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Sample records for canis p140 orthologs

  1. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ) when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV), with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts. PMID:23231731

  2. Canis Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Dog; abbrev. CMi, gen. Canis Minoris; area 183 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Gemini and Monoceros, and culminates at midnight in mid-January. It represents one of the two dogs of Orion (the Hunter), which dominates the sky to the west (the other dog being represented by Canis Major). Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  3. Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis Infection with Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jere W.; Corstvet, Richard E.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Walker, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis causes a potentially fatal rickettsial disease of dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. We recently reported the cloning of two immunoreactive E. canis proteins, P28 and P140, that were applicable for serodiagnosis of the disease. In the present study we cloned a new immunoreactive E. canis surface protein gene of 1,170 bp, which encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 42.6 kDa (P43). The P43 gene was not detected in E. chaffeensis DNA by Southern blot, and antisera against recombinant P43 (rP43) did not react with E. chaffeensis as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Forty-two dogs exhibiting signs and/or hematologic abnormalities associated with canine ehrlichiosis were tested by IFA assay and by recombinant Western immunoblot. Among the 22 samples that were IFA positive for E. canis, 100% reacted with rP43, 96% reacted with rP28, and 96% reacted with rP140. The specificity of the recombinant proteins compared to the IFAs was 96% for rP28, 88% for P43 and 63% for P140. The results of this study demonstrate that the rP43 and rP28 are sensitive and reliable serodiagnostic antigens for E. canis infections. PMID:11136790

  4. p140Cap regulates memory and synaptic plasticity through Src-mediated and citron-N-mediated actin reorganization.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Daniele; Camera, Paola; Melani, Riccardo; Morello, Noemi; Russo, Isabella; Calcagno, Eleonora; Tomasoni, Romana; Bianchi, Federico; Berto, Gaia; Giustetto, Maurizio; Berardi, Nicoletta; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Matteoli, Michela; Di Stefano, Paola; Missler, Markus; Turco, Emilia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Defilippi, Paola

    2014-01-22

    A major challenge in the neuroscience field is the identification of molecules and pathways that control synaptic plasticity and memory. Dendritic spines play a pivotal role in these processes, as the major sites of excitatory synapses in neuronal communication. Previous studies have shown that the scaffold protein p140Cap localizes into dendritic spines and that its knockdown negatively modulates spine shape in culture. However, so far, there is no information on its in vivo relevance. By using a knock-out mouse model, we here demonstrate that p140Cap is a key element for both learning and synaptic plasticity. Indeed, p140Cap(-/-) mice are impaired in object recognition test, as well as in LTP and in LTD measurements. The in vivo effects of p140Cap loss are presumably attenuated by noncell-autonomous events, since primary neurons obtained from p140Cap(-/-) mice show a strong reduction in number of mushroom spines and abnormal organization of synapse-associated F-actin. These phenotypes are most likely caused by a local reduction of the inhibitory control of RhoA and of cortactin toward the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. These events can be controlled by p140Cap through its capability to directly inhibit the activation of Src kinase and by its binding to the scaffold protein Citron-N. Altogether, our results provide new insight into how protein associated with dynamic microtubules may regulate spine actin organization through interaction with postsynaptic density components. PMID:24453341

  5. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite. PMID:26568991

  6. Production of human factor VIII-FL in 293T cells using the bicistronic MGMT(P140K)-retroviral vector.

    PubMed

    Fontes, A M; Melo, F U F; Greene, L J; Faça, V M; Lin, Y; Gerson, S L; Covas, D T

    2012-01-01

    Hemophilia A is the most common X-linked bleeding disorder; it is caused by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Replacement therapy with rFVIII produced from human cell line is a major goal for treating hemophilia patients. We prepared a full-length recombinant FVIII (FVIII-FL), using the pMFG-P140K retroviral vector. The IRES DNA fragment was cloned upstream to the P140K gene, providing a 9.34-kb bicistronic vector. FVIII-FL cDNA was then cloned upstream to IRES, resulting in a 16.6-kb construct. In parallel, an eGFP control vector was generated, resulting in a 10.1- kb construct. The 293T cells were transfected with these constructs, generating the 293T-FVIII-FL/P140K and 293T-eGFP/P140K cell lines. In 293T-FVIII-FL/P140K cells, FVIII and P140K mRNAs levels were 4,410 (±931.7)- and 295,400 (±75,769)-fold higher than in virgin cells. In 293T-eGFP/P140K cells, the eGFP and P140K mRNAs levels were 1,501,000 (±493,700)- and 308,000 (±139,300)-fold higher than in virgin cells. The amount of FVIII-FL was 0.2 IU/mL and 45 ng/mL FVIII cells or 4.4 IU/μg protein. These data demonstrate the efficacy of the bicistronic retroviral vector expressing FVIII-FL and MGMT(P140K), showing that it could be used for producing the FVIII-FL protein in a human cell line. PMID:22576836

  7. The Spliceosomal Phosphopeptide P140 Controls the Lupus Disease by Interacting with the HSC70 Protein and via a Mechanism Mediated by γδ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4+ T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4−CD8−B220+ T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on γδ T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4+ T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity. PMID:19390596

  8. Giardia canis: ultrastructural analysis of G. canis trophozoites transfected with full length G. canis virus cDNA transcripts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giardia canis virus (GCV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the family Totiviridae. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the G. canis virus was constructed in pPoly2/sfinot vector and RNA was transcribed in vitro. Virus-free G. canis trophozoites were transfected with in vitro transcribed ...

  9. Cellular Microbiology of Mycoplasma canis.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Dina L; Leibowitz, Jeffrey A; Azaiza, Mohammed T; Shil, Pollob K; Shama, Suzanne M; Kutish, Gerald F; Distelhorst, Steven L; Balish, Mitchell F; May, Meghan A; Brown, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma canis can infect many mammalian hosts but is best known as a commensal or opportunistic pathogen of dogs. The unexpected presence of M. canis in brains of dogs with idiopathic meningoencephalitis prompted new in vitro studies to help fill the void of basic knowledge about the organism's candidate virulence factors, the host responses that it elicits, and its potential roles in pathogenesis. Secretion of reactive oxygen species and sialidase varied quantitatively (P < 0.01) among strains of M. canis isolated from canine brain tissue or mucosal surfaces. All strains colonized the surface of canine MDCK epithelial and DH82 histiocyte cells and murine C8-D1A astrocytes. Transit through MDCK and DH82 cells was demonstrated by gentamicin protection assays and three-dimensional immunofluorescence imaging. Strains further varied (P < 0.01) in the extents to which they influenced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the neuroendocrine regulatory peptide endothelin-1 by DH82 cells. Inoculation with M. canis also decreased major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen expression by DH82 cells (P < 0.01), while secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and complement factor H was unaffected. The basis for differences in the responses elicited by these strains was not obvious in their genome sequences. No acute cytopathic effects on any homogeneous cell line, or consistent patterns of M. canis polyvalent antigen distribution in canine meningoencephalitis case brain tissues, were apparent. Thus, while it is not likely a primary neuropathogen, M. canis has the capacity to influence meningoencephalitis through complex interactions within the multicellular and neurochemical in vivo milieu. PMID:27045036

  10. Interaction of nuclear protein p140 with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR RNA in mitogen-activated primary human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rothblum, C J; Jackman, J; Mikovits, J; Shukla, R R; Kumar, A

    1995-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that cellular proteins play a role during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat-mediated trans activation. A recent report from this laboratory has shown that a 140-kDa HeLa nuclear protein (p140) binds specifically to the lower stem region of the Tat response element, TAR RNA. Since HIV-1 trans activation is most efficient in proliferating T cells, we investigated the binding of p140 to TAR RNA in unstimulated and mitogen-activated, G1-phase primary T lymphocytes. TAR RNA/protein-binding activity was low in resting cells but increased significantly within 2 h of activation and remained elevated for at least 48 h. Corresponding increases in p140 protein levels were observed with most but not all donors, suggesting that an additional nuclear factor(s) may be required for efficient binding of this protein to TAR RNA in activated T cells. PMID:7609087

  11. Stable differentiation and clonality of murine long-term hematopoiesis after extended reduced-intensity selection for MGMT P140K transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Claudia R.; Pilz, Ingo H.; Schmidt, Manfred; Fessler, Sylvia; Williams, David A.; Glimm, Hanno

    2007-01-01

    Efficient in vivo selection increases survival of gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and protects hematopoiesis, even if initial gene transfer efficiency is low. Moreover, selection of a limited number of transduced HSCs lowers the number of cell clones at risk of gene activation by insertional mutagenesis. However, a limited clonal repertoire greatly increases the proliferation stress of each individual clone. Therefore, understanding the impact of in vivo selection on proliferation and lineage differentiation of stem-cell clones is essential for its clinical use. We established minimal cell and drug dosage requirements for selection of P140K mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT P140K)–expressing HSCs and monitored their differentiation potential and clonality under long-term selective stress. Up to 17 administrations of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea (BCNU) did not impair long-term differentiation and proliferation of MGMT P140K–expressing stem-cell clones in mice that underwent serial transplantation and did not lead to clonal exhaustion. Interestingly, not all gene-modified hematopoietic repopulating cell clones were efficiently selectable. Our studies demonstrate that the normal function of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is not compromised by reduced-intensity long-term in vivo selection, thus underscoring the potential value of MGMT P140K selection for clinical gene therapy. PMID:17496202

  12. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    PubMed

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness. PMID:26810086

  13. Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters (POCs).

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Angelika; Osborne, John; Slack, Stephanie; Roper, Rachel L; Upton, Chris

    2002-11-01

    Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters (POCs) is a JAVA client-server application which accesses an updated database containing all complete poxvirus genomes; it automatically groups orthologous genes into families based on BLASTP scores for assessment by a human database curator. POCs has a user-friendly interface permitting complex SQL queries to retrieve interesting groups of DNA and protein sequences as well as gene families for subsequent interrogation by a variety of integrated tools: BLASTP, BLASTX, TBLASTN, Jalview (multiple alignment), Dotlet (Dotplot), Laj (local alignment), and NAP (nucleotide to amino acid alignment). PMID:12424130

  14. The adaptor proteins p140CAP and p130CAS as molecular hubs in cell migration and invasion of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, Paola; Leal, Maria Pilar Camacho; Tornillo, Giusy; Bisaro, Brigitte; Repetto, Daniele; Pincini, Alessandra; Santopietro, Emanuela; Sharma, Nanaocha; Turco, Emilia; Cabodi, Sara; Defilippi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of molecular hubs upon integrin and growth factor stimulation represents a preferential way to transduce signals throughout the cell. Among the intracellular kinases that are responsive to integrin and growth factor activation, Src Family Kinases (SFKs) are crucial regulators of cell migration and invasion. Increasing evidence highlight the importance of adaptor proteins in these processes, based on their ability to create signalling platforms that control downstream signals. Among these adaptors we will discuss the molecular features of p130Cas and p140Cap proteins in terms of regulation of cell migration and invasion in normal and transformed cells. PMID:21994904

  15. Secreted Metalloprotease Gene Family of Microsporum canis

    PubMed Central

    Brouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Monod, Michel; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12228297

  16. Genome Annotation of Five Mycoplasma canis Strains

    PubMed Central

    May, M.; Michaels, D. L.; Barbet, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    To understand its potential to cause invasive disease, the genome of Mycoplasma canis strain PG14T from a dog's throat was compared to those of isolates from the genital tract or brain of dogs. The average nucleotide identity between strain pairs is 98%, and their genome annotations are similar. PMID:22815452

  17. The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts. PMID:18682828

  18. Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

  19. Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

  20. Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Mojgan; Lim, Sue Yee; Watanabe, Mahira; Sharma, Reuben S. K.; Cheng, Nadzariah A. B. Y.; Watanabe, Malaika

    2013-01-01

    An epidemiological study of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 500 canine blood samples were collected from veterinary clinics and dog shelters. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using genus-specific primers followed by PCR using E. canis species-specific primers. Ten out of 500 dogs were positive for E. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of the E. canis Malaysia strain showed that it was grouped tightly with other E. canis strains from different geographic regions. The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of genetically confirmed E. canis with a prevalence rate of 2.0% in naturally infected dogs in Malaysia. PMID:23301114

  1. Recent trends in human Brucella canis infection.

    PubMed

    Marzetti, Sandra; Carranza, Cristina; Roncallo, Mariela; Escobar, Gabriela I; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-01-01

    There is little information in the literature regarding the clinical progress of brucellosis in patients affected by other diseases. We report Brucella canis human infection link to Gaucher's disease and Guillain Barré syndrome and discuss complications observed in a case with infective endocarditis. The three cases described came from areas of socio-economic deprivation and scarce epidemiological information where the healthcare personnel did not even consider such diagnosis. The growth of large urban populations deprived from basic services has created a new set of global health challenges. Changes in the urban environment due to slum communities' expansion have resulted in increased dog populations in the peridomiciliary environment. Eleven laboratory employees working with the strains found and their identification were examined. Sanitary authorities should focus on the zoonotic aspect of B. canis considering the dramatic increase of canine roamers near urban centers. PMID:23040615

  2. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

  3. The transmission of Babesia canis to the wild dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, J

    1980-06-01

    Babesia canis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to 3 wild dogs Lycaon pictus and 4 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas. Both wild dogs and black-backed jackals showed no clinical signs or clinical pathological evidence of disease. Trophozoites of Babesia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from both black-backed jackals and wild dogs to the domestic dog. PMID:7252967

  4. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  5. [The prevalence of Babesia canis canis in marsh ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus) in the Saarland].

    PubMed

    Beelitz, Pamela; Schumacher, Stefan; Marholdt, Fritz; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    An accumulation of autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis has been registered in a small animal clinic in the Saarland since the beginning of 2006, some cases with fatal outcome. This study aims to contribute to the explanation of strong focal occurrence of infections with B. canis in this region.Therefore, patient owners who had presented their dogs in the years 2006 and 2007 because of babesiosis and who had claimed not having left the Saarland with their dogs at least six months before the outbreak of Babesiosis, were asked for their dog walking habits. Accordingly, a selection often tick collection sites of various landscape structures was made.Tick sampling by flagging the vegetation took place every month from March to December 2008. The collected ticks were identified morphologically. In eight of ten collecting sites a total of 397 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected from March to December with the highest frequencies during the months of May, October and November. All collected specimens were examined by genus-specific conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia-DNA. In positive samples, the PCR-products were differentiated by sequencing. ten D. reticulatus (2.5%) ticks examined were found positive for DNA of B. canis canis originating from three out of eight collection sites. Consequently, an endemic distribution of D. reticulatus was confirmed and a natural PMID:22515037

  6. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  7. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    PubMed

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species. PMID:26104727

  8. Genetic Polymorphism Characteristics of Brucella canis Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Tian, Lili; Tian, Guozhong; Kang, Jingli; Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhuo; Mao, Lingling; Yao, Wenqing; Guan, Pingyuan; Fan, Weixing; Jiang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease typically caused by Brucella melitensis infection (biovars 1 and 3). Brucella canis infection in dogs has not traditionally recognized as a major problem. In recent years however, brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection has also been reported, suggesting that infections from this species may be increasing. Data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the diversity among Chinese Brucella canis strains for epidemiological purposes. First, we employed a 16-marker VNTR assay (Brucella MLVA-16) to assess the diversity and epidemiological relationship of 29 Brucella canis isolates from diverse locations throughout China with 38 isolates from other countries. MLVA-16 analysis separated the 67 Brucella canis isolates into 57 genotypes that grouped into five clusters with genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 67.73 to 100%. Moreover, this analysis revealed a new genotype (2-3-9-11-3-1-5-1:118), which was present in two isolates recovered from Guangxi in 1986 and 1987. Second, multiplex PCR and sequencing analysis were used to determine whether the 29 Chinese Brucella canis isolates had the characteristic BMEI1435 gene deletion. Only two isolates had this deletion. Third, amplification of the omp25 gene revealed that 26 isolates from China had a T545C mutation. Collectively, this study reveals that considerable diversity exists among Brucella canis isolates in China and provides resources for studying the genetic variation and microevolution of Brucella. PMID:24465442

  9. Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

  10. Integrating Sequence Evolution into Probabilistic Orthology Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ikram; Sjöstrand, Joel; Andersson, Peter; Sennblad, Bengt; Lagergren, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Orthology analysis, that is, finding out whether a pair of homologous genes are orthologs - stemming from a speciation - or paralogs - stemming from a gene duplication - is of central importance in computational biology, genome annotation, and phylogenetic inference. In particular, an orthologous relationship makes functional equivalence of the two genes highly likely. A major approach to orthology analysis is to reconcile a gene tree to the corresponding species tree, (most commonly performed using the most parsimonious reconciliation, MPR). However, most such phylogenetic orthology methods infer the gene tree without considering the constraints implied by the species tree and, perhaps even more importantly, only allow the gene sequences to influence the orthology analysis through the a priori reconstructed gene tree. We propose a sound, comprehensive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo-based method, DLRSOrthology, to compute orthology probabilities. It efficiently sums over the possible gene trees and jointly takes into account the current gene tree, all possible reconciliations to the species tree, and the, typically strong, signal conveyed by the sequences. We compare our method with PrIME-GEM, a probabilistic orthology approach built on a probabilistic duplication-loss model, and MrBayesMPR, a probabilistic orthology approach that is based on conventional Bayesian inference coupled with MPR. We find that DLRSOrthology outperforms these competing approaches on synthetic data as well as on biological data sets and is robust to incomplete taxon sampling artifacts. PMID:26130236

  11. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  12. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon

    2016-01-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  13. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Schreiber, Fabian; da Silva, Alan Sousa; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Martin, Maria J; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E; Thomas, Paul D; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision-recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods. PMID:27043882

  14. Breeding season of wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12 deg. and 80 deg. N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  15. Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

  16. Breeding season of Wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12?? and 80??N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  17. First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

  18. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis. PMID:27236582

  19. Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; Banach, Tomasz; Bartnicki, Michał; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Łyp, Paweł; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. The study was conducted on two groups of dogs--healthy dogs and dogs infected with B. canis canis which demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS technique revealed the presence of a protein fraction of 51-52 kDa in the blood serum of all the animals infected with the protozoa, which was not found in the serum of healthy dogs. The proteins are suspected to be disease markers, whereas the MALDI-TOF technique itself has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis. PMID:25238794

  20. In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N; Abdul Basith, S; Senthilkumar, T M A

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature. PMID:27605834

  1. Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji; Kameya, Osamu; Kamohara, Ryuichi; Kan-Ya, Yukitoshi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Masachika; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kuji, Seisuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Manabe, Seiji; Maruyama, Kenta; Matsui, Makoto; Matsumoto, Naoko; Miyaji, Takeshi; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakamura, Kayoko; Oh, Chung Sik; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sakai, Satoshi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Sato, Katsuhisa; Sato, Mayumi; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tsushima, Miyuki; Yamashita, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    We report on astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.88±0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14+0.11-0.09kpc. This is the most accurate determined distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a previously accepted distance. With our result, we re-estimated the luminosity of VY CMa to be (3±0.5) × 105Lodot using the bolometric flux integrated over optical and IR wavelengths. This improved luminosity value makes the location of VY CMa on the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram much closer to the theoretically allowable zone (i.e. the left side of the Hayashi track) than previous ones, though the uncertainty in the effective temperature of the stellar surface still does not permit us to make a final conclusion.

  2. Inferring Orthologs: Open Questions and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of sequenced genomes and their comparisons, the detection of orthologs is crucial for reliable functional annotation and evolutionary analyses of genes and species. Yet, the dynamic remodeling of genome content through gain, loss, transfer of genes, and segmental and whole-genome duplication hinders reliable orthology detection. Moreover, the lack of direct functional evidence and the questionable quality of some available genome sequences and annotations present additional difficulties to assess orthology. This article reviews the existing computational methods and their potential accuracy in the high-throughput era of genome sequencing and anticipates open questions in terms of methodology, reliability, and computation. Appropriate taxon sampling together with combination of methods based on similarity, phylogeny, synteny, and evolutionary knowledge that may help detecting speciation events appears to be the most accurate strategy. This review also raises perspectives on the potential determination of orthology throughout the whole species phylogeny. PMID:26966373

  3. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  4. Assessment of orthologous splicing isoforms in human and mouse orthologous genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries have highlighted the fact that alternative splicing and alternative transcripts are the rule, rather than the exception, in metazoan genes. Since multiple transcript and protein variants expressed by the same gene are, by definition, structurally distinct and need not to be functionally equivalent, the concept of gene orthology should be extended to the transcript level in order to describe evolutionary relationships between structurally similar transcript variants. In other words, the identification of true orthology relationships between gene products now should progress beyond primary sequence and "splicing orthology", consisting in ancestrally shared exon-intron structures, is required to define orthologous isoforms at transcript level. Results As a starting step in this direction, in this work we performed a large scale human- mouse gene comparison with a twofold goal: first, to assess if and to which extent traditional gene annotations such as RefSeq capture genuine splicing orthology; second, to provide a more detailed annotation and quantification of true human-mouse orthologous transcripts defined as transcripts of orthologous genes exhibiting the same splicing patterns. Conclusions We observed an identical exon/intron structure for 32% of human and mouse orthologous genes. This figure increases to 87% using less stringent criteria for gene structure similarity, thus implying that for about 13% of the human RefSeq annotated genes (and about 25% of the corresponding transcripts) we could not identify any mouse transcript showing sufficient similarity to be confidently assigned as a splicing ortholog. Our data suggest that current gene and transcript data may still be rather incomplete - with several splicing variants still unknown. The observation that alternative splicing produces large numbers of alternative transcripts and proteins, some of them conserved across species and others truly species-specific, suggests that, still

  5. Ortholog-Finder: A Tool for Constructing an Ortholog Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Horiike, Tokumasa; Minai, Ryoichi; Miyata, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yoji; Tateno, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Orthologs are widely used for phylogenetic analysis of species; however, identifying genuine orthologs among distantly related species is challenging, because genes obtained through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and out-paralogs derived from gene duplication before speciation are often present among the predicted orthologs. We developed a program, “Ortholog-Finder,” to obtain ortholog data sets for performing phylogenetic analysis by using all open-reading frame data of species. The program includes five processes for minimizing the effects of HGT and out-paralogs in phylogeny construction: 1) HGT filtering: Genes derived from HGT could be detected and deleted from the initial sequence data set by examining their base compositions. 2) Out-paralog filtering: Out-paralogs are detected and deleted from the data set based on sequence similarity. 3) Classification of phylogenetic trees: Phylogenetic trees generated for ortholog candidates are classified as monophyletic or polyphyletic trees. 4) Tree splitting: Polyphyletic trees are bisected to obtain monophyletic trees and remove HGT genes and out-paralogs. 5) Threshold changing: Out-paralogs are further excluded from the data set based on the difference in the similarity scores of genuine orthologs and out-paralogs. We examined how out-paralogs and HGTs affected phylogenetic trees constructed for species based on ortholog data sets obtained by Ortholog-Finder with the use of simulation data, and we determined the effects of confounding factors. We then used Ortholog-Finder in phylogeny construction for 12 Gram-positive bacteria from two phyla and validated each node of the constructed tree by comparison with individually constructed ortholog trees. PMID:26782935

  6. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  7. Prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens in dogs from the Stretto di Messina area (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Caprì, Alessandra; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Lombardo, Gabriella; Torina, Alessandra; Masucci, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia canis in outdoor-kennelled dogs (n=249) from the Stretto di Messina (Italy) and to compare seroprevalence in 2 public shelters and 4 privately-owned kennels where different tick-preventive measures were implemented in order to focus on the specific sanitary risk posed by public shelters in southern Italy for tick-borne pathogens. R. conorii (72%) and B. canis (70%) were the most prevalent infections when compared to E. canis (46%) and A. phagocytophilum (38%). Seroprevalence for R. conorii, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher in public shelters than in private kennels. However, B. canis seropositivity was similar in both types of kennels. In addition, in private kennels where a regular ectocide treatment was carried out by means of spot-on devices, dogs did not present E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies. One hundred fifty-one dogs out of 249 (61%) were seropositive to more than one pathogen with R. conorii and B. canis the most common ones. Coinfections were more frequently found in public-shelter dogs. This study demonstrated high seroprevalences against R. conorii, B. canis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in kennelled dogs from both coastal sites of the Stretto di Messina and the importance of regular tick-bite prevention by means of individual spot-on devices. PMID:23140895

  8. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  9. Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis. PMID:24484486

  10. [Mycetomas caused by Microsporum canis. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Zaror, L; Moreno, M I; Hering, M; Siegmund, I; Norambuena, L

    1997-08-01

    We report an eight years old boy presenting with a pyogenic granuloma of the scalp, generalized alopecia, descamative plates in the neck, trunk and limbs and nail involvement. Cultures for fungus of all these lesions disclosed Microspore canis. The patient was treated with oral griseofulvin, miconazole and topical tolnaftate. Five years later and after several incomplete treatments, the patient returns with a fistulous mass of 15 x 8 cm in the dorsal area whose culture revealed Microspore canis. The mass was excised and oral ketoconazole was indicated. After three months of follow up, the patient was lost from control. PMID:9567397

  11. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  12. Characteristic genotypes discriminate between Babesia canis isolates of differing vector specificity and pathogenicity to dogs.

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Schein, E; Rinder, H; Gothe, R

    1998-07-01

    The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA gene were characterized in eight Babesia canis isolates of differing geographic origin, vector specificity, and pathogenicity to dogs. The genotypes determined by sequencing segregated into three clearly separated groups close to or near the species level and correspond to the previously proposed subspecies B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi. The three genotypes can be distinguished by Sau96I digestion of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified rDNA target. PMID:9694369

  13. A New Orthology Assessment Method for Phylogenomic Data: Unrooted Phylogenetic Orthology.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Jesús A; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    Current sequencing technologies are making available unprecedented amounts of genetic data for a large variety of species including nonmodel organisms. Although many phylogenomic surveys spend considerable time finding orthologs from the wealth of sequence data, these results do not transcend the original study and after being processed for specific phylogenetic purposes these orthologs do not become stable orthology hypotheses. We describe a procedure to detect and document the phylogenetic distribution of orthologs allowing researchers to use this information to guide selection of loci best suited to test specific evolutionary questions. At the core of this pipeline is a new phylogenetic orthology method that is neither affected by the position of the root nor requires explicit assignment of outgroups. We discuss the properties of this new orthology assessment method and exemplify its utility for phylogenomics using a small insects dataset. In addition, we exemplify the pipeline to identify and document stable orthologs for the group of orb-weaving spiders (Araneoidea) using RNAseq data. The scripts used in this study, along with sample files and additional documentation, are available at https://github.com/ballesterus/UPhO. PMID:27189539

  14. [A evolutionary approach to identification of orthologous relationship across proteomes].

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuo-Yong; Ding, Da-Fu

    2002-01-01

    How to identify the true orthologous and paralogous relationships among protein families is still a key problem in genome annotation and comparative protemics. Here, a evolutionary approach to ascertainment of the orthologous relationships across the genomes is developed. Forty-four cases of protein families are used in the test for the evolutionary approach. Compared with the method of COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins), this approach can generally identify the orthologous relationships and accurately predict the genome function. PMID:11958142

  15. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017), with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia. PMID:26244587

  16. An example of endurance in an old wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    An 11 to 13-year-old Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) was observed chasing a young Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) for 6 to 7 minutes and catching it. This provides an example of the degree of endurance of which an old wolf is capable.

  17. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  18. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  19. Detection of genotype-specific Ehrlichia canis exposure in Brazilian dogs by TRP36 peptide ELISA.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Braga, Isis A; Taques, Isis I G G; McBride, Jere W

    2016-02-01

    We recently characterized a novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis based on the tandem repeat (TR) sequence of the TRP36 gene in Brazil. The TR amino acid sequence of the Brazilian (Br) genotype (ASVVPEAE) was divergent from the previously described US genotype (TEDSVSAPA) of E. canis. In this study, we developed an ELISA based on TRP36 TR synthetic peptides from both Br and US E. canis TRP36 genotypes to serologically detect and distinguish infections caused by these genotypes. Sera from 30 Brazilian dogs naturally infected with E. canis, sera from dogs experimentally infected E. canis (Jake and Cuiabá #1 strains) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain) and 12 seronegative E. canis dogs were evaluated. Fifteen naturally infected Brazilian dogs had antibodies that reacted with the US TRP36 (n=9) or Br TRP36 (n=6) only, and 13 dogs had antibodies that reacted with both TPR36 peptides suggesting that these dogs were exposed to both genotypes. Most dogs (n=28) had antibodies that reacted with the highly conserved E. canis TRP19 peptide; however, two dogs had antibodies to E. canis TRP19, but did not have TRP36 antibodies, raising the possibility that another novel TRP36 genotype is circulating in Brazil. Our results demonstrate that synthetic peptides based on the TR region of E. canis TRP36 can be used to serologically distinguish infections or identify coinfections by different genotypes, and to determine the seroprevalence of various E. canis genotypes in Brazil. PMID:26482949

  20. [Gomori reactions in orthology and pathology].

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, F

    1990-01-01

    The following four basic histochemical reactions were developed by Gomori (1904-1957): 1. Silver impregnation of reticular fibres (1937); 2. Metal salt principle for detection of hydrolytic enzyme activity (1939); 3. Silver-methenamine reaction (1946); 4. Aldehyde fuchsin reaction (1950). These reactions and their modifications have assumed growing importance to expansion of knowledge, primarily on orthological and pathobiological problems. PMID:1694055

  1. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility. PMID:12967589

  2. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended. PMID:26732926

  3. Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.

    PubMed

    Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

    2015-07-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis. PMID:24725503

  4. Microsporum canis scalp ringworm: its primary or secondary ectothrix character.

    PubMed

    Vismer, H F

    1993-06-01

    This study supports the view that, in cases of tinea capitis due to a Microsporum canis infection, ectothrix arthroconidium formation is extrapilary and arises from intrapilary hyphae. The hyphae of M. canis perforate and digest the hair cuticle to alter its appearance from a normally identifiable structure of imbricated cells with a distal free border, to a grossly altered and pathological layer. Conidium production mainly takes place outside the hair shaft and forms thick clusters between the cuticular tiles. Finally, a shaft of conidia is formed around the hair. The cuticular covering of such a conidium sheath belongs to the root sheath of the hair follicle, and not to the hair structure proper. PMID:8108682

  5. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magakian, T. Yu.; Movsessian, T. A.; Bally, J.

    2016-07-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ˜1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H α and [S II] images obtained with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  6. Toxocara canis: Larvicidal activity of fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, Taís; D'Oca, Caroline da Ros Montes; Mata-Santos, Hílton Antônio; Fenalti, Juliana; Pinto, Nitza; Coelho, Tatiane; Berne, Maria Elisabeth; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-02-01

    Considering the therapeutic potential of fatty acid amides, the present study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activity against Toxocara canis larvae and their cytotoxicity for the first time. Linoleylpyrrolidilamide was the most potent, with a minimal larvicidal concentration (MLC) of 0.05 mg/mL and 27% cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages C57BL/6 mice, as assessed by the MTT assay. PMID:26783180

  7. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  8. Acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (Canis aureus).

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Nyska, A

    1998-06-01

    Acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (Canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in Hafez-Haim, Israel. Other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. Although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. No recurrence has been observed. PMID:9732044

  9. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D.; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R.; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S.; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W.; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317 Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite’s gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host–parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites. PMID:25649139

  10. Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel.

    PubMed

    Waner, T; Baneth, G; Strenger, C; Keysary, A; King, R; Harrus, S

    1999-03-31

    A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to E. canis were detected in 35.8% serum samples while 26.4% of the samples tested were positive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Twenty-six percent of the jackals tested were seropositive to E. phagocytophila, of which 5.7% were seropositive to E. phagocytophila alone without any seroreactivity to either E. canis or E. chaffeensis. Fifty-five percent of the jackals were seropositive to the SFG-rickettsiae antigens. The results suggest a high exposure rate of jackals in Israel to E. canis. Positive reactivity to E. chaffeensis was considered to be due to antigenic cross-reactions with E. canis. The study demonstrated for the first time the presence of E. phagocytophila antibodies in free-range jackals. The high incidence of antibodies to the SFG-rickettsiae and their relatively high antibody titers was suggestive of either recent or persistent infection. The possibility that jackals may play a role in the transmission of E. canis, E. phagocytophila and the SFG-rickettsiae for human and canine infections is discussed. PMID:10321583

  11. Zebrafish orthologs of human muscular dystrophy genes

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Leta S; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Vogel, Emily D; Beltre, Rosanna; Pusack, Timothy J; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I; Kunkel, Louis M

    2007-01-01

    Background Human muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders which cause decreased muscle strength and often result in premature death. There is no known cure for muscular dystrophy, nor have all causative genes been identified. Recent work in the small vertebrate zebrafish Danio rerio suggests that mutation or misregulation of zebrafish dystrophy orthologs can also cause muscular degeneration phenotypes in fish. To aid in the identification of new causative genes, this study identifies and maps zebrafish orthologs for all known human muscular dystrophy genes. Results Zebrafish sequence databases were queried for transcripts orthologous to human dystrophy-causing genes, identifying transcripts for 28 out of 29 genes of interest. In addition, the genomic locations of all 29 genes have been found, allowing rapid candidate gene discovery during genetic mapping of zebrafish dystrophy mutants. 19 genes show conservation of syntenic relationships with humans and at least two genes appear to be duplicated in zebrafish. Significant sequence coverage on one or more BAC clone(s) was also identified for 24 of the genes to provide better local sequence information and easy updating of genomic locations as the zebrafish genome assembly continues to evolve. Conclusion This resource supports zebrafish as a dystrophy model, suggesting maintenance of all known dystrophy-associated genes in the zebrafish genome. Coupled with the ability to conduct genetic screens and small molecule screens, zebrafish are thus an attractive model organism for isolating new dystrophy-causing genes/pathways and for use in high-throughput therapeutic discovery. PMID:17374169

  12. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5. PMID:26540181

  13. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

  14. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Dentinger, Catherine M.; Jacob, Kathleen; Lee, Lillian V.; Mendez, Herman A.; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; McDonough, Patrick L.; Chico, David M.; De, Barun K.; Traxler, Rita M.; Campagnolo, Enzo R.; Schmitt, David; Guerra, Marta A.; Slavinski, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Contact with pathogenic Brucella spp. can lead to laboratory-acquired infections. We identified a pediatric B. canis case, the source, and other exposed persons. A three-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnea was hospitalized for 48 hours for bronchiolitis. After her admission blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed antimicrobials and recovered. B. canis was isolated from blood of the child's pet dog. Isolates from the child and the dog were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the puppy's infection. Thirty-one laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. This first report strongly suggesting B. canis transmission from a canine to a child in the United States highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  15. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012.

    PubMed

    Dentinger, C M; Jacob, K; Lee, L V; Mendez, H A; Chotikanatis, K; McDonough, P L; Chico, D M; De, B K; Tiller, R V; Traxler, R M; Campagnolo, E R; Schmitt, D; Guerra, M A; Slavinski, S A

    2015-08-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Laboratory-acquired infections can occur following contact with Brucella spp. We identified a paediatric B. canis case, the source and other exposed persons. A 3-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnoea was hospitalized for 48 h for bronchiolitis. After her admission, blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed anti-microbials and recovered. B. canis was also isolated from blood of the child's pet dog; these isolates were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the dog's infection. Additionally, 31 laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first report strongly suggesting B. canis zoonotic transmission to a child in the United States, and highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  16. Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion

    PubMed Central

    Maizels, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of ‘excretory–secretory’ products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in

  17. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    PubMed

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  18. Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

  19. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  20. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P < 0.01) but gnathosoma and podosoma did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects. PMID:26688632

  1. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Wesson, R.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Kasper, M.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Wolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass-loss envelope, using the new extreme-adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE at the VLT. These observations allow us to make the first direct and unambiguous detection of submicron dust grains in the ejecta; we derive an average grain radius ~0.5 μm, 50 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, large enough to receive significant radiation pressure by photon scattering. We find evidence for varying grain sizes throughout the ejecta, highlighting the dynamical nature of the envelope. Grains with 0.5 μm sizes are likely to reach a safe distance from the eventual explosion of VY Canis Majoris; hence it may inject upwards of 10-2 M⊙ of dust into the ISM. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program 60.A-9368(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. A WISE Census of Young Stellar Objects in Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl L.; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we searched for young stellar objects (YSOs) in a 100 deg2 region centered on the lightly studied Canis Major star-forming region. Applying stringent magnitude cuts to exclude the majority of extragalactic contaminants, we find 144 Class I candidates and 335 Class II candidates. The sensitivity to Class II candidates is limited by their faintness at the distance to Canis Major (assumed as 1000 pc). More than half the candidates (53%) are found in 16 groups of more than four members, including four groups with more than 25 members each. The ratio of Class II to Class I objects, N II/N I, varies from 0.4 to 8.3 in just the largest four groups. We compare our results to those obtainable with combined Two Micron All Sky Survey and post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope data; the latter approach recovers missing Class II sources. Via a comparison to protostars characterized with the Herschel Space Observatory, we propose new WISE color criteria for flat-spectrum and Class 0 protostars, finding 80 and 7 of these, respectively. The distribution of YSOs in CMa OB1 is consistent with supernova-induced star formation, although the diverse N II/N I ratios are unexpected if this parameter traces age and the YSOs are due to the same supernova. Less massive clouds feature larger N II/N I ratios, suggesting that initial conditions play a role in determining this quantity.

  3. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    PubMed

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential. PMID:27344918

  4. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing on embryonation of Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Houk, Alice E; Flick, George J; Lindsay, David S

    2014-07-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic nematode parasite that can be transmitted to humans by food or water contaminated with T. canis eggs from infected dog feces. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a useful alternative to thermal treatments to eliminate pathogens from foods. Most of the research on HPP has focused on prokaryotes, but little is known about its effects on eukaryotic organisms. We evaluated the ability of HPP to affect embryonation of T. canis eggs to test the hypothesis that HPP treatment can delay development of T. canis eggs. Efficacy of HPP was determined by using an embryonation assay on T. canis eggs from naturally infected puppies. For each treatment, 2500 T. canis eggs in tap water were placed in sealable plastic bags and subjected to 138-400 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60 s in a commercial HPP unit. We found that treatment with 300 or 400 MPa for 60 s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207 MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively. Results from this study suggest that HPP may be a useful treatment to protect foods from T. canis contamination. PMID:24866420

  5. Inhibitory effect of interferon gamma on frequency of Ehrlichia canis-infected cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Tomoko; Wada, Makoto

    2013-12-15

    Ehrlichia canis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects the macrophage-monocyte cells of dogs, causing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), along with other cytokines, mediates the immune response to such intracellular bacterial invasions. To determine the role of IFN-γ in the immunity of dogs to E. canis infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white blood cells (WBC) were collected from E. canis-infected dogs and added to a culture of E. canis in DH82 cells. The number of E. canis inclusion-positive cells was significantly reduced in cultures containing PBMC and WBC from E. canis-infected dogs compared to uninfected dogs. However, this resistance was inhibited by the addition of an anti-dog IFN-γ antibody. Resistance was also observed when PBMC were added to the Cell Culture Inserts, which prohibited contact of PBMC to DH82 cells, while allowed the diffusion of soluble cell products. The results of this study indicate that resistance was not dependent on cell to cell contact, but was associated with soluble cell products, such as IFN-γ. The addition of recombinant canine IFN-γ to the E. canis culture also reduced the number of infected cells. A commercial recombinant canine IFN-γ, which is sold in Japan, was also effective at reducing E. canis-infected cell number. These results indicate that IFN-γ has an inhibitory effect on the frequency of E. canis-infected cells in vitro and that contact between effector and target cells is not necessary for the resistance. PMID:24148826

  6. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. PMID:26615872

  7. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Burak Selek, Mehmet; Baylan, Orhan; Kutlu, Ali; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis), a parasite which subsists in dog's intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis. In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB) WB test. We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13) of patients (n=73) with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109). Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa) were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity 12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day) increases seropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found 17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals. Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canis seropositivity in patients with CU. PMID:26547714

  8. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    PubMed

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  9. Functional prediction: identification of protein orthologs and paralogs.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R.; Jeong, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    Orthologs typically retain the same function in the course of evolution. Using beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family as a model, we demonstrate that orthologs can be confidently identified. The strategy is based on our recent findings that substitutions of only a few amino acid residues in these enzymes are sufficient to exchange substrate and coenzyme specificities. Hence, the few major specificity determinants can serve as reliable markers for determining orthologous or paralogous relationships. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by correcting similarity-based functional misassignment and discovering new genes and related pathways, and should be broadly applicable to other enzyme families. PMID:11206056

  10. Preference for copying unambiguous demonstrations in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám; Timár-Geng, Katalin; Csányi, Vilmos

    2003-09-01

    In an earlier study (P. Pongracz et al., 2001), it was shown that human demonstration significantly enhances the detouring ability of dogs (Canis familiaris) around a V-shaped fence. The authors investigated the effect of the direction of the demonstrated detour and the dogs' detouring experience. They found that dogs' trial-and-error experience influences strongly the direction of the dogs' detours later, even if the demonstrator showed detours along the opposite side of the fence. However, dogs' preferences based on their own experiences were changed when the dogs observed demonstrations only on 1 side of the fence. Dogs with no trial-and-error experience followed the direction of 1-sided demonstrations. The change from dogs' own directions to the demonstrated directions seems not to be due to simple facilitative effects of social experience; the similarity with the demonstrated action depends on complex interactions between individual experience and socially provided information. PMID:14498810

  11. Spatial encoding of hidden objects in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Fiset, S; Gagnon, S; Beaulieu, C

    2000-12-01

    The authors investigated the type of spatial information that controls domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) search behavior in a situation in which they have to locate a spatial position where they saw an object move and disappear. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors manipulated all local and global sources of allocentric spatial information surrounding the hiding location. The results revealed that dogs relied on an egocentric frame of reference. Experiment 3 showed that dogs also encoded allocentric information when egocentric information was irrelevant. The authors conclude that dogs simultaneously encode both egocentric and allocentric spatial information to locate a spatial position, but they primarily base their search behavior on an egocentric frame of reference. The authors discuss under which natural conditions dogs might use these 2 sources of spatial information and detail the nature of spatial egocentric information and the circumstances underlying its use by dogs. PMID:11149535

  12. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Noor-Khairul; Zam, Zarifah; Mdnoor, Siti-Suraya; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis. PMID:22606491

  13. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  14. Primary lymphangiectasia in a dingo (Canis familiaris dingo).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Ludlow, Chris; Layton, Candace; Dennis, Jeff; Miller, Margaret

    2004-12-01

    A 3-yr-old intact male dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) presented with a 3-mo history of diarrhea. The diarrhea did not resolve with antibiotics or intestinal protectants. Fecal examination for parasites, fecal cultures, physical examination, and radiographs were unremarkable. Enteroscopic duodenal biopsies showed dilated lacteals without inflammation. Results of serum folate, cobalamin, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were normal. Low serum total protein and albumin combined with increased fecal levels of alpha-1 protease inhibitor suggested the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum revealed dilated mucosal and submucosal lacteals without associated inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of primary lymphangiectasia. Currently, the dingo is being maintained with nutritional management. PMID:15732606

  15. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Noor-Khairul; Zam, Zarifah; MdNoor, Siti-Suraya; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis. PMID:22606491

  16. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hun

    2005-01-01

    The intestines and hearts of dogs were examined for Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Dirofilaria immitis, after necropsy between June 26 and September 29, 2004 in Chuncheon, Korea. Of the 662 dogs examined, 6 were infected with T. canis (0.9%), 86 with T. leonina (13.0%). Fifty dogs were infected with D. immitis among 500 dogs examined (10.0%). Five were co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina, and three were co-infected with T. leonina and D. immitis. The cumulative positive infection rate for three species was 134/662(20.2%). Considering previously reported seropositive rates of T. canis excretory-secretory antigen, i.e., 5% in the adult population in Korea, the possibility of toxocariasis caused by T. leonina should be reevaluated. PMID:15951642

  17. Hypotensive shock syndrome associated with acute Babesia canis infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M J; Kirby, B M; Panciera, D L; Henik, R A; Rosin, E; Sullivan, L J

    1994-01-01

    A Doberman Pinscher contracted babesiosis after receiving a fresh blood transfusion from a Greyhound blood donor. Hypotensive shock syndrome was suspected on the basis of arterial hypotension, weakness, and pyrexia in the absence of detectable hemolysis and within hours of detection of low numbers of circulating Babesia canis organisms. Treatment with imidocarb dipropionate appears to have been effective in eliminating circulating B canis organisms and clinical disease. The blood donor, recently acquired from a race track, was healthy and lacked any abnormalities on initial laboratory evaluation; however, its serum antibody titer for B canis was > 1:5,000; B canis organisms were later identified on blood smears after the dog had been splenectomized and treated with corticosteroids at an immunosuppressive dosage. This case draws attention to a potential problem in current screening practices for infectious diseases of retired racing Greyhounds intended for use as blood donors. PMID:8125828

  18. Reisolation of Ehrlichia canis from blood and tissues of dogs after doxycycline treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Z; Rikihisa, Y

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that supports the carrier status of dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis after treatment with doxycycline. Canine ehrlichiosis was induced in five dogs by intravenous inoculation with E. canis-infected DH82 cells. All animals developed mild clinical signs of transient fever, body weight loss, thrombocytopenia, and increased gamma globulin levels in plasma. An indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) revealed that all dogs had seroconverted (titer, 5,120) by day 10 postinoculation (p.i.). E. canis was reisolated from blood samples collected at intervals throughout the 2-month period p.i. Doxycycline was administered orally once daily at 10 mg/kg of body weight per day for 1 week starting at 2 months p.i. Following treatment, gamma globulin levels in plasma were decreased. At necropsy on days 54 to 59 after the start of treatment, spleen, liver, kidney, and lymph nodes were collected for E. canis culture and histopathologic examination. Although the dogs did not show significant clinical signs during or after treatment with the antibiotic, E. canis was reisolated from the blood and tissue samples of three of five dogs. A 16-fold reduction in IFA titer was noted in two dogs which were negative for E. canis reisolation at day 49 after the start of treatment, whereas a zero- to fourfold reduction in IFA titer was seen in the remaining three dogs. Western immunoblot reactions to higher-molecular-size E. canis antigens in the sera of two dogs which were negative for E. canis on blood culture decreased, whereas they remained continuously high or only transiently decreased for the duration of the study for antigens in the sera of three dogs from which E. canis was reisolated. Histopathologically, prominent plasmacytosis in the kidney cortex was present in three dogs from which E. canis was reisolated, whereas the kidney cortices of two dogs had moderate to minor plasmacytosis. These findings pose questions regarding the efficacy, dosage and

  19. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. PMID:26065623

  20. Brucella canis Is an Intracellular Pathogen That Induces a Lower Proinflammatory Response than Smooth Zoonotic Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Altamirano-Silva, Pamela; González-Espinoza, Gabriela; Medina, María-Concepción; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Bouza-Mora, Laura; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Wong, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of dogs and a zoonotic risk. B. canis harbors most of the virulence determinants defined for the genus, but its pathogenic strategy remains unclear since it has not been demonstrated that this natural rough bacterium is an intracellular pathogen. Studies of B. canis outbreaks in kennel facilities indicated that infected dogs displaying clinical signs did not present hematological alterations. A virulent B. canis strain isolated from those outbreaks readily replicated in different organs of mice for a protracted period. However, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12 in serum were close to background levels. Furthermore, B. canis induced lower levels of gamma interferon, less inflammation of the spleen, and a reduced number of granulomas in the liver in mice than did B. abortus. When the interaction of B. canis with cells was studied ex vivo, two patterns were observed, a predominant scattered cell-associated pattern of nonviable bacteria and an infrequent intracellular replicative pattern of viable bacteria in a perinuclear location. The second pattern, responsible for the increase in intracellular multiplication, was dependent on the type IV secretion system VirB and was seen only if the inoculum used for cell infections was in early exponential phase. Intracellular replicative B. canis followed an intracellular trafficking route undistinguishable from that of B. abortus. Although B. canis induces a lower proinflammatory response and has a stealthier replication cycle, it still displays the pathogenic properties of the genus and the ability to persist in infected organs based on the ability to multiply intracellularly. PMID:26438796

  1. Brucella canis is an intracellular pathogen that induces a lower proinflammatory response than smooth zoonotic counterparts.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Altamirano-Silva, Pamela; González-Espinoza, Gabriela; Medina, María-Concepción; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Bouza-Mora, Laura; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Wong, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Moreno, Edgardo; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of dogs and a zoonotic risk. B. canis harbors most of the virulence determinants defined for the genus, but its pathogenic strategy remains unclear since it has not been demonstrated that this natural rough bacterium is an intracellular pathogen. Studies of B. canis outbreaks in kennel facilities indicated that infected dogs displaying clinical signs did not present hematological alterations. A virulent B. canis strain isolated from those outbreaks readily replicated in different organs of mice for a protracted period. However, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12 in serum were close to background levels. Furthermore, B. canis induced lower levels of gamma interferon, less inflammation of the spleen, and a reduced number of granulomas in the liver in mice than did B. abortus. When the interaction of B. canis with cells was studied ex vivo, two patterns were observed, a predominant scattered cell-associated pattern of nonviable bacteria and an infrequent intracellular replicative pattern of viable bacteria in a perinuclear location. The second pattern, responsible for the increase in intracellular multiplication, was dependent on the type IV secretion system VirB and was seen only if the inoculum used for cell infections was in early exponential phase. Intracellular replicative B. canis followed an intracellular trafficking route undistinguishable from that of B. abortus. Although B. canis induces a lower proinflammatory response and has a stealthier replication cycle, it still displays the pathogenic properties of the genus and the ability to persist in infected organs based on the ability to multiply intracellularly. PMID:26438796

  2. Orthology for comparative genomics in the mouse genome database.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mary E; Baldarelli, Richard M; Bello, Susan M; Ni, Li; McAndrews, Monica S; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A

    2015-08-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD) is the model organism database component of the mouse genome informatics system at The Jackson Laboratory. MGD is the international data resource for the laboratory mouse and facilitates the use of mice in the study of human health and disease. Since its beginnings, MGD has included comparative genomics data with a particular focus on human-mouse orthology, an essential component of the use of mouse as a model organism. Over the past 25 years, novel algorithms and addition of orthologs from other model organisms have enriched comparative genomics in MGD data, extending the use of orthology data to support the laboratory mouse as a model of human biology. Here, we describe current comparative data in MGD and review the history and refinement of orthology representation in this resource. PMID:26223881

  3. Pattern of nipple use by puppies: A comparison of the dingo (Canis dingo) and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Hudson, Robyn; Rödel, Heiko G; Elizalde, Marise Trejo; Arteaga, Lourdes; Kennedy, Gerard A; Smith, Bradley P

    2016-08-01

    Surprisingly little information is available about the behavior of newborn mammals in the functionally vital context of suckling. We have previously reported notable differences in the pattern of nipple use by kittens of the domestic cat and puppies of the domestic dog. Whereas kittens rapidly develop a "teat order," with each individual using principally 1 or 2 particular nipples, puppies show no such pattern. We asked whether the more "chaotic" behavior seen in puppies of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) could be the result of relaxed selection due to domestication. In a first test of this hypothesis, we studied suckling behavior in 4 litters of wild-type captive dingoes (Canis dingo), a canid species that has inhabited the Australian mainland in substantial numbers for at least 5,000 years with minimal human influence. On all measures of individual puppies' behavior-time spent attached to nipples, lack of individual use of particular nipples and consequent absence of a teat order, lack of synchronized suckling with other littermates, lack of agonistic behavior-we found no differences between the 2 species. In conclusion, we suggest that the difference between the pattern of suckling behavior of kittens of the domestic cat (and other felids) and the domestic dog is not an artifact of domestication, but rather reflects phylogenetic differences between felids and canids as a consequence of their different lifestyles and associated patterns of parental care. These findings emphasize the need for comparative studies to avoid simplistic generalizations from 1 or 2 species across broad taxonomic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27135263

  4. Intestinal nematode infections in Turkish military dogs with special reference to Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Karabacak, A

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence and potential zoonotic risk factors of intestinal nematodes of military working dogs, which are used for different military purposes, were assessed. Faecal samples from 352 defined-breed Turkish military dogs were investigated and 107 (30.4%) dogs were found to be infected with one or two nematode species. The following nematodes, with their respective prevalences, were diagnosed in the faecal samples: Toxascaris leonina (21.8%), Toxocara canis (13.3%), Trichuris vulpis (2.9%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (1.2%). Toxocara canis infections were more frequently seen in puppies (0-6 months old). The prevalence of T. canis was significantly higher in male than in female dogs and also higher in dogs which were exercised daily than in those without exercise. The highest prevalence was found in Belgian malinois breed dogs. Toxocara canis infections were not influenced by the floor type of the kennels (i.e. concrete or soil floor). There was no difference in the occurrence of T. canis infection when the last anthelmintic treatment was carried out less or more than 3 months prior to sampling. It is suggested that T. canis infected military dogs would be a threat not only for dog trainers but also for military personnel, notably during national and international operations. PMID:16923275

  5. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P < 0.01). Male ticks had a higher (P < 0.05) infection rate than female ticks (24.5 vs 13.5%). It is concluded that E. canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico. PMID:26336286

  6. Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

  7. Structural stability, electronic, mechanical and thermodynamical properties of CaNi2P2 and CaNi2Sb2 compounds by band structure calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, R. Sugan; Jayalakshmi, D. S.; Viswanathan, E.; Sundareswari, M.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical, electronic, thermodynamic properties and structural stability of tetragonal structured CaNi2P2 and CaNi2Sb2 intermetallic compounds has been studied using the FP-LAPW method based on density functional theory. The PBE-GGA exchange correlation has been applied. Using the computed elastic constants, various elastic moduli such as bulk, shear, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and anisotropy constant are calculated and discussed. Stability of the compounds is confirmed by using their elastic constants. Pugh’s ratio is calculated to analyze the mechanical nature of the compound.

  8. Beyond the bounds of orthology: functional inference from metagenomic context.

    PubMed

    Vey, Gregory; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of the computational inference of function by genomic context is bounded by the diversity of known microbial genomes. Although metagenomes offer access to previously inaccessible organisms, their fragmentary nature prevents the conventional establishment of orthologous relationships required for reliably predicting functional interactions. We introduce a protocol for the prediction of functional interactions using data sources without information about orthologous relationships. To illustrate this process, we use the Sargasso Sea metagenome to construct a functional interaction network for the Escherichia coli K12 genome. We identify two reliability metrics, target intergenic distance and source interaction count, and apply them to selectively filter the predictions retained to construct the network of functional interactions. The resulting network contains 2297 nodes with 10 072 edges with a positive predictive value of 0.80. The metagenome yielded 8423 functional interactions beyond those found using only the genomic orthologs as a data source. This amounted to a 134% increase in the total number of functional interactions that are predicted by combining the metagenome and the genomic orthologs versus the genomic orthologs alone. In the absence of detectable orthologous relationships it remains feasible to derive a reliable set of predicted functional interactions. This offers a strategy for harnessing other metagenomes and homologs in general. Because metagenomes allow access to previously unreachable microorganisms, this will result in expanding the universe of known functional interactions thus furthering our understanding of functional organization. PMID:20419183

  9. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  10. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  11. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  12. Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R

    2013-12-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems. We used global positioning system telemetry and probabilistic measures of spatial overlap to investigate spatial segregation between adjacent Canis packs. Our hypothesis was supported as: (1) the probability of locating wolves, coyotes, and hybrids within home ranges ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) or core areas ([Formula: see text] < 0.01) of adjacent packs was low; and (2) the amount of shared space use was negligible. Spatial segregation did not vary substantially in relation to genotypes of adjacent packs or local environmental conditions (i.e., harvest regulations or road densities). We provide the first telemetry-based demonstration of spatial segregation between wolves and coyotes, highlighting the novel relationships between Canis types in the Ontario hybrid zone relative to areas where wolves and coyotes are reproductively isolated. Territoriality among Canis may increase the likelihood of eastern wolves joining coyote and hybrid packs, facilitate hybridization, and could play a role in limiting expansion of the genetically distinct APP eastern wolf population. PMID:23864253

  13. Recombinant Major Antigenic Protein 2 of Ehrlichia canis: a Potential Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, A. Rick; McSherry, Leo J.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Sorenson, Heather L.; Bowie, Michael V.; Bélanger, Myriam

    2001-01-01

    The major antigenic protein 2 (MAP2) of Ehrlichia canis was cloned and expressed. The recombinant protein was characterized and tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format for potential application in the serodiagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The recombinant protein, which contained a C-terminal polyhistidine tag, had a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa. The antigen was clearly identified by Western immunoblotting using antihistidine antibody and immune serum from an experimentally infected dog. The recombinant MAP2 (rMAP2) was tested in an ELISA format using 141 serum samples from E. canis immunofluorescent antibody (IFA)-positive and IFA-negative dogs. Fifty-five of the serum samples were from dogs experimentally or naturally infected with E. canis and were previously demonstrated to contain antibodies reactive with E. canis by indirect immunofluorescence assays. The remaining 86 samples, 33 of which were from dogs infected with microorganisms other than E. canis, were seronegative. All of the samples from experimentally infected animals and 36 of the 37 samples from naturally infected animals were found to contain antibodies against rMAP2 of E. canis in the ELISA. Only 3 of 53 IFA-negative samples tested positive on the rMAP2 ELISA. There was 100% agreement among IFA-positive samples from experimentally infected animals, 97.3% agreement among IFA-positive samples from naturally infected animals, and 94.3% agreement among IFA-negative samples, resulting in a 97.2% overall agreement between the two assays. These data suggest that rMAP2 of E. canis could be used as a recombinant test antigen for the serodiagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. PMID:11427559

  14. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  15. Microarray gene expression analysis reveals major differences between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati neurotoxocarosis and involvement of T. canis in lipid biosynthetic processes.

    PubMed

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus; Geffers, Robert; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are globally occurring intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats with a high zoonotic potential. Migrating larvae in the CNS of paratenic hosts, including humans, may cause neurotoxocarosis resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms. Toxocara canis exhibits a stronger affinity to the CNS than T. cati, causing more severe neurological symptoms in the mouse model. Pathomechanisms of neurotoxocarosis as well as host responses towards the respective parasite are mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the pathogenesis at a transcriptional level using whole genome microarray expression analysis and identify differences and similarities between T. canis- and T. cati-infected brains. Microarray analysis was conducted in cerebra and cerebella of infected C57Bl/6J mice 42daysp.i. revealing more differentially transcribed genes for T. canis- than T. cati-infected brains. In cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice, a total of 2304 and 1954 differentially transcribed genes, respectively, were identified whereas 113 and 760 differentially transcribed genes were determined in cerebra and cerebella of T. cati-infected mice. Functional annotation analysis revealed major differences in host responses in terms of significantly enriched biological modules. Up-regulated genes were mainly associated with the terms "immune and defence response", "sensory perception" as well as "behaviour/taxis" retrieved from the Gene Ontology database. These observations indicate a strong immune response in both infection groups with T. cati-infected brains revealing less severe reactions. Down-regulated genes in T. canis-infected cerebra and cerebella revealed a significant enrichment for the Gene Ontology term "lipid/cholesterol biosynthetic process". Cholesterol is a highly abundant and important component in the brain, representing several functions. Disturbances of synthesis as well as concentration changes may lead to

  16. Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] λ 4363 Å and/or [NII] λ 5755 Å lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

  17. Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene played a dominant role in sculpting the evolutionary histories of many high-latitude organisms. The refugial hypothesis argues that populations retracted during glacial maxima and were isolated in separate refugia. One prediction of this hypothesis is that populations inhabiting different refugia diverged and then, during interglacial periods, rapidly expanded into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction cycles in the late Pleistocene. Our analyses of variation of mitochondrial control region sequences corroborate previous microsatellite analyses supporting independent evolutionary histories for Coastal and Continental wolves in North America. Coastal wolves represent the remnants of a formerly widespread and diverse southern clade that expanded into coastal Southeast Alaska, likely in the early Holocene. In contrast, extant northern Continental populations appear to be admixed, composed of lineages independently arising from ancestors that persisted in either southern or northern (Beringia) refugia. This pattern of diversification suggests the possibility of 3 temporally independent colonizations of North America by wolves from Asia. Coastal wolves are the last vestige of a formerly widespread phylogroup that largely was extirpated in North America by humans during the last century. The independent phylogeographic history of these Coastal wolves has yet to be characterized. Their distinctiveness among North American wolf populations may warrant a reevaluation of their conservation status and management. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

  19. Urbanization, Grassland, and Diet Influence Coyote (Canis latrans) Parasitism Structure.

    PubMed

    Watts, Alexander G; Lukasik, Victoria M; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Alexander, Shelley M

    2015-12-01

    Land use change can alter the ecological mechanisms that influence infectious disease exposure in animal populations. However, few studies have empirically integrated the environmental, spatial, and dietary patterns of wildlife epidemiology. We investigate how urbanization, habitat type, and dietary behavior are associated with coyote (Canis latrans) parasitism structure along a gradient of rural to urban land cover using multivariate redundancy analyses. Coyote fecal samples were collected in eight urban and six rural sites in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Parasite and diet components were identified using common flotation procedures and fecal dietary analysis, respectively. Redundancy analysis was used to identify the best land cover, connectivity, and dietary predictors. We tested for significance using multiple permutation tests and ANOVAs. Significant factors affecting enteric parasite prevalence included dietary and land cover factors (R (2) = 0.4130, P < 0.05). Variation in dietary behavior was observed between urban and rural sites (R (2) = 0.4712, P < 0.05), as anthropogenic diet items (i.e., garbage, crabapples) were strongly influenced by urbanization. Our research supports that developed habitat, grassland cover, and dietary choice interact to possibly influence the exposure of coyote hosts to enteric parasites and pioneers future investigation of disease ecology for natural populations in anthropogenic landscapes. PMID:26122205

  20. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    PubMed

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. PMID:25773058

  1. Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, F; Piggott, K J; Bengui, T; Kubri, S B; Mastin, A; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Paris, M; Millar, R P; Macdonald, D W; Shiferaw, F; Craig, P S

    2015-07-01

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helminth eggs using a semi-quantitative volumetric dilution method with microscopy. We found that 66 of the 94 faecal samples (70.2%) contained eggs from at least one group of helminths, including Capillaria, Toxocara, Trichuris, ancylostomatids, Hymenolepis and taeniids. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found most commonly, followed by Trichuris sp., ancylostomatid species and Toxocara species. Three samples contained Hymenolepis sp. eggs, which were likely artefacts from ingested prey species. Four samples contained taeniid eggs, one of which was copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) and sequence positive for Echinococcus granulosus, suggesting a spillover from a domestic parasite cycle into this wildlife species. Associations between presence/absence of Capillaria, Toxocara and Trichuris eggs were found; and egg burdens of Toxocara and ancylostomatids were found to be associated with geographical location and sampling season. PMID:25007150

  2. Comprehension of human communicative signs in pet dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Soproni, K; Miklósi, A; Topál, J; Csányi, V

    2001-06-01

    On the basis of a study by D. J. Povinelli, D. T. Bierschwale, and C. G. Cech (1999), the performance of family dogs (Canis familiaris) was examined in a 2-way food choice task in which 4 types of directional cues were given by the experimenter: pointing and gazing, head-nodding ("at target"), head turning above the correct container ("above target"), and glancing only ("eyes only"). The results showed that the performance of the dogs resembled more closely that of the children in D. J. Povinelli et al.'s study, in contrast to the chimpanzees' performance in the same study. It seems that dogs, like children, interpret the test situation as being a form of communication. The hypothesis is that this similarity is attributable to the social experience and acquired social routines in dogs because they spend more time in close contact with humans than apes do, and as a result dogs are probably more experienced in the recognition of human gestures. PMID:11459158

  3. Molecular characterization of DSC1 orthologs in invertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying-Jun; Yu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    DSC1 and BSC1 are two founding members of a novel family of invertebrate voltage-gated cation channels with close structural and evolutionary relationships to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. In this study, we searched the published genome sequences for DSC1 orthologs. DSC1 orthologs were found in all 48 insect species, and in other invertebrate species belonging to phyla Mollusca, Cnidaria, Hemichordata and Echinodermata. However, DSC1 orthologs were not found in four arachnid species, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Tetranychus urticae and Varroa destructor, two species in Annelida or any vertebrate species. We then cloned and sequenced NlSC1 and BmSC1 full-length cDNAs from the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and the silkworm (Bombyx mori), respectively. NlSC1 and BmSC1 share about 50% identity with DSC1, and the expression of NlSC1 and BmSC1 transcripts was most abundant in the head and antenna in adults. All DSC1 orthologs contain a unique and conserved DEEA motif, instead of the EEEE or EEDD motif in classical calcium channels or the DEKA motif in sodium channels. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that DSC1 and its orthologs form a separate group distinct from the classical voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels and constitute a unique family of cation channels. The DSC1/BSC1-family channels could be potential targets of new and safe insecticides for pest control. PMID:22321571

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

  5. Genetic variability in Microsporum canis isolated from cats, dogs and humans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fernanda V A; Farias, Marconi R; Bier, Daniele; de Andrade, Caroline P; de Castro, Luiza A; da Silva, Sérgio C; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2013-09-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical manifestations. M. canis is a zoophilic dermatophyte and the most frequent fungi isolated from dogs, cats and children in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of M. canis isolates from different animal species using two microsatellite markers, namely, McGT(13) and McGT(17), and to correlate the results with the clinical and epidemiological patient data in Brazil. The study included a global set of 102 M. canis strains, including 37 symptomatic cats, 35 asymptomatic cats, 19 human patients with tinea, 9 asymptomatic dogs and 2 symptomatic dogs. A total of 14 genotypes were identified, and 6 large populations were distinguished. There was no correlation between these multilocus genotypes and the clinical and epidemiological data, including the source, symptomatology, clinical picture, breed, age, sex, living conditions and geographic location. These results demonstrate that the use of microsatellite polymorphisms is a reliable method for the differentiation of M. canis strains. However, we were unable to demonstrate a shared clinical and epidemiological pattern among the same genotype samples. PMID:23551796

  6. First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Morar, Doru; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Imre, Mirela; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-06-01

    This case study describes the first genetically confirmed and clinically manifested autochthonous Ehrlichia canis infection in a 9-year-old female mixed-breed dog from Romania. Health screening of the dog included clinical examination, evaluation of stained peripheral blood smear and hematologic variables, as well as serologic testing and molecular analysis. Clinical signs included fever, apathy, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, and weakness. The microscopic examination of the blood smear and immunologic assays for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and E canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen yielded negative results. Hematologic abnormalities included moderate nonregenerative anemia, leucopenia with neutropenia, and moderate thrombocytopenia. The biochemical abnormalities identified were hypoalbuminemia, and mildly increased serum enzyme activities of AST and ALT. In addition, increased urea and creatinine levels associated with low urine specific gravity and proteinuria were also present. Nested PCR amplification of the partial E canis 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the presence of this rickettsial pathogen in the dog's blood, which subsequently was confirmed through sequencing based on the 100% homology with GenBank deposited E canis isolates. After specific treatment with doxycycline (10 mg/kg, orally, SID) for one month, the proteinuria, and hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities with the exception of mild azotemia resolved. This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe. PMID:25867940

  7. Babesia canis: evidence for genetic diversity among isolates revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Citard, T; Mähl, P; Boulouis, H J; Chavigny, C; Druilhe, P

    1995-09-01

    The genetic diversity of B. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For this purpose, we identified a Babesia canis specific DNA probe named pS8. This 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of B. canis DNA. Results suggest that the pS8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. This probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in B. canis enzyme-digested genomic DNA. RFLP patterns obtained with the pS8 probe revealed a large genetic diversity between various isolates and led us to distinguish several clones derived from a single isolate. Results suggest that for a single isolate, the fingerprints obtained reflect those of a few quantitatively dominant clones. This technique can now be routinely applied and provides a convenient tool for the characterization and the identification of B. canis isolates, strains and clones. PMID:8533020

  8. Seroepidemiological investigation of Brucella canis antibodies in different human population groups.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, P W; Silberg, S L; Morgan, P M; Adess, M

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in specified groups based on their exposure to dogs. The method used was a microtiter technique, and the presence of antibodies at a 1:12 or greater dilution of serum was considered a positive test. Eleven (5.7%) of the newborn infants had evidence of maternal antibodies, and 67.8% of the persons with an average exposure to dogs had B. canis antibodies, with a 62.1% prevalence in males and a 72.4% prevalence in females (P less than or equal to 0.001). Veterinarians had a much higher rate of infection (72.6%) than male blood donors (56.9%) (P less than or equal to 0.01). Patients with fevers of undetermined origin had significantly higher antibody titers to B. canis than all other patients (P less than or equal to 0.001). This study presents evidence that the prevalence of B. canis antibodies in humans is high, and that the incidence of brucellosis may increase when physicians consider B. canis as a possible etiological agent in febrile illnesses. PMID:1194405

  9. A serological diagnostic survey for Brucella canis infection in Turkish patients with Brucellosis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sayan, Murat; Erdenlig, Sevil; Stack, Judy; Kilic, Selcuk; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yavuz; Baklan, Ayhan; Etiler, Nilay

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of Brucella canis infection in humans is unknown in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis infection in human sera obtained from six regions in Turkey and comparatively evaluated the results obtained by agglutination-based techniques using standardized antigens made from B. canis. The patients (n = 1,746) presented with clinical symptoms that were similar to those of brucellosis. All patients who tested negative in the Rose Bengal test for the smooth Brucella strains (abortus, melitensis, and suis) were screened for evidence of B. canis infection using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT), the microagglutination test (MAT), and the 2-mercaptoethanol RSAT test (2ME-RSAT). Of the samples tested, 157 (8.9%), 68 (3.8%), and 66 (3.7%) were positive for B. canis, as determined by RSAT, MAT, and 2ME-RSAT, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSAT were 100%, 94.6%, 42%, and 100%, respectively, and of MAT were 100%, 99.9%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. We recommend the routine use of MAT and 2ME-RSAT to check the sera of all patients with symptoms of brucellosis who are negative for brucellosis using a smooth Brucella antigen. PMID:22116333

  10. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chinyoka, Simbarashe; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Marabini, Lisa; Dutlow, Keith; Matope, Gift; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis) in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5-21.7) were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% - 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0-26.4) compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9-18.5) but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis) other than B. canis is also recommended. PMID:24830899

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children.

    PubMed

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

  12. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop. PMID:23990425

  13. Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We compare differences in the reproductive strategies of "free-living" dogs with their wild relatives in the genus Canis, of which the dog is a very recently evolved member. The members of this genus display a greater range of parental motor patterns than generally seen in other species of Carnivora, including pair-bonding and extended parental care; parents regurgitate to offspring and provision them with food for months to as long as a year. But the domestic dog does not routinely display these genus-typical behaviors. While this has generally been assumed to be a result of direct human intervention, humans have little reproductive control over the vast majority of domestic dogs. We analyze the low frequency of display of genus-typical behaviors and postulate that the dog's reproductive behaviors are an adaptation to permanent human settlement and the waste resources associated with it. Adaptation to this environment has decreased seasonality, increased the fecundity of unrestrained dogs and reduced the need for prolonged parental care. The consequences of greater fecundity and reduced parental care are compared to the reproductive behavior of other species of the genus. PMID:23124015

  14. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal-domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species. PMID:27019731

  15. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal–domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species. PMID:27019731

  16. Orthology Detection Combining Clustering and Synteny for Very Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K.; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Stadler, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance) was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets. PMID:25137074

  17. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted. PMID:25984773

  18. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. PMID:24522164

  19. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. Case report: We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics. PMID:26622092

  20. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  1. Epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Carlos, R S A; Albuquerque, G R

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present article was an epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of Ilhéus and Itabuna in Bahia, as well as an evaluation of associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 153 dogs and DNA was extracted and analyzed by the nested-polymerase chain reaction, using one pair of primers to detect Ehrlichia bacteria and another pair to detect the presence of E. canis. Of the 153 animals, 12 (7.8%) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for E. canis, indicating the presence of the parasite in dogs of the Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion. The associated risk factors were exposure to tick-infested habitats and the fact that the dogs lived in the countryside. PMID:18752193

  2. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time. PMID:17679509

  3. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. PMID:24953751

  4. In vitro isolation and molecular characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Daniel M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2008-01-01

    An Ehrlichia canis isolate was obtained from an naturally infected dog exhibiting clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in São Paulo Municipality, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolate was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the ehrlichial genes dsb, 16SrRNA, and p28. Partial dsb and 16S rRNA sequences were identical to three and five other E. canis strains, respectively, from different countries and continents (including North America, Africa, Asia and Europe). Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for this E. canis (São Paulo) differed by 1, 2, and 2 nucleotides from the corresponding sequences of the E. canis strains Jake (from USA), Oklahoma (USA), and VHE (Venezuela), respectively. The results in this study indicate that E. canis is the only recognized Ehrlichia species infecting dogs in Brazil. PMID:24031251

  5. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K.; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  6. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  7. Population identification of Sarcoptes hominis and Sarcoptes canis in China using DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Cao, ZhiGuo; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, JunXian; Yang, YuanJun; Wang, XiaoPeng; Zeng, JiHui; Wang, TianPing

    2015-03-01

    There has been no consistent conclusion on whether Sarcoptes mites parasitizing in humans and animals are the same species. To identify Sarcoptes (S.) hominis and S. canis in China, gDNA was extracted from individual mites (five from patients with scabies and five from dogs with mange) for amplification of rDNA ITS2, mtDNA 16S, and cox1 fragment sequences. Then, the sequences obtained were aligned with those from different hosts and geographical locations retrieved from GenBank and sequence analyses were conducted. Phylogenetic trees based on 317-bp mtDNA cox1 showed five distinctive branches (species) of Sarcoptes mites, four for S. hominis (S. hominis Chinese, S. nr. hominis Chinese, S. hominis Australian, and S. hominis Panamanian) and one for S. animal (S. animal). S. animal included mites from nine animal species, with S. canis China, S. canis Australia, and S. canis USA clustering as a subbranch. Further sequence divergence analysis revealed no overlap between intraspecific (≤ 2.6 %) and interspecific (2.6-10.5 %) divergences in 317-bp mtDNA cox1. However, overlap was detected between intra- and interspecific divergences in 311-bp rDNA ITS2 or 275-bp mtDNA 16S when the divergences exceeded 1.0 %, which resulted in failure in identification of Sarcoptes. The results showed that the 317-bp mtDNA cox1 could be used as a DNA barcode for molecular identification of Sarcoptes mites. In addition, geographical isolation was observed between S. hominis Chinese, S. hominis Australian, and S. hominis Panamanian, but not between all S. canis. S. canis and the other S. animal belonged to the same species. PMID:25547078

  8. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  9. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

    PubMed Central

    Telmo, Paula de Lima; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; dos Santos, Cristina Araújo; de Aguiar, Patrícia de Souza; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts. PMID:25651332

  10. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health

  11. Efficacy of SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus).

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Kappeler, A; Hill, F W; King, A A; Perry, B D; Foggin, C M

    1995-07-01

    Eight black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (Canis adustus) were given SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine by direct oral instillation. Three different vaccine doses were used: 10(6.3), 10(6.8) and 10(7.5) median tissue culture infectious doses. Two additional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. One group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived rabies virus 1 mo after vaccination and a second group 12 mo after vaccination. All 17 vaccinated jackals developed high and persistent serum neutralizing antibody titers. All challenged jackals resisted a lethal dose of rabies virus, whereas three control jackals given the same challenge succumbed to rabies. PMID:8592368

  12. Free light-chain proteinuria and normal renal histopathology and function in 11 dogs exposed to Lleishmania infantum, Ehrlichia canis, and Bbabesia canis.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Ugo; Zini, Eric; Minetti, Emanuele; Zatelli, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship among proteinuria consisting of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), renal histopathologic findings, and routine markers of renal function in 11 dogs exposed to Leishmania infantum (n = 8), Ehrlichia canis (n = 2), and Babesia canis (n = 1). FLC proteinuria was suspected based on identification of a 22- to 27-kDa band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE) and later confirmed by immunofixation electrophoresis. SDS-AGE identified an isolated band of 22-27 kDa in 8 dogs, whereas the remaining 3 had a 22- to 27-kDa band and an additional band of 67-72 kDa. The median urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio was 0.37 (range, 0.11-2.24) and increased ratios were found in 6 dogs (54.5%) (reference value, <0.7). All dogs underwent histologic examination of renal percutaneous biopsy specimens and determination of serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Tissue samples for light microscopy were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Goldners trichrome, and methenamine silver. In the study group, the glomerular tufts, mesangium, tubulointerstitium, and vessels appeared unaffected. The median serum creatinine concentration in these 11 dogs was 1.3 mg/dL (range, 0.8-1.5 mg/dL; reference range, 0.6-1.5 mg/dL), whereas the concentration for urea was 28 mg/dL (range, 22-52 mg/dL; reference range, 20-50 mg/dL). All dogs had normal renal morphology and had normal serum creatinine and urea concentrations, suggesting that immunoglobulin FLC may be detected in the urine of dogs exposed to L. infantum, E. canis, and B. canis without any apparent structural or functional renal derangement. PMID:15515575

  13. OrthoInspector: comprehensive orthology analysis and visual exploration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate determination of orthology and inparalogy relationships is essential for comparative sequence analysis, functional gene annotation and evolutionary studies. Various methods have been developed based on either simple blast all-versus-all pairwise comparisons and/or time-consuming phylogenetic tree analyses. Results We have developed OrthoInspector, a new software system incorporating an original algorithm for the rapid detection of orthology and inparalogy relations between different species. In comparisons with existing methods, OrthoInspector improves detection sensitivity, with a minimal loss of specificity. In addition, several visualization tools have been developed to facilitate in-depth studies based on these predictions. The software has been used to study the orthology/in-paralogy relationships for a large set of 940,855 protein sequences from 59 different eukaryotic species. Conclusion OrthoInspector is a new software system for orthology/paralogy analysis. It is made available as an independent software suite that can be downloaded and installed for local use. Command line querying facilitates the integration of the software in high throughput processing pipelines and a graphical interface provides easy, intuitive access to results for the non-expert. PMID:21219603

  14. Human-chimpanzee alignment: ortholog exponentials and paralog power laws.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Miller, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Genomic subsequences conserved between closely related species such as human and chimpanzee exhibit an exponential length distribution, in contrast to the algebraic length distribution observed for sequences shared between distantly related genomes. We find that the former exponential can be further decomposed into an exponential component primarily composed of orthologous sequences, and a truncated algebraic component primarily composed of paralogous sequences. PMID:25443749

  15. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  16. Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25446624

  17. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A. Zevallos; dos Santos, Sergio Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

  18. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, L. Y.; Devillard, S.; Boone, J. Q.; Hohenlohe, P. A.; White, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127 235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. PMID:26156129

  19. Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Imre, Mirela; Dudu, Andreea; Ilie, Marius S; Morariu, Sorin; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples of 119 red foxes, originating from 44 hunting grounds of 3 western counties (Arad, Hunedoara, and Timiş) of Romania, have been examined for the presence of Hepatozoon canis infection using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, 15 (12.6%) samples were found to be PCR-positive. Of the sampled hunting grounds, 29.5% (13/44) were found positive. Positive samples were recorded in all screened counties with the prevalence of 14.8% (9/61) in Arad, 9.8% (5/51) in Timiş, and 14.3% (1/7) in Hunedoara, respectively. No correlation was found (P > 0.05) between H. canis positivity and gender or territorial distribution of the infection. To confirm PCR results, 9 randomly selected amplicons were sequenced. The obtained sequences were identical to each other, confirmed the results of the conventional PCR, and showed 98-100% homology to other H. canis sequences. The results of the current survey support the role of red foxes as sylvatic reservoirs of H. canis in Romania. PMID:25764146

  20. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05) as a consequence of lower iron levels. Ferritin and transferrin levels were higher in both phases (acute and subclinical) of the disease. The AOPP and FRAP levels increased in infected animals on the acute phase; however, the opposite occurred in the subclinical phase. We concluded that dogs naturally infected by E. canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26724737

  1. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  2. First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Vezzani, Darío; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

    2013-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America. PMID:23273677

  3. Characterization and differential expression analysis of Toxocara canis aquaporin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong-Fang; Hu, Ling; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode of canids with a worldwide distribution, causing an important but neglected parasitic zoonosis in humans. Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of water channel proteins, which function as membrane channels to regulate water homeostasis. In this study, the coding sequence of aquaporin-1 gene of T. canis (Tc-aqp-1) was cloned and characterized. The obtained Tc-aqp-1 coding sequence was 933 bp in length, which predicted to encode 311 amino acids. Two conserved asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs were identified in the multiple sequence alignments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest relationship between T. canis and Opisthorchis viverrini based on aquaporin-1 amino acid sequence. A structure was predicted with ligand binding sites predicted at H93, N95, N226, L94, I79, and I210 and with active sites predicted at I256 and G207. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations predicted its cellular component term of integral component of plasma membrane (GO: 0005887), molecular function term of channel activity (GO: 0015250), and biological process term of water transport (GO: 0006833). Tissue expression analysis revealed that the Tc-aqp-1 was highly expressed in the intestine of adult male. The findings of the present study provide the basis for further functional studies of T. canis aquaporin-1. PMID:27215210

  4. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  5. Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

  6. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  7. Killing of a Muskox, Ovibos moschatus, by two Wolves, Canis lupus, and subsequent caching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed.

  8. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, L Y; Devillard, S; Boone, J Q; Hohenlohe, P A; White, B N

    2015-07-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127,235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. PMID:26156129

  9. Killing of a muskox, Ovibus moschatus, by two wolves, Canis lupis, and subsequent caching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed

  10. First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2008-04-01

    Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania. PMID:18436679

  11. Successful treatment of mitral valve endocarditis in a dog associated with 'Actinomyces canis-like' infection.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, N; Alexander, K; Keene, B; Kolluru, S; Fauls, M L; Rawdon, I; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2016-09-01

    Infective endocarditis, an inflammation of the endocardial surface due to invasion by an infectious agent, is more common in middle sized to large breed dogs. We herein report a case of mitral valve endocarditis in a 9-year-old male-castrated Weimaraner caused by an Actinomyces canis-like bacterium, not previously reported in association with infection in dogs. PMID:27364088

  12. Possible transmission of Cryptosporidium canis among children and a dog in a household.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Cabrera, Lilia; Ortega, Ynes; Pearson, Julie; Gilman, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    In a longitudinal cohort diarrhea study, a girl living in Lima, Peru, and her brother and dog were diagnosed with Cryptosporidium canis infections during the same period. Both children had transient diarrhea, but the dog was asymptomatic. This is the first report of possible transmission of cryptosporidiosis between humans and dogs. PMID:17442794

  13. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than by histopathological examination (23.4%) in paired bone marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was

  14. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

  15. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  16. A virulent genotype of Microsporum canis is responsible for the majority of human infections.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; de Hoog, S; Presber, Wolfgang; Gräser, Yvonne

    2007-10-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte species Microsporum canis belongs to the Arthroderma otae complex and is known to mate with tester strains of that teleomorph species, at least in the laboratory. Human infections are likely to be acquired from the fur of cats, dogs and horses. Epidemiological studies to reveal sources and routes of infection have been hampered by a lack of polymorphic molecular markers. Human cases mainly concern moderately inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis, but, as cases of highly inflammatory ringworm are also observed, the question arises as to whether all lineages of M. canis are equally virulent to humans. In this study, two microsatellite markers were developed and used to analyse a global set of 101 M. canis strains to reveal patterns of genetic variation and dispersal. Using a Bayesian and a distance approach for structuring the M. canis samples, three populations could be distinguished, with evidence of recombination in one of them (III). This population contained 44 % of the animal isolates and only 9 % of the human strains. Population I, with strictly clonal reproduction (comprising a single multilocus genotype), contained 74 % of the global collection of strains from humans, but only 23 % of the animal strains. From these findings, it was concluded that population differentiation in M. canis is not allopatric, but rather is due to the emergence of a (virulent) genotype that has a high potential to infect the human host. Adaptation of genotypes resulting in a particular clinical manifestation was not evident. Furthermore, isolates from horses did not show a monophyletic clustering. PMID:17893177

  17. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs. PMID:26233445

  18. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis. PMID:26618590

  19. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. PMID:25776544

  20. A study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Trícia Maria F de Sousa; Furuta, Patrícia I; de Carvalho, Débora; Machado, Rosangela Z

    2008-01-01

    To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA. PMID:18554433

  1. Systematic discovery of nonobvious human disease models through orthologous phenotypes.

    PubMed

    McGary, Kriston L; Park, Tae Joo; Woods, John O; Cha, Hye Ji; Wallingford, John B; Marcotte, Edward M

    2010-04-01

    Biologists have long used model organisms to study human diseases, particularly when the model bears a close resemblance to the disease. We present a method that quantitatively and systematically identifies nonobvious equivalences between mutant phenotypes in different species, based on overlapping sets of orthologous genes from human, mouse, yeast, worm, and plant (212,542 gene-phenotype associations). These orthologous phenotypes, or phenologs, predict unique genes associated with diseases. Our method suggests a yeast model for angiogenesis defects, a worm model for breast cancer, mouse models of autism, and a plant model for the neural crest defects associated with Waardenburg syndrome, among others. Using these models, we show that SOX13 regulates angiogenesis, and that SEC23IP is a likely Waardenburg gene. Phenologs reveal functionally coherent, evolutionarily conserved gene networks-many predating the plant-animal divergence-capable of identifying candidate disease genes. PMID:20308572

  2. Orthologs of macrophage migration inhibitory factor from parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Cho, Yoonsang; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections are associated with modulation of host cellular immune responses, presumably to prolong parasite survival within the mammalian host. This phenomenon is attributed, at least in part, to the elaboration of parasite molecules, including orthologs of host cytokines and receptors, at the host–parasite interface. This review describes recent progress in the characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) orthologs from parasitic nematodes. The roles of these molecules in parasite developmental biology and pathogenesis are discussed. Further knowledge of the species-specific activities and three-dimensional structures of human and parasitic nematode MIF molecules should make them ideal targets for drug- and/or vaccine-based strategies aimed at nematode disease control. PMID:18603473

  3. In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates.

    PubMed

    Zweygarth, Erich; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, Antoinette I; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matjila, Paul T; Lis, Katarzyna; Broniszewska, Marzena; Schöl, Heidrun; Ferrolho, Joana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia M F

    2014-06-01

    Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is an obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative tick-borne bacterium belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. E. canis is distributed worldwide and can cause serious and fatal infections in dogs. Among strains of E. canis, the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences are highly conserved. Using this gene to genetically differentiate isolates is therefore difficult. As an alternative, the gene gp36, which encodes for a major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, has been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of this pathogen. The present study describes the isolation and continuous propagation of a Spanish and 2 South African isolates of E. canis in IDE8 tick cells. Subsequently, canine DH82 cell cultures were infected using initial bodies obtained from infected IDE8 cultures. It was possible to mimic the life cycle of E. canis in vitro by transferring infection from tick cells to canine cells and back again. To characterize these E. canis strains at the molecular level, the 16S rRNA and gp36 genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and aligned with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. All 16S rRNA sequences amplified in this study were identical to previously reported E. canis strains. Maximum likelihood analysis based on the gp36 amino acid sequences showed that the South African and Spanish strains fall into 2 well-defined phylogenetic clusters amongst other E. canis strains. The members of these 2 phylogenetic clusters shared 2 unique molecular properties in the gp36 amino acid sequences: (i) deletion of glycine 117 and (ii) the presence of an additional putative N-linked glycosylation site. We further show correlation between the putative secondary structure and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of the gp36 amino acid sequences. A putative role of gp36 as an adhesin in E. canis is discussed. Overall, we report the successful in vitro culture of 3 new E. canis strains which present

  4. Characterization of a Drosophila Ortholog of the Cdc7 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Robert; Hosler, Marcus R.; Gavande, Navnath S.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Weake, Vikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates components of the pre-replication complex during DNA replication initiation. Cdc7 is highly conserved, and Cdc7 orthologs have been characterized in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Cdc7 is activated specifically during late G1/S phase by binding to its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. Drosophila melanogaster contains a Dbf4 ortholog, Chiffon, which is essential for chorion amplification in Drosophila egg chambers. However, no Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7 has yet been characterized. Here, we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7. Co-expression of Drosophila Cdc7 and Chiffon is able to complement a growth defect in yeast containing a temperature-sensitive Cdc7 mutant. Cdc7 and Chiffon physically interact and can be co-purified from insect cells. Cdc7 phosphorylates the known Cdc7 substrates Mcm2 and histone H3 in vitro, and Cdc7 kinase activity is stimulated by Chiffon and inhibited by the Cdc7-specific inhibitor XL413. Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells deficient for Cdc7 have a defect in two types of DNA replication, endoreplication and chorion gene amplification. However, follicle cells deficient for Chiffon have a defect in chorion gene amplification but still undergo endocycling. Our results show that Cdc7 interacts with Chiffon to form a functional Dbf4-dependent kinase complex and that Cdc7 is necessary for DNA replication in Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells. Additionally, we show that Chiffon is a member of an expanding subset of DNA replication initiation factors that are not strictly required for endoreplication in Drosophila. PMID:25451925

  5. Questing Dermacentor reticulatus harbouring Babesia canis DNA associated with outbreaks of canine babesiosis in the Swiss Midlands.

    PubMed

    Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Gilli, Urs; Gottstein, Bruno; Marreros, Nelson; Kuhnert, Peter; Daeppen, Jérôme A; Rosenberg, Gertrud; Hirt, Didier; Frey, Caroline F

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 and 2012, outbreaks of clinical canine babesiosis were observed in 2 areas of the Swiss Midlands that had no history of this disease so far. In one area, cases of canine babesiosis occurred over 2 consecutive tick seasons. The outbreaks involved 29 dogs, 4 of which died. All dogs were infected with large Babesia sp. as diagnosed in Giemsa-stained blood smears and/or PCR. These were identified as B. canis (formerly known as B. canis canis) by subsequent partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp. Interestingly, the sequence indicated either a genotype with heterogeneity in the ssrRNA gene copies or double infection with different B. canis isolates. None of the dogs had a recent travel history, but one had frequently travelled to Hungary and had suffered twice from clinical babesiosis 18 and 24 months prior to the outbreak in autumn 2011. Retrospective sequencing of a stored blood DNA sample of this dog revealed B. canis, with an identical sequence to the Babesia involved in the outbreaks. For the first time in Switzerland, the partial 18S rRNA gene of B. canis could be amplified from DNA isolated from 19 out of 23 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks flagged in the same area. The sequence was identical to that found in the dogs. Furthermore, one affected dog carried a female D. reticulatus tick harbouring B. canis DNA. Our findings illustrate that, under favourable biogeographic and climatic conditions, the life-cycle of B. canis can relatively rapidly establish itself in previously non-endemic areas. Canine babesiosis should therefore always be a differential diagnosis when dogs with typical clinical signs are presented, regardless of known endemic areas. PMID:23571114

  6. The transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the Wild Dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J

    1979-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and three Black-backed Jackals Canis mesomelas. Wild Dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Black-backed Jackals were asymptomatic. Morulae of Ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from Black-backed Jackal to the domestic dog. PMID:553960

  7. Characterization of the ovine ortholog of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas I; Mistry, Rohit; Gray, Robert; Imrie, Margaret; Collie, David D; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2005-08-01

    There is great interest in the use of the sheep as a model for the investigation of inflammation in the lung. The serine antiproteases secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin are important "alarm antiproteases" in the lung and have potentially important roles in the innate immune response. SLPI was first characterized in man and subsequently in murine, porcine, and rat tissues. Here we present the first data concerning the gene and cDNA sequence encoding for the ovine ortholog of SLPI, a protein of 132 amino acids with 66% sequence identity at the amino acid level with human SLPI. A 24-amino-acid signal sequence signifies that, like the other mammalian orthologs, ovine SLPI is a secreted protein. Tissue distribution of expression is demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and shows features similar to SLPI expression in other mammals, specifically at mucosal surfaces such as the upper respiratory and intestinal tracts, and also the skin, liver, and kidney. This distribution lends credence to SLPI having important roles in innate immunity. We have also cloned the ovine SLPI cDNA into an expression vector and expressed the ovine SLPI protein in vitro. This has enabled us to demonstrate that ovine SLPI is correctly processed (Western blot analysis and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis) and has biological antihuman neutrophil elastase activity. In summary, the ovine ortholog of SLPI shows similarities to other members of the SLPI family and has all the features of a modulator of innate immunity. PMID:16180144

  8. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    PubMed

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island. PMID:27177475

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs’ population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis. Methods: During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and factors associated with a positive antibody response. Results: There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250) among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4%) of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%), typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion. Conclusion: This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North-East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism. PMID:26623430

  10. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis in free-living primates of the genus Callithrix.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Claudio; Barcelos, Rafael Mazioli; Mantovani, Cynthia; Carrizo, Juliana; Soares, Adriano Carlos; Moreira, Higo Nasser Sant'Anna; Maia, Natasha Lagos; da Silva, Fernanda de Fátima Rodrigues; e Silva, Vinícius Herold Dornelas; Boere, Vanner; e Silva, Ita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia are Gram-negative and coccoid-shaped microorganisms that cause ehrlichiosis - a serious infectious disease that often leads to death. These bacteria present a strong zoonotic potential and primates may act as reservoir hosts. This study involved a molecular analysis to detect these microorganisms in blood samples collected from nineteen primates of the genus Callithrix living free in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of the 19 primates was found to be infected with Ehrlichia canis. This finding points to a new wild host of E. canis with a strong potential for transmission to humans because of its increasing contact with people. This is the first report of Ehrlichia spp. in primate of the genus Callithrix. PMID:25909257

  11. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n = 21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:25956636

  12. [Endemic risk of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. An epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Gothe, R

    1997-11-01

    During the period of January 1995 to January 1997, Babesia canis infections were diagnosed in 127 dogs, 65 of them had stayed in foreign countries where Dermacentor reticulatus is endemic, namely France, Austria and Hungary, or in the area Offenburg/Kehl/Freiburg i. Breisgau (Germany). Two dogs being positive for Babesia never had left Germany before and had not been in the region Offenburg/Kehl/Freiburg i. Breisgau. Concurrent tick infestations were reported for all of the 67 dogs. For 10 dogs which had travelled to Hungary and France the ticks were diagnosed as D. reticulatus. In Germany, ecological conditions are suitable for D. reticulatus and Babesia canis. Therefore, as a consequence of the spreading of these parasites the emergence of new endemic foci has to be expected. PMID:9459834

  13. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Ćirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  14. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  15. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

  16. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCI, Isis Regina Grenier; da CUNHA, Michele Milano; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patricia de Souza; GHIRALDI-LOPES, Luciana Dias; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; KIOSHIMA, Erika Seki; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  17. Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H E; Mugford, A R; Humm, K R; Kellett-Gregory, L M

    2013-08-01

    A two-year-old female neutered Tibetan terrier was referred following a one-month history of lethargy, inappetence and pancytopenia, which had been poorly responsive to immunosuppressive and fluoroquinolone treatment. The dog was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia and was found to be positive for Ehrlichia canis by both antibody titre measurement and polymerase chain reaction. The dog lived in London and had not travelled outside the UK. The dog was treated with doxycycline, prednisolone and ciclosporin, but died as a result of gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of Ehrlichia canis in a dog in the UK with no previous travel history. PMID:23718904

  18. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  19. Evaluation of an attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Rudoler, Nir; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; van Straten, Michael; Harrus, Shimon

    2012-12-17

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is an important tick-borne disease worldwide. No commercial vaccine for the disease is currently available and tick control is the main preventive measure against the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a multi-passaged attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis to serve as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and to assess the use of azithromycin in the treatment of acute ehrlichiosis. Twelve beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups of 4 dogs. Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (vaccinated) with an attenuated strain of E. canis (#611A) twice or once, respectively. The third group consisted of naïve dogs which served as controls. All 3 groups were challenged with a wild virulent strain of E. canis by administering infected dog-blood intravenously. Transient thrombocytopenia was the only hematological abnormality observed following inoculation of dogs with the attenuated strain. Challenge with the virulent strain resulted in severe disease in all 4 control dogs while only 3 of 8 vaccinated dogs presented mild transient fever. Furthermore, the mean blood rickettsial load was significantly higher in the control group (27-92-folds higher during days 14-19 post challenge with the wild the strain) as compared to the vaccinated dogs. The use of azithromycin was assessed as a therapeutic agent for the acute disease. Four days treatment resulted in further deterioration of the clinical condition of the dogs. Molecular comparison of 4 genes known to express immunoreactive proteins and virulence factors (p30, gp19, VirB4 and VirB9) between the attenuated strain and the challenge wild strain revealed no genetic differences between the strains. The results of this study indicate that the attenuated E. canis strain may serve as an effective and secure future vaccine for canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23072894

  20. Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.

    2008-01-01

    Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

  1. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves.

    PubMed

    Woldstad, Theresa M; Dullen, Kimberly N; Hundertmark, Kris J; Beckmen, Kimberlee B

    2014-12-01

    Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers. PMID:25426419

  2. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  3. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections.

    PubMed

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-05-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results. Finally, the Microsporum PCR was positive for 10/10 guinea pig specimens from infected animals but for 0/2 of the control animal samples. The evaluation of the two PCR tests indicated excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19886764

  4. Clinical babesiosis and molecular identification of Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Tomanovic, Snezana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2015-06-01

    Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia. PMID:26051258

  5. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus. PMID:20646832

  6. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  7. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Nowak, R.M.; Weisberg, S.

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  8. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D. Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L.; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis. PMID:25852228

  9. Strong monovalent electrolyte imbalances in serum of dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2012-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a systemic tick-borne protozoan disease caused by infection with parasites of the genus Babesia. Acid-base disorders and ion imbalances have been described in dogs infected with Babesia rossi in South Africa. In this paper, the authors describe changes to monovalent ion concentrations and calculated parameters of monovalent ions in 70 dogs naturally infected with B. canis, a species occurring in Europe. Hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia, hyperchloraemia, decrease of chloride gap, strong ion gap, difference between sodium and chloride concentrations, and an increase of chloride-to-sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratios were the most prevalent changes. Hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia and hyperchloraemia were detected less frequently than in dogs infected with B. rossi, but the severity of these changes were similar. Comparison of monovalent ion concentrations in azotaemic and non-azotaemic, and anaemic and non-anaemic dogs infected with B. canis showed that azotaemic dogs had significantly lower sodium concentrations. The results of this study indicate a possible development of hyperchloraemic acidosis and the probable contribution of aldosterone in the development of hypokalaemia. However, further study on blood gas, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone in dogs infected with B. canis is needed. PMID:22463923

  10. Molecular epidemiology of rabies: focus on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) from northern South Africa.

    PubMed

    Zulu, G C; Sabeta, C T; Nel, L H

    2009-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern South Africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. A panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein gene and the non-coding G-L intergenic region. Through phylogenetic analysis a viral cluster specific to black-backed jackals and spanning a 5-year period was delineated in western Limpopo. Virus strains associated with domestic dogs prevail in densely populated communal areas in north-eastern Limpopo and in south and eastern Mpumalanga. The data presented in this study indicated the likelihood that black-backed jackals are capable of sustaining rabies cycles independent of domestic dogs. It is proposed that wildlife rabies control strategies, in synergy with domestic animal vaccination should be considered for effective control of rabies in South Africa. PMID:19061924

  11. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes of Babesia spp and Ehrlichia canis detected in dogs from RibeirÃo Preto, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, L.P.; Cardozo, G.P.; Santos, E.V.; Mansur, M.A.B.; Donini, I.A.N.; Zissou, V.G.; Roberto, P.G.; Marins, M.

    2009-01-01

    The partial DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia canis and the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia canis detected in dogs from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were compared to sequences from other strains deposited in GenBank. The E. canis strain circulating in Ribeirão Preto is identical to other strains previously detected in the region, whereas the subspecies Babesia canis vogeli is the main Babesia strain circulating in dogs from Ribeirão Preto. PMID:24031351

  12. Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline.

    PubMed Central

    Wen, B; Rikihisa, Y; Mott, J M; Greene, R; Kim, H Y; Zhi, N; Couto, G C; Unver, A; Bartsch, R

    1997-01-01

    A partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified in Ehrlichia canis-infected cells by nested PCR. The assay was specific and did not amplify the closely related Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris, Neorickettsia helminthoeca, and SF agent 16S rRNA genes. The assay was as sensitive as Southern hybridization, detecting as little as 0.2 pg of E. canis DNA. By this method, all blood samples from four dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were positive as early as day 4 postinoculation, which was before or at the time of seroconversion. One hundred five blood samples from dogs from Arizona and Texas (areas of E. canis endemicity) and 30 blood samples from dogs from Ohio (area of E. canis nonendemicity) were examined by nested PCR and immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) test. Approximately 84% of dogs from Arizona and Texas had been treated with doxycycline before submission of blood specimens. Among Arizona and Texas specimens, 46 samples were PCR positive (44%) and 80 were IFA positive (76%). Forty-three of 80 IFA-positive samples (54%) were PCR positive, and 22 of 25 IFA-negative samples (88%) were negative in the nested PCR. None of the Ohio specimens were IFA positive, but 5 specimens were PCR positive (17%). Our results indicate that the nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of E. canis and may be more useful in assessing the clearance of the organisms after antibiotic therapy than IFA, especially in areas in which E. canis is endemic. PMID:9196207

  13. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis and Cercopithifilaria bainae in an off-host population of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Carbone, Domenico; Baneth, Gad; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) and the filarioid Cercopithifilaria bainae (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are tick-transmitted infectious agents of dogs, highly prevalent in the Mediterranean basin in association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from the environment every 25±2 days in a confined location in southern Italy where a community of dogs lives, from August 2012 to July 2013. In order to study the occurrence of H. canis and C. bainae, 1091 tick specimens (770 adults; 271 nymphs, and 50 larvae) were dissected, and oocysts of H. canis and larvae of C. bainae were morphologically identified. Out of 1091 dissected ticks, 13.47% (n=147) were positive for H. canis, with the highest prevalence recorded in unfed adults (16.4%; 126/770), followed by nymphs collected as larvae and allowed to moult (14%; 7/50), unfed nymphs dissected immediately after collection (3%; 8/271), and adults collected as nymphs and allowed to moult (2%; 6/271). The highest number of H. canis-positive ticks (35.5%; 43/121; P<0.05) was recorded during the summer months (i.e., June-July). In addition, 6% of adult ticks (n=66) were positive for third-stage larvae of C. bainae, with the highest number in June (17%; 14/84; P<0.05). Based on the results reported herein, H. canis and C. bainae infections in the study area seem to be dependent on the seasonality of vector tick populations. Hence, dogs living in these areas are more exposed to both pathogens during the warmer months. These findings provide new insights into the ecology of both H. canis and C. bainae. PMID:24594107

  14. Molecular typing study of the Microsporum canis strains isolated from an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wenling; Li, Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp that occurs most often in prepubescent children. Tinea capitis may be transmitted by shared use of contaminated hairbrush, by contact with fomites or by direct physical contact with an infected person. Occasionally, outbreak of tinea capitis would happen under some special conditions. Last year, we found an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school due to Microsporum canis. In epidemiological study, we performed the prevalence survey to all of the exposed persons by physical examinations and mycological laboratory tests, including KOH preparation and fungal cultures. We also investigated the environment in the school. In molecular typing study of the M. canis isolated from patients and the environment, random primer amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method, the specific amplification of subrepeat element in the ribosomal DNA nontranscribed spacer (NTS), and the analysis of DNA sequence in the intertranscribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA were performed. The total number of exposed children was seventy-one, among them forty-two were attacked by tinea capitis. The ratio between boy and girl was 13:1. The ages of the patients was ranged from 3.5 years old to 10 years old. Four patients bred cat or dog as pet. Most patients appeared noninflammatory type of tinea capitis and several patients were inflammatory type. Under microscopic examination the invaded hair were all ectothrix. The pathogens isolated from these patients were M. canis. And we also isolated M. canis from the carpet and the pillowcase in the school. The patterns of total strains of M. canis in the RAPD method and PCR amplification of the rDNA NTS region study were identical, and the isolates from patients and the environment contained the same DNA sequences in the ITS region. The outbreak of tinea capitis was caused by M. canis. The M. canis isolated from patients and from the environment were probably the same origin. PMID:15008343

  15. Expression Pattern Similarities Support the Prediction of Orthologs Retaining Common Functions after Gene Duplication Events.

    PubMed

    Das, Malay; Haberer, Georg; Panda, Arup; Das Laha, Shayani; Ghosh, Tapas Chandra; Schäffner, Anton R

    2016-08-01

    The identification of functionally equivalent, orthologous genes (functional orthologs) across genomes is necessary for accurate transfer of experimental knowledge from well-characterized organisms to others. This frequently relies on automated, coding sequence-based approaches such as OrthoMCL, Inparanoid, and KOG, which usually work well for one-to-one homologous states. However, this strategy does not reliably work for plants due to the occurrence of extensive gene/genome duplication. Frequently, for one query gene, multiple orthologous genes are predicted in the other genome, and it is not clear a priori from sequence comparison and similarity which one preserves the ancestral function. We have studied 11 organ-dependent and stress-induced gene expression patterns of 286 Arabidopsis lyrata duplicated gene groups and compared them with the respective Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes to predict putative expressologs and nonexpressologs based on gene expression similarity. Promoter sequence divergence as an additional tool to substantiate functional orthology only partially overlapped with expressolog classification. By cloning eight A. lyrata homologs and complementing them in the respective four Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants, we experimentally proved that predicted expressologs are indeed functional orthologs, while nonexpressologs or nonfunctionalized orthologs are not. Our study demonstrates that even a small set of gene expression data in addition to sequence homologies are instrumental in the assignment of functional orthologs in the presence of multiple orthologs. PMID:27303025

  16. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  17. Linking the potato genome to the Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://www.sgn.cornell.edu) and many of these have been placed in the genet...

  18. Comparison between a soluble antigen-based ELISA and IFAT in detecting antibodies against Babesia canis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Patrícia Iriê; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Theixeira, Márcia Cristina Alves; Rocha, Artur Gouveia; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    An available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was studied for the detection of anti-B. canis antibodies in the sera of dogs using, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) as a reference test. ELISA uses a soluble antigenic preparation of B. canis and the optimal dilutions of the antigen, serum and conjugate were determined by check board titration, using positive and negative reference serum. The soluble antigen preparation of B. canis merozoites was 10 microg x mL(-1), with reference sera from positive and negative in a single dilution of 1:100, and conjugated to 1:4.000. A total of 246 serum samples were collected from dogs during the rabies vaccination campaign in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil and examined for the presence of antibodies against B. canis by ELISA and IFAT. Under these conditions, the average absorbance of negative serum was 0.129 + or - 0.025, resulting in a cut-of value of 0.323 (ELISA level 3) and the average absorbance of positive reference serum was 2.156 + or - 1.187. The serological positive samples tested for B. canis by ELISA and IFAT were 67.89% (n = 167) and 59.35% (n = 146), respectively. These results suggest that ELISA described may prove to be an effective serological test to diagnose canine babesiosis. PMID:19772774

  19. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

  20. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  1. Isolation, in vitro propagation, genetic analysis, and immunogenic characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rieck, Susana Elisa; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from a blood sample obtained from a dog in southeastern Brazil was used to confirm a naturally acquired Ehrlichia (E.) canis infection. Following isolation and culturing of the new bacterial strain called Uberlândia, partial sequences of the dsb and p28 genes were obtained. The dsb partial sequence of the novel strain was 100% similar to dsb gene sequences of E. canis obtained from different geographic areas around the world. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for the E. canis Uberlândia strain differed at several nucleotides from other sequences available in GenBank. To confirm the antigenic profile of the Uberlândia strain, an indirect immunofluorescence assay against E. canis antigens was performed using dog sera collected from two different areas in Brazil (Uberlândia and São Paulo). The results suggest that both antigens were able to identify animals seropositive for E. canis in Brazil since these Brazilian strains appear to be highly conserved. PMID:24136211

  2. Evolution, structure, and expression of GNPI/Oscillin orthologous genes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Miura, K; Fujino, Y; Iwao, H; Ogita, S; Yamanaka, S

    2000-09-01

    Oscillin was identified from hamster sperm as a factor responsible for oocyte calcium oscillations. However, its high level of homology with the bacterial glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase suggests that it may play more fundamental roles. In the current study, we identified Oscillin orthologs from Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mouse, and human. Their amino acid identities with hamster oscillin were 67.0, 72.3, 97.6, and 95.5%, respectively. No Oscillin orthologs were found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The human Oscillin gene (HGMW-approved symbol GNPI) spans 12.4 kb and consists of eight exons. The position of the fourth intron was conserved in other species. The human Oscillin promoter has features characteristic of housekeeping genes, including a GC-rich content, multiple SP1 binding sites, and the absence of a TATA motif. Human and mouse Oscillin genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. These data showed that Oscillin is a housekeeping gene conserved throughout evolution and do not support the notion that Oscillin is the sperm-specific factor responsible for calcium oscillations. PMID:10964516

  3. A Framework for Comparing Phenotype Annotations of Orthologous Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Burgun, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Animal models are a key resource for the investigation of human diseases. In contrast to functional annotation, phenotype annotation is less standard, and comparing phenotypes across species remains challenging. The objective of this paper is to propose a framework for comparing phenotype annotations of orthologous genes based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of biomedical articles in which these genes are discussed. Methods 17,769 pairs of orthologous genes (mouse and human) are downloaded from the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) system and linked to biomedical articles through Entrez Gene. MeSH index terms corresponding to diseases are extracted from Medline. Results 11,111 pairs of genes exhibited at least one phenotype annotation for each gene in the pair. Among these, 81% have at least one phenotype annotation in common, 80% have at least one annotation specific to the human gene and 84% have at least one annotation specific to the mouse gene. Four disease categories represent 54% of all phenotype annotations. Conclusions This framework supports the curation of phenotype annotation and the generation of research hypotheses based on comparative studies. PMID:20841896

  4. Retrospective Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Conditioned Laboratory Dogs (Canis familiaris) with Serologic Reactions to Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Scorpio, Diana G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Tunin, Richard S; Barat, Nicole C; Garyu, Justin W; Dumler, J Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are susceptible to different tickborne infections, including members of the Anaplasmataceae (Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys), Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii. These diseases can manifest with clinical signs including fever, anorexia, malaise, lameness, rash, and bleeding episodes; however, these signs are nonpathognomonic, and infections can occur in the absence of clinical signs. Hematologic abnormalities can include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In biomedical research, diseases such as canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever may cause morbidity among exposed dogs and confound research results. Random-source dogs are susceptible to these diseases because of their increased risk of arthropod exposure. Nonpurpose bred, randomly selected conditioned dogs (n = 21) were examined; blood samples were taken for hematology, biochemistry analysis, tickborne pathogen serology, and PCR. Of these, 2 dogs (10% of the population) presented with illness characterized by fever, malaise, lameness, or hemostatic abnormalities, and 15 (71%) had antibodies to one or more tickborne pathogens. No specific hematologic or biochemical differences were apparent between seronegative dogs and seropositive dogs reactive to all 3 pathogens. E. canis and B. burgdorferi PCR of tissues and blood were negative for all dogs. PCR amplification of several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genes yielded no positive samples. From this cohort of dogs, serologic and molecular results indicate prior exposure without active infection or clinical disease. Exposure to and potential for infection with these bacteria and other pathogens may contribute to blood and tissue alterations that could confound experiments and lead to misinterpretation of data in canine models. PMID:18947166

  5. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  6. Retrospective clinical and molecular analysis of conditioned laboratory dogs (Canis familiaris) with serologic reactions to Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Scorpio, Diana G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Tunin, Richard S; Barat, Nicole C; Garyu, Justin W; Dumler, J Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Dogs are susceptible to different tickborne infections, including members of the Anaplasmataceae (Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys), Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii. These diseases can manifest with clinical signs including fever, anorexia, malaise, lameness, rash, and bleeding episodes; however, these signs are nonpathognomonic, and infections can occur in the absence of clinical signs. Hematologic abnormalities can include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In biomedical research, diseases such as canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever may cause morbidity among exposed dogs and confound research results. Random-source dogs are susceptible to these diseases because of their increased risk of arthropod exposure. Nonpurpose bred, randomly selected conditioned dogs (n = 21) were examined; blood samples were taken for hematology, biochemistry analysis, tickborne pathogen serology, and PCR. Of these, 2 dogs (10% of the population) presented with illness characterized by fever, malaise, lameness, or hemostatic abnormalities, and 15 (71%) had antibodies to one or more tickborne pathogens. No specific hematologic or biochemical differences were apparent between seronegative dogs and seropositive dogs reactive to all 3 pathogens. E. canis and B. burgdorferi PCR of tissues and blood were negative for all dogs. PCR amplification of several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genes yielded no positive samples. From this cohort of dogs, serologic and molecular results indicate prior exposure without active infection or clinical disease. Exposure to and potential for infection with these bacteria and other pathogens may contribute to blood and tissue alterations that could confound experiments and lead to misinterpretation of data in canine models. PMID:18947166

  7. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon. PMID:24502723

  8. Recombinant gp19 as a potential antigen for detecting anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dog sera.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rômulo Silva de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Gonçales, Relber Aguiar; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2015-01-01

    The canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis, is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Some serological diagnostic techniques using immunodominant proteins of E. canis as antigens are available, but their specificities and sensitivities are questionable. Based on this, the objective of this study was to test the antigenic potential of the recombinant gp19 protein (rGP19) for subsequent use in diagnostic tests. The rGP19 expressed in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) C41 was recognized in the sera from experimentally infected dogs using ELISA and Western blotting. Thus, it was possible to obtain a promising antigen with the ability to differentiate between E. canis-positive and -negative animals, even 1 week after infection. PMID:26291145

  9. Ovicidal activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Araujo, J M; Alves, C D F

    2010-04-19

    An assessment was made of the ovicidal activity of egg-parasitizing fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4) and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. The fungal isolates were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (2% WA) and stored at 25 degrees C for 10 days in an incubator, in the dark. The control group was comprised of Petri dishes without fungi, containing the 2%WA medium only. Later, 1000 embryonated eggs were placed on the surface of the plates with fungal isolates and also on the control plates, and were then incubated at 25 degrees C for 7, 14 and 21 days. At these intervals, the eggs were retrieved and underwent percentage assessment according to the following parameters: no changes; type 1 effect, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with visualization of hyphae adhered to eggshell; type 2 effect, lytic effect with morphological changes in embryo and eggshell, without hyphal penetration through the eggshell; type 3 effect, lytic effect with morphological changes in embryo and eggshell, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All the fungal isolates showed ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) on T. canis eggs, with 13.8%, 20.5% and 20.3% of ovicidal activity using P. chlamydosporia isolate VC1 after 7, 14 and 21 days, whereas isolate VC4 showed 15.2%, 19.0% and 21.7% of ovicidal activity at the same time intervals. P. lilacinus showed ovicidal activity of 12.3%, 18.8% and 20.0% after 7, 14 and 21 days. P. chlamydosporia and P. lilacinus were effective in vitro on T. canis eggs and can be considered a potential candidate to biological controller of those nematodes. PMID:20097478

  10. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.

    PubMed

    Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

    2010-08-01

    The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. PMID:20444549

  11. Flotation and adherence characteristics of Toxocara canis and T. cati and a reliable method for recovering Toxocara eggs from soil.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Annika; Janecek, Elisabeth; Waindok, Patrick; Strube, Christina

    2016-08-30

    Toxocara canis and T. cati are worldwide distributed intestinal nematodes of canids and felids and pose a threat to public health due to possible clinical manifestations in humans. Different methods for detection of Toxocara eggs in soil have been described, but conducted studies deal with egg recovery rates of T. canis or "Toxocara spp." only whereas T. cati egg recovery has not been taken into consideration. Thus, flotation properties in sodium chloride solution and adherence characteristics to different substrates possibly coming into contact with Toxocara eggs before or during purification from soil were evaluated for both, T. canis and T. cati eggs. No significant difference was observed in flotation characteristics, but comparison of adherence properties revealed significantly less adherence of T. cati eggs on almost all evaluated substrates ("sand", side sealed bags, glass beaker, centrifuge tube) and different washing solutions (tap water, Tween(®) 80, Triton™ X-100). Mean adhesion rates of T. cati eggs ranged from 15.9% to 68.9%, those of T. canis eggs from 28.3% to 83.9%. While adherence of T. cati eggs on any substrate was significantly reduced when rinsing with Tween(®) 80 solution, no effect on T. canis eggs could be observed. Generally, Toxocara eggs adhere better on plastic than on glass. Evaluation of a method including only non-hazardous substances for purification of Toxocara eggs from soil resulted in a statistically significant higher recovery rate of T. canis (42.6% recovered eggs) compared to T. cati eggs (30.9% recovered eggs). As these percentages are above average for described methods to recover Toxocara eggs from soil, the presented method is considered reliable for prevalence studies. PMID:27523935

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of Toxocara canis zoonotic infection of children in a Caribbean community

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D. E.; Bundy, D. A. P.; Cooper, E. S.; Schantz, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The study reports the results of a summary of the prevalence and symptomatology of paediatric toxocariasis in Anse-la-Raye, St. Lucia. The seroprevalence of Toxocara canis among the children, as determined by ELISA, was 86%, the highest level recorded to date. In contrast, the prevalence of infection in dogs was not abnormally high, although the canine population was large and unconstrained compared to that in industrial countries. The presence of infective ova in peridomestic areas and the widespread practice of pica among children in the village probably combine to enhance exposure to infection. PMID:3488844

  13. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  14. Unusual behavior by bison, Bison bison, toward elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents are described of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the bison knocked a wolf-wounded elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

  15. Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

  16. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  17. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  18. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

  19. Babesia canis vogeli: a novel PCR for its detection in dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anthony R; Dunstan, Richard H; Roberts, Timothy K; Brown, Graeme K

    2006-01-01

    Babesia canis vogeli is known to cause disease in dogs in Australia, and the rapid detection of various subspecies would enable effective treatment and management. A 21 bp oligonucleotide, "Bab-f" was proposed for the production of larger PCR products with high species specificity that would enable effective sequence analyses to yield subspecies identification. The new forward primer when paired with a previously reported "Babesia common" reverse primer generated a 394 bp product which was successfully amplified and provided subspecies differentiation by sequence analyses. Specificity and sensitivity were reported at 100% on a cohort of 55 dogs. PMID:16256109

  20. Inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia canis cysts by combined and free chlorine.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, L I; Swango, L J; Blagburn, B L; Hendrix, C M; Williams, D E; Worley, S D

    1988-01-01

    Free chlorine and a combined organic N-chloramine (3-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone, compound 1) were compared for efficacy as disinfectants against an admixture of cysts of Giardia lamblia and Giardia canis in water solution under a variety of test conditions; variables were pH, temperature, and water quality. In general, compound 1 was found to reduce the giardial excystation in the solutions at lower concentration or shorter contact time at a given total chlorine concentration than did free chlorine. PMID:3202635

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Costa, Francisco B.; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations—one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)–were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America. PMID:26414283

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S; Costa, Francisco B; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America. PMID:26414283

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara Canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. Methods A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7–12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. Results The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.15–26.61, p = 0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.08–7.60, p = 0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. Conclusions This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental

  4. Construction of an Ortholog Database Using the Semantic Web Technology for Integrative Analysis of Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

  5. Construction of an ortholog database using the semantic web technology for integrative analysis of genomic data.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

  6. Do Intron and Coding Sequences of Some Human-Mouse Orthologs Evolve as a Single Unit?

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel Angel; Rodrigo, José Ramón; Alonso, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    It has been previously suggested that both the coding and the associated non-coding sequences of some human-mouse orthologs could evolve as a single unit. This letter deals with the observation that between mouse and humans some orthologs change significantly their compositional features as an indication that the molecular evolution is a local process. Moreover, the data shown indicate that the coding and the intron sequences of these orthologs do not evolve independently but instead both undergo a concerted evolution, evolving as a single unit, from a compositional cluster in mouse to a different compositional cluster in human. PMID:27220874

  7. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  8. Colorimetric Detection of Ehrlichia Canis via Nucleic Acid Hybridization in Gold Nano-Colloids

    PubMed Central

    Muangchuen, Ajima; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP). The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles' surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease. PMID:25111239

  9. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    PubMed Central

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; MATA-SANTOS, Hilton Antônio; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; CARNEIRO, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; FENALTI, Juliana Montelli; DA SILVA, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; SCAINI, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitroactivity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds. PMID:26200958

  10. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species. PMID:27358768