the lack of adaptive immunity. However, the cellular mechanism that elicits apoptosis in response to viral infection in insects has not been determined. Using an in vivo infection system with the mosquito baculovirus CuniNPV (Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus), we demonstrated that michelob_x (mx), the mosquito ortholog of Drosophila proapoptotic gene reaper, is specifically induced in larval midgut cells following viral infection. Interestingly, the dynamics of mx induction corresponds with the outcome of the infection. In the permissive mosquito C. quinquefasciatus, a slow induction of mx failed to induce prompt apoptosis, and the infected cells eventually undergo necrosis with heavy loads of encapsulated viruses. In contrast, in the refractory mosquito Aedes aegypti, a rapid induction of mx within 30? min p.i. is followed by apoptosis within 2-6? h p.i., suggesting a possible role for apoptosis in limiting viral infection. When the execution of apoptosis was delayed by caspase inhibitors, viral gene expression became detectable in the A. aegypti larvae. PMID:21331076

Liu, B; Becnel, J J; Zhang, Y; Zhou, L

2011-02-18

352

PXA1, a possible Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of the human adrenoleukodystrophy gene.  

PubMed Central

The adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the human peroxisome membrane. It is defective in X chromosome-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder with impaired peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. We report cloning and characterization of PXA1, a yeast gene encoding a protein (Pxa1p) exhibiting high similarity to ALDp. Disruption of PXA1 results in impaired growth on oleic acid and reduced ability to oxidize oleate. Pxa1p is peroxisome associated; however, in the PXA1 mutant yeast, as in ALD cells, peroxisomes are morphologically intact. Disruption of a second yeast gene, YKL741, which encodes a more distantly related ALDp homolog (Yk174p), in either wild-type or PXA1 mutant yeast, results in a growth phenotype identical to that of the PXA1 mutant. This result suggests that Yk1741p and Pxa1p may be subunits of the same transporter. Sequence analysis of Pxa1p, ALDp, and related ABC transporters reveals a possible fatty acid binding domain and a 14-amino acid EAA-like motif, previously described only in prokaryotes. Because of the similarities in sequence and function, we propose that Pxa1p is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of ALDp. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Shani, N; Watkins, P A; Valle, D

1995-01-01

353

Mycobacterium thermoresistibile as a source of thermostable orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins.  

PubMed

The genus Mycobacterium comprises major human pathogens such as the causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and many environmental species. Tuberculosis claims ~1.5 million lives every year, and drug resistant strains of Mtb are rapidly emerging. To aid the development of new tuberculosis drugs, major efforts are currently under way to determine crystal structures of Mtb drug targets and proteins involved in pathogenicity. However, a major obstacle to obtaining crystal structures is the generation of well-diffracting crystals. Proteins from thermophiles can have better crystallization and diffraction properties than proteins from mesophiles, but their sequences and structures are often divergent. Here, we establish a thermophilic mycobacterial model organism, Mycobacterium thermoresistibile (Mth), for the study of Mtb proteins. Mth tolerates higher temperatures than Mtb or other environmental mycobacteria such as M. smegmatis. Mth proteins are on average more soluble than Mtb proteins, and comparison of the crystal structures of two pairs of orthologous proteins reveals nearly identical folds, indicating that Mth structures provide good surrogates for Mtb structures. This study introduces a thermophile as a source of protein for the study of a closely related human pathogen and marks a new approach to solving challenging mycobacterial protein structures. PMID:22544630

Edwards, Thomas E; Liao, Reiling; Phan, Isabelle; Myler, Peter J; Grundner, Christoph

2012-05-24

354

The inhibitor kappaB-ortholog Cactus is necessary for normal neuromuscular function in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The Drosophila inhibitor-kappaB ortholog Cactus acts as an inhibitor of the Rel-transcription factors Dorsal and Dif. In blastoderm cells and immune competent cells, Cactus inhibits Dorsal and Dif by preventing their nuclear localization. Cactus, Dorsal and Dif are also expressed in somatic muscles, where Cactus and Dorsal, but not Dif, are enriched at the neuromuscular junction. Mutations in dorsal cause neuromuscular defects and mislocalization of Cactus. Here, we investigated whether mutations in cactus affect the neuromuscular system and subcellular localization of Dorsal and Dif. Using locomotion assays, as well as physiological and immunochemical methods, we found that wild type Cactus is necessary for the normal function of the larval neuromuscular system. The phenotype comprises i) altered bouton numbers and impaired neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junctions in the abdominal segments, ii) muscular weakness and iii) poor locomotion performance, probably reflecting a general neuromuscular impairment. Interestingly, in cactus mutants the subcellular localization of Dorsal and Dif in muscle is not affected, whereas cactus protein is not detected in the nucleus. This suggests, together with the similarities between the phenotypes induced by cactus and dorsal mutations, that in larval muscles the function of Cactus might be cooperation to the transcriptional activity of Rel proteins more than their cytoplasmic retention. The similarities with inhibitor-kappaB/nuclear factor kappaB interactions and muscle pathology in mammals point to Drosophila as a suitable experimental system to clarify the complex interactions of these proteins in muscle postembryonic development and activity. PMID:15975723

Beramendi, A; Peron, S; Megighian, A; Reggiani, C; Cantera, R

2005-01-01

355

Basonuclins and disco: Orthologous zinc finger proteins essential for development in vertebrates and arthropods.  

PubMed

Basonuclin 1 and the recently discovered basonuclin 2 are vertebrate proteins with multiple paired C(2)H(2) zinc fingers. It has long been known that the zinc fingers of basonuclin 1 closely resembled those of the Drosophila disconnected and discorelated proteins, two proteins essential for head development, but the relation between the basonuclins and the disco proteins has remained unclear because the putative function of basonuclin 1 in the control of keratinocyte growth potential appeared unrelated to that of disco and there was no resemblance between basonuclin 1 and Drosophila disco outside of the zinc fingers. The recent generation of a basonuclin-2 knockout has demonstrated that basonuclin 2 shares with disco a function in head development and the availability of new arthropod genome sequences has shown that the basonuclins are the vertebrate orthologs of the insect disco proteins. All these proteins are thought to be transcription factors, and it will have to be determined to what extent they share similar targets. PMID:20870008

Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Bouche, Cyril; Maciejewski-Duval, Anna; Hervé, Françoise; Djian, Philippe

2010-09-24

356

Geptop: A Gene Essentiality Prediction Tool for Sequenced Bacterial Genomes Based on Orthology and Phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Integrative genomics predictors, which score highly in predicting bacterial essential genes, would be unfeasible in most species because the data sources are limited. We developed a universal approach and tool designated Geptop, based on orthology and phylogeny, to offer gene essentiality annotations. In a series of tests, our Geptop method yielded higher area under curve (AUC) scores in the receiver operating curves than the integrative approaches. In the ten-fold cross-validations among randomly upset samples, Geptop yielded an AUC of 0.918, and in the cross-organism predictions for 19 organisms Geptop yielded AUC scores between 0.569 and 0.959. A test applied to the very recently determined essential gene dataset from the Porphyromonas gingivalis, which belongs to a phylum different with all of the above 19 bacterial genomes, gave an AUC of 0.77. Therefore, Geptop can be applied to any bacterial species whose genome has been sequenced. Compared with the essential genes uniquely identified by the lethal screening, the essential genes predicted only by Gepop are associated with more protein-protein interactions, especially in the three bacteria with lower AUC scores (<0.7). This may further illustrate the reliability and feasibility of our method in some sense. The web server and standalone version of Geptop are available at http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/geptop/ free of charge. The tool has been run on 968 bacterial genomes and the results are accessible at the website.

Wei, Wen; Ning, Lu-Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Guo, Feng-Biao

2013-01-01

357

Identification of Novel Human Damage Response Proteins Targeted through Yeast Orthology  

PubMed Central

Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for cellular survival after treatment with DNA damaging agents. For this purpose, human homologs of S. cerevisiae proteins were identified and mapped onto the human protein-protein interaction network. The resulting human network was highly modular and a series of selection rules were implemented to identify 45 candidates for human toxicity-modulating proteins. The corresponding transcripts were targeted by RNA interference in human cells. The cell lines with depleted target expression were challenged with three DNA damaging agents: the alkylating agents MMS and 4-NQO, and the oxidizing agent t-BuOOH. A comparison of the survival revealed that the majority (74%) of proteins conferred either sensitivity or resistance. The identified human toxicity-modulating proteins represent a variety of biological functions: autophagy, chromatin modifications, RNA and protein metabolism, and telomere maintenance. Further studies revealed that MMS-induced autophagy increase the survival of cells treated with DNA damaging agents. In summary, we show that damage recovery proteins in humans can be identified through homology to S. cerevisiae and that many of the same pathways are represented among the toxicity modulators.

Svensson, J. Peter; Fry, Rebecca C.; Wang, Emma; Somoza, Luis A.; Samson, Leona D.

2012-01-01

358

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event.

2012-01-01

359

Lox6, a leech Dfd ortholog, is expressed in the central nervous system and in peripheral sensory structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis of a newly isolated Hirudo medicinalis cDNA containing an Antennapedia (Antp)-class homeobox suggests that the corresponding gene, Lox6, is an ortholog of the Drosophila\\u000a Deformed (Dfd) gene. In situ hybridization of whole-mounted preparations shows that the major sites of Lox6 expression during embryogenesis are the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral sensory system. Lox6 mRNA can be

Victoria Y. Wong; Eduardo R. Macagno

1998-01-01

360

Hot Spots in Cold Adaptation: Localized Increases in Conformational Flexibility in Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 Orthologs of Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic adaptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (-1.86 to 1 degrees C) and three South American (4 to 10 degrees C) notothenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of

Peter A. Fields; George N. Somero

1998-01-01

361

Identification and characterization of orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Improving crop species by breeding for salt tolerance or introducing salt tolerant traits is one method of increasing crop yields in saline affected areas. Extensive studies of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has led to the availability of substantial information regarding the function and importance of many genes involved in salt tolerance. However, the identification and characterization of A. thaliana orthologs in species such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape) can prove difficult due to the significant genomic changes that have occurred since their divergence approximately 20 million years ago (MYA). The recently released Brassica rapa genome provides an excellent resource for comparative studies of A. thaliana and the cultivated Brassica species, and facilitates the identification of Brassica species orthologs which may be of agronomic importance. Sodium hydrogen antiporter (NHX) proteins transport a sodium or potassium ion in exchange for a hydrogen ion in the other direction across a membrane. In A. thaliana there are eight members of the NHX family, designated AtNHX1-8, that can be sub-divided into three clades, based on their subcellular localization: plasma membrane (PM), intracellular class I (IC-I) and intracellular class II (IC-II). In plants, many NHX proteins are primary determinants of salt tolerance and act by transporting Na+ out of the cytosol where it would otherwise accumulate to toxic levels. Significant work has been done to determine the role of both PM and IC-I clade members in salt tolerance in a variety of plant species, but relatively little analysis has been described for the IC-II clade. Here we describe the identification of B. napus orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, using the B. rapa genome sequence, macro- and micro-synteny analysis, comparative expression and promoter motif analysis, and highlight the value of these multiple approaches for identifying true orthologs in closely related species with multiple paralogs.

Ford, Brett A.; Ernest, Joanne R.; Gendall, Anthony R.

2012-01-01

362

Genetic regulation of arrested development in nematodes: are age -1 and daf -gene orthologs present in Dictyocaulus viviparus ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In opposite to the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the genetic regulation of hypobiosis or inhibited or arrested development in parasitic nematodes is completely unknown.\\u000a In C. elegans, the daf-genes or the age-1 gene are of major importance in signaling pathways regulating arrested development. To investigate if orthologs of these\\u000a genes are present in the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, a

Christina Strube; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna; Thomas Schnieder

2007-01-01

363

Helminths in the wolf, Canis lupus, from north-western Spain.  

PubMed

Fifteen helminth species were collected from 47 wolves (Canis lupus ) which were surveyed from 1993 to 1999 in northwestern Spain. These included the trematode Alaria alata (2.1%); the cestodes Taenia hydatigena (44.7%), T. multiceps (29.8%), T. serialis (2.1%), Dipylidium caninum (6.4%) and Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus (4.2%); and the nematodes Pearsonema plica (7.4%), Trichuris vulpis (10.6%), Trichinella britovi (12.8%), Ancylostoma caninum (8.5%), Uncinaria stenocephala (51.1%), Toxocara canis (6.4%) Toxascaris leonina (4.2%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (2.1%) and Dirofilaria immitis (2.1%). Only two wolves were not infected. A single infection occurred in 28.9% of the cases, but the commonest infracommunity (31.1%) involved three species. The helminths Alaria alata, Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, P. plica, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum parasitizing C. lupus are reported for the first time in Spain. Taenia serialis and D. immitis are reported for the first time in wolves in Europe. Angiostrongylus vasorum represents a new host record for wolves. The helminth fauna of Spanish wolves is compared with that of other European wolf populations. Some epidemiological considerations of the helminth fauna of wolves in Spain and the health risk to humans are also discussed. PMID:11520444

Segovia, J M; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Llaneza, L; Feliu, C

2001-06-01

364

Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain.  

PubMed

This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest of the species, Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847). Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780), Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902), Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) and Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), behave as satellite species. The linear intestinal distribution of all helminth species was analysed. The location of most species can be considered predictable, especially for core and secondary species. The analysis of interspecific relationships between infracommunities shows that negative associations are more numerous than positive associations. The role of A. caninum in the community is compared with that of U. stenocephala. PMID:14535350

Segovia, Juan-Matías; Guerrero, Ricardo; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos

2003-09-01

365

A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wroc?aw and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Pi?a (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrza?skie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe. PMID:20236557

Szafra?ska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszy?ski, A

2010-03-18

366

Microsporum canis Infection in Three Familial Cases with Tinea Capitis and Tinea Corporis.  

PubMed

We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090

Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

2013-08-06

367

Babesia canis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) co-infection in a sled dog.  

PubMed

Introduction and objectives. Sporting dogs, including sled dogs, are particularly prone to tick-borne infection either due to training/racing in forest areas or through visits to endemic areas. The aim was to present tick-borne infections in a 6-dog racing team after a race in Estonia. Materials and methods. On the 4th day after return to Poland, the first dog presented with babesiosis symptoms and was diagnosed and treated accordingly. Next morning, the dog showed neurological symptoms and was diagnosed with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Diagnosis was confirmed by a high level of IgG antibodies (922 IU/ml), detected in serum 3 months later. The second dog presented with babesiosis symptoms on the 7th day after return. Babesia DNA was extracted from blood, amplified and sequenced to answer the question of whether the dogs became infected during the race in Estonia or in Poland. Results and conclusions. Sequencing of a fragment of Babesia 18S rDNA revealed that these two isolates were identical to one another and closely related to the B. canis sequence originally isolated from the dog and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. Thus, this is the first confirmed case of B.canis and TBEV co-infection and first confirmed case of TBE in a dog in Poland. PMID:24069843

Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Welc-Faleciak, Renata

2013-09-20

368

A comparison of Toxocara canis embryonation under controlled conditions in soil and hair.  

PubMed

Toxocara spp. eggs require a period of time under appropriate environmental conditions to become infective to definitive and paratenic hosts. Temperature and humidity are important factors known to affect the levels of development in soil. We aimed to investigate whether the eggs of T. canis could embryonate in dog hair under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity and, if so, to what degree. No previous work had been carried out on embryonation in hair under controlled conditions. Soil samples exposed to the same conditions as the hair samples were considered a suitable comparison in order to investigate differing levels of development. Development at two temperatures (10°C and 20°C) and the addition of water to samples was investigated over a period of 8 weeks. Importantly, we demonstrated that unembryonated T. canis eggs are capable of development in hair under controlled conditions. The rate of development is lower than that observed in soil, but remains biologically significant in terms of the overall numbers of potentially infective embryonated eggs present. Temperature is responsible for the rate of embryonation while moisture is essential for encouraging development and maintaining egg viability in general. In light of these findings the transmission of Toxocara spp. as a result of direct contact with well-cared-for owned dogs seems unlikely, but should not be ignored. PMID:22335837

Keegan, J Devoy; Holland, C V

2012-02-16

369

The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

2005-09-01

370

The Drosophila ATM ortholog, dATM, mediates the response to ionizing radiation and to spontaneous DNA damage during development.  

PubMed

Cells of metazoan organisms respond to DNA damage by arresting their cell cycle to repair DNA, or they undergo apoptosis. Two protein kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad-3 related (ATR), are sensors for DNA damage. In humans, ATM is mutated in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), resulting in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) and increased cancer susceptibility. Cells from A-T patients exhibit chromosome aberrations and excessive spontaneous apoptosis. We used Drosophila as a model system to study ATM function. Previous studies suggest that mei-41 corresponds to ATM in Drosophila; however, it appears that mei-41 is probably the ATR ortholog. Unlike mei-41 mutants, flies deficient for the true ATM ortholog, dATM, die as pupae or eclose with eye and wing abnormalities. Developing larval discs exhibit substantially increased spontaneous chromosomal telomere fusions and p53-dependent apoptosis. These developmental phenotypes are unique to dATM, and both dATM and mei-41 have temporally distinct roles in G2 arrest after IR. Thus, ATM and ATR orthologs are required for different functions in Drosophila; the developmental defects resulting from absence of dATM suggest an important role in mediating a protective checkpoint against DNA damage arising during normal cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:15296752

Song, Young-Han; Mirey, Gladys; Betson, Martha; Haber, Daniel A; Settleman, Jeffrey

2004-08-10

371

Expression patterns of mouse and human CYP orthologs (families 1-4) during development and in different adult tissues.  

PubMed

The present study compared the relative expression pattern of 10 orthologous CYP forms from families 1-4 in cDNA panels of human and mouse fetal and adult tissues. Except for CYP1A2, all of these CYPs exhibited specific patterns of expression during mouse ontogeny, suggesting possible involvement in development. Cyp1a1 and Cyp2r1 were the only two of the orthologs to be expressed only in the E7 mouse; Cyp2s1 was expressed in all stages, including E7, while Cyp2e1 appeared only at E17. Highest expression of the individual CYPs in the different late term human fetal tissues was: thymus, CYP1B1 and CYP2U1; liver, CYP2E1; brain, CYP2R1, CYP1A1 and CYP4X1; and lung, CYP4B1 and CYP2W1. In general, the level of individual human CYP transcripts was lower in the fetal than the corresponding adult tissues. The pattern of expression in adult mouse and human tissues was fairly similar for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2S1, and CYP2U1 orthologs. PMID:15752708

Choudhary, Dharamainder; Jansson, Ingela; Stoilov, Ivaylo; Sarfarazi, Mansoor; Schenkman, John B

2005-04-01

372

Whole-genome Trees Based on the Occurrence of Folds and Orthologs: Implications for Comparing Genomes on Different Levels  

PubMed Central

We built whole-genome trees based on the presence or absence of particular molecular features, either orthologs or folds, in the genomes of a number of recently sequenced microorganisms. To put these genomic trees into perspective, we compared them to the traditional ribosomal phylogeny and also to trees based on the sequence similarity of individual orthologous proteins. We found that our genomic trees based on the overall occurrence of orthologs did not agree well with the traditional tree. This discrepancy, however, vanished when one restricted the tree to proteins involved in transcription and translation, not including problematic proteins involved in metabolism. Protein folds unite superficially unrelated sequence families and represent a most fundamental molecular unit described by genomes. We found that our genomic occurrence tree based on folds agreed fairly well with the traditional ribosomal phylogeny. Surprisingly, despite this overall agreement, certain classes of folds, particularly all-beta ones, had a somewhat different phylogenetic distribution. We also compared our occurrence trees to whole-genome clusters based on the composition of amino acids and di-nucleotides. Finally, we analyzed some technical aspects of genomic trees—e.g., comparing parsimony versus distance-based approaches and examining the effects of increasing numbers of organisms. Additional information (e.g. clickable trees) is available from http://bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu/genome/trees.

Lin, Jimmy; Gerstein, Mark

2000-01-01

373

CisMols Analyzer: identification of compositionally similar cis-element clusters in ortholog conserved regions of coordinately expressed genes  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial interactions of sequence-specific trans-acting factors with localized genomic cis-element clusters are the principal mechanism for regulating tissue-specific and developmental gene expression. With the emergence of expanding numbers of genome-wide expression analyses, the identification of the cis-elements responsible for specific patterns of transcriptional regulation represents a critical area of investigation. Computational methods for the identification of functional cis-regulatory modules are difficult to devise, principally because of the short length and degenerate nature of individual cis-element binding sites and the inherent complexity that is generated by combinatorial interactions within cis-clusters. Filtering candidate cis-element clusters based on phylogenetic conservation is helpful for an individual ortholog gene pair, but combining data from cis-conservation and coordinate expression across multiple genes is a more difficult problem. To approach this, we have extended an ortholog gene-pair database with additional analytical architecture to allow for the analysis and identification of maximal numbers of compositionally similar and phylogenetically conserved cis-regulatory element clusters from a list of user-selected genes. The system has been successfully tested with a series of functionally related and microarray profile-based co-expressed ortholog pairs of promoters and genes using known regulatory regions as training sets and co-expressed genes in the olfactory and immunohematologic systems as test sets. CisMols Analyzer is accessible via a Web interface at .

Jegga, Anil G.; Gupta, Ashima; Gowrisankar, Sivakumar; Deshmukh, Mrunal A.; Connolly, Steven; Finley, Kevin; Aronow, Bruce J.

2005-01-01

374

CisMols Analyzer: identification of compositionally similar cis-element clusters in ortholog conserved regions of coordinately expressed genes.  

PubMed

Combinatorial interactions of sequence-specific trans-acting factors with localized genomic cis-element clusters are the principal mechanism for regulating tissue-specific and developmental gene expression. With the emergence of expanding numbers of genome-wide expression analyses, the identification of the cis-elements responsible for specific patterns of transcriptional regulation represents a critical area of investigation. Computational methods for the identification of functional cis-regulatory modules are difficult to devise, principally because of the short length and degenerate nature of individual cis-element binding sites and the inherent complexity that is generated by combinatorial interactions within cis-clusters. Filtering candidate cis-element clusters based on phylogenetic conservation is helpful for an individual ortholog gene pair, but combining data from cis-conservation and coordinate expression across multiple genes is a more difficult problem. To approach this, we have extended an ortholog gene-pair database with additional analytical architecture to allow for the analysis and identification of maximal numbers of compositionally similar and phylogenetically conserved cis-regulatory element clusters from a list of user-selected genes. The system has been successfully tested with a series of functionally related and microarray profile-based co-expressed ortholog pairs of promoters and genes using known regulatory regions as training sets and co-expressed genes in the olfactory and immunohematologic systems as test sets. CisMols Analyzer is accessible via a Web interface at http://cismols.cchmc.org/. PMID:15980500

Jegga, Anil G; Gupta, Ashima; Gowrisankar, Sivakumar; Deshmukh, Mrunal A; Connolly, Steven; Finley, Kevin; Aronow, Bruce J

2005-07-01

375

Conserved role of SIRT1 orthologs in fasting-dependent inhibition of the lipid/cholesterol regulator SREBP  

PubMed Central

The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor family is a critical regulator of lipid and sterol homeostasis in eukaryotes. In mammals, SREBPs are highly active in the fed state to promote the expression of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes and facilitate fat storage. During fasting, SREBP-dependent lipid/cholesterol synthesis is rapidly diminished in the mouse liver; however, the mechanism has remained incompletely understood. Moreover, the evolutionary conservation of fasting regulation of SREBP-dependent programs of gene expression and control of lipid homeostasis has been unclear. We demonstrate here a conserved role for orthologs of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 in metazoans in down-regulation of SREBP orthologs during fasting, resulting in inhibition of lipid synthesis and fat storage. Our data reveal that SIRT1 can directly deacetylate SREBP, and modulation of SIRT1 activity results in changes in SREBP ubiquitination, protein stability, and target gene expression. In addition, chemical activators of SIRT1 inhibit SREBP target gene expression in vitro and in vivo, correlating with decreased hepatic lipid and cholesterol levels and attenuated liver steatosis in diet-induced and genetically obese mice. We conclude that SIRT1 orthologs play a critical role in controlling SREBP-dependent gene regulation governing lipid/cholesterol homeostasis in metazoans in response to fasting cues. These findings may have important biomedical implications for the treatment of metabolic disorders associated with aberrant lipid/cholesterol homeostasis, including metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis.

Walker, Amy K.; Yang, Fajun; Jiang, Karen; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Watts, Jennifer L.; Purushotham, Aparna; Boss, Olivier; Hirsch, Michael L.; Ribich, Scott; Smith, Jesse J.; Israelian, Kristine; Westphal, Christoph H.; Rodgers, Joseph T.; Shioda, Toshi; Elson, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Peter; Najafi-Shoushtari, Hani; Black, Josh C.; Thakur, Jitendra K.; Kadyk, Lisa C.; Whetstine, Johnathan R.; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Puigserver, Pere; Li, Xiaoling; Dyson, Nicholas J.; Hart, Anne C.; Naar, Anders M.

2010-01-01

376

Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) fail to show understanding of means-end connections in a string-pulling task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris) were tested in four experiments for their understanding of means-end connections. In each of the experiments, the dogs attempted to retrieve a food treat that could be seen behind a barrier and which was connected, via string, to a within-reach wooden block. In the experiments, either one or two strings were present, but the

Britta Osthaus; Stephen E. G. Lea; Alan M. Slater

2005-01-01

377

Toxocara canis: Effect of inoculum size on pulmonary pathology and cytokine expression in BALB\\/c mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of mice with Toxocara canis results in pulmonary inflammation and the induction of a Th2 type of immune response. The aim of this study was to determine whether the effect of infection with this nematode depends on the inoculum size. Results indicate that mice infected with either a high or a low inoculum size showed, in a dose-dependent manner,

Elena Pinelli; Sietze Brandes; Jan Dormans; Manoj Fonville; Clare M. Hamilton; Joke van der Giessen

2007-01-01

378

VALORACIÓN DE HORMONAS ESTEROIDES EN HECES DE UNA PAREJA DE LOBO MEXICANO (CANIS LUPUS BAILEYI) EN CAUTIVERIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexican Gray Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is one of the most distinctive groups of wild canids.It has been erradicated from most of its original range and there is no solid evidence of wild populations. All known individuals of this species are kept in zoos or special enclosures. Recently a great deal of efforts have been done in oder to

María A. SOTO; Arturo SALAME-MÉNDEZ; José RAMÍREZ-PULIDO; Lourdes YAŃEZ; Miguel Ángel ARMELLA

2004-01-01

379

Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995–1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho

Scott Creel; Jay J. Rotella

2010-01-01

380

A Survey of the Parasites of Coyotes (Canis latrans )i nNew York based on Fecal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colo- nized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coy- otes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite com- ponent community diversity was

Matthew E. Gompper; Rachel M. Goodman; Roland W. Kays; Justina C. Ray; Christine V. Fiorello

2003-01-01

381

Serologic Survey for Canine Infectious Diseases among Sympatric Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) and Coyotes (Canis latrans )i n Southeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coy- otes (Canis latrans) are sympatric canids dis- tributed throughout many regions of the Great Plains of North America. The prevalence of ca- nid diseases among these two species where they occur sympatrically is presently unknown. From January 1997 to January 2001, we col- lected blood samples from 89 swift foxes and 122 coyotes on

Eric M. Gese; Seija M. Karki; Mead L. Klavetter; Edward R. Schauster; Ann M. Kitchen

2004-01-01

382

Validation for use with coyotes ( Canis latrans) of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Dirofilaria immitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological tests offer a potentially powerful tool for monitoring parasites in wildlife populations. However, such tests must be validated before using them with target wildlife populations. We evaluated in coyotes (Canis latrans) the performance of a commercially available serological test used to detect canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in domestic dogs. We obtained 265 coyote carcasses and serological specimens from 54

B. N. Sacks; B. B. Chomel; R. W. Kasten; C. C. Chang; R. K. Sanders; S. D. Leterme

2002-01-01

383

Temperature controls seed germination and dormancy in the European woodland herbaceous perennial Erythronium dens-canis (Liliaceae).  

PubMed

We examined the germination ecology and the temperature requirements for germination of Erythronium dens-canis, under both outdoor and laboratory conditions. E. dens-canis is a spring flowering woodland geophyte widely distributed across Europe. Germination phenology, including embryo development and radicle and cotyledon emergence, were investigated in a natural population growing in Northern Italy. Immediately after harvest, seeds of E. dens-canis were either sown on agar in the laboratory under simulated seasonal temperatures or placed in nylon mesh sachets and buried in the wild. Embryos, undifferentiated at the time of seed dispersal, grew during summer and autumn conditions in the laboratory and in the wild, culminating in radicle emergence in winter when temperatures fell to ? 5 °C. Emergence of cotyledons did not occur immediately after radicle emergence, but was delayed until the end of winter. Laboratory experiments showed that temperature is the main factor controlling dormancy and germination, with seeds becoming non-dormant only when given warmth, followed by cold stratification. Unlike seeds of E. dens-canis that germinate in winter, in other Erythronium species radicle emergence occurs in autumn, while in some it is delayed until seeds are transferred from winter to spring conditions. Our results suggest that there is genetic and environmental control of the expression of seed dormancy amongst Erythronium species, which is related to local climate. PMID:22117612

Mondoni, A; Rossi, G; Probert, R

2011-11-25

384

Cues to food location that domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different ages do and do not use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of three experiments are reported. In the main study, a human experimenter presented domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) with a variety of social cues intended to indicate the location of hidden food. The novel findings of this study were: (1)\\u000a dogs were able to use successfully several totally novel cues in which they watched a human place a marker

Bryan Agnetta; Brian Hare; Michael Tomasello

2000-01-01

385

Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:9489036

Maoz, M; Neeman, I

1998-01-01

386

Variation in stimulus, seasonal context, and response to urine marks by captive Iberian wolves ( Canis lupus signatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine marking behaviour was observed over 14 months in two captive pairs of Iberian wolves ( Canis lupus signatus) by means of behaviour sampling. The study focused on the relative attractiveness of the different stimuli toward which urinations are directed, the seasonal context of urine marking, and the response by mates to sexually dimorphic action patterns. Kinds of marked substrates

Isabel Barja Núńez; Francisco Javier de Miguel

2004-01-01

387

A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon Hepatozoon spp. The prevalence of the infection in the Aegean coast of Turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from Central Aydin, Kusadasi, Selcuk, Central Manisa, Bodrum and Marmaris within the Aegean coast of Turkey. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of Hepatozoon canis antibodies was also used to detect the exposure rate to H. canis. PCR amplifying a 666bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. was used in the epidemiological survey. The prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 10.6% by blood smear parasitology and 25.8% by PCR. IFAT revealed that 36.8% of serum samples were positive for antibodies reactive with Hepatozoon spp. The PCR products of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. isolated from six infected dogs, one isolate originating from each of the six different locations, were sequenced. The results of sequence analysis indicate that they are closely related to Indian and Japanese isolates of H. canis. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of H. canis infection in the dog, in Turkey. PMID:16229952

Karagenc, Tulin Ilhan; Pasa, Serdar; Kirli, Gulcan; Hosgor, Murat; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Ozon, Yavuz Hakan; Atasoy, Abidin; Eren, Hasan

2005-10-17

388

Tińa del cuero cabelludo por Microsporum canis en una mujer adulta Tinea capitis in the elderly: an unusual situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tinea capitis is very rare in adults. We report a new case of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis in a healthy postmenopausal woman. We argue the predisposing factors of the dermatophytoses in adult patients and discuss about the use of terbinafine like first line of treatment in this entity, because of the apparition of resistances.

María López-Escobar García-Prendes; Cristina Raya Aguado; Cayetana Maldonado Seral; Narciso Pérez Oliva

389

The investigation of Toxocara canis eggs in coats of different dog breeds as a potential transmission route in human toxocariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis eggs on the coats of dogs (a potential etiological factor for human toxocariasis) and to see if there were mainly a dog breed and coat type effects for the presence of eggs on the coat. Hair samples were collected from the different breeds of 51 domestic pet dogs and

M. Aydenizöz-Özkayhan; B. B. Ya?c?; S. Erat

2008-01-01

390

Obey or Not Obey? Dogs (Canis familiaris) Behave Differently in Response to Attentional States of Their Owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested in a familiar context in a series of 1-min trials on how well they obeyed after being told by their owner to lie down. Food was used in 1\\/3 of all trials, and during the trial the owner engaged in 1 of 5 activities. The dogs behaved differently depending on the owner's attention

Christine Schwab; Ludwig Huber

2006-01-01

391

In vitro efficacy of several antimicrobial combinations against Brucella canis and Brucella melitensis strains isolated from dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro efficacy of tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, rifampin and macrolides and their combinations against four Brucella canis and two B. melitensis strains isolated from dogs was evaluated by means of inhibition tests: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) and by bactericidal tests: minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and kill-time experiments. In inhibition studies, tetracyclines showed the lowest MICs

E. M. Mateu-de-Antonio; M. Martín

1995-01-01

392

Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why  

Microsoft Academic Search

Territorial defense and maintenance are an important facet of the social ecology of most carnivore species. From January 1991 to June 1993, we observed 54 coyotes (Canis latrans) for 2507 h in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, during which we observed 112 instances of territory defense. The identity of the coyotes involved in challenging and evicting intruding animals was known. Alpha

Eric M. Gese

2001-01-01

393

OrthoParaMap: Distinguishing orthologs from paralogs by integrating comparative genome data and gene phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotic genomes, most genes are members of gene families. When comparing genes from two species, therefore, most genes in one species will be homologous to multiple genes in the second. This often makes it difficult to distinguish orthologs (separated through speciation) from paralogs (separated by other types of gene duplication). Combining phylogenetic relationships and genomic position in both genomes helps to distinguish between these scenarios. This kind of comparison can also help to describe how gene families have evolved within a single genome that has undergone polyploidy or other large-scale duplications, as in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana – and probably most plant genomes. Results We describe a suite of programs called OrthoParaMap (OPM) that makes genomic comparisons, identifies syntenic regions, determines whether sets of genes in a gene family are related through speciation or internal chromosomal duplications, maps this information onto phylogenetic trees, and infers internal nodes within the phylogenetic tree that may represent local – as opposed to speciation or segmental – duplication. We describe the application of the software using three examples: the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) gene family on the X chromosomes of mouse and human; the 20S proteasome subunit gene family in Arabidopsis, and the major latex protein gene family in Arabidopsis. Conclusion OPM combines comparative genomic positional information and phylogenetic reconstructions to identify which gene duplications are likely to have arisen through internal genomic duplications (such as polyploidy), through speciation, or through local duplications (such as unequal crossing-over). The software is freely available at .

Cannon, Steven B; Young, Nevin D

2003-01-01

394

Dsc Orthologs Are Required for Hypoxia Adaptation, Triazole Drug Responses, and Fungal Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ?dscA and ?dscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ?dscA and ?dscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ?dscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function.

Willger, Sven D.; Cornish, E. Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A.; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat

2012-01-01

395

Pharmacological characterization of the cannabinoid CB? receptor PET ligand ortholog, [łH]MePPEP.  

PubMed

MePPEP ((3R,5R)-5-(3-methoxy-phenyl)-3-((R)-1-phenyl-ethylamino)-1-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-pyrrolidin-2-one) is an inverse agonist shown to be an effective PET ligand for labeling cannabinoid CB? receptors in vivo. [ąąC]MePPEP and structurally related analogs have been reported to specifically and reversibly label cannabinoid CB? receptors in rat and non-human primate brains, and [ąąC]MePPEP has been used in human subjects as a PET tracer. We have generated [łH]MePPEP, an ortholog of [ąąC]MePPEP, to characterize the molecular pharmacology of the cannabinoid CB? receptor across preclinical and clinical species. [łH]MePPEP demonstrates saturable, reversible, and single-site high affinity binding to cannabinoid CB? receptors. In cerebellar membranes purified from brains of rat, non-human primate and human, and cells ectopically expressing recombinant human cannabinoid CB? receptor, [łH]MePPEP binds cannabinoid CB? receptors with similar affinity with K(d) values of 0.09 nM, 0.19 nM, 0.14 nM and 0.16 nM, respectively. Both agonist and antagonist cannabinoid ligands compete [łH]MePPEP with predicted rank order potency. No specific binding is present in autoradiographic sections from cannabinoid CB? receptor knockout mouse brains, demonstrating that [łH]MePPEP selectively binds cannabinoid CB? receptors in native mouse tissue. Furthermore, [łH]MePPEP binding to anatomical sites in mouse and rat brain is comparable to the anatomical profiles of [ąąC]MePPEP in non-human primate and human brain in vivo, as well as the binding profiles of other previously described cannabinoid CB? receptor agonist and antagonist radioligands. Therefore, [łH]MePPEP is a promising tool for translation of preclinical cannabinoid CB? receptor pharmacology to clinical PET ligand and cannabinoid CB? receptor inverse agonist therapeutic development. PMID:20851117

Suter, Todd M; Chesterfield, Amy K; Bao, Chun; Schaus, John M; Krushinski, Joseph H; Statnick, Michael A; Felder, Christian C

2010-09-17

396

Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.  

PubMed

Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between wolves and coyotes. PMID:23173981

Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

2012-11-22

397

Tinea faciei due to microsporum canis in children: a survey of 46 cases in the District of Cagliari (Italy).  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention. PMID:22011084

Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica

2011-10-20

398

Expression patterns of mouse and human CYP orthologs (families 1-4) during development and in diVerent adult tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the relative expression pattern of 10 orthologous CYP forms from families 1-4 in cDNA panels of human and mouse fetal and adult tissues. Except for CYP1A2, all of these CYPs exhibited speciWc patterns of expression during mouse ontogeny, suggesting possible involvement in development. Cyp1a1 and Cyp2r1 were the only two of the orthologs to be expressed

Dharamainder Choudhary; Ingela Jansson; Ivaylo Stoilov; Mansoor Sarfarazi; John B. Schenkman

399

Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the isolation and characterization of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining genes Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx). Fragments of the Sxl and dsx orthologous were isolated with RT-PCR. Genomic and cDNA clones were then obtained by screening a genomic library and separate male and female cDNA adult libraries using the

Dimitrios Lagos; M. Fernanda Ruiz; Lucas Sánchez; Katia Komitopoulou

2005-01-01

400

Biochemical properties, expression profiles, and tissue localization of orthologous acetylcholinesterase-2 in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter for cholinergic neurotransmission in animals. Most insects studied so far possess two AChE genes: ace-1 paralogous and ace-2 orthologous to Drosophila melanogaster ace. We characterized the catalytic domain of Anopheles gambiae AChE1 in a previous study (Jiang et al., 2009) and report here biochemical properties of A. gambiae AChE2 expressed in Sf9 cells. An unknown protease in the expression system cleaved the recombinant AChE2 next to Arg(110), yielding two non-covalently associated polypeptides. A mixture of the intact and cleaved AChE2 had a specific activity of 72.3 U/mg, much lower than that of A. gambiae AChE1 (523 U/mg). The order of V(max)/K(M) values for the model substrates was acetylthiocholine > propionylthiocholine ? acetyl-(?-methyl)thiocholine > butyrylthiocholine. The IC(50)'s for eserine, carbaryl, BW284C51, paraoxon and malaoxon were 1.32, 13.6, 26.8, 192 and 294 nM, respectively. A. gambiae AChE2 bound eserine and carbaryl stronger than paraoxon and malaoxon, whereas eserine and malaoxon modified the active site Ser(232) faster than carbaryl or paraoxon did. Consequently, the k(i)'s were 1.173, 0.245, 0.029 and 0.018 ?M(-1)min(-1) for eserine, carbaryl, paraoxon and malaoxon, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions showed a similar pattern of ace-1 and ace-2 expression. Their mRNAs were abundant in early embryos, greatly decreased in late embryos, larvae, pupae, and pharate adult, and became abundant again in adults. Both transcripts were higher in head and abdomen than thorax of adults and higher in male than female mosquitoes. Transcript levels of ace-1 were 1.9- to 361.8-fold higher than those of ace-2, depending on developmental stages and body parts. Cross-reacting polyclonal antibodies detected AChEs in adult brains, thoracic ganglia, and genital/rectal area. Activity assays, immunoblotting, and tandem mass spectrometric analysis indicated that A. gambiae AChE1 is responsible for most of acetylthiocholine hydrolysis in the head extracts. Taken together, these data indicate that A. gambiae AChE2 may play a less significant role than AChE1 does in the mosquito nervous system. PMID:23267863

Zhao, Picheng; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

2012-12-23

401

Comparative integromics on FZD7 orthologs: conserved binding sites for PU.1, SP1, CCAAT-box and TCF/LEF/SOX transcription factors within 5'-promoter region of mammalian FZD7 orthologs.  

PubMed

Canonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled (FZD) family receptor and LRP5/LRP6 co-receptor to upregulate MYC, CCND1, FGF20, JAG1, WISP1 and DKK1 genes, while non-canonical WNT signals are transduced through FZD family receptor and PTK7/ROR2/RYK co-receptor to activate RHOA/RHOU/RAC/CDC42, JNK, PKC, NFAT and NLK signaling cascades. FZD7, expressed in the normal gastrointestinal tract, is upregulated in esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, chimpanzee FZD7 and cow Fzd7 genes were identified and characterized by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee FZD7 and cow Fzd7 genes were identified within NW_001232110.1 and AC173037.2 genome sequences, respectively. Chimpanzee FZD7 and cow Fzd7 showed 100% and 97.2% total-amino-acid identity with human FZD7. All of the nine amino-acid residues substituted between human FZD7 and human FzE3 were identical to those of human FZD7 in chimpanzee, cow, mouse and rat FZD7 orthologs. Functional analyses using FzE3 with multiple cloning artifacts and/or sequencing errors are invalid. FZD7 orthologs were seven-transmembrane proteins with extracellular Frizzled domain, leucine zipper motif around the 5th transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic DVL- and PDZ-binding motifs. Ser550 and Ser556 of FZD7 orthologs were putative aPKC phosphorylation sites. Dimerization and Ser550/556 phosphorylation were predicted as regulatory mechanisms for the signaling through FZD7. Transcriptional start site of human FZD7 gene was 735-bp upstream of NM_003507.1 RefSeq 5'-end. In addition to gastrointestinal cancer, hepatocellular cancer and pancreatic cancer, human FZD7 mRNAs were expressed in blastocysts, undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, ES-derived endodermal progenitors, ES-derived neural progenitors, fetal cochlea, retinal pigment epithelium, olfactory epithelium, regenerating liver, and multiple sclerosis. Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the binding sites for PU.1, SP1/Krüppel-like, CCAAT-box, and TCF/LEF/SOX transcription factors were conserved among 5'-promoter regions of mammalian FZD7 orthologs. PMID:17273804

Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

2007-03-01

402

Reviving the African Wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range

Philippe Gaubert; Cécile Bloch; Slim Benyacoub; Adnan Abdelhamid; Paolo Pagani; Chabi Adéyčmi Marc Sylvestre Djagoun; Arnaud Couloux; Sylvain Dufour

2012-01-01

403

Transcriptional Analysis of p30 Major Outer Membrane Multigene Family of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs, Ticks, and Cell Culture at Different Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehrlichia canis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium of monocytes and macrophages, causes canine mono- cytic ehrlichiosis. E. canis immunodominant 30-kDa major outer membrane proteins are encoded by a poly- morphic multigene family consisting of more than 20 paralogs. In the present study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of 14 paralogs in experimentally infected dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks by reverse tran-

AHMET UNVER; NORIO OHASHI; TOMOKO TAJIMA; ROGER W. STICH; DEBRA GROVER; YASUKO RIKIHISA

2001-01-01

404

Development of a Highly Specific Recombinant Toxocara canis Second-Stage Larva Excretory-Secretory Antigen for Immunodiagnosis of Human Toxocariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity of the recombinant Toxocara canis antigen developed for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis was compared with that of the excretory-secretory antigen from T. canis second-stage larvae (TES) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 153 human serum samples from patients infected with 20 different helminths, including 11 cases of toxocariasis, were examined. No false-negative reactions were observed for

HIROSHI YAMASAKI; KUNIOKI ARAKI; PATRICIA KIM; CHOOI LIM; NGAH ZASMY; JOON WAH MAK; TAKASHI AOKI

2000-01-01

405

[Population, distribution and food composition of wolves (Canis lupus) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

To provide initial value for population restoration and management of wolves (Canis lupus) in the wild, line transect survey and fecal analysis method were used to study the population ecology of wolf at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia. The results revealed that the population number was at least seven within the reserve and population density was 4.18+/-2.88 individual per 100 km2. The wolf population was mainly distributed in Shengshan and Qinyunshan core areas; active sites appeared mostly along mountain ridges, roads and valleys at Shengshan and mountain ridges at Qinyunshan. Hare (Lepus capensis) and plants occurred frequently in the food composition of wolf scats. Food types varied between years but not seasons (Winter-Spring and Summer-Autumn). PMID:21509971

Chen, Jiu-Yi; Zhang, Li-Jia; Wang, An-Meng; Bater; Nasendelger; Yuan, Li; Bao, Wei-Dong

2011-04-01

406

Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum.  

PubMed

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy. N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. Oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out (KO) mice. Viable N. caninum (designated NcWolfUS1) was isolated in cell cultures seeded with tissue homogenate from the infected mouse. Typical thick walled tissue cysts were found in outbred mice inoculated with the parasite from the KO mouse. Tissue stages in mice stained positively with N. caninum-specific polyclonal antibodies. Our observation suggests that wolves may be an important link in the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum. PMID:21640485

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Rajendran, C; Miska, K; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S

2011-05-20

407

Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

Moks, E; Jőgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

2006-04-01

408

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America. PMID:16456176

Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

2005-10-01

409

Faint early-type stars and emission-line stars in the Canis Majoris complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of OB stars in the Canis Majoris complex, a survey and classification have been done for stars in the area. The study is based on spectral observations at the Kiso Schmidt tlescope. In the present field about 1800 OBA stars were classified, where the majority is dominated by B late and A early type stars. A survey for emission-line stars was also carried out in the same region. In total, 128 emission-line stars were detected, ranging from V = 6 to 15. A comparison shows that some emission-line stars of this region contained in the existing catalogs are common with the authors', and some exhibit no detectable emission line on the plates. This can probably be considered as the result of variation in emission-line strength.

Wiramihardja, S. D.; Kogure, T.

410

Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.  

PubMed

Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

2013-04-26

411

[Factors associated with Brucella canis seropositivity in kennels of two regions of Antioquia, Colombia].  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine Brucella canis seroprevalence in dogs and in humans living near kennels and to explore risk factors associated with seropositivity. Twenty kennels were included in a serological survey with RSAT-2ME, and samples were collected from 428 dogs and 91 humans. An interview was applied to determine risk factors, and the data were analyzed using logistic regression. Seroprevalence was 15% in dogs and 9% in humans. Factors associated with current canine seropositivity were: history of canine seropositivity, non-culling of seropositive dogs, history of abortion, poor hygiene and personal protection during reproductive service, and unsafe procedures during care for abortions. Protective factors included: rural location of kennels, ease of cleaning kennels, pre-mating RSAT-2ME, and safe procedures during care for delivery. Factors associated with seropositive status in humans were: kennels located in Valle de Aburrá and urban location. PMID:24127092

Castrillón-Salazar, Laura; Giraldo-Echeverri, Carlos Andrés; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Olivera-Angel, Martha

2013-10-01

412

The breakfast effect: dogs (Canis familiaris) search more accurately when they are less hungry.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the consumption of a morning meal (breakfast) by dogs (Canis familiaris) would affect search accuracy on a working memory task following the exertion of self-control. Dogs were tested either 30 or 90 min after consuming half of their daily resting energy requirements (RER). During testing dogs were initially required to sit still for 10 min before searching for hidden food in a visible displacement task. We found that 30 min following the consumption of breakfast, and 10 min after the behavioral inhibition task, dogs searched more accurately than they did in a fasted state. Similar differences were not observed when dogs were tested 90 min after meal consumption. This pattern of behavior suggests that breakfast enhanced search accuracy following a behavioral inhibition task by providing energy for cognitive processes, and that search accuracy decreased as a function of energy depletion. PMID:23032958

Miller, Holly C; Bender, Charlotte

2012-09-29

413

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and the radial arm maze: spatial memory and serial position effects.  

PubMed

The present study investigated spatial memory in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) through the use of a radial arm maze. The study consisted of a total of three separate experiments. In the first two experiments, the ability of the dogs to successfully remember previously unentered arms was evaluated. The third experiment was similar to the first two, but also examined the nature of the serial position effect. Performance in all three experiments was better than expected solely by random choices. Dogs showed a much better memory for spatial locations presented earlier in a spatial list compared with those presented in the middle. Based on the present results, we suggest that the radial arm maze assesses canine spatial memory and that dogs show a primacy effect. PMID:22905996

Craig, Marlyse; Rand, Jacquie; Mesch, Rita; Shyan-Norwalt, Melissa; Morton, John; Flickinger, Elizabeth

2012-08-01

414

Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis refractory to ivermectin treatment in two dogs.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu presented with severe generalized pruritus. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. A Yorkshire terrier in the same household simultaneously developed pruritus due to scabies. Both dogs were treated with 300 ?g/kg ivermectin, at first orally and then subcutaneously at 14 day intervals. However, live mites were still found on day 35, and the skin condition deteriorated in both dogs. These findings suggested that the S. scabiei in these dogs was clinically refractory to ivermectin. The pruritus in both dogs rapidly and completely disappeared following topical fipronil administration. This appears to be the first report of canine scabies refractory to ivermectin treatment. PMID:20880016

Terada, Yuri; Murayama, Nobuo; Ikemura, Hiroshi; Morita, Tatsushi; Nagata, Masahiko

2010-09-28

415

Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated. PMID:17135555

Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W

2006-10-01

416

Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

2012-01-01

417

Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program. PMID:22006189

Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

2011-10-18

418

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

419

Molecular Characterization and Alternative Splicing of a Sodium Channel and DSC1 Ortholog Genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).  

PubMed

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-09-26

420

Molecular Characterization and Alternative Splicing of a Sodium Channel and DSC1 Ortholog Genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels.

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

421

Bird and mammal sex-chromosome orthologs map to the same autosomal region in a salamander (ambystoma).  

PubMed

We tested hypotheses concerning the origin of bird and mammal sex chromosomes by mapping the location of amniote sex-chromosome loci in a salamander amphibian (Ambystoma). We found that ambystomatid orthologs of human X and chicken Z sex chromosomes map to neighboring regions of a common Ambystoma linkage group 2 (ALG2). We show statistically that the proportion of human X and chicken Z orthologs observed on ALG2 is significantly different from the proportion that would be expected by chance. We further show that conserved syntenies between ALG2 and amniote chromosomes are identified as overlapping conserved syntenies when all available chicken (N = 3120) and human (N = 14,922) RefSeq orthologs are reciprocally compared. In particular, the data suggest that chromosomal regions from chicken chromosomes (GGA) Z and 4 and from human chromosomes (HSA) 9, 4, X, 5, and 8 were linked ancestrally. A more distant outgroup comparison with the pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals ALG2/GGAZ/HSAX syntenies among three pairs of ancestral chromosome duplicates. Overall, our results suggest that sex chromosomal regions of birds and mammals were recruited from a common ancestral chromosome, and thus our findings conflict with the currently accepted hypothesis of separate autosomal origins. We note that our results were obtained using the most immediate outgroup to the amniote clade (mammals, birds, and other reptiles) while the currently accepted hypothesis is primarily based upon conserved syntenies between in-group taxa (birds and mammals). Our study illustrates the importance of an amphibian outgroup perspective in identifying ancestral amniote gene orders and in reconstructing patterns of vertebrate sex-chromosome evolution. PMID:17660573

Smith, Jeramiah J; Voss, S Randal

2007-07-29

422

Evolutionary analysis of orthologous cDNA sequences from cultured and symbiotic dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals (Dinophyceae: Symbiodinium).  

PubMed

Dinoflagellates are ubiquitous marine and freshwater protists. The endosymbiotic relationship between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (also known as zooxanthellae) and corals forms the basis of coral reefs. We constructed and analyzed a cDNA library from a cultured Symbiodinium species clade A (CassKB8). The majority of annotated ESTs from the Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 library cover metabolic genes. Most of those belong to either carbohydrate or energy metabolism. In addition, components of extracellular signal transduction pathways and genes that play a role in cell-cell communication were identified. In a subsequent analysis, we determined all orthologous cDNA sequences between this library (1,484 unique sequences) and a library from a Symbiodinium species clade C (C3) (3,336 unique sequences) that was isolated directly from its symbiotic host. A set of 115 orthologs were identified between Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 and Symbiodinium sp. C3. These orthologs were subdivided into three groups that show different characteristics and functions: conserved across eukaryotes (CE), dinoflagellate-specific (DS) and Symbiodinium-specific (SS). Orthologs conserved across eukaryotes are mainly comprised of housekeeping genes, photosynthesis-related transcripts and metabolic proteins, whereas the function for most of the dinoflagellate-specific orthologs remains unknown. A dN/dS analysis identified the highest ratio in a Symbiodinium-specific ortholog and evidence for positive selection in a dinoflagellate-specific gene. Evolution of genes and pathways in different dinoflagellates seems to be affected by different lifestyles, and a symbiotic lifestyle may affect population structu