These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

2013, 2013, XXVI, 366 p. 140 illus., 135 in Printed book  

E-print Network

such as pedestrian tracking, human body pose estimation, pixel-wise semantic segmentation of images and videos2013, 2013, XXVI, 366 p. 140 illus., 135 in color. Printed book Hardcover 94,95 | £79.95 | $129, automatic parsing of medical 3D scans, and detection of tumors. The book concludes with a detailed

Liège, Université de

2

p140Cap suppresses the invasive properties of highly metastatic MTLn3-EGFR cells via impaired cortactin phosphorylation.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that the adaptor protein p140Cap regulates tumor properties in terms of cell motility and growth. Here, by using the highly metastatic rat adenocarcinoma cell line MTLn3-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we assess the role of p140Cap in metastasis formation. Orthotopic transplantation of MTLn3-EGFR cells over-expressing p140Cap in Rag2(-/-)?(c)(-/-) mice resulted in normal primary tumor growth compared with the controls. Strikingly, p140Cap over-expression causes an 80% inhibition in the number of lung metastases. p140Cap over-expressing cells display a 50% reduction in directional cell migration, an increased number and size of focal adhesions, and a strong impairment in the ability to invade in a 3D matrix. p140Cap over-expression affects EGFR signaling and tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in response to EGF stimulation. Intriguingly, p140Cap associates with cortactin via interaction with its second proline-rich domain to the cortactin SH3 domain. The phosphomimetic cortactin tyrosine 421 mutant rescues migration and invasive properties in p140Cap over-expressing cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that p140Cap suppresses the invasive properties of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells by inhibiting cortactin-dependent cell motility. PMID:21725361

Damiano, L; Le Dvdec, S E; Di Stefano, P; Repetto, D; Lalai, R; Truong, H; Xiong, J L; Danen, E H; Yan, K; Verbeek, F J; De Luca, E; Attanasio, F; Buccione, R; Turco, E; van de Water, B; Defilippi, P

2012-02-01

3

SNAP-25 regulates spine formation through postsynaptic binding to p140Cap.  

PubMed

Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a member of the Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) protein family, required for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and regulation of diverse ion channels. Here, we show that acute reduction of SNAP-25 expression leads to an immature phenotype of dendritic spines that are, consistently, less functional. Conversely, over-expression of SNAP-25 results in an increase in the density of mature, Postsynaptic Density protein 95 (PSD-95)-positive spines. The regulation of spine morphogenesis by SNAP-25 depends on the protein's ability to bind both the plasma membrane and the adaptor protein p140Cap, a key protein regulating actin cytoskeleton and spine formation. We propose that SNAP-25 allows the organization of the molecular apparatus needed for spine formation by recruiting and stabilizing p140Cap. PMID:23868368

Tomasoni, Romana; Repetto, Daniele; Morini, Raffaella; Elia, Chiara; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Di Luca, Monica; Turco, Emilia; Defilippi, Paola; Matteoli, Michela

2013-01-01

4

HSC70 blockade by the therapeutic peptide P140 affects autophagic processes and endogenous MHCII presentation in murine lupus  

PubMed Central

Background The P140 phosphopeptide issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein protein displays protective properties in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. It binds both major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) and HSC70/Hsp73 molecules. P140 peptide increases MRL/lpr peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases autoepitope recognition by T cells. Objective To explore further the mode of action of P140 peptide on HSC70+ antigen-presenting cells. Methods P140 biodistribution was monitored in real time using an imaging system and by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Fluorescence activated cell sorting and Western blotting experiments were used to evaluate the P140 effects on autophagic flux markers. Results P140 fluorescence accumulated especially in the lungs and spleen. P140 peptide reduced the number of peripheral and splenic T and B cells without affecting these cells in normal mice. Remaining MRL/lpr B cells responded normally to mitogens. P140 peptide decreased the expression levels of HSC70/Hsp73 chaperone and stable MHCII dimers, which are both increased in MRL/lpr splenic B cells. It impaired refolding properties of chaperone HSC70. In MRL/lpr B cells, it increased the accumulation of the autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 and LC3-II, consistent with a downregulated lysosomal degradation during autophagic flux. Conclusion The study results suggest that after P140 peptide binding to HSC70, the endogenous (auto)antigen processing might be greatly affected in MRL/lpr antigen-presenting B cells, leading to the observed decrease of autoreactive T-cell priming and signalling via a mechanism involving a lysosomal degradation pathway. This unexpected mechanism might explain the beneficial effect of P140 peptide in treated MRL/lpr mice. PMID:21173017

Page, Nicolas; Gros, Frdric; Schall, Nicolas; Dcossas, Marion; Bagnard, Dominique; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

2011-01-01

5

p140Cap regulates memory and synaptic plasticity through Src-mediated and citron-N-mediated actin reorganization.  

PubMed

A major challenge in the neuroscience field is the identification of molecules and pathways that control synaptic plasticity and memory. Dendritic spines play a pivotal role in these processes, as the major sites of excitatory synapses in neuronal communication. Previous studies have shown that the scaffold protein p140Cap localizes into dendritic spines and that its knockdown negatively modulates spine shape in culture. However, so far, there is no information on its in vivo relevance. By using a knock-out mouse model, we here demonstrate that p140Cap is a key element for both learning and synaptic plasticity. Indeed, p140Cap(-/-) mice are impaired in object recognition test, as well as in LTP and in LTD measurements. The in vivo effects of p140Cap loss are presumably attenuated by noncell-autonomous events, since primary neurons obtained from p140Cap(-/-) mice show a strong reduction in number of mushroom spines and abnormal organization of synapse-associated F-actin. These phenotypes are most likely caused by a local reduction of the inhibitory control of RhoA and of cortactin toward the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. These events can be controlled by p140Cap through its capability to directly inhibit the activation of Src kinase and by its binding to the scaffold protein Citron-N. Altogether, our results provide new insight into how protein associated with dynamic microtubules may regulate spine actin organization through interaction with postsynaptic density components. PMID:24453341

Repetto, Daniele; Camera, Paola; Melani, Riccardo; Morello, Noemi; Russo, Isabella; Calcagno, Eleonora; Tomasoni, Romana; Bianchi, Federico; Berto, Gaia; Giustetto, Maurizio; Berardi, Nicoletta; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Matteoli, Michela; Di Stefano, Paola; Missler, Markus; Turco, Emilia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Defilippi, Paola

2014-01-22

6

p140mDia, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous,is a target protein for Rho small GTPase and is a ligand for profilin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rho small GTPase regulates cell morphology, adhesion and cytokinesis through the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a protein, p140mDia, as a downstream effector of Rho. It is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, a protein required for cytokinesis, and belongs to a family of formin-related proteins containing repetitive polyproline stretches. p140mDia binds selectively to the GTP-bound form of Rho and

Naoki Watanabe; Pascal Madaule; Tim Reid; Toshimasa Ishizaki; Go Watanabe; Akira Kakizuka; Yuji Saito; Kazuwa Nakao; Brigitte M. Jockusch; Shuh Narumiya

1997-01-01

7

Localization of multidomain adaptor proteins, p140Cap and vinexin, in the pancreatic islet of a spontaneous diabetes mellitus model, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.  

PubMed

We have shown that two multidomain adaptor proteins, p140Cap and vinexin, interact with each other and are likely to be involved in neurotransmitter release. Because the basic molecular mechanism governing neurotransmitter and insulin secretion is conserved, these two proteins may also to play pivotal roles in insulin secretion. We therefore performed some characterization of p140Cap and vinexin in pancreas of a wild-type rat or a spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) model, the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. These two proteins were detected in Wistar rat pancreas by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry revealed that p140Cap and vinexin are enriched in ? and ? cells, respectively, in the rat pancreas. We then found that pancreatic islet structure was disorganized in the OLETF rat with hyperinsulinemia or with hyperglycemia, based on immunohistochemical analyses of vinexin. In ? cells of these model rats, p140Cap was distributed in a cytoplasmic granular pattern as in the control rats, although its expression was reduced to various extents from cell to cell. These results may suggest possible involvement of p140Cap in insulin secretion, and reduction of p140Cap might be related to abnormal insulin secretion in DM. PMID:23325552

Yamauchi, Masahiro; Sudo, Kaori; Ito, Hidenori; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Morishita, Rika; Murai, Toshihiro; Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Nagata, Koh-ichi

2013-03-01

8

OPTIC: orthologous and paralogous transcripts in clades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequences of a large number of metazoan species are now known. As multiple closely related genomes are sequenced, compara- tive studies that previously focussed on only pairs of genomes can now be extended over whole clades. The orthologous and paralogous transcripts in clades (OPTIC) database currently provides sets of gene predictions and orthology assignments for three clades: (i)

Andreas Heger; Chris P. Ponting

2008-01-01

9

Inparanoid: a comprehensive database of eukaryotic orthologs.  

PubMed

The Inparanoid eukaryotic ortholog database (http://inparanoid.cgb.ki.se/) is a collection of pairwise ortholog groups between 17 whole genomes; Anopheles gambiae, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, Takifugu rubripes, Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Pan troglodytes, Rattus norvegicus, Oryza sativa, Plasmodium falciparum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Complete proteomes for these genomes were derived from Ensembl and UniProt and compared pairwise using Blast, followed by a clustering step using the Inparanoid program. An Inparanoid cluster is seeded by a reciprocally best-matching ortholog pair, around which inparalogs (should they exist) are gathered independently, while outparalogs are excluded. The ortholog clusters can be searched on the website using Ensembl gene/protein or UniProt identifiers, annotation text or by Blast alignment against our protein datasets. The entire dataset can be downloaded, as can the Inparanoid program itself. PMID:15608241

O'Brien, Kevin P; Remm, Maido; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

2005-01-01

10

Orthology relations, symbolic ultrametrics, and cographs.  

PubMed

Orthology detection is an important problem in comparative and evolutionary genomics and, consequently, a variety of orthology detection methods have been devised in recent years. Although many of these methods are dependent on generating gene and/or species trees, it has been shown that orthology can be estimated at acceptable levels of accuracy without having to infer gene trees and/or reconciling gene trees with species trees. Thus, it is of interest to understand how much information about the gene tree, the species tree, and their reconciliation is already contained in the orthology relation on the underlying set of genes. Here we shall show that a result by Bcker and Dress concerning symbolic ultrametrics, and subsequent algorithmic results by Semple and Steel for processing these structures can throw a considerable amount of light on this problem. More specifically, building upon these authors' results, we present some new characterizations for symbolic ultrametrics and new algorithms for recovering the associated trees, with an emphasis on how these algorithms could be potentially extended to deal with arbitrary orthology relations. In so doing we shall also show that, somewhat surprisingly, symbolic ultrametrics are very closely related to cographs, graphs that do not contain an induced path on any subset of four vertices. We conclude with a discussion on how our results might be applied in practice to orthology detection. PMID:22456957

Hellmuth, Marc; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Stadler, Peter F; Wieseke, Nicolas

2013-01-01

11

Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family G. But is a given set C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Results Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

2014-01-01

12

Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites: the EPLYA and EGLYA motifs have a key role in tyrosine phosphorylation and Csk binding, and are substrates of the Abl kinase.  

PubMed

Protein phosphorylation tightly regulates specific binding of effector proteins that control many diverse biological functions of cells (e. g. signaling, migration and proliferation). p140Cap is an adaptor protein, specifically expressed in brain, testis and epithelial cells, that undergoes phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant protein, in which both EPLYA/EGLYA tyrosines were converted to phenylalanine, was no longer tyrosine phosphorylated, despite the presence of other tyrosine residues in p140Cap sequence. Moreover, this mutant lost its ability to bind the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), previously shown to interact with p140Cap by Far Western analysis. In addition, we found that in vitro and in HEK-293 cells, the Abelson kinase is the major kinase involved in p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation on the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences. Overall, these data represent an original attempt to in vivo characterise phosphorylated residues of p140Cap. Elucidating the function of p140Cap will provide novel insights into its biological activity not only in normal cells, but also in tumors. PMID:23383002

Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Sharma, Nanaocha; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Jensen, Ole N; Cabodi, Sara; Turco, Emilia; Di Stefano, Paola; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

13

Wood's light in Microsporum canis positive patients.  

PubMed

In 64 patients with culturally proven Microsporum canis infections, Wood's light examination was performed. In 30 patients (47%) the characteristic fluorescence correlated with the cultural findings, whereas in the remaining 34 patients (53%), Microsporum canis was isolated, although Wood's light examination was negative. Of the 30 positive and 34 negative cases eight patients of each group had been pre-treated. From the results presented, Wood's light examination has a poor sensitivity in cases of Microsporum canis-infections. PMID:9470413

Kefalidou, S; Odia, S; Gruseck, E; Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D

1997-12-01

14

Assessment of primers designed for the subspecies-specific discrimination among Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi by PCR assay.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is an infectious disease caused by either Babesia gibsoni or Babesia canis protozoans. The latter is also classified under three different phylogenetic groups, referred to as subspecies B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli and B. canis rossi. The objective of the present study was to validate and standardize a PCR assay to discriminate the organisms at the subspecies level. First, the reference sequences of the 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes, including the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) of the most common species and subspecies of the genus Babesia were retrieved from the GenBank database. Subspecies-specific primers (BAB3, BAB4 and BAB5) and one genus-specific primer were designed from the alignment of the sequences. The PCR assays were evaluated in three different combinations of primer pairs in order to assure complete specificity for each reaction. The results of the tests had demonstrated effectiveness of the novel primer pairs BAB1/BAB3, BAB1/BAB4 and BAB1/BAB5 for the amplification of the subspecies-specific target fragments of 746 bp (B. c. canis), 546 bp (B. c. vogeli) and 342 bp (B. c. rossi) by PCR. The original enzymatic amplification assays with novel primers reported in this paper were confirmed to be a reliable tool for the specific discrimination among B. canis subspecies by single-step PCR assays. PMID:18242863

Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Romanowsky, Tatiana Nunes; da Silveira Neto, Osvaldo Jos; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira

2008-03-25

15

Big data and other challenges in the quest for orthologs  

PubMed Central

Given the rapid increase of species with a sequenced genome, the need to identify orthologous genes between them has emerged as a central bioinformatics task. Many different methods exist for orthology detection, which makes it difficult to decide which one to choose for a particular application. Here, we review the latest developments and issues in the orthology field, and summarize the most recent results reported at the third Quest for Orthologs meeting. We focus on community efforts such as the adoption of reference proteomes, standard file formats and benchmarking. Progress in these areas is good, and they are already beneficial to both orthology consumers and providers. However, a major current issue is that the massive increase in complete proteomes poses computational challenges to many of the ortholog database providers, as most orthology inference algorithms scale at least quadratically with the number of proteomes. The Quest for Orthologs consortium is an open community with a number of working groups that join efforts to enhance various aspects of orthology analysis, such as defining standard formats and datasets, documenting community resources and benchmarking. Availability and implementation: All such materials are available at http://questfororthologs.org. Contact: erik.sonnhammer@scilifelab.se or c.dessimoz@ucl.ac.uk PMID:25064571

Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.; Gabaldon, Toni; Sousa da Silva, Alan W.; Martin, Maria; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Thomas, Paul D.; Dessimoz, Christophe

2014-01-01

16

Comparative genomics on FGF16 orthologs.  

PubMed

We have previously reported comparative genomics analyses on FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF10, FGF11, FGF17, FGF18, FGF19, FGF20, FGF22 and FGF23 genes. Here, we performed comparative genomics analyses on FGF1, FGF2, FGF5, FGF9, FGF12, FGF13, FGF14, FGF16 and FGF21 genes, and further characterized the FGF16 gene. Chimpanzee FGF16, chicken fgf16, and zebrafish fgf16 genes were identified within NW_121938.1, NW_060344.1, and CR855117.3 genome sequences, respectively. Chimpanzee FGF16 (207 aa), chicken fgf16 (207 aa), and zebrafish fgf16 (203 aa) showed 100%, 89.9%, and 79.2% total amino-acid identity with human FGF16. Because FGF16, FGF9, and FGF20 constitute FGF subfamily without N-terminal signal peptide, we next searched for uncharacterized FGF9 or FGF20 orthologs. Zebrafish fgf9 gene was identified within BX927112.11 genome sequence, and chicken fgf20 gene within NW_060349.1 genome sequence. Although N-terminal part was divergent, middle and C-terminal parts were well conserved among vertebrate FGF16, FGF9 and FGF20 orthologs. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish fgf9 and fgf20 were more related to each other than to their chicken or mammalian orthologs. TCF/LEF binding site and TATA box were well conserved among the human FGF16, rat Fgf16, and mouse Fgf16 promoters. Because nuclear complex consisting of TCF/LEF (TCF1, TCF3, TCF4 or LEF1), beta-catenin, PYGO (PYGO1 or PYGO2) and Legless (BCL9 or BCL9L) binds to the TCF/LEF-binding site to up-regulate WNT/beta-catenin target genes, FGF16 gene was characterized as the evolutionarily conserved target of the WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway, just like FGF18 and FGF20 genes. These facts indicate that FGF16, FGF18 and FGF20 are pharmacogenomics targets in the field of oncology and regenerative medicine. PMID:16211270

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2005-11-01

17

ORAL PAPILLOMATOSIS IN COYOTES (Canis latrans) AND WOLVES (Canis lupus) OF ALBERTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of oral papillomatosis were detected in wild carnivores of Alberta, ten in coyotes (Canis latrans) and two in wolves (Canis lupus). Lesions ranged from mild with a few small papillomas to severe with much of the surface of the lips, tongue and buccal cavity covered with papillomas. Three of five coyotes with severe papillomatosis were in obvious poor

W. M. SAMUEL; G. A. CHALMERS; J. R. GUNSON

1978-01-01

18

Differences in evolutionary pressure acting within highly conserved ortholog groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In highly conserved widely distributed ortholog groups, the main evolutionary force is assumed to be purifying selection that enforces sequence conservation, with most divergence occurring by accumulation of neutral substitutions. Using a set of ortholog groups from prokaryotes, with a single representative in each studied organism, we asked the question if this evolutionary pressure is acting similarly on different

Teresa M Przytycka; Raja Jothi; L Aravind; David J Lipman

2008-01-01

19

Secreted Metalloprotease Gene Family of Microsporum canis  

PubMed Central

Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12228297

Brouta, Frederic; Descamps, Frederic; Monod, Michel; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

2002-01-01

20

Evolutionary constraints on structural similarity in orthologs and paralogs  

PubMed Central

Although a quantitative relationship between sequence similarity and structural similarity has long been established, little is known about the impact of orthology on the relationship between protein sequence and structure. Among homologs, orthologs (derived by speciation) more frequently have similar functions than paralogs (derived by duplication). Here, we hypothesize that an orthologous pair will tend to exhibit greater structural similarity than a paralogous pair at the same level of sequence similarity. To test this hypothesis, we used 284,459 pairwise structure-based alignments of 12,634 unique domains from SCOP as well as orthology and paralogy assignments from OrthoMCL DB. We divided the comparisons by sequence identity and determined whether the sequence-structure relationship differed between the orthologs and paralogs. We found that at levels of sequence identity between 30 and 70%, orthologous domain pairs indeed tend to be significantly more structurally similar than paralogous pairs at the same level of sequence identity. An even larger difference is found when comparing ligand binding residues instead of whole domains. These differences between orthologs and paralogs are expected to be useful for selecting template structures in comparative modeling and target proteins in structural genomics. PMID:19472362

Peterson, Mark E; Chen, Feng; Saven, Jeffery G; Roos, David S; Babbitt, Patricia C; Sali, Andrej

2009-01-01

21

The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts. PMID:18682828

Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

2008-01-01

22

Genome annotation of five Mycoplasma canis strains.  

PubMed

To understand its potential to cause invasive disease, the genome of Mycoplasma canis strain PG14(T) from a dog's throat was compared to those of isolates from the genital tract or brain of dogs. The average nucleotide identity between strain pairs is 98%, and their genome annotations are similar. PMID:22815452

Brown, D R; May, M; Michaels, D L; Barbet, A F

2012-08-01

23

Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

Mech, L. D.; Tracy, S.

2004-01-01

24

Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

Mech, L. D.; Tracy, S.

2004-01-01

25

Coyotes ( Canis latrans) and the matching law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them

Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton; Timothy A. Shahan; John A. Shivik

2009-01-01

26

Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy. PMID:11413924

Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L

2001-05-01

27

Berkeley PHOG: PhyloFacts orthology group prediction web server.  

PubMed

Ortholog detection is essential in functional annotation of genomes, with applications to phylogenetic tree construction, prediction of protein-protein interaction and other bioinformatics tasks. We present here the PHOG web server employing a novel algorithm to identify orthologs based on phylogenetic analysis. Results on a benchmark dataset from the TreeFam-A manually curated orthology database show that PHOG provides a combination of high recall and precision competitive with both InParanoid and OrthoMCL, and allows users to target different taxonomic distances and precision levels through the use of tree-distance thresholds. For instance, OrthoMCL-DB achieved 76% recall and 66% precision on this dataset; at a slightly higher precision (68%) PHOG achieves 10% higher recall (86%). InParanoid achieved 87% recall at 24% precision on this dataset, while a PHOG variant designed for high recall achieves 88% recall at 61% precision, increasing precision by 37% over InParanoid. PHOG is based on pre-computed trees in the PhyloFacts resource, and contains over 366 K orthology groups with a minimum of three species. Predicted orthologs are linked to GO annotations, pathway information and biological literature. The PHOG web server is available at http://phylofacts.berkeley.edu/orthologs/. PMID:19435885

Datta, Ruchira S; Meacham, Christopher; Samad, Bushra; Neyer, Christoph; Sjlander, Kimmen

2009-07-01

28

Positional orthology: putting genomic evolutionary relationships into context  

PubMed Central

Orthology is a powerful refinement of homology that allows us to describe more precisely the evolution of genomes and understand the function of the genes they contain. However, because orthology is not concerned with genomic position, it is limited in its ability to describe genes that are likely to have equivalent roles in different genomes. Because of this limitation, the concept of positional orthology has emerged, which describes the relation between orthologous genes that retain their ancestral genomic positions. In this review, we formally define this concept, for which we introduce the shorter term toporthology, with respect to the evolutionary events experienced by a genes ancestors. Through a discussion of recent studies on the role of genomic context in gene evolution, we show that the distinction between orthology and toporthology is biologically significant. We then review a number of orthology prediction methods that take genomic context into account and thus that may be used to infer the important relation of toporthology. PMID:21705766

2011-01-01

29

Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological study of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 500 canine blood samples were collected from veterinary clinics and dog shelters. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using genus-specific primers followed by PCR using E. canis species-specific primers. Ten out of 500 dogs were positive for E. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of the E. canis Malaysia strain showed that it was grouped tightly with other E. canis strains from different geographic regions. The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of genetically confirmed E. canis with a prevalence rate of 2.0% in naturally infected dogs in Malaysia. PMID:23301114

Nazari, Mojgan; Lim, Sue Yee; Watanabe, Mahira; Sharma, Reuben S. K.; Cheng, Nadzariah A. B. Y.; Watanabe, Malaika

2013-01-01

30

Analyses of Ehrlichia canis and a canine granulocytic Ehrlichia infection.  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia canis and canine granulocytic Ehrlichia sp. (CGE) infect canine monocytes and granulocytes, respectively. E. canis has been cultured in vitro and used to develop an immunofluorescence assay. CGE has not been cultured, and a serologic assay is not available. The sera of dogs infected with CGE were reported to react with E. canis by immunofluorescence. In this study, the temporal response of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with purified E. canis antigen in four dogs experimentally infected with E. canis, in two dogs experimentally infected with CGE, and in one dog infected with E. canis and subsequently infected with CGE. E. canis-infected dogs developed an IgG ELISA result of 1.5 or greater for the optical density signal/noise ratio by 2 months postinfection. CGE challenge of a dog with a previous E. canis infection induced an anamnestic increase in the IgG ELISA result; however, CGE infection alone did not induce a significant IgG ELISA response. Western immunoblot analysis showed that dogs infected with E. canis developed antibodies initially that reacted with low-molecular-mass proteins (30, 24, and 21 kDa) and subsequently with higher-molecular-mass proteins (160, 100, 78, 64, 47, and 40 kDa). In contrast, CGE-infected dogs showed reactions with the same higher-molecular-mass proteins of E. canis but, unlike E. canis-infected dogs, not with the low-molecular-mass proteins of E. canis. Of 10 serum samples collected in the field of Indonesia from dogs with tropical canine pancytopenia, all had an optical density signal minus noise value of 2.54 or greater in the IgG ELISA and reacted with E. canis antigen in a pattern similar to that of serum samples from dogs experimentally infected with E. canis in Western immunoblotting. This study suggests that the IgG ELISA and Western immunoblotting with purified E. canis as the antigen are useful in distinguishing between E. canis and CGE infections in dogs. Images PMID:1734046

Rikihisa, Y; Ewing, S A; Fox, J C; Siregar, A G; Pasaribu, F H; Malole, M B

1992-01-01

31

OrthoDB: the hierarchical catalog of eukaryotic orthologs.  

PubMed

The concept of orthology is widely used to relate genes across different species using comparative genomics, and it provides the basis for inferring gene function. Here we present the web accessible OrthoDB database that catalogs groups of orthologous genes in a hierarchical manner, at each radiation of the species phylogeny, from more general groups to more fine-grained delineations between closely related species. We used a COG-like and Inparanoid-like ortholog delineation procedure on the basis of all-against-all Smith-Waterman sequence comparisons to analyze 58 eukaryotic genomes, focusing on vertebrates, insects and fungi to facilitate further comparative studies. The database is freely available at http://cegg.unige.ch/orthodb. PMID:17947323

Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Rahman, Nazim; Espinosa, Octavio; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

2008-01-01

32

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virnyi, Zsfia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

33

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Webers law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves quantity discrimination conforms to Webers law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Viranyi, Zsofia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

34

Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

PubMed Central

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

2014-01-01

35

Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

2014-02-01

36

Quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits. Results To consistently quantify losses of orthologous groups of genes, we compared the gene repertoires of five vertebrates and five insects, including honeybee and Tribolium beetle, that represent insect orders outside the previously sequenced Diptera. We found hundreds of lost Urbilateria genes in each of the lineages and assessed their phylogenetic origin. The rate of losses correlates well with the species' rates of molecular evolution and radiation times, without distinction between insects and vertebrates, indicating their stochastic nature. Remarkably, this extends to the universal single-copy orthologs, losses of dozens of which have been tolerated in each species. Nevertheless, the propensity for loss differs substantially among genes, where roughly 20% of the orthologs have an 8-fold higher chance of becoming extinct. Extrapolation of our data also suggests that the Urbilateria genome contained more than 7,000 genes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the seemingly higher number of observed gene losses in insects can be explained by their two- to three-fold higher evolutionary rate. Despite the profound effect of many losses on cellular machinery, overall, they seem to be guided by neutral evolution. PMID:18021399

Wyder, Stefan; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Schroder, Reinhard; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

2007-01-01

37

A Study of Epsilon Canis Majoris (B2II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to obtain high quality LETG observations of the B giant Epsilon Canis Majoris (B2II). These observations will be analyzed together with available optical, IUE, EUVE, and XMM data. Epsilon Canis Majoris is one of only two early-type stars detected in the EUV (lambda < 900Ang) with the NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite, and is the main photoionization

John Hillier

2005-01-01

38

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF MESOCESTOIDES SPP. (CESTODA: MESOCESTOIDIDAE) FROM DOMESTIC DOGS ( CANIS FAMILIARIS ) AND COYOTES ( CANIS LATRANS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n 5 10), as well as

Paul R. Crosbie; Steven A. Nadler; Edward G. Platzer; Cynthia Kerner; J. Mariaux; Walter M. Boyce

2000-01-01

39

ZZ Canis Minoris as a symbiotic star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-aplha and Na I D-line regions of the M6 giant star ZZ Canis Minoris (ZZ CMi) were observed with the Kitt Peak coude feed telescope and a CCD detector. It is shown that ZZ CMi has similar spectroscopic and photoproperties to the symbiotic star EG And. The data are used to argue for the classification of ZZ CMi as a symbiotic star despite its current listing in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) as a semi-regular variable. The infrared magnitudes of ZZ CMi and the known symbiotic stars are compared in a table.

Bopp, B. W.

1984-11-01

40

Large-Scale Orthology Predictions for Inferring Gene Functions Across Multiple Species  

E-print Network

has helped the understanding of human genes and their mutations associated with cancer by studying-all gene comparisons for every pair of genes, 2) pair-wise orthology predictions for every two genomes, and 3) the generation of orthologous clusters that contain orthologous genes across multiple genomes. We

41

The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

Nowak R. M.; Federoff, N. E.

2002-01-01

42

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 715, pp. 19, 3 figs. Canis mesomelas. By Lyle R. Walton and Damien O. Joly  

E-print Network

of Mammalogists, taken by J. G. Hall, 1973. Canis Linnaeus, 1758 Canis Linnaeus, 1758:38. Type species Canis familiaris ( Canis lupus Linnaeus). Thos Oken, 1816:1037. Type species Thos vulgaris ( Canis au- reus Linnaeus). Not available according to Opinion 417, In- ternational Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

Hayssen, Virginia

43

The Jackson Laboratory: Mouse Genome Informatics - Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Jackson Laboratory as part of Mouse Genome Informatics, this website features Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps. At this site, searches can be made in the area of Mammalian Orthology by species, gene symbol, name, or map position. Site visitors can also build comparative maps, retrieve an Oxford Grid to display a two-species orthology comparison, and view orthologies between mouse and human or mouse and rat at the whole genome level. The site links to Gene Family Information, MGI Mammalian Orthology Criteria, and MGI Database Reports as well.

44

A meta-approach for improving the prediction and the functional annotation of ortholog groups  

PubMed Central

Background In comparative genomics, orthologs are used to transfer annotation from genes already characterized to newly sequenced genomes. Many methods have been developed for finding orthologs in sets of genomes. However, the application of different methods on the same proteome set can lead to distinct orthology predictions. Methods We developed a method based on a meta-approach that is able to combine the results of several methods for orthologous group prediction. The purpose of this method is to produce better quality results by using the overlapping results obtained from several individual orthologous gene prediction procedures. Our method proceeds in two steps. The first aims to construct seeds for groups of orthologous genes; these seeds correspond to the exact overlaps between the results of all or several methods. In the second step, these seed groups are expanded by using HMM profiles. Results We evaluated our method on two standard reference benchmarks, OrthoBench and Orthology Benchmark Service. Our method presents a higher level of accurately predicted groups than the individual input methods of orthologous group prediction. Moreover, our method increases the number of annotated orthologous pairs without decreasing the annotation quality compared to twelve state-of-the-art methods. Conclusions The meta-approach based method appears to be a reliable procedure for predicting orthologous groups. Since a large number of methods for predicting groups of orthologous genes exist, it is quite conceivable to apply this meta-approach to several combinations of different methods.

2014-01-01

45

Brucella canis Isolates from Canadian Dogs  

PubMed Central

Eleven Brucella canis isolates from Canadian dogs were characterized by dye and antibiotic sensitivity, phage susceptibility, urease and H2S production, CO2 requirement, and reaction with monospecific A,M, and R anti-Brucella antiserum. The isolates could be separated into two distinct groups. One group had a sensitivity pattern similar to that seen with the American type strain RM666, while the other group had a pattern identical to that of a Mexican strain, Mex 51. Epidemiological studies supported contraction of infections in the United States and Mexico respectively. The characteristics of all isolates were stable after repeated subculture indicating that strain differences could serve as useful epidemiological markers and supporting division of the species into two biovars. PMID:17422968

Forbes, Lorry B.; Pantekoek, James F.

1988-01-01

46

Mass loss from UW Canis Majoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present analysis is an application of the theory described by Lucy (1971) for the calculation of P Cygni resonance line profiles formed by isotropic and coherent scattering in spherically symmetric expanding circumstellar envelopes. Copernicus satellite measurements of resonance features in the FUV spectrum of the O 7 supergiant UW Canis Majoris (= HD 57060) are compared with theoretical P Cygni profiles. Grids of line profiles are computed using four free parameters which contain information about the velocity law, ionization equilibrium, temperature, and envelope density. Thus, with the assumption of a spherically symmetric steady flow, and of solar element abundances, the stellar mass loss rate and the electron temperature of the expanding shell can be derived. The mass flow is treated in a fully transonic way, i.e., the Sobolev approximation is applied.

Drechsel, H.; Rahe, J.; Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.

1980-01-01

47

First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

David, Mech, L.; Kurtz, H. J.

1999-01-01

48

Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1993-01-01

49

Experimental infection of Hepatozoon canis in the dog  

E-print Network

an irregular fever, mild anemia and an elevated leukocyte count. ' ' ' This may be the most reliable sign, with counts often 1, 8, 14, 15 exceeding 35, 000/um. These conditions may be accompanied with, or 3 followed by chronic wasting.... ' ' Clinlca1 signs of an infection with H canis range from benign (or subacut to acute) to fatal. The symptoms described for H canis include intermittant f ver, anemia, lethargy, anorexia, hepato- spleenomegaly, hypoglycemia, diarrhea, elevated leukocyte...

Nordgren, Robert Martin

2012-06-07

50

Babesia canis rossi infection in a Texas dog.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old intact male Boerboel dog, imported from South Africa 1 week previously, was presented to a Texas veterinarian for lethargy, anorexia, and labored breathing. The dog was febrile, anemic, leukopenic, thrombocytopenic, and slightly azotemic. Results of the IDEXX SNAP-4Dx enzyme immunoassay were negative for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. An EDTA blood sample analyzed at Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences revealed nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and large protozoal piroplasms in 0.7% of the RBCs. Piroplasms were 2-5?m long and varied in shape from round to oval to piriform; extracellular merozoites were also observed. Nested PCR was performed on DNA extracted from blood using primers that amplify the 18s rRNA gene from all known Babesia species, and the product was sequenced. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of the 437 base sequence revealed 99-100% similarity to Babesia canis rossi, 92-93% similarity to Babesia canis canis, and 92% similarity to Babesia canis vogeli. The dog responded well to treatment with imidocarb. PCR analysis of a second blood sample 2 weeks later was negative for Babesia spp. DNA. This case represents the first diagnosis of B. canis rossi infection in the United States. PMID:21790699

Allison, Robin W; Yeagley, Todd J; Levis, Kristina; Reichard, Mason V

2011-09-01

51

Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. The study was conducted on two groups of dogs-healthy dogs and dogs infected with B. canis canis which demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS technique revealed the presence of a protein fraction of 51-52kDa in the blood serum of all the animals infected with the protozoa, which was not found in the serum of healthy dogs. The proteins are suspected to be disease markers, whereas the MALDI-TOF technique itself has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis. PMID:25238794

Adaszek, Lukasz; Banach, Tomasz; Bartnicki, Micha?; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Lyp, Pawe?; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2014-11-01

52

Automatic clustering of orthologs and in-paralogs from pairwise species comparisons.  

PubMed

Orthologs are genes in different species that originate from a single gene in the last common ancestor of these species. Such genes have often retained identical biological roles in the present-day organisms. It is hence important to identify orthologs for transferring functional information between genes in different organisms with a high degree of reliability. For example, orthologs of human proteins are often functionally characterized in model organisms. Unfortunately, orthology analysis between human and e.g. invertebrates is often complex because of large numbers of paralogs within protein families. Paralogs that predate the species split, which we call out-paralogs, can easily be confused with true orthologs. Paralogs that arose after the species split, which we call in-paralogs, however, are bona fide orthologs by definition. Orthologs and in-paralogs are typically detected with phylogenetic methods, but these are slow and difficult to automate. Automatic clustering methods based on two-way best genome-wide matches on the other hand, have so far not separated in-paralogs from out-paralogs effectively. We present a fully automatic method for finding orthologs and in-paralogs from two species. Ortholog clusters are seeded with a two-way best pairwise match, after which an algorithm for adding in-paralogs is applied. The method bypasses multiple alignments and phylogenetic trees, which can be slow and error-prone steps in classical ortholog detection. Still, it robustly detects complex orthologous relationships and assigns confidence values for both orthologs and in-paralogs. The program, called INPARANOID, was tested on all completely sequenced eukaryotic genomes. To assess the quality of INPARANOID results, ortholog clusters were generated from a dataset of worm and mammalian transmembrane proteins, and were compared to clusters derived by manual tree-based ortholog detection methods. This study led to the identification with a high degree of confidence of over a dozen novel worm-mammalian ortholog assignments that were previously undetected because of shortcomings of phylogenetic methods.A WWW server that allows searching for orthologs between human and several fully sequenced genomes is installed at http://www.cgb.ki.se/inparanoid/. This is the first comprehensive resource with orthologs of all fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Programs and tables of orthology assignments are available from the same location. PMID:11743721

Remm, M; Storm, C E; Sonnhammer, E L

2001-12-14

53

[Orthologs of arabidopsis CLAVATA 1 gene in cultivated Brassicaceae plants].  

PubMed

In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica napus), and also three CLV1 fragments from rape (B. rapa), canola (B. napus), and false flax (Camelina sativa), which corresponded to the transmembrane domain and a part of the kinase domain of the CLAVATA1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the full-size CLV1 ortholog from B. napus were similar by 81 and 87% to the prototype gene from arabidopsis; in the case of shorter gene fragments, the similarity was as high as 91-93 and 98%, respectively. By their primary structure, the CLV1 genes in the Brassicaceae considerably differ from its putative structural homologs beyond this family. PMID:15027212

Martynov, V V; Tsvetkov, I L; Khavkin, E E

2004-01-01

54

Roundup: a multi-genome repository of orthologs and evolutionary distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: We have created a tool for ortholog and phylogenetic profile retrieval called Roundup. Roundup is backed by a massive repository of orthologs and associated evolutionary distances that was built using the reciprocalsmallest distance algorithm,an approach thathasbeenshowntoimproveuponalternativeapproachesofortholog detection, such as reciprocal blast. Presently, the Roundup repository contains all possible pair-wise comparisons for over 250 genomes, including32Eukaryotes,morethandoublingthecoverageofanysimilar resource. The orthologs are

Todd F. Deluca; I-hsien Wu; Jian Pu; Thomas Monaghan; Leonid Peshkin; Saurav Singh; Dennis P. Wall

2006-01-01

55

eggNOG: automated construction and annotation of orthologous groups of genes.  

PubMed

The identification of orthologous genes forms the basis for most comparative genomics studies. Existing approaches either lack functional annotation of the identified orthologous groups, hampering the interpretation of subsequent results, or are manually annotated and thus lag behind the rapid sequencing of new genomes. Here we present the eggNOG database ('evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups'), which contains orthologous groups constructed from Smith-Waterman alignments through identification of reciprocal best matches and triangular linkage clustering. Applying this procedure to 312 bacterial, 26 archaeal and 35 eukaryotic genomes yielded 43 582 course-grained orthologous groups of which 9724 are extended versions of those from the original COG/KOG database. We also constructed more fine-grained groups for selected subsets of organisms, such as the 19 914 mammalian orthologous groups. We automatically annotated our non-supervised orthologous groups with functional descriptions, which were derived by identifying common denominators for the genes based on their individual textual descriptions, annotated functional categories, and predicted protein domains. The orthologous groups in eggNOG contain 1 241 751 genes and provide at least a broad functional description for 77% of them. Users can query the resource for individual genes via a web interface or download the complete set of orthologous groups at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:17942413

Jensen, Lars Juhl; Julien, Philippe; Kuhn, Michael; von Mering, Christian; Muller, Jean; Doerks, Tobias; Bork, Peer

2008-01-01

56

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and the matching law.  

PubMed

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them to survive and extend their range in stochastic environments remains unknown. We tested eight wild-born, captive coyotes individually on an operant two-choice test using concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules. We held the overall rate of reinforcement constant but manipulated the ratio of reinforcement available from the two choices. We analyzed sensitivity of coyotes' tracking of resource change by fitting the generalized matching equation to the data. Results showed all coyotes efficiently tracked changes in reinforcement ratios within the first few sessions of each new condition and matched their relative rate of foraging time to relative rate of resources. We suggest the matching paradigm provides a methodology to explore coyote foraging strategies, and a potential framework to compare behavioral flexibility across species, by measuring the ability to track resource change under variable resource conditions. PMID:19555745

Gilbert-Norton, Lynne B; Shahan, Timothy A; Shivik, John A

2009-10-01

57

Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.880.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14+0.11-0.09kpc. This is the most accurate determined distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a previously accepted distance. With our result, we re-estimated the luminosity of VY CMa to be (30.5) 105Lodot using the bolometric flux integrated over optical and IR wavelengths. This improved luminosity value makes the location of VY CMa on the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram much closer to the theoretically allowable zone (i.e. the left side of the Hayashi track) than previous ones, though the uncertainty in the effective temperature of the stellar surface still does not permit us to make a final conclusion.

Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji; Kameya, Osamu; Kamohara, Ryuichi; Kan-Ya, Yukitoshi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Masachika; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kuji, Seisuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Manabe, Seiji; Maruyama, Kenta; Matsui, Makoto; Matsumoto, Naoko; Miyaji, Takeshi; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakamura, Kayoko; Oh, Chung Sik; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sakai, Satoshi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Sato, Katsuhisa; Sato, Mayumi; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tsushima, Miyuki; Yamashita, Kazuyoshi

2008-10-01

58

Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

2012-01-01

59

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the  

E-print Network

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) et leurs proies dans la vallée Curlew, Utah, en comparant l

Bartel, Becky

60

Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of

AHMET UNVER; MIRIAM PEREZ; NELSON ORELLANA; HAIBIN HUANG; YASUKO RIKIHISA; Departmento de Medicina Cirugia

2001-01-01

61

The Other Group G Streptococcus: Increased Detection of Streptococcus canis Ulcer Infections in Dog Owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

-Hemolytic Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus canis cannot be distinguished when only Lancefield typing is performed. Phenotypic testing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified S. canis associated with ulcer infections in dog owners. Because S. canis may be incorrectly identified (published biochemical descriptions are inconsistent), there may be an underestimation of the true number of infections. Identification of

Maggie M. Lam; Jill E. Clarridge; E. J. Young; Sally Mizuki

62

An approach of orthology detection from homologous sequences under minimum evolution  

PubMed Central

In the field of phylogenetics and comparative genomics, it is important to establish orthologous relationships when comparing homologous sequences. Due to the slight sequence dissimilarity between orthologs and paralogs, it is prone to regarding paralogs as orthologs. For this reason, several methods based on evolutionary distance, phylogeny and BLAST have tried to detect orthologs with more precision. Depending on their algorithmic implementations, each of these methods sometimes has increased false negative or false positive rates. Here, we developed a novel algorithm for orthology detection that uses a distance method based on the phylogenetic criterion of minimum evolution. Our algorithm assumes that sets of sequences exhibiting orthologous relationships are evolutionarily less costly than sets that include one or more paralogous relationships. Calculation of evolutionary cost requires the reconstruction of a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, but calculations are unaffected by the topology of any given NJ tree. Unlike tree reconciliation, our algorithm appears free from the problem of incorrect topologies of species and gene trees. The reliability of the algorithm was tested in a comparative analysis with two other orthology detection methods using 95 manually curated KOG datasets and 21 experimentally verified EXProt datasets. Sensitivity and specificity estimates indicate that the concept of minimum evolution could be valuable for the detection of orthologs. PMID:18676448

Kim, Kyung Mo; Sung, Samsun; Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo; Han, Jae Yong; Kim, Heebal

2008-01-01

63

Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Orthology, Paralogy, and Conserved Synteny for Dog and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships are necessary to infer human molecular function from experiments in model organisms. Previous genome-scale approaches to predicting these relationships have been limited by their use of protein similarity and their failure to take into account multiple splicing events and gene prediction errors. We have developed PhyOP, a new phylogenetic orthology prediction pipeline based

Leo Goodstadt; Chris P. Ponting

2006-01-01

64

Identification of serum biomarkers in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis using a proteomic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. There are limited data on serum proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the serum proteome. The aim of this study was to identify the potential serum biomarkers of babesiosis using proteomic techniques in order to increase our understanding about disease pathogenesis. Results Serum samples were collected from 25 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis caused by B. canis canis. Blood was collected on the day of admission (day 0), and subsequently on the 1st and 6th day of treatment. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum samples of dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis (day 0, day 1 and day 6) and healthy dogs were run in triplicate. 2DE image analysis showed 64 differentially expressed spots with p???0.05 and 49 spots with fold change ?2. Six selected spots were excised manually and subjected to trypsin digest prior to identification by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry on an Amazon ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass spectrometry data was processed using Data Analysis software and the automated Matrix Science Mascot Daemon server. Protein identifications were assigned using the Mascot search engine to interrogate protein sequences in the NCBI Genbank database. A number of differentially expressed serum proteins involved in inflammation mediated acute phase response, complement and coagulation cascades, apolipoproteins and vitamin D metabolism pathway were identified in dogs with babesiosis. Conclusions Our findings confirmed two dominant pathogenic mechanisms of babesiosis, haemolysis and acute phase response. These results may provide possible serum biomarker candidates for clinical monitoring of babesiosis and this study could serve as the basis for further proteomic investigations in canine babesiosis. PMID:24885808

2014-01-01

65

An orthology-based analysis of pathogenic protozoa impacting global health: an improved comparative genomics approach with prokaryotes and model eukaryote orthologs.  

PubMed

A key focus in 21(st) century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

Cuadrat, Rafael R C; da Serra Cruz, Srgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antnio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Juc, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M; Mattoso, Marta; Dvila, Alberto M R

2014-08-01

66

An Orthology-Based Analysis of Pathogenic Protozoa Impacting Global Health: An Improved Comparative Genomics Approach with Prokaryotes and Model Eukaryote Orthologs  

PubMed Central

Abstract A key focus in 21st century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; da Serra Cruz, Sergio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Juca, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Mattoso, Marta

2014-01-01

67

Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2009-01-01

68

EXPERIMENTAL SALMON POISONING DISEASE IN JUVENILE COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon poisoning disease (SPD) was experimentally induced in juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans). The disease was lethal in 11 of 12 coyotes within 15 days after inoculation with 1,000 or 4,000 metacercariae of Nanophyetus salmincola. Clinical manifestations of the disease included lymph node enlargement, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea and death. Coccoid bodies indistinguishable from rickettsiae were observed in macrophages of spleen, liver,

WILLIAM J. FOREYT; J. R. GORHAM

69

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

70

REPRODUCTION AND BODY CONDITION OF CALIFORNIA COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population dynamics and life-history evolution depend heavily on fecundity, which, in the coyote (Canis latrans), can vary substantially according to environmental conditions. Although well studied in the central part of its range, little is known about coyote reproduction in the Mediterranean climates associated with Pacific- coastal North America. I used postmortem examinations of 441 coyotes collected throughout central California to

Benjamin N. Sacks

2005-01-01

71

Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae) has previously been shown to be a potential healthy carrier of dermatophyte fungi both geophilic (Microsporum gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes). In this communication, the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a symptomatic dermatophyte infection in S. floridanus is described.

P. Tizzani; M. G. Gallo; A. Peano; A. Molinar Min; C. Martnez-Carrasco Pleite; P. G. Meneguz

2007-01-01

72

The ultraviolet spectrum of beta Canis Majoris stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet spectra of 15 beta Canis Majoris stars in wavelength bands of approximately 100 A around 2100, 2500, and 2800 A (resolution 1.8 A), obtained with the Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrophotometer S 59 on board the ESRO TD-1A satellite are discussed. In general the spectra are similar to those of 'normal' stars, only the star alpha Vir has He I, C

M. Burger; C. de Jager; T. M. Kamperman; L. Neven

1980-01-01

73

Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon

J. V. Vallerga; B. Y. Welsh

1995-01-01

74

Holistic view on the extended substrate specificities of orthologous granzymes.  

PubMed

As proteases sculpt the proteome in both homeostatic and pathogenic processes, unraveling their primary signaling pathways and key substrates is of utmost importance. Hence, with the development of procedures enriching for proteolysis-indicative peptides and the availability of more sensitive mass spectrometers, protease degradomics technologies are ideally suited to gain insight into a protease's substrate repertoire and substrate-specificity profile. Especially, knowledge on discriminating sequence features among closely related homologues and orthologues may aid in identifying key targets and developing protease-specific inhibitors. Although clever labeling strategies allow one to compare the substrate repertoires and critical protease-substrate recognition motifs of several proteases in a single analysis, comprehensive views of (differences in) substrate subsite occupancies of entire protease families is lacking. Therefore, we here describe a hierarchical cluster analysis of the positional proteomics determined cleavage sites of a family of serine proteases: the granzymes. We and others previously assigned clear murine orthologues for all 5 human granzymes. As such, hierarchical clustering of the sequences surrounding granzyme cleavage sites reveals detailed insight into granzyme-specific differences in substrate selection and thereby deorphanizes the substrate specificity profiles and repertoires of the human and murine orthologous granzymes A, B, H/C, M, and K. PMID:24555507

Plasman, Kim; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gevaert, Kris; Van Damme, Petra

2014-04-01

75

Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondnia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from So Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:24209494

Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, Joo Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2013-12-01

76

OrthoDB: a hierarchical catalog of animal, fungal and bacterial orthologs  

PubMed Central

The concept of orthology provides a foundation for formulating hypotheses on gene and genome evolution, and thus forms the cornerstone of comparative genomics, phylogenomics and metagenomics. We present the update of OrthoDBthe hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org). From its conception, OrthoDB promoted delineation of orthologs at varying resolution by explicitly referring to the hierarchy of species radiations, now also adopted by other resources. The current release provides comprehensive coverage of animals and fungi representing 252 eukaryotic species, and is now extended to prokaryotes with the inclusion of 1115 bacteria. Functional annotations of orthologous groups are provided through mapping to InterPro, GO, OMIM and model organism phenotypes, with cross-references to major resources including UniProt, NCBI and FlyBase. Uniquely, OrthoDB provides computed evolutionary traits of orthologs, such as gene duplicability and loss profiles, divergence rates, sibling groups, and now extended with exonintron architectures, syntenic orthologs and parentchild trees. The interactive web interface allows navigation along the species phylogenies, complex queries with various identifiers, annotation keywords and phrases, as well as with gene copy-number profiles and sequence homology searches. With the explosive growth of available data, OrthoDB also provides mapping of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes to the current orthologous groups. PMID:23180791

Waterhouse, Robert M.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

2013-01-01

77

Functional characterization in Caenorhabditis elegans of transmembrane worm-human orthologs  

PubMed Central

Background The complete genome sequences for human and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer an opportunity to learn more about human gene function through functional characterization of orthologs in the worm. Based on a previous genome-wide analysis of worm-human orthologous transmembrane proteins, we selected seventeen genes to explore experimentally in C. elegans. These genes were selected on the basis that they all have high confidence candidate human orthologs and that their function is unknown. We first analyzed their phylogeny, membrane topology and domain organization. Then gene functions were studied experimentally in the worm by using RNA interference and transcriptional gfp reporter gene fusions. Results The experiments gave functional insights for twelve of the genes studied. For example, C36B1.12, the worm ortholog of three presenilin-like genes, was almost exclusively expressed in head neurons, suggesting an ancient conserved role important to neuronal function. We propose a new transmembrane topology for the presenilin-like protein family. sft-4, the worm ortholog of surfeit locus gene Surf-4, proved to be an essential gene required for development during the larval stages of the worm. R155.1, whose human ortholog is entirely uncharacterized, was implicated in body size control and other developmental processes. Conclusions By combining bioinformatics and C. elegans experiments on orthologs, we provide functional insights on twelve previously uncharacterized human genes. PMID:15533247

Henricson, Anna; Sonnhammer, Erik LL; Baillie, David L; Gomes, Ana Vaz

2004-01-01

78

Excavation of Pid3 Orthologs with Differential Resistance Spectra to Magnaporthe oryzae in Rice Resource  

PubMed Central

Twenty-six orthologs of the rice blast resistance gene Pid3 from cultivated varieties and wild rice accessions distributed in different areas were cloned by allele mining. Sequence analysis showed that while each of the orthologous genes from indica varieties and most wild accessions encodes a complete NBS-LRR protein, each of the proteins encoded by those from japonica varieties and few wild rice accessions presents a premature termination. Eleven of the 26 orthologs were selected for blast resistance testing by transforming into the blast susceptible rice variety TP309, respectively. Inoculation of 23 M. oryzae strains collected from diverse regions of China to the respective transgenic plants revealed that 6 Pid3 orthologs showed susceptible to all the tested strains, while the other 5 orthologs showed differential resistance spectra in a gradually spectrum-widen order as Pid3-W3, Pid3-W4, Pid3-I3, Pid3-W5 and Pid3-I1. Amino acid sequences alignment of these orthologs indicated that the sequence diversities between the blast resistance orthologs were mostly located in the LRR domain such as the substitutions of Q694H,D856H,Q896R,D899E etc. However, the differences between the resistance orthologs and the susceptible ones were mostly located in the NBS domain. The present experiments provide an example of that the ortholog evaluation of plant R genes could be an efficient way to expand the rice blast resistance and some other plant disease resistance as well for breeding. PMID:24681716

Shang, Junjun; Pang, Zhiqian; Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Guanghuai; Tao, Yong; Xu, Qian; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xianfeng; Li, Shigui; Xu, Jichen; Zhu, Lihuang

2014-01-01

79

Identification of Novel Human Damage Response Proteins Targeted through Yeast Orthology  

E-print Network

Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for ...

Svensson, J. Peter

80

SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes  

SciTech Connect

At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

2013-10-15

81

InParanoid 7: new algorithms and tools for eukaryotic orthology analysis  

E-print Network

. Sonnhammer Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm Bioinformatics Centre, AlbaNova University been improved and the site now sports a new, clearer look. As the number of ortholog databases has

Nieselt, Kay

82

SPOCS: software for predicting and visualizing orthology/paralogy relationships among genomes  

PubMed Central

Summary: At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. Availability and Implementation: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required. Contact: leeann.mccue@pnnl.gov PMID:23956303

Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

2013-01-01

83

Strategies for Structural Proteomics of Prokaryotes: Quantifying the Advantages of Studying Orthologous  

E-print Network

: (1) The inclusion of even a single ortholog of a target protein increases the number of samples computational approaches.16 One of the most significant challenges facing experimen- tally based functional

Gerstein, Mark

84

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Vchov, Bronislava; Miterpkov, Martina; Igldyov, Adriana

2014-06-16

85

InParanoid 7: new algorithms and tools for eukaryotic orthology analysis  

PubMed Central

The InParanoid project gathers proteomes of completely sequenced eukaryotic species plus Escherichia coli and calculates pairwise ortholog relationships among them. The new release 7.0 of the database has grown by an order of magnitude over the previous version and now includes 100 species and their collective 1.3 million proteins organized into 42.7 million pairwise ortholog groups. The InParanoid algorithm itself has been revised and is now both more specific and sensitive. Based on results from our recent benchmarking of low-complexity filters in homology assignment, a two-pass BLAST approach was developed that makes use of high-precision compositional score matrix adjustment, but avoids the alignment truncation that sometimes follows. We have also updated the InParanoid web site (http://InParanoid.sbc.su.se). Several features have been added, the response times have been improved and the site now sports a new, clearer look. As the number of ortholog databases has grown, it has become difficult to compare among these resources due to a lack of standardized source data and incompatible representations of ortholog relationships. To facilitate data exchange and comparisons among ortholog databases, we have developed and are making available two XML schemas: SeqXML for the input sequences and OrthoXML for the output ortholog clusters. PMID:19892828

Ostlund, Gabriel; Schmitt, Thomas; Forslund, Kristoffer; Kostler, Tina; Messina, David N.; Roopra, Sanjit; Frings, Oliver; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.

2010-01-01

86

Microsporum canis scalp ringworm: its primary or secondary ectothrix character.  

PubMed

This study supports the view that, in cases of tinea capitis due to a Microsporum canis infection, ectothrix arthroconidium formation is extrapilary and arises from intrapilary hyphae. The hyphae of M. canis perforate and digest the hair cuticle to alter its appearance from a normally identifiable structure of imbricated cells with a distal free border, to a grossly altered and pathological layer. Conidium production mainly takes place outside the hair shaft and forms thick clusters between the cuticular tiles. Finally, a shaft of conidia is formed around the hair. The cuticular covering of such a conidium sheath belongs to the root sheath of the hair follicle, and not to the hair structure proper. PMID:8108682

Vismer, H F

1993-06-01

87

Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

Trout, James M; Santn, Mnica; Fayer, Ronald

2006-06-01

88

A Study of Epsilon Canis Majoris (B2II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain high quality LETG observations of the B giant Epsilon Canis Majoris (B2II). These observations will be analyzed together with available optical, IUE, EUVE, and XMM data. Epsilon Canis Majoris is one of only two early-type stars detected in the EUV (lambda < 900Ang) with the NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite, and is the main photoionization source within the solar neighborhood. With high quality Chandra X-ray spectra we will have a complete spectrum, from X-ray to IR wavelengths, that can be analyzed self- consistently. This will allow tight constraints to be placed on the star, its wind, and the X-ray emitting plasma.

Hillier, John

2005-09-01

89

Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

Mech, L. D.; Phillips, M. K.; Smith, D. W.; Kreeger, T. J.

1996-01-01

90

The tryptic peptides of coyote ( Canis latrans ) hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tryptic peptides from a- and -chains of coyote (Canis latrans) hemoglobin have been isolated and their amino acid compositions determined. The compositions are identical to those previously found for dog hemoglobin in all respects except one: the aT-13 peptide of coyote has only threonine at residue 130 of the chain. This indicates only one a-chain in coyote instead of

Douglas Runkel; S. L. Dresler; B. Brimhall; R. T. Jones

1974-01-01

91

A pathogenetic study of the thrombocytopenia caused by Ehrlichia canis in beagles  

E-print Network

reservoirs of E. canis in some areas of the world where the disease exists naturally. In the United States the coyote (Canis latrans frustrar), IS the red fox (Vulpes fulva)S and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)2 were shown to be susceptible... reservoirs of E. canis in some areas of the world where the disease exists naturally. In the United States the coyote (Canis latrans frustrar), IS the red fox (Vulpes fulva)S and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)2 were shown to be susceptible...

Marrs, Glen Edward

2012-06-07

92

[Molecular identification of Ehrlichia canis in a dog from Arica, Chile].  

PubMed

We report a molecular confirmed case of canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. A 10-year old female crossbred Siberian from the city of Arica, which was infested by ticks, presented hemorrhagic manifestations (hematomas and snout bleeding) and prostration. Blood cell count revealed thrombocytopenia (30,000 platelets/ mm). Immunochromatographic rapid testing for E. canis IgG was positive. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gen from a blood sample showed 100% homology with E. canis from Per. This is the first report of E. canis in Chile, an agent with known zoonotic potential. PMID:23282495

Lpez, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Mundaca, M Isabel; Caballero, Carla; Valiente-Echeverra, Fernando

2012-10-01

93

Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. PMID:24635009

Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

2014-08-01

94

A Phylogeny-Based Benchmarking Test for Orthology Inference Reveals the Limitations of Function-Based Validation  

PubMed Central

Accurate orthology prediction is crucial for many applications in the post-genomic era. The lack of broadly accepted benchmark tests precludes a comprehensive analysis of orthology inference. So far, functional annotation between orthologs serves as a performance proxy. However, this violates the fundamental principle of orthology as an evolutionary definition, while it is often not applicable due to limited experimental evidence for most species. Therefore, we constructed high quality "gold standard" orthologous groups that can serve as a benchmark set for orthology inference in bacterial species. Herein, we used this dataset to demonstrate 1) why a manually curated, phylogeny-based dataset is more appropriate for benchmarking orthology than other popular practices and 2) how it guides database design and parameterization through careful error quantification. More specifically, we illustrate how function-based tests often fail to identify false assignments, misjudging the true performance of orthology inference methods. We also examined how our dataset can instruct the selection of a core species repertoire to improve detection accuracy. We conclude that including more genomes at the proper evolutionary distances can influence the overall quality of orthology detection. The curated gene families, called Reference Orthologous Groups, are publicly available at http://eggnog.embl.de/orthobench2. PMID:25369365

Larsson, Tomas; Powell, Sean; Doerks, Tobias; von Mering, Christian

2014-01-01

95

Orthologous transcription factors in bacteria have differentfunctions and regulate different genes  

SciTech Connect

Transcription factors (TFs) form large paralogous genefamilies and have complex evolutionary histories. Here, we ask whetherputative orthologs of TFs, from bidirectional best BLAST hits (BBHs), areevolutionary orthologs with conserved functions. We show that BBHs of TFsfrom distantly related bacteria are usually not evolutionary orthologs.Furthermore, the false orthologs usually respond to different signals andregulate distinct pathways, while the few BBHs that are evolutionaryorthologs do have conserved functions. To test the conservation ofregulatory interactions, we analyze expression patterns. We find thatregulatory relationships between TFs and their regulated genes areusually not conserved for BBHs in Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillussubtilis. Even in the much more closely related bacteria Vibrio choleraeand Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, predicting regulation from E. coli BBHshas high error rates. Using gene-regulon correlations, we identify geneswhose expression pattern differs between E. coli and S. oneidensis. Usingliterature searches and sequence analysis, we show that these changes inexpression patterns reflect changes ingene regulation, even forevolutionary orthologs. We conclude that the evolution of bacterialregulation should be analyzed with phylogenetic trees, rather than BBHs,and that bacterial regulatory networks evolve more rapidly thanpreviously thought.

Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

2007-07-25

96

eggNOG v4.0: nested orthology inference across 3686 organisms  

PubMed Central

With the increasing availability of various omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete database of orthologous groups via a web interface, as well as through bulk download. PMID:24297252

Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldon, Toni; Rattei, Thomas; Creevey, Chris; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars J.; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

2014-01-01

97

Diets of coyotes (Canis latrans) have been studied in a variety of habitats over most of their  

E-print Network

Diets of coyotes (Canis latrans) have been studied in a variety of habitats over most coyote (Canis latrans) scats (feces). Remains of 27 foods were identified with eastern cottontails. Proceedings of the North American Prairie Conference 20:255-268 Key words: Canis latrans, cattle, eastern

98

Cross-Infection Between Cats and Cows: Origin and Control of Streptococcus canis Mastitis in a Dairy Herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely

L. L. Tikofsky; R. N. Zadoks

2005-01-01

99

Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani  

E-print Network

Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani i://www-imagis.imag.fr/Membres/Marie-Paule.Cani/ Abstract How can Implicit Surfaces be used in the context of high-end Com- puter Animation ? This paper approach. Their respective advantages and limitations for the definition of animation and morphing

Boyer, Edmond

100

Genic variation in the coyote, Canis latrans, in Tennessee, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein variation, levels of heterozygosity, and interlocality gene variation were studied in the coyote, Canis latrans, using starch gel electrophoresis. Canis latrans were obtained from 27 counties in Tennessee. Eleven of 20 loci examined were found to be polymorphic with the remaining nine loci fixed for the same gene in all populations. Mean heterozygosity (\\\\-H) varied from 0.0% to 1.9%

M. J. Hamilton; M. L. Kennedy

1986-01-01

101

Reproductive biology of the coyote (Canis latrans): integration of mating behavior, reproductive hormones, and vaginal cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of wild Canis species is often described as unique among mammals because an unusual combination of behavioral and physiological characteristics including a seasonally monestrous cycle, copulatory lock or tie, obligatory pseudopregnancy, social monogamy, and biparental care of the young. We investigated social behavior, endocrine profiles, and vaginal cytology of female coyotes (Canis latrans) during 4 breeding seasons,

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2008-01-01

102

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competitionmam_148 265..283  

E-print Network

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competitionmam_148 265 of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA ABSTRACT 1. Dogs Canis familiaris are the world's most common carnivore. Despite these varied roles in the community, the interaction of dogs with sympatric wild carnivore species

Gompper, Matthew E.

103

Simultaneous IUE and VLA observations of YZ Canis Minoris, AD Leonis and Lambda Andromedae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Very Large Array were used to simultaneously observe the dwarf M flare stars YZ Canis Minoris and AD Leonis and the RS CVn star lambda Andromedae. Narrow-band, slowly varying radiation near 20 cm wavelength was detected from YZ Canis Minoris. This radiation cannot be attributed to conventional emission processes, but may be explained by

R. F. Willson; K. R. Lang

1986-01-01

104

Chemical complexity in the winds of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris  

E-print Network

LETTERS Chemical complexity in the winds of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris L. M Canis Majoris (VY CMa). A variety of unexpected chemical com- pounds have been identified, including Na is further modified by interstellar ultraviolet radiation3,4 . Chemical compounds in these shells apparently

Ziurys, Lucy M.

105

Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of epsilon Canis Majoris between 600-920 Angstroms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the spectrum the brightest known extreme ultraviolet source, epsilon Canis Majoris, between 600 and 920 Angstroms. epsilon Canis Majoris (B2 II) was discovered to be the brightest EUV source in the sky during the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey. Subsequent spectroscopic observations found an anomolously low neutral hydrogen column density, allowing for the first time the observation

E. Wilkinson; J. C. Green; R. McLean; B. Welsh

1996-01-01

106

Quaternary records of the dire wolf, Canis dirus, in North and South ROBERT G. DUNDAS  

E-print Network

between the American continents? This and many other fundamental questions about the dire wolf remain the reconstruction of com- plete skeletons. Merriam (1912) provided a detailed description of the Canis dirus. 1946; Nigra & Lance 1947; Stock & Lance 1948). In the late 1950s, Canis dirus remains were first

Wang, Zhi "Luke"

107

Terbinafine hydrochloride treatment of Microsporum canis experimentally-induced ringworm in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats represent the most important source of Microsporum canis infection to people. Terbinafine hydrochloride is commonly used in the treatment of microsporosis. Its fungicidal action permits short period of treatment. It was our objective to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in treatment of microsporosis in cats.We treated nine experimentally M. canis infected cats with terbinafine at a dose of

Tina Kotnik; Nevenka Kouh Eren; Jernej Kuner; Marinka Drobni?-Koorok

2001-01-01

108

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraba?BA state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dogs environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil. PMID:24031770

Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Elide; de Azevedo, Adilio Santos; de Sousa Americo Batista, Carolina; Alves, Clebert Jose

2011-01-01

109

Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of excretorysecretory products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured larvae. However, these appear to be produced once the parasite has entered the mammalian host, as they are recognised by specific antibodies in infected patients. Elucidating the function of these genes, or analysing if micro-RNA translational silencing suppresses production of the proteins, may point towards new drug targets for tissue-phase parasites in humans. PMID:23351972

Maizels, Rick M.

2013-01-01

110

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-10-01

111

Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old spayed female coyote (Canis latrans) was evaluated for an elliptical swelling of the skin beneath its right eye and an elevated mass that involved the soft and hard palate and gingivae around the upper right carnassial tooth and molars. Histopathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma, and a postmortem examination revealed no evidence of vascular invasion or dissemination to the regional lymph nodes or viscera. This report describes the biology and progresion of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive coyote. PMID:10484152

Bernstein, K S; Schelling, S H

1999-06-01

112

Acquired immunity to Toxocara canis infection in mice.  

PubMed

Acquired immunity develops against Toxocara canis infection in mice, and NIH mice are more immunoresponsive than CD1 mice. Twice infected NIH female mice showed 27% reduction in the total larval recoveries compared with non-sensitized controls. Twice-infected NIH male, and CD1 (both sexes) mice showed a negligible reduction in the total recoveries, though a significant (P less than 0.05) number of larvae were retained in the liver compared with the non-sensitized controls. All twice-infected mice showed a significant reduction in the number of larvae recovered from the brain compared with once-infected mice. Vaccination using ultraviolet irradiated embryonated eggs gave the best protection against reinfection. Excretory/secretory antigen afforded less protection, whilst whole adult worm vaccine and whole L2 culture vaccine gave no protection. Vaccinated mice had a higher 'free:penetrating ratio' of larvae in their intestine than similarly challenged but non-vaccinated mice. When the ileum was examined histologically 9 h post-infection, an inflammatory reaction was seen around the penetrating larvae in the sensitized and vaccinated mice but not in untreated controls, suggesting a role played by the intestine in the resistance against T. canis infection in mice. PMID:1882497

Abo-Shehada, M N; al-Zubaidy, B A; Herbert, I V

1991-05-01

113

[Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina].  

PubMed

We herein present the case of an adult male patient who consulted for lower extremity edema, a 2- month history of fever and oppressive chest pain radiating to the left arm. He referred neither contact with breeding animals nor consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. A diagnosis of endocarditis was confirmed by cardiac studies. Since the empirical treatment with cephalotin, ampicillin and gentamicin failed, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement. A total of four blood cultures were positive with a gram-negative rod. Bacterial identification was performed using the API 20 NE technique (bioMrieux), the Phoenix automated method (BD) and conventional biochemical tests which were unable to classify the isolate as to genus and species. The strain was sent to the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrn" where it was identified as Brucella canis. The antimicrobial treatment was switched to doxycycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with good evolution of the patient. The clinical significance of this case report lies in the possible failure of the empiric antibiotic therapy administered for endocarditis, since B. canis did not respond to the conventional antimicrobial treatment for this pathology. PMID:23560789

Manias, Valeria; Nagel, Alicia; Mollerach, Anala; Mendosa, Mara A; Freyre, Hugo; Gmez, Abel; Ferrara, Elisa; Vay, Carlos; de Los A Mndez, Emilce

2013-01-01

114

Analysis of Orthologous Retrovirus-Like Elements in the White-Footed Mouse, Peromyscus leucopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Three loci in the genome of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, were examined for the presence or absence of orthologous copies of the retrovirus-like element mys using polymerase chain reaction. We examined these loci in 28 mice collected throughout the P. leucopus species range. Mys insertions were present in only one of the individuals examined at the mys-1 and

Ryan Sawby; Holly A. Wichman

1997-01-01

115

Molecular cloning and characterization of the human RNase , an ortholog of Cc RNase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel protein family, designated hereafter as RNase i (kappa) family, has been recently intro- duced with the characterization of the specific Cc RNase, isolated from the insect Ceratitis capitata. The human ortholog of this family consists of 98 amino acids and shares >98% identity with its mammalian counterparts. This RNase is encoded by a single-copy gene found to be

Marie-angela I. Economopoulou; Emmanouel G. Fragoulis; Diamantis C. Sideris

2007-01-01

116

Identification and Characterization of the Arabidopsis Orthologs of Nuclear Transport Factor 2, the Nuclear  

E-print Network

Identification and Characterization of the Arabidopsis Orthologs of Nuclear Transport Factor 2, the Nuclear Import Factor of Ran1 Qiao Zhao2 , Sara Leung2 , Anita H. Corbett, and Iris Meier* Plant Cellular, and nuclear envelope formation. Nuclear import of Ran relies on a small RanGDP-binding protein, Nuclear

Meier, Iris

117

Analyses of humanchimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging  

E-print Network

Analyses of human­chimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging Joa Abstract Compared to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the onset of aging appears to be delayed in the human acting on genes associated with aging in different model systems, which allowed us to explore

Church, George M.

118

Molecular systematics of Mesocestoides sPP (cestoda: mesocestoididae) from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n = 10), as well as proglottids from dogs (n = 3) and coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823 [n = 2]), and tetrathyridia representing laboratory isolates of M. corti (n = 3), and these data were analyzed phylogenetically. Two nuclear genetic markers, 18S ribosomal DNA and the second internal-transcribed spacer (ITS 2), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA data recovered a monophyletic group composed of all samples of Mesocestoides spp., distinct from closely related outgroup taxa (Amurotaenia Akhmerov, 1941 and Tetrabothrius Rudolphi, 1819). Initial analysis of the ITS 2 data resolved 3 clades within Mesocestoides. Two proglottids from dogs formed a basal clade, a second clade was represented by tetrathyridial isolates, and a third clade included all other samples. Interpretation of these data from an apomorphy-based perspective identified 6 evolutionary lineages. We also assessed whether metacestodes from dogs (n = 4) are capable of asexual proliferation in laboratory mice. One tetrathyridial and 2 acephalic isolates from dogs proliferated asexually. Further investigation is warranted to determine which of the lineages represent distinct species and to determine the life history strategies of Mesocestoides spp. PMID:10780557

Crosbie, P R; Nadler, S A; Platzer, E G; Kerner, C; Mariaux, J; Boyce, W M

2000-04-01

119

Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population.  

PubMed

The principal threat to the persistence of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) in the wild is hybridization with the coyote (Canis latrans). To facilitate idengification and removal of hybrids, assignment tests are developed which use genotype data to estimate identity as coyote, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or full red wolf. The tests use genotypes from the red wolves that founded the surviving population and the resulting pedigree, rather than a contemporary red wolf sample. The tests are evaluated by analysing both captive red wolves at 18 microsatellite loci, and data simulated under a highly parameterized, biologically reasonable model. The accuracy of assignment rates are generally high, with over 95% of known red wolves idengified correctly. There are, however, tradeoffs between ambiguous assignments and misassignments, and between misidengifying red wolves as hybrids and hybrids as red wolves. These result in a compromise between limiting introgression and avoiding demographic losses. The management priorities and level of introgression determine the combination of test and removal strategy that best balances these tradeoffs. Ultimately, we conclude that the use of the assignment tests has the capacity to arrest and reverse introgression. To our knowledge, the presented approach is novel in that it accounts for genetic drift when the genotypes under analysis are temporally separated from the reference populations to which they are being assigned. These methods may be valuable in cases where reference databases for small populations have aged substantially, pedigree information is available or data are generated from historical samples. PMID:14629346

Miller, Craig R; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

2003-12-01

120

Improvement of domain-level ortholog clustering by optimizing domain-specific sum-of-pairs score  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of ortholog groups is a crucial step in comparative analysis of multiple genomes. Although several computational methods have been developed to create ortholog groups, most of those methods do not evaluate orthology at the sub-gene level. In our method for domain-level ortholog clustering, DomClust, proteins are split into domains on the basis of alignment boundaries identified by all-against-all pairwise comparison, but it often fails to determine appropriate boundaries. Results We developed a method to improve domain-level ortholog classification using multiple alignment information. This method is based on a scoring scheme, the domain-specific sum-of-pairs (DSP) score, which evaluates ortholog clustering results at the domain level as the sum total of domain-level alignment scores. We developed a refinement pipeline to improve domain-level clustering, DomRefine, by optimizing the DSP score. We applied DomRefine to domain-level ortholog groups created by DomClust using a dataset obtained from the Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD), and evaluated the results using COG clusters and TIGRFAMs models as the reference data. Thus, we observed that the agreement between the resulting classification and the classifications in the reference databases is improved at almost every step in the refinement pipeline. Moreover, the refined classification showed better agreement than the classifications in the eggNOG databases when TIGRFAMs was used as the reference database. Conclusions DomRefine is a useful tool for improving the quality of domain-level ortholog classification among microbial genomes. Combining with a rapid domain-level ortholog clustering method, such as DomClust, it can be used to create a high-quality ortholog database that can serve as a solid basis for various comparative genome analyses. PMID:24885064

2014-01-01

121

Preference for copying unambiguous demonstrations in dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

In an earlier study (P. Pongracz et al., 2001), it was shown that human demonstration significantly enhances the detouring ability of dogs (Canis familiaris) around a V-shaped fence. The authors investigated the effect of the direction of the demonstrated detour and the dogs' detouring experience. They found that dogs' trial-and-error experience influences strongly the direction of the dogs' detours later, even if the demonstrator showed detours along the opposite side of the fence. However, dogs' preferences based on their own experiences were changed when the dogs observed demonstrations only on 1 side of the fence. Dogs with no trial-and-error experience followed the direction of 1-sided demonstrations. The change from dogs' own directions to the demonstrated directions seems not to be due to simple facilitative effects of social experience; the similarity with the demonstrated action depends on complex interactions between individual experience and socially provided information. PMID:14498810

Pongrcz, Pter; Miklsi, Adm; Timr-Geng, Katalin; Csnyi, Vilmos

2003-09-01

122

Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2010-01-01

123

Contraception has gone to the coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are predators of livestock. Current management programs, primarily lethal control, are ineffective for long-term management of predation. Controlling reproduction of coyotes may reduce depredations if territory fidelity is maintained by breeding pairs. Surgical sterilization is successful in altering predatory behaviors of coyotes but may provide a challenge for field implementation. An alternative approach is the development of a one-time non-transferable chemical contraceptive. This research is investigating the efficacy of a single high dose treatment of a sustained release gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, on coyotes as a long term contraceptive. Male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin subcutaneously. Preliminary data show full suppression of the reproductive axis for over 12 mo as indicated by complete absence of sperm. PMID:24437078

MacGregor, Marjorie J; Perkins, Elsey G; Asa, Cheryl; Skinner, Donal C

2013-12-01

124

Experimental Babesia gibsoni infection in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Four 5 mo old captive raised coyotes (Canis latrans) were experimentally inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(6) Babesia gibsoni organisms. Parasites were detected 1 wk post-inoculation in all coyotes with maximum parasitemia of 8-11% occurring at 34 wk. Parasitemias remained at or above 1% for at least 12 wk and were still detectable 20 wk post-inoculation. All experimentally infected coyotes developed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, and a positive heme reaction in urine while one coyote exhibited mild depression and inappetence. Infected coyotes also developed a regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The mild clinical signs coupled with the high level and long duration of parasitemia indicate that coyotes could serve as reservoirs for B. gibsoni. Entrance of this foreign parasite into the United States suggests the need for strict quarantines and thorough health and blood film examinations for imported animals. PMID:14733288

Evers, Holly V; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Meinkoth, James H

2003-10-01

125

[Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin,1931) margolis, 1956 in Canis familiaris from Chincha city, Peru].  

PubMed

In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast. PMID:12058669

Cabrera, R; Tantalen, M; Rojas, R

2001-01-01

126

Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis.  

PubMed Central

The emergence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in dogs caused by Streptococcus canis has been reported by our laboratory. Since clonal expansion is thought to be partially responsible for the spread of invasive strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in humans, the relatedness of 15 isolates of S. canis from canine STSS and/or NF was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and biotyping; production of proteases and of a CAMP-like reaction were also examined. Only 2 of the 15 STSS and/or NF isolates were clonally related, suggesting that the emergence of canine STSS/NF is not the result of clonal expansion of one or more highly virulent strains of S. canis. All of the isolates produced proteases and demonstrated a CAMP-like reaction, which appear to be additional characteristics of S. canis. PMID:10369564

DeWinter, L M; Prescott, J F

1999-01-01

127

Semen collection, evaluation and freezing in the captive Canadian timber wolf (Canis lupus canadensis)  

E-print Network

- gressive toward lower ranking females (Lopez, 1978; Zimen, 1975). However, this aggressiveness was not present in red wolves (Canis nicier rufus) (Carley, 1979). Aggressiveness is most evident during the breeding season when the "Alpha" female asserts... declining populations. 34 REFERENCES BRADY, C. A. & DITTON, M. K. (1978): Management and breeding of Maned wolves at the National Zoological Park, Washington. Int. Zoo Yb. 18: 171-176. CARLEY, C. J. (1979) Status Summary, The Red Wolf (Canis rufus...

Mitsuzuka, Munehiro

2012-06-07

128

Orthology Inference in Nonmodel Organisms Using Transcriptomes and Low-Coverage Genomes: Improving Accuracy and Matrix Occupancy for Phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Orthology inference is central to phylogenomic analyses. Phylogenomic data sets commonly include transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes that are incomplete and contain errors and isoforms. These properties can severely violate the underlying assumptions of orthology inference with existing heuristics. We present a procedure that uses phylogenies for both homology and orthology assignment. The procedure first uses similarity scores to infer putative homologs that are then aligned, constructed into phylogenies, and pruned of spurious branches caused by deep paralogs, misassembly, frameshifts, or recombination. These final homologs are then used to identify orthologs. We explore four alternative tree-based orthology inference approaches, of which two are new. These accommodate gene and genome duplications as well as gene tree discordance. We demonstrate these methods in three published data sets including the grape family, Hymenoptera, and millipedes with divergence times ranging from approximately 100 to over 400 Ma. The procedure significantly increased the completeness and accuracy of the inferred homologs and orthologs. We also found that data sets that are more recently diverged and/or include more high-coverage genomes had more complete sets of orthologs. To explicitly evaluate sources of conflicting phylogenetic signals, we applied serial jackknife analyses of gene regions keeping each locus intact. The methods described here can scale to over 100 taxa. They have been implemented in python with independent scripts for each step, making it easy to modify or incorporate them into existing pipelines. All scripts are available from https://bitbucket.org/yangya/phylogenomic_dataset_construction. PMID:25158799

Yang, Ya; Smith, Stephen A.

2014-01-01

129

Orthology inference in nonmodel organisms using transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes: improving accuracy and matrix occupancy for phylogenomics.  

PubMed

Orthology inference is central to phylogenomic analyses. Phylogenomic data sets commonly include transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes that are incomplete and contain errors and isoforms. These properties can severely violate the underlying assumptions of orthology inference with existing heuristics. We present a procedure that uses phylogenies for both homology and orthology assignment. The procedure first uses similarity scores to infer putative homologs that are then aligned, constructed into phylogenies, and pruned of spurious branches caused by deep paralogs, misassembly, frameshifts, or recombination. These final homologs are then used to identify orthologs. We explore four alternative tree-based orthology inference approaches, of which two are new. These accommodate gene and genome duplications as well as gene tree discordance. We demonstrate these methods in three published data sets including the grape family, Hymenoptera, and millipedes with divergence times ranging from approximately 100 to over 400 Ma. The procedure significantly increased the completeness and accuracy of the inferred homologs and orthologs. We also found that data sets that are more recently diverged and/or include more high-coverage genomes had more complete sets of orthologs. To explicitly evaluate sources of conflicting phylogenetic signals, we applied serial jackknife analyses of gene regions keeping each locus intact. The methods described here can scale to over 100 taxa. They have been implemented in python with independent scripts for each step, making it easy to modify or incorporate them into existing pipelines. All scripts are available from https://bitbucket.org/yangya/phylogenomic_dataset_construction. PMID:25158799

Yang, Ya; Smith, Stephen A

2014-11-01

130

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis infections.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. Babesia canis belongs to the Piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis rossi and B. canis vogeli. They are each transmitted by a different tick-species, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. There are also differences in the geographical distribution and pathogenicity to dogs of each subspecies. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and easy to perform DNA-based test using loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect all three Babesia canis subspecies in one assay. PMID:20537107

Mller, H; Aysul, N; Liu, Z; Salih, D A; Karagenc, T; Beyer, D; Kullmann, B; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

2010-04-01

131

Functional Analysis of MRG-1: The Ortholog of Human MRG15 in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality Factor on Chromosome 4 (MORF4) induces senescence in several immortal human cell lines. MORF-related gene on chromosome 15 (MRG15), another expressed family member, is highly conserved and expressed in yeast to humans. To determine the biological functions of human MRG15 (hMRG15) we used RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to silence mrg-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, and its closest homolog Y37D8A.11. Expression

Abdullah Olgun; Tetyana Aleksenko; Olivia M. Pereira-Smith; Demetrios K. Vassilatis

2005-01-01

132

Orthologs of the Arabidopsis CLAVATA1 Gene in the Cultivated Brassicaceae Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica

V. V. Martynov; I. L. Tsvetkov; E. E. Khavkin

2004-01-01

133

Transcript catalogs of human chromosome 21 and orthologous chimpanzee and mouse regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive representation of the gene content of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21q) remains of interest for\\u000a the study of Down syndrome, its associated phenotypic features, and mouse models. Here we compare transcript catalogs for\\u000a Hsa21q, chimpanzee chromosome 21 (Ptr21q), and orthologous regions of mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10 for open reading frame\\u000a (ORF) characteristics and

Xiaolu Sturgeon; Katheleen J. Gardiner

2011-01-01

134

IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i. PMID:22634886

Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

2012-01-01

135

First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

2013-02-01

136

Validation of an ELISA method for the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis due to Brucella canis.  

PubMed

In the present study, the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis is described. Two different antigenic extracts, obtained by heat or ultrasonic homogenization of microbial antigens from a wild isolate of Brucella canis bacteria, were compared by ELISA and Western blot (WB). A total of 145 canine sera were used to define sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ELISA as follows: (1) sera from 34 animals with natural B. canis infection, confirmed by blood culture and PCR, as well as 51 sera samples from healthy dogs with negative results by the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for canine brucellosis, were used as the control panel for B. canis infection; and (2) to scrutinize the possibility of cross reactions with other common dog infections in the same geographical area in Brazil, 60 sera samples from dogs harboring known infections by Leptospira sp., Ehrlichia canis, canine distemper virus (CDV), Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Leishmania chagasi (10 in each group) were included in the study. The ELISA using heat soluble bacterial extract (HE-antigen) as antigen showed the best values of sensitivity (91.18%), specificity (100%) and accuracy (96.47%). In the WB analyses, the HE-antigen showed no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs with different infections, while the B. canis sonicate had various protein bands identified by those sera. The performance of the ELISA standardized with the heat soluble B. canis antigen indicates that this assay can be used as a reliable and practical method to confirm infection by this microorganism, as well as a tool for seroepidemiological studies. PMID:20692004

de Oliveira, Maria Zoraida Daltro; Vale, Vera; Keid, Lara; Freire, Songeli Menezes; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

2011-06-01

137

PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/. PMID:24250218

Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

138

argC Orthologs from Rhizobiales Show Diverse Profiles of Transcriptional Efficiency and Functionality in Sinorhizobium meliloti?  

PubMed Central

Several factors can influence ortholog replacement between closely related species. We evaluated the transcriptional expression and metabolic performance of ortholog substitution complementing a Sinorhizobium meliloti argC mutant with argC from Rhizobiales (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium etli, and Mesorhizobium loti). The argC gene is necessary for the synthesis of arginine, an amino acid that is central to protein and cellular metabolism. Strains were obtained carrying plasmids with argC orthologs expressed under the speB and argC (S. meliloti) and lac (Escherichia coli) promoters. Complementation analysis was assessed by growth, transcriptional activity, enzymatic activity, mRNA levels, specific detection of ArgC proteomic protein, and translational efficiency. The argC orthologs performed differently in each complementation, reflecting the diverse factors influencing gene expression and the ability of the ortholog product to function in a foreign metabolic background. Optimal complementation was directly related to sequence similarity with S. meliloti, and was inversely related to species signature, with M. loti argC showing the poorest performance, followed by R. etli and A. tumefaciens. Different copy numbers of genes and amounts of mRNA and protein were produced, even with genes transcribed from the same promoter, indicating that coding sequences play a role in the transcription and translation processes. These results provide relevant information for further genomic analyses and suggest that orthologous gene substitutions between closely related species are not completely functionally equivalent. PMID:21075924

Diaz, Rafael; Vargas-Lagunas, Carmen; Villalobos, Miguel Angel; Peralta, Humberto; Mora, Yolanda; Encarnacion, Sergio; Girard, Lourdes; Mora, Jaime

2011-01-01

139

Comprehension of human communicative signs in pet dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

On the basis of a study by D. J. Povinelli, D. T. Bierschwale, and C. G. Cech (1999), the performance of family dogs (Canis familiaris) was examined in a 2-way food choice task in which 4 types of directional cues were given by the experimenter: pointing and gazing, head-nodding ("at target"), head turning above the correct container ("above target"), and glancing only ("eyes only"). The results showed that the performance of the dogs resembled more closely that of the children in D. J. Povinelli et al.'s study, in contrast to the chimpanzees' performance in the same study. It seems that dogs, like children, interpret the test situation as being a form of communication. The hypothesis is that this similarity is attributable to the social experience and acquired social routines in dogs because they spend more time in close contact with humans than apes do, and as a result dogs are probably more experienced in the recognition of human gestures. PMID:11459158

Soproni, K; Miklsi, A; Topl, J; Csnyi, V

2001-06-01

140

Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene played a dominant role in sculpting the evolutionary histories of many high-latitude organisms. The refugial hypothesis argues that populations retracted during glacial maxima and were isolated in separate refugia. One prediction of this hypothesis is that populations inhabiting different refugia diverged and then, during interglacial periods, rapidly expanded into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction cycles in the late Pleistocene. Our analyses of variation of mitochondrial control region sequences corroborate previous microsatellite analyses supporting independent evolutionary histories for Coastal and Continental wolves in North America. Coastal wolves represent the remnants of a formerly widespread and diverse southern clade that expanded into coastal Southeast Alaska, likely in the early Holocene. In contrast, extant northern Continental populations appear to be admixed, composed of lineages independently arising from ancestors that persisted in either southern or northern (Beringia) refugia. This pattern of diversification suggests the possibility of 3 temporally independent colonizations of North America by wolves from Asia. Coastal wolves are the last vestige of a formerly widespread phylogroup that largely was extirpated in North America by humans during the last century. The independent phylogeographic history of these Coastal wolves has yet to be characterized. Their distinctiveness among North American wolf populations may warrant a reevaluation of their conservation status and management. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Weckworth, B. V.; Talbot, S. L.; Cook, J. A.

2010-01-01

141

Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.  

PubMed

Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles. PMID:19138449

Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoli?s, J

2009-03-01

142

Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).  

PubMed

In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population. PMID:25060763

Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

2014-09-01

143

Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] ? 4363 and/or [NII] ? 5755 lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

Kniazev, A. Yu.

2012-11-01

144

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 216 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

Romero Nunez, Camilo; Mendoza Martinez, German David; Yanez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramirez Duran, Ninfa

2013-01-01

145

Reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis as a model for Microsporum canis dermatophytosis.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis. The complexity of mechanisms involved in dermatophytic infections makes relevant in vivo studies particularly difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to develop a new in vitro model of M. canis dermatophytosis using feline fetal keratinocytes in reconstructed interfollicular epidermis, and to investigate its relevance in studying the host-pathogen relationship. Histological analysis of reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis (RFE) revealed a fully differentiated epidermis. A proliferation assay showed replicating cells only in the basal layer, indicating that RFE is a well-stratified living tissue, leading to the formation of a horny layer. Histopathological analysis of RFE infected by M. canis arthroconidia revealed that the fungus invades the stratum corneum and produces SUB3, a keratinase implicated in the infectious process. In view of these results, an M. canis dermatophytosis model on RFE seems to be a useful tool to investigate mechanisms involved in natural M. canis feline infections. PMID:17577064

Tabart, Jeremy; Baldo, Aline; Vermout, Sandy; Nusgens, Betty; Lapiere, Charles; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

2007-07-01

146

Transstadial and intrastadial experimental transmission of Ehrlichia canis by male Rhipicephalus sanguineus  

PubMed Central

The acquisition and transmission of rickettsial pathogens by different tick developmental stages has important epidemiological implications. The purpose of this study was to determine if male Rhipicephalus sanguineus can experimentally acquire and transmit Ehrlichia canis in the absence of female ticks. Two trials were performed where nymphal and male R. sanguineus were simultaneously acquisition fed on the same infected donor hosts, and transstadially or intrastadially exposed male ticks were fed on separate pathogen-free dogs as a test for transmission. A single-step p30-based PCR assay was used to test canine and tick hosts for E. canis infections before and after tick feeding. E. canis was detected after either intrastadial or transstadial passage in male ticks, the organism remained detectable in both tick groups after transmission feeding, and both tick groups transmitted the rickettsia to susceptible dogs. Infection of dogs via tick feeding resulted in milder clinical signs and lower antibody titers than intravenous inoculation of carrier blood, but further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for this observation. These results demonstrate that male R. sanguineus can take multiple feedings, and that they can both acquire and transmit E. canis in the absence of female ticks. This tick development stage could be important in transmission of E. canis, and perhaps related pathogens, between vertebrate hosts under natural and experimental conditions. PMID:15941624

Bremer, William G.; Schaefer, John J.; Wagner, Elizabeth R.; Ewing, S.A.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Needham, Glen R.; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Moore, Debra L.; Stich, Roger W.

2008-01-01

147

Characterization of AtSTOP1 orthologous genes in tobacco and other plant species.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) and proton (H?) tolerances are essential traits for plants to adapt to acid soil environments. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these tolerances are mediated by a zinc-finger transcription factor, SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (AtSTOP1), which regulates the transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to both stressors. Here, the functions of orthologous proteins (STOP1-like proteins) in other plant species were characterized by reverse genetics analyses and in planta complementation assays. RNA interference of a gene for NtSTOP1 repressed Al and H? tolerances of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) roots. Tobacco roots released citrate in response to Al, concomitant with the up-regulated transcription of an ortholog of an Al tolerance gene encoding a citrate-transporting multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein. The RNA interference repression of NtSTOP1 blocked this process and also repressed the transcription of another orthologous gene for Al tolerance, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3, which encodes a prokaryote-type transporter. These results demonstrated that NtSTOP1 regulates Al tolerance in tobacco through the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The in planta complementation assays revealed that other plant species, including woody plants, a legume, and a moss (Physcomitrella patens), possess functional STOP1-like proteins that can activate several H? and Al-tolerance genes in Arabidopsis. Knocking out the gene encoding the STOP1-like protein decreased the Al tolerance of P. patens. Together, our results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation by STOP1-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved among land plants and that it confers the ability to survive in acid soils through the transcriptional regulation of Al- and H?-tolerance genes. PMID:23749850

Ohyama, Yoshinao; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Imaizumi, Ryujiro; Aoki, Toshio; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2013-08-01

148

Increasing the precision of orthology-based complex prediction through network alignment  

PubMed Central

Macromolecular assemblies play an important role in almost all cellular processes. However, despite several large-scale studies, our current knowledge about protein complexes is still quite limited, thus advocating the use of in silico predictions to gather information on complex composition in model organisms. Since proteinprotein interactions present certain constraints on the functional divergence of macromolecular assemblies during evolution, it is possible to predict complexes based on orthology data. Here, we show that incorporating interaction information through network alignment significantly increases the precision of orthology-based complex prediction. Moreover, we performed a large-scale in silico screen for protein complexes in human, yeast and fly, through the alignment of hundreds of known complexes to whole organism interactomes. Systematic comparison of the resulting network alignments to all complexes currently known in those species revealed many conserved complexes, as well as several novel complex components. In addition to validating our predictions using orthogonal data, we were able to assign specific functional roles to the predicted complexes. In several cases, the incorporation of interaction data through network alignment allowed to distinguish real complex components from other orthologous proteins. Our analyses indicate that current knowledge of yeast protein complexes exceeds that in other organisms and that predicting complexes in fly based on human and yeast data is complementary rather than redundant. Lastly, assessing the conservation of protein complexes of the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we discovered that its complexes repertoire is different from that of eukaryotes, suggesting new points of therapeutic intervention, whereas targeting the pathogens Restriction enzyme complex might lead to adverse effects due to its similarity to ATP-dependent metalloproteases in the human host. PMID:24918034

Aloy, Patrick

2014-01-01

149

The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus  

E-print Network

Royale wolves Canis lupus John A. Vucetich and Rolf O. Peterson Vucetich, J. A. and Peterson, R. O. 2004, Canis lupus. Á/ Oikos 107: 309Á/320. The relationship between the rates of prey capture and predator of a disease-induced population crash and age structure of the prey population (i.e. number of vulnerable moose

150

Semantic integration of information about orthologs and diseases: the OGO system.  

PubMed

Semantic Web technologies like RDF and OWL are currently applied in life sciences to improve knowledge management by integrating disparate information. Many of the systems that perform such task, however, only offer a SPARQL query interface, which is difficult to use for life scientists. We present the OGO system, which consists of a knowledge base that integrates information of orthologous sequences and genetic diseases, providing an easy to use ontology-constrain driven query interface. Such interface allows the users to define SPARQL queries through a graphical process, therefore not requiring SPARQL expertise. PMID:21864715

Miarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio; Egaa Aranguren, Mikel; Martnez Bjar, Rodrigo; Fernndez-Breis, Jesualdo Toms; Madrid, Marisa

2011-12-01

151

Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

We compare differences in the reproductive strategies of "free-living" dogs with their wild relatives in the genus Canis, of which the dog is a very recently evolved member. The members of this genus display a greater range of parental motor patterns than generally seen in other species of Carnivora, including pair-bonding and extended parental care; parents regurgitate to offspring and provision them with food for months to as long as a year. But the domestic dog does not routinely display these genus-typical behaviors. While this has generally been assumed to be a result of direct human intervention, humans have little reproductive control over the vast majority of domestic dogs. We analyze the low frequency of display of genus-typical behaviors and postulate that the dog's reproductive behaviors are an adaptation to permanent human settlement and the waste resources associated with it. Adaptation to this environment has decreased seasonality, increased the fecundity of unrestrained dogs and reduced the need for prolonged parental care. The consequences of greater fecundity and reduced parental care are compared to the reproductive behavior of other species of the genus. PMID:23124015

Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond

2013-01-01

152

Study of agglutinins to Brucella abortus, B canis and Actinobacillus equuli in horses.  

PubMed

Horses at a veterinary teaching hospital and a slaughterhouse were surveyed for antibodies to Brucella abortus, B canis and Actinobacillus equuli. Four of the 141 hospitalised horses and none of the 73 slaughtered horses had titres of 1:100 or greater to B abortus. Six horses of both populations reacted to the card test. One was culture positive. A card test using B canis antigen was positive in 38 per cent of the sera from hospitalised horses and all of the slaughtered horses. Twenty (27.4 per cent) of the latter group had high tires in a tube agglutination test. High titres could not be reduced by 2-mercaptoethanol serum treatment. The titres appeared to be associated with advanced age but not to sex. Adsorption of sera with B canis did not affect titres to A equuli but the reverse was true. PMID:6816581

Nicoletti, P L; Mahler, J R; Scarratt, W K

1982-10-01

153

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

154

Extracellular proteolytic activity and molecular analysis of Microsporum canis strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is the main zoophylic dermatophyte in dogs and cats, and it is also an important zoonotic agent. The literature showed that cats are asymptomatic carriers of M. canis. This is apparently due to host resistance and/or the presence of strains with lower virulence. This study was aimed to evaluate the keratinolytic, elastinolytic and collagenolytic activities of M. canis strains and their relationship with symptomatic and asymptomatic cats. In addition, these strains were analysed by RFLP. The strains isolated from cats with clinical dermatophytosis had higher keratinase and elastase activity than those isolated from asymptomatic animals (p minus than 0.05). There were not differences in RFLP patterns based on Hind III digestion. PMID:17592886

Viani, Flvio Cesar; Cazares Viani, Paula Regina; Gutierrez Rivera, Irma Nelly; Gonalves da Silva, Eriques; Rodrigues Paula, Claudete; Gambale, Walderez

2007-03-01

155

Evidence for Unapparent Brucella canis Infections among Adults with Occupational Exposure to Dogs.  

PubMed

Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B.canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B.canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec() CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR=2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec() CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa=0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B.canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B.canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B.canis infections. PMID:24751191

Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

2014-11-01

156

POGO-DB--a database of pairwise-comparisons of genomes and conserved orthologous genes.  

PubMed

POGO-DB (http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/) provides an easy platform for comparative microbial genomics. POGO-DB allows users to compare genomes using pre-computed metrics that were derived from extensive computationally intensive BLAST comparisons of >2000 microbes. These metrics include (i) average protein sequence identity across all orthologs shared by two genomes, (ii) genomic fluidity (a measure of gene content dissimilarity), (iii) number of 'orthologs' shared between two genomes, (iv) pairwise identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and (v) pairwise identity of an additional 73 marker genes present in >90% prokaryotes. Users can visualize these metrics against each other in a 2D plot for exploratory analysis of genome similarity and of how different aspects of genome similarity relate to each other. The results of these comparisons are fully downloadable. In addition, users can download raw BLAST results for all or user-selected comparisons. Therefore, we provide users with full flexibility to carry out their own downstream analyses, by creating easy access to data that would normally require heavy computational resources to generate. POGO-DB should prove highly useful for researchers interested in comparative microbiology and benefit the microbiome/metagenomic communities by providing the information needed to select suitable phylogenetic marker genes within particular lineages. PMID:24198250

Lan, Yemin; Morrison, J Calvin; Hershberg, Ruth; Rosen, Gail L

2014-01-01

157

Investigation of tissue-specific human orthologous alternative splice events in pig.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can contribute to differences between tissues or cells either by regulating gene expression or creating proteins with various functions encoded by one gene. The number of investigated alternative splice events in pig has so far been limited. In this study we have investigated alternative splice events detected in humans, in orthologous pig genes. A total of 17 genes with predicted exon skipping events were selected for further studies. The splice events for the selected genes were experimentally verified using real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) with splice-specific primers in 19 different tissues. The same splice variants as reported in humans were detected in 15 orthologous pig genes, however, the expression pattern predicted in the in silico analyses was only experimentally verified in a few cases. The results support the findings that splice events resulting in preservation of open reading frame are indicative of a functional significance of the splice variants of the gene. PMID:20967640

Nygard, Ann-Britt; Jrgensen, Claus B; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

2010-10-01

158

PANTHER version 7: improved phylogenetic trees, orthologs and collaboration with the Gene Ontology Consortium.  

PubMed

Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations. PMID:20015972

Mi, Huaiyu; Dong, Qing; Muruganujan, Anushya; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewis, Suzanna; Thomas, Paul D

2010-01-01

159

A combined approach exploring gene function based on Worm-Human Orthology  

PubMed Central

Background Many aspects of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans biology are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates establishing this particular organism as an excellent genetic model. Because of its small size, large populations and self-fertilization of the hermaphrodite, functional predictions carried out by genetic modifications as well as RNAi screens, can be rapidly tested. Results In order to explore the function of a set of C. elegans genes of unknown function, as well as their potential functional roles in the human genome, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to select the most probable worm orthologs. A total of 13 C. elegans genes were subjected to down- regulation via RNAi and characterization of expression profiles using GFP strains. Previously unknown distinct expression patterns were observed for four of the analyzed genes, as well as four visible RNAi phenotypes. In addition, subcellular protein over-expression profiles of the human orthologs for seven out of the thirteen genes using human cells were also analyzed. Conclusion By combining a whole-organism approach using C. elegans with complementary experimental work done on human cell lines, this analysis extends currently available information on the selected set of genes. PMID:15877817

Tamas, Ivica; Hodges, Emily; Dessi, Patrick; Johnsen, Robert; Vaz Gomes, Ana

2005-01-01

160

POGO-DB--a database of pairwise-comparisons of genomes and conserved orthologous genes  

PubMed Central

POGO-DB (http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/) provides an easy platform for comparative microbial genomics. POGO-DB allows users to compare genomes using pre-computed metrics that were derived from extensive computationally intensive BLAST comparisons of >2000 microbes. These metrics include (i) average protein sequence identity across all orthologs shared by two genomes, (ii) genomic fluidity (a measure of gene content dissimilarity), (iii) number of orthologs shared between two genomes, (iv) pairwise identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and (v) pairwise identity of an additional 73 marker genes present in >90% prokaryotes. Users can visualize these metrics against each other in a 2D plot for exploratory analysis of genome similarity and of how different aspects of genome similarity relate to each other. The results of these comparisons are fully downloadable. In addition, users can download raw BLAST results for all or user-selected comparisons. Therefore, we provide users with full flexibility to carry out their own downstream analyses, by creating easy access to data that would normally require heavy computational resources to generate. POGO-DB should prove highly useful for researchers interested in comparative microbiology and benefit the microbiome/metagenomic communities by providing the information needed to select suitable phylogenetic marker genes within particular lineages. PMID:24198250

Lan, Yemin; Morrison, J. Calvin; Hershberg, Ruth; Rosen, Gail L.

2014-01-01

161

From Mouse to Human: Evolutionary Genomics Analysis of Human Orthologs of Essential Genes  

PubMed Central

Understanding the core set of genes that are necessary for basic developmental functions is one of the central goals in biology. Studies in model organisms identified a significant fraction of essential genes through the analysis of null-mutations that lead to lethality. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing efforts have provided unprecedented data on genetic variation in human. However, evolutionary and genomic characteristics of human essential genes have never been directly studied on a genome-wide scale. Here we use detailed phenotypic resources available for the mouse and deep genomics sequencing data from human populations to characterize patterns of genetic variation and mutational burden in a set of 2,472 human orthologs of known essential genes in the mouse. Consistent with the action of strong, purifying selection, these genes exhibit comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, skew in allele frequency towards more rare, and exhibit increased conservation across the primate and rodent lineages relative to the remainder of genes in the genome. In individual genomes we observed ?12 rare mutations within essential genes predicted to be damaging. Consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in essential genes are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disease, we show that de novo variants in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to occur in this collection of genes. While incomplete, our set of human orthologs shows characteristics fully consistent with essential function in human and thus provides a resource to inform and facilitate interpretation of sequence data in studies of human disease. PMID:23675308

Georgi, Benjamin; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bucan, Maja

2013-01-01

162

KEGG OC: a large-scale automatic construction of taxonomy-based ortholog clusters  

PubMed Central

The identification of orthologous genes in an increasing number of fully sequenced genomes is a challenging issue in recent genome science. Here we present KEGG OC (http://www.genome.jp/tools/oc/), a novel database of ortholog clusters (OCs). The current version of KEGG OC contains 1 176 030 OCs, obtained by clustering 8 357 175 genes in 2112 complete genomes (153 eukaryotes, 1830 bacteria and 129 archaea). The OCs were constructed by applying the quasi-clique-based clustering method to all possible protein coding genes in all complete genomes, based on their amino acid sequence similarities. It is computationally efficient to calculate OCs, which enables to regularly update the contents. KEGG OC has the following two features: (i) It consists of all complete genomes of a wide variety of organisms from three domains of life, and the number of organisms is the largest among the existing databases; and (ii) It is compatible with the KEGG database by sharing the same sets of genes and identifiers, which leads to seamless integration of OCs with useful components in KEGG such as biological pathways, pathway modules, functional hierarchy, diseases and drugs. The KEGG OC resources are accessible via OC Viewer that provides an interactive visualization of OCs at different taxonomic levels. PMID:23193276

Nakaya, Akihiro; Katayama, Toshiaki; Itoh, Masumi; Hiranuka, Kazushi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Moriya, Yuki; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Michihiro; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Akiyasu C.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu

2013-01-01

163

Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.  

PubMed

Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species. PMID:24570169

Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

2014-05-01

164

The PhyloFacts FAT-CAT web server: ortholog identification and function prediction using fast approximate tree classification.  

PubMed

The PhyloFacts 'Fast Approximate Tree Classification' (FAT-CAT) web server provides a novel approach to ortholog identification using subtree hidden Markov model-based placement of protein sequences to phylogenomic orthology groups in the PhyloFacts database. Results on a data set of microbial, plant and animal proteins demonstrate FAT-CAT's high precision at separating orthologs and paralogs and robustness to promiscuous domains. We also present results documenting the precision of ortholog identification based on subtree hidden Markov model scoring. The FAT-CAT phylogenetic placement is used to derive a functional annotation for the query, including confidence scores and drill-down capabilities. PhyloFacts' broad taxonomic and functional coverage, with >7.3 M proteins from across the Tree of Life, enables FAT-CAT to predict orthologs and assign function for most sequence inputs. Four pipeline parameter presets are provided to handle different sequence types, including partial sequences and proteins containing promiscuous domains; users can also modify individual parameters. PhyloFacts trees matching the query can be viewed interactively online using the PhyloScope Javascript tree viewer and are hyperlinked to various external databases. The FAT-CAT web server is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/fatcat/. PMID:23685612

Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Samad, Bushra; Dineen, David; Meacham, Christopher; Sjlander, Kimmen

2013-07-01

165

Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery area in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Predicting spatial patterns of hybridization is important for evolutionary and conservation biology yet are hampered by poor understanding of how hybridizing species can interact. This is especially pertinent in contact zones where hybridizing populations are sympatric. In this study, we examined the extent of red wolf (Canis rufus) colonization and introgression where the species contacts a coyote (C. latrans) population in North Carolina, USA. We surveyed 22,000km(2) in the winter of 2008 for scat and identified individual canids through genetic analysis. Of 614 collected scats, 250 were assigned to canids by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. Canid samples were genotyped at 6-17 microsatellite loci (nDNA) and assigned to species using three admixture criteria implemented in two Bayesian clustering programs. We genotyped 82 individuals but none were identified as red wolves. Two individuals had red wolf mtDNA but no significant red wolf nDNA ancestry. One individual possessed significant red wolf nDNA ancestry (approximately 30%) using all criteria, although seven other individuals showed evidence of red wolf ancestry (11-21%) using the relaxed criterion. Overall, seven individuals were classified as hybrids using the conservative criteria and 37 using the relaxed criterion. We found evidence of dog (C. familiaris) and gray wolf (C. lupus) introgression into the coyote population. We compared the performance of different methods and criteria by analyzing known red wolves and hybrids. These results suggest that red wolf colonization and introgression in North Carolina is minimal and provide insights into the utility of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization. PMID:21486372

Bohling, Justin H; Waits, Lisette P

2011-05-01

166

Comparative Manipulation-Test Performance in Ten-Week-Old Wolves (Canis lupus) and Alaskan Malamutes (Canis familiaris ): A Piagetian Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 10-week-old Eastern timber wolves (Canis lupus lycaon) and four 10-week-old malamutes (C. familiaris) were presented a series of puzzle boxes that required them to perform increasingly complex manipulations in order to extract a food dish. Wolves averaged 5.8 successes in eight trials, and malamutes averaged 1.5 successes. This difference was significant at the .05 level, which supports Frank's (1980)

Harry Frank; Martha Gialdini Frank

1985-01-01

167

On the Use of Gene Ontology Annotations to Assess Functional Similarity among Orthologs and Paralogs: A Short Report.  

PubMed

A recent paper (Nehrt et al., PLoS Comput. Biol. 7:e1002073, 2011) has proposed a metric for the "functional similarity" between two genes that uses only the Gene Ontology (GO) annotations directly derived from published experimental results. Applying this metric, the authors concluded that paralogous genes within the mouse genome or the human genome are more functionally similar on average than orthologous genes between these genomes, an unexpected result with broad implications if true. We suggest, based on both theoretical and empirical considerations, that this proposed metric should not be interpreted as a functional similarity, and therefore cannot be used to support any conclusions about the "ortholog conjecture" (or, more properly, the "ortholog functional conservation hypothesis"). First, we reexamine the case studies presented by Nehrt et al. as examples of orthologs with divergent functions, and come to a very different conclusion: they actually exemplify how GO annotations for orthologous genes provide complementary information about conserved biological functions. We then show that there is a global ascertainment bias in the experiment-based GO annotations for human and mouse genes: particular types of experiments tend to be performed in different model organisms. We conclude that the reported statistical differences in annotations between pairs of orthologous genes do not reflect differences in biological function, but rather complementarity in experimental approaches. Our results underscore two general considerations for researchers proposing novel types of analysis based on the GO: 1) that GO annotations are often incomplete, potentially in a biased manner, and subject to an "open world assumption" (absence of an annotation does not imply absence of a function), and 2) that conclusions drawn from a novel, large-scale GO analysis should whenever possible be supported by careful, in-depth examination of examples, to help ensure the conclusions have a justifiable biological basis. PMID:22359495

Thomas, Paul D; Wood, Valerie; Mungall, Christopher J; Lewis, Suzanna E; Blake, Judith A

2012-01-01

168

OrthoMaM: A database of orthologous genomic markers for placental mammal phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular sequence data have become the standard in modern day phylogenetics. In particular, several long-standing questions of mammalian evolutionary history have been recently resolved thanks to the use of molecular characters. Yet, most studies have focused on only a handful of standard markers. The availability of an ever increasing number of whole genome sequences is a golden mine for modern systematics. Genomic data now provide the opportunity to select new markers that are potentially relevant for further resolving branches of the mammalian phylogenetic tree at various taxonomic levels. Description The EnsEMBL database was used to determine a set of orthologous genes from 12 available complete mammalian genomes. As targets for possible amplification and sequencing in additional taxa, more than 3,000 exons of length > 400 bp have been selected, among which 118, 368, 608, and 674 are respectively retrieved for 12, 11, 10, and 9 species. A bioinformatic pipeline has been developed to provide evolutionary descriptors for these candidate markers in order to assess their potential phylogenetic utility. The resulting OrthoMaM (Orthologous Mammalian Markers) database can be queried and alignments can be downloaded through a dedicated web interface . Conclusion The importance of marker choice in phylogenetic studies has long been stressed. Our database centered on complete genome information now makes possible to select promising markers to a given phylogenetic question or a systematic framework by querying a number of evolutionary descriptors. The usefulness of the database is illustrated with two biological examples. First, two potentially useful markers were identified for rodent systematics based on relevant evolutionary parameters and sequenced in additional species. Second, a complete, gapless 94 kb supermatrix of 118 orthologous exons was assembled for 12 mammals. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods unambiguously supported the new placental phylogeny by retrieving the monophyly of Glires, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, and Boreoeutheria. Muroid rodents thus do not represent a basal placental lineage as it was mistakenly reasserted in some recent phylogenomic analyses based on fewer taxa. We expect the OrthoMaM database to be useful for further resolving the phylogenetic tree of placental mammals and for better understanding the evolutionary dynamics of their genomes, i.e., the forces that shaped coding sequences in terms of selective constraints. PMID:18053139

Ranwez, Vincent; Delsuc, Frdric; Ranwez, Sylvie; Belkhir, Khalid; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel JP

2007-01-01

169

Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I toward Sirius A. We show that if such a high value exists, it cannot result from the EUV stellar radiation field and, therefore, must be due to a strong diffuse source of EUV radiation.

Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

1995-01-01

170

Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10-15/s. This figure is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons ne of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chiH from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of ne is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I toward Sirius A. We show that if such a high value exists, it cannot result from the EUV stellar radiation field and, therefore, must be due to a strong diffuse source of EUV radiation.

Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

1995-05-01

171

Predation on European wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by wolves (Canis lupus) in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that predation by wolves Canis lupus is one of the major factors limiting densities of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou in North America. Conversely, little is known about the role of European wild forest reindeer R. t. fennicus as wolf prey, or about the influence of wolf predation on populations of this rare subspecies. This relationship

Ilpo Kojola; Otso Huitu; Katri Toppinen; Kalevi Heikura; Samuli Heikkinen; Seppo Ronkainen

2004-01-01

172

Killing of a Muskox, Ovibos moschatus, by two Wolves, Canis lupus, and subsequent caching  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed.

David, Mech, L.; Adams, L. G.

1999-01-01

173

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs Canis familiaris are the world's most common carnivore and are known to interact with wildlife as predators, prey, competitors, and disease reservoirs or vectors. 2. Despite these varied roles in the community, the interaction of dogs with sympatric wild carnivore species is poorly understood. We review how dogs have been classified in the literature, and illustrate how the location

ABI TAMIM VANAK; MATTHEW E. GOMPPER

2009-01-01

174

Playing at bullying: The postmodern ethic of Bully (Canis Canem Edit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses Bully (Canis Canem Edit), considering the game's antecedents (narratives involving young people in school settings) and the features which set it apart from other teen texts. It discusses the controversy surrounding the game and comes to the conclusion that the principal reason for unease on the part of parents and educational authorities is that Bully's postmodernist ethic

Clare Bradford

175

BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

Correa, Flavia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A. Zevallos; dos Santos, Sergio Vieira

2014-01-01

176

Behavioral and memory changes in Mus musculus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

Corra, Flvia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos

2014-01-01

177

An updated description of the New Guinea singing dog (Canis hallstromi, Troughton 1957)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1957, Troughton described the wild dog of New Guinea, naming it Canis hallstromi .H ere the description given by Troughton is expanded by the addition of morphological, molecular and behavioural information collected from both captive and wild New Guinea singing dogs subsequent to the original description. The data support Troughton's identification of this canid as a unique taxon, although

Janice Koler-Matznick; I. Lehr Brisbin; Mark Feinstein; Susan Bulmer

2003-01-01

178

Daily activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest of western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the activity patterns of the coyote (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mexican Pacific coast over 3 years. Fifteen coyotes (six females, nine males) were fitted with radio-collars equipped with activity sensors to determine the influence of seasonality (dry vs. wet), gender (males vs. females) and diel intervals (dusk, night, dawn, and day) on activity

Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart; Lisette Cant-Salazar; Samia E. Carrillo-Percastegui; Carlos A. Lpez-Gonzlez

2009-01-01

179

BLINDNESS IN A COYOTE, Canis latrans, FROM THE ROLLING PLAINS OF TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross and histopathologiclesionsin the eyes of a blind coyote, Canis \\/atrans, collectedin King County, Texas are discussed.The animal was in good condition and its age estimated at 7 years. The left globe presented with a superficial corneal erosion, a small punctate erosion, and an apparent lenticular opacity. Histo- logically, there was a mild anterior uveitis and lenticular degeneration with thicken-

DANNY B. PENCEE; WYMAN P. MEINZEREU

180

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2007-01-01

181

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella

B. R Hoar; B. B Chomel; D. L Rolfe; C. C Chang; C. L Fritz; B. N Sacks; T. E Carpenter

2003-01-01

182

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils,

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; John Kilgo; Scott Ray; Karl V. Miller

2007-01-01

183

Visuospatial Impairments in Aged Canines (Canis familiaris ): The Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a novel delayed nonmatching-to-position task to compare visuospatial learning and memory in young and aged beagle dogs (Canis familiaris). The task used 3, rather than 2, spatial locations, which markedly increased difficulty. There were striking age differences in acquisition. Most of the aged canines did not learn the task, and those that did showed impaired learning when

Alan D. F. Chan; Pria M. D. Nippak; Heather Murphey; Candace J. Ikeda-Douglas; Bruce Muggenburg; Elizabeth Head; Carl W. Cotman; Norton W. Milgram

2002-01-01

184

Clinical, Hematologic, and Molecular Findings in Naturally Occurring Babesia canis vogeli in Egyptian Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background. Canine babesiosis is a clinically important hemoprotozoan parasite affecting dogs. The goal of this present study was to determine the clinical symptoms and to establish its hematological and microscopic detection and compare it with the PCR findings attained from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli. Methodology/Principal Findings. 13-PCR confirmed Babesia-infected dogs were examined; seminested PCR was used to discover the precise type of Babesia and Babesia canis vogeli was the only subspecies detected. The most consistent clinical signs were elevated rectal temperature and a pale mucous membrane. Thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis, along with a significant reduction in red cell parameters, were the most commonly recorded hematologic alterations. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of typical large merozoites and trophozoites of B. canis in the ratio 76.92%. Conclusions/Significance. The presumptive diagnosis of canine babesiosis should be based on a fever and anemia, while thrombocytopenia is considered the hallmark of the disease; microscopic examination may not be very revealing in the detection at low parasitemia, but it remains the most rapid confirmatory method. Seminested PCR turned out to be a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis; during the process of differentiation between Babesia subspecies, only B. canis subsp. vogeli was detected. PMID:24693460

Salem, N. Y.; Farag, H. S.

2014-01-01

185

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. PMID:24657583

Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

2014-06-01

186

First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America. PMID:23273677

Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, Mara Beln; Vezzani, Daro; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

2013-03-01

187

Differential Expression of Iron Acquisition Genes by Brucella melitensis and Brucella canis during Macrophage Infection  

PubMed Central

Brucella spp. cause chronic zoonotic disease often affecting individuals and animals in impoverished economic or public health conditions; however, these bacteria do not have obvious virulence factors. Restriction of iron availability to pathogens is an effective strategy of host defense. For brucellae, virulence depends on the ability to survive and replicate within the host cell where iron is an essential nutrient for the growth and survival of both mammalian and bacterial cells. Iron is a particularly scarce nutrient for bacteria with an intracellular lifestyle. Brucella melitensis and Brucella canis share ?99% of their genomes but differ in intracellular lifestyles. To identify differences, gene transcription of these two pathogens was examined during infection of murine macrophages and compared to broth grown bacteria. Transcriptome analysis of B. melitensis and B. canis revealed differences of genes involved in iron transport. Gene transcription of the TonB, enterobactin, and ferric anguibactin transport systems was increased in B. canis but not B. melitensis during infection of macrophages. The data suggest differences in iron requirements that may contribute to differences observed in the lifestyles of these closely related pathogens. The initial importance of iron for B. canis but not for B. melitensis helps elucidate differing intracellular survival strategies for two closely related bacteria and provides insight for controlling these pathogens. PMID:22403618

Glasner, Jeremy; Splitter, Gary

2012-01-01

188

Intense extreme ultraviolet emission from the B star Epsilon Canis Majoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of the brightest nonsolar source of EUV emission: the B2 II star Epsilon Canis Majoris. This source has been detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite's all-sky photometric survey. It is approximately 30 times brighter at 600 A than the predicted emission from the hot white dwarf star HZ 43, previously believed to be the brightest

John V. Vallerga; Peter W. Vedder; Barry Y. Welsh

1993-01-01

189

Ultraviolet photometry with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite \\/ANS\\/ Observations of Beta Canis Majoris variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with detailed ANS observations of three Beta Canis Majoris variables: Xi-1 CMa, HD 61068 (whose discovery is reported here) and 15 CMa. Light curves at five ultraviolet wavelengths are presented, and the periods and amplitudes are discussed. The ultraviolet colors are used to derive temperatures and temperature variations, which are compared with the MK spectral types. The

J. R. Lesh; P. R. Wesselius

1979-01-01

190

Confirmation of occurrence of Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Babesia infections in domestic dogs in South Africa was studied using reverse line blot hybridization and 18S sequence analysis. Babesia canis vogeli was confirmed for the first time in domestic dogs in South Africa. Out of a total of 297 blood samples collected from domestic dogs in Bloemfontein, East London, Johannesburg, Durban and from the Onderstepoort Veterinary

P. T Matjila; B. L Penzhorn; C. P. J Bekker; A. M Nijhof; F Jongejan

2004-01-01

191

Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves ( Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n=11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary

Peter Constable; Ken Hinchcliff; Nick Demma; Margaret Callahan; Bruce Dale; Kevin Fox; Layne Adams; Ray Wack; Lyn Kramer

1998-01-01

192

Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a patient with fever of unknown origin.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman with common variable immune deficiency and liver failure of unknown etiology presented with recurrent fevers over a 5-month period. She was found to have Helicobacter canis bacteremia. Immunocompromised hosts with exposure to cats or dogs may be at risk for infection with this organism, which may be challenging to diagnose. PMID:23284025

Abidi, Maheen Z; Wilhelm, Mark P; Neff, Jadee L; Hughes, John G; Cunningham, Scott A; Patel, Robin

2013-03-01

193

Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Are Sensitive to the Attentional State of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial (control condition), whereas in others, the human (a) left the room, (b) turned her back, (c) engaged in a distracting activity, or (d)

Josep Call; Juliane Bruer; Juliane Kaminski; Michael Tomasello

2003-01-01

194

The Magic Cup: Great Apes and Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Individuate Objects According to Their Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite current interest in dog (Canis familiaris) cognition, very little is known about how dogs represent objects and how they compare with other species, such as the great apes. Therefore, we investigated how dogs and great apes (chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], bonobos [Pan paniscus], orangutans [Pongo pygmaeus], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla]) individuate objects in a classical violation of expectation paradigm. We used

Juliane Bruer; Josep Call

2011-01-01

195

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2001-01-01

196

First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

2014-01-01

197

SCO5745, a Bifunctional RNase J Ortholog, Affects Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5?-to-3? exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5? monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5? triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha

2014-01-01

198

The first case of Brucella canis in Sweden: background, case report and recommendations from a northern European perspective  

PubMed Central

Infection with Brucella canis has been diagnosed in Sweden for the first time. It was diagnosed in a three-year-old breeding bitch with reproductive disturbances. Fifteen in-contact dogs were tested repeatedly and all of them were negative for B. canis. The source of infection could not be defined. The present article describes the case and the measures undertaken and gives a short review over B. canis. Recommendations on how to avoid the infection in non-endemic countries are given. PMID:22452858

2012-01-01

199

Phyletic Profiling with Cliques of Orthologs Is Enhanced by Signatures of Paralogy Relationships  

PubMed Central

New microbial genomes are sequenced at a high pace, allowing insight into the genetics of not only cultured microbes, but a wide range of metagenomic collections such as the human microbiome. To understand the deluge of genomic data we face, computational approaches for gene functional annotation are invaluable. We introduce a novel model for computational annotation that refines two established concepts: annotation based on homology and annotation based on phyletic profiling. The phyletic profiling-based model that includes both inferred orthologs and paralogshomologs separated by a speciation and a duplication event, respectivelyprovides more annotations at the same average Precision than the model that includes only inferred orthologs. For experimental validation, we selected 38 poorly annotated Escherichia coli genes for which the model assigned one of three GO terms with high confidence: involvement in DNA repair, protein translation, or cell wall synthesis. Results of antibiotic stress survival assays on E. coli knockout mutants showed high agreement with our model's estimates of accuracy: out of 38 predictions obtained at the reported Precision of 60%, we confirmed 25 predictions, indicating that our confidence estimates can be used to make informed decisions on experimental validation. Our work will contribute to making experimental validation of computational predictions more approachable, both in cost and time. Our predictions for 998 prokaryotic genomes include ?400000 specific annotations with the estimated Precision of 90%, ?19000 of which are highly specifice.g. penicillin binding, tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation, or pathogenesisand are freely available at http://gorbi.irb.hr/. PMID:23308060

kunca, Nives; Bonjak, Matko; Kriko, Anita; Panov, Pan?e; Deroski, Sao; muc, Tomislav; Supek, Fran

2013-01-01

200

Linking the potato genome to the conserved ortholog set (COS) markers  

PubMed Central

Background Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://solgenomics.net/) and many of these have been placed on the genetic maps of a number of solanaceous species. Results We amplified over 300 COS markers from eight potato accessions involving two diploid landraces of Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group (formerly classified as S. goniocalyx, S. phureja), and a dihaploid clone derived from a modern tetraploid cultivar of S. tuberosum and the wild species S. berthaultii, S. chomatophilum, and S. paucissectum. By BLASTn (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information) algorithm we mapped the DNA sequences of these markers into the potato genome sequence. Additionally, we mapped a subset of these markers genetically in potato and present a comparison between the physical and genetic locations of these markers in potato and in comparison with the genetic location in tomato. We found that most of the COS markers are single-copy in the reference genome of potato and that the genetic location in tomato and physical location in potato sequence are mostly in agreement. However, we did find some COS markers that are present in multiple copies and those that map in unexpected locations. Sequence comparisons between species show that some of these markers may be paralogs. Conclusions The sequence-based physical map becomes helpful in identification of markers for traits of interest thereby reducing the number of markers to be tested for applications like marker assisted selection, diversity, and phylogenetic studies. PMID:23758607

2013-01-01

201

Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

2013-01-01

202

Potential virulence role of the Legionella pneumophila ptsP ortholog.  

PubMed

We previously identified the Legionella pneumophila ptsP (phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase) ortholog gene as a putative virulence factor in a study of signature-tagged mutagenesis using a guinea pig pneumonia model. In this study, we further defined the phenotypic properties of L. pneumophila ptsP and its complete sequence. The L. pneumophila ptsP was 2,295 bases in length. Its deduced amino acid sequence had high similarity with ptsP orthologs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Escherichia coli, with nearly identical lengths. Here we show that while the mutant grew well in laboratory media, it was defective in both lung and spleen multiplication in guinea pigs. It grew slowly in guinea pig alveolar macrophages despite good uptake into the cells. Furthermore, there was minimal growth in a human alveolar epithelial cell line (A549). Transcomplementation of the L. pneumophila ptsP mutant almost completely rescued its growth in alveolar macrophages, in A549 cells, and in guinea pig lung and spleen. The L. pneumophila ptsP mutant was capable of evasion of phagosome-lysosome fusion and resided in ribosome-studded phagosomes. Pore formation activity of the mutant was normal. The L. pneumophila ptsP mutant expressed DotA and IcmX in apparently normal amounts, suggesting that the ptsP mutation did not affect dotA and icmX regulation. In addition, the mutant was resistant to serum and neutrophil killing. Taken together, these findings show that L. pneumophila ptsP is required for full in vivo virulence of L. pneumophila, most probably by affecting intracellular growth. PMID:11447151

Higa, F; Edelstein, P H

2001-08-01

203

Sequence similarity and functional comparisons of pheromone receptor orthologs in two closely related Helicoverpa species.  

PubMed

The olfactory system of moth species in subfamily Heliothinae is an attractive model to study the evolution of the pheromone reception because they show distinct differentiation in sex pheromone components or ratios that activate pheromone receptors (PRs). However, functional assessment of PRs in closely related species remains largely untried. Here we present a special cloning strategy to isolate full-length cDNAs encoding candidate odorant receptors (ORs) from Helicoverpa armigera (Harm) and Helicoverpa assulta (Hass) on the basis of Heliothis virescens ORs, and investigate the functional properties of PRs to determine how the evolution of moth PRs contribute to intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension. We cloned 11 OR orthologs from H. armigera and 10 from H. assulta. We functionally characterized the responses of PRs of both species to seven pheromone compounds using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus ooctyes. HassOR13 was found to be highly tuned to the sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald, and unexpectedly, both HarmOR14b and HassOR16 were specific for Z9-14:Ald. However, HarmOR6 and HassOR6 showed much higher specificity to Z9-16:OH than to Z9-16:Ald or Z9-14:Ald. HarmOR11, HarmOR14a, HassOR11 and HassOR14b failed to respond to the tested chemicals. Based on our results and previous research, we can show that some PR orthologs from H. armigera, H. assulta and H. virescens such as OR13s have similar ligand selectivity, but others have different ligand specificity. The combined PR function and sex pheromone component analysis suggests that the evolution of PRs can meet species-specific demands. PMID:24632377

Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Hao; Di, Chang; Yu, Shanlin; Zhu, Ligui; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

2014-05-01

204

In vitro and in vivo effects of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 on Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the larvicidal effect of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 (Ef7121) on the Toxocara canis cycle both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, T. canis larvae were incubated with the supernatants of Ef7121 (EI) and mutant Ef7121 (EIm), in a pre-culture of Ef7121 (EII) and in a fresh culture with Ef7121 (EIII) and the Ef7121 mutant strain (EIIIm). The viability of the larvae was calculated after a 48 h incubation. A significant reduction of the viability of T. canis larvae was observed in EI, EII and EIII. A decrease of this inhibitory effect was observed in EIm and EIIIm (p = 0.008). In the in vivo experiments, mice were orally inoculated with three doses of Ef7121. To study the probiotic persistence in the intestine, the animals were sacrificed every four days and their intestines were dissected. The initial average bacterial levels were 9.7 x 10(4) for Ef7121 (colony forming units/g). At the end of the assay the levels were 1.46 x 10(4). No bacterial translocation was detected in mesenteric lymphatic nodules and spleen. Ef7121 interference with the biological cycle was evaluated in mice challenged with T. canis. The interference was significant when the mice were challenged with probiotic and T. canis simultaneously (p = 0.001), but it was not significant when the challenge was performed 15 days after administration of the bacterial inoculum (p = 0.06). In conclusion, Ef7121 possessed in vitro and in vivo larvicidal activity. PMID:20835606

Chiodo, Paula G; Sparo, Mnica D; Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; Basualdo, Juan A

2010-08-01

205

Method for detecting circulating Toxocara canis antigen and its application in human serum samples.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of larval migrans (LM) is usually done by immunodiagnostic methods. These methods, however, simply show the presence or absence of antibody but not the active infection of the patients. Therefore, we aimed to establish a diagnostic method for detecting circulating Toxocara canis antigen using a sandwich, ELISA. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were produced against the excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of second-stage T canis larvae. Among the MAbs obtained, we selected one MAb (TCMAb12; molecular weight, 30-80 kDa, IgG) for use in the sandwich ELISA. The cross-reactivity of the sandwich-ELISA against thirteen different kinds of parasite antigens were examined. The results revealed that the antibody reacted with T canis ES antigen, T. canis female antigen, and T. canis second-stage larvae antigen, but did not react with any other antigens. From results obtained using an ES antigen concentration standard curve, we confirmed that the detection limit of the sandwich-ELISA was 5 ng/ml, which provides sufficient sensitivity for the diagnosis of toxocariasis (LM). We applied the method to suspected toxocariasis patients and examined the circulating antigen in their sera. We used nine serum samples collected from patients with suspected toxocariasis based on both their clinical symptoms and high antibody titers. Overall, five sera showed antigen-positive reactions, while the remaining four were negative. These results indicated that about 44.0% of the antibody-positive patients were antigen-negative, not ongoing active infection. The results obtained using this technique would provide us for understanding toxocariasis. PMID:19769229

Ishiyamna, S; Ono, K; Rai, S K; Uga, S

2009-03-01

206

AtObgC, a plant ortholog of bacterial Obg, is a chloroplast-targeting GTPase essential for early embryogenesis  

E-print Network

AtObgC, a plant ortholog of bacterial Obg, is a chloroplast- targeting GTPase essential for early Arabidopsis AtObgC as a plant chloroplast-targeting Obg and elucidated its molecular biological for chloroplast targeting and has intrinsic GTP hydrolysis activity. A targeting assay using a few AtObgC N

Lee, Keun Woo

207

mis of most land plants is uniseriate (compris-ing one layer), and if SHR and SCR orthologs  

E-print Network

to magmas that rise to the crust, give off gases like SO2, CO2, and H2O, and solidify to basalt, a rock rich378 mis of most land plants is uniseriate (compris- ing one layer), and if SHR and SCR orthologs plants. But there are some rare exceptions.Forexample,extantmembersofthe Equisetales (horsetails), whose

208

OsELF3-1, an Ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING 3, Regulates Rice Circadian Rhythm and Photoperiodic  

E-print Network

-1 is essential for circadian regulation and photoperiodic flowering in rice. Citation: Zhao J, Huang X, Ouyang XOsELF3-1, an Ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING 3, Regulates Rice Circadian Rhythm,2 , Ling Zhu1,2 , Shiguang Wang1,2 , Xing Wang Deng4 , Shigui Li1,2 * 1 Rice Research Institute, Sichuan

Deng, Xing-Wang

209

The Mammalian Ortholog of Drosophila MOF That Acetylates Histone H4 Lysine 16 Is Essential for Embryogenesis and Oncogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila MOF (males absent on the first) gene product is a histone H4 lysine 16-specific acetyltransferase. Recent studies have shown that depletion of human MOF (hMOF) in human cell lines leads to genomic instability, spontaneous chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle defects, altered nuclear morphology, reduced transcription of certain genes, and defective DNA damage response to ionizing

Arun Gupta; T. Geraldine Guerin-Peyrou; Girdhar G. Sharma; Changwon Park; Manjula Agarwal; Ramesh K. Ganju; Shruti Pandita; Kyunghee Choi; Saraswati Sukumar; Raj K. Pandita; Thomas Ludwig; Tej K. Pandita

2008-01-01

210

The C. elegans Zonula Occludens Ortholog ZOO-1 Cooperates with the Cadherin-Catenin Complex to Recruit Actin during  

E-print Network

The C. elegans Zonula Occludens Ortholog ZOO-1 Cooperates with the Cadherin-Catenin Complex embryo, we have characterized the sole C. elegans ZO family member, ZOO-1. ZOO-1 localizes proteins HMR- 1/E-cadherin and VAB-9/claudin, but surprisingly, not HMP-1/-catenin or HMP-2/-catenin. zoo-1

Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

211

Transcription Factor Binding Probabilities in Orthologous Promoters: An Alignment-Free Approach to the Inference of Functional Regulatory Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physically principled method of scoring genomic sequences for the potential to be bound by transcription factors, we have developed an algorithm for assessing the conservation of predicted binding occupancy that does not rely on sequence alignment of promoters. The method, which we call ortholog-weighting, assesses the degree to which the predicted binding occupancy of a transcription factor in a reference gene is also predicted in the promoters of orthologous genes. The analysis was performed separately for over 100 different transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Statistical significance was evaluated by simulation using permuted versions of the position weight matrices. Ortholog-weighting produced about twice as many significantly high scoring genes as were obtained from the S. cerevisiae genome alone. Gene Ontology analysis found a similar two-fold enrichment of genes. Both analyses suggest that ortholog-weighting improves the prediction of true regulatory targets. Interestingly, the method has only a marginal effect on the prediction of binding by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We suggest several possibilities for reconciling this result with the improved enrichment that we observe for functionally related promoters and for promoters that are under positive selection.

Liu, Xiao; Clarke, Neil D.

212

Seroepidemiology of Toxocara Canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. Methods A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 712 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. Results The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR?=?5.52, 95% CI?=?1.1526.61, p?=?0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR?=?2.86, 95% CI?=?1.087.60, p?=?0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. Conclusions This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides regarding T. canis epidemiology can facilitate developing strategies for disease prevention and control. PMID:24886153

2014-01-01

213

Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions. PMID:23409865

Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

2014-02-01

214

Serological evidence for Babesia canis infection of horses and an endemic focus of B. caballi in Hungary.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the seroconversion of horses to Babesia caballi and B. canis in Hungary, blood samples were collected from 371 animals on 23 different locations of the country. The presence of antibodies to B. caballi was screened with a competitive ELISA. All 29 positive samples came from one region (the Hortobgy). The prevalence of infection did not show correlation with sexes, and reached 100% in the age group of 2-5 years. Babesia canis-specific antibodies were demonstrated by IFAT in 6.74% of animals kept in 7 regions. The titres were low or medium level (1:40 to 1:160), indicating that the horses had previously been exposed to this piroplasm, but their infection must have been limited. The highest seropositivity rate was observed in the age group of 3-4 years, and males (stallions and geldings) were significantly more frequently infected than females. However, neither B. caballi nor B. canis could be identified in the peripheral blood samples of infected horses by PCR. Since most of the B. caballi-positive horses remained negative in the B. canis IFAT, whereas seroconversion solely to B. canis was detected in several regions of the country, serological cross-reaction between the two species can be discounted. This is the first serological evidence of horses being naturally infected with B. canis, supporting the view that piroplasms are less host specific than previously thought. PMID:18277708

Hornok, S; Edelhofer, Renate; Fldvri, G; Joachim, Anja; Farkas, R

2007-12-01

215

Toxocara canis infection induces antigen-specific IL-10 and IFNgamma production in pregnant dogs and their puppies.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis (T. canis) is originally a parasite of canine bitches and their pups. The pathogenicity of T. canis infection is enhanced during pregnancy and puppyhood. The aim of this study was to investigate if modification of IFNgamma and IL-10 secretion occurs during infection in pregnant dogs and puppies. Analysis of cytokines secreted could let us hypothesize a role for IL-10 and/or IFNgamma in T. canis infection. We tested T. canis-specific production of IFNgamma and IL-10 by lymphocytes of pregnant dogs and their puppies after in vitro re-exposure to purified excretory/secretory antigen (ESAg) from T. canis. Blood mononuclear cells (BMC) isolated from pregnant dogs and their puppies were cultured in the presence of ESAg. Cultures' supernatants were tested for cytokine levels by ELISA. Results obtained showed that IL-10 concentrations increased during pregnancy in infected animals and in the meantime IFNgamma production decreased. In puppyhood, we observed that, IL-10 concentration decreased with the age of puppies mainly in infected animals while IFNgamma increased. In conclusion, our data suggests that BMC of infected dogs have a particular modification of IL-10 and IFNgamma synthesis. These data could be the basis to design immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:16144718

Torina, Alessandra; Caracappa, Santo; Barera, Annalisa; Dieli, Francesco; Sireci, Guido; Genchi, Claudio; Deplazes, Peter; Salerno, Alfredo

2005-10-18

216

Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

2014-10-01

217

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Sneana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

218

Simultaneous IUE and VLA observations of YZ Canis Minoris, Ad Leonis and Lambda Andromedae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IUE and VLA simultaneously observed the dwarf M flare stars YZ Canis Minoris and AD Leonis, and the RS CVn star Lambda Andromedae. Narrow-band, slowly varying radiation near 20cm wavelength was detected from YZ Canis Minoris. The radiation cannot be attributed to conventional emission processes, but may be explained by a coherent emission mechanism. The Mg II h and k line intensities also underwent changes in intensity, although the connection between the microwave and ultraviolet variations is unclear. Impulsive microwave bursts were detected from AD Leonis, but there were no significant variations in the Mg II line intensities. Enhancements in several ultraviolet emission lines were detected on timescales of 1 hr from Lambda Andromedae without accompanying variations at 6cm or 20cm wavelength.

Willson, Robert F.; Lang, Kenneth R.

1986-01-01

219

Simultaneous IUE and VLA observations of YZ Canis Minoris, AD Leonis and Lambda Andromedae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Very Large Array were used to simultaneously observe the dwarf M flare stars YZ Canis Minoris and AD Leonis and the RS CVn star ? Andromedae. Narrow-band, slowly varying radiation near 20 cm wavelength was detected from YZ Canis Minoris. This radiation cannot be attributed to conventional emission processes, but may be explained by a coherent emission mechanism. The Mg II h+k line intensities also underwent changes in intensity, although the connection between the microwave and ultraviolet variations is unclear. Impulsive microwave bursts were detected from AD Leonis, but there were no significant variations in the Mg II line intensities. Finally, enhancements in several ultraviolet emission lines were detected on timescales of about an hour from ? Andromedae without accompanying variations at 6 cm or 20 cm wavelength.

Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.

1986-09-01

220

Global alignment of multiple protein interaction networks with application to functional orthology detection  

PubMed Central

Proteinprotein interactions (PPIs) and their networks play a central role in all biological processes. Akin to the complete sequencing of genomes and their comparative analysis, complete descriptions of interactomes and their comparative analysis is fundamental to a deeper understanding of biological processes. A first step in such an analysis is to align two or more PPI networks. Here, we introduce an algorithm, IsoRank, for global alignment of multiple PPI networks. The guiding intuition here is that a protein in one PPI network is a good match for a protein in another network if their respective sequences and neighborhood topologies are a good match. We encode this intuition as an eigenvalue problem in a manner analogous to Google's PageRank method. Using IsoRank, we compute a global alignment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens PPI networks. We demonstrate that incorporating PPI data in ortholog prediction results in improvements over existing sequence-only approaches and over predictions from local alignments of the yeast and fly networks. Previous methods have been effective at identifying conserved, localized network patterns across pairs of networks. This work takes the further step of performing a global alignment of multiple PPI networks. It simultaneously uses sequence similarity and network data and, unlike previous approaches, explicitly models the tradeoff inherent in combining them. We expect IsoRankwith its simultaneous handling of node similarity and network similarityto be applicable across many scientific domains. PMID:18725631

Singh, Rohit; Xu, Jinbo; Berger, Bonnie

2008-01-01

221

Whole genome duplication: challenges and considerations associated with sequence orthology assignment in Salmoninae.  

PubMed

To illustrate some of the challenges and considerations in assigning correct orthology necessary for any comparative genomic investigation among salmonids, sequence data from the non-coding regions of different chromosomes in three members of the subfamily Salmoninae, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, were compared. By analysing c. 55 distinct loci, corresponding to c. 142 kbp sequence information per species, 18 duplicated patterns representative of the two sequential rounds of teleost-specific whole genome duplications (i.e. 3R and 4R WGD) were identified. Sequence similarities between the 4R paralogues were c. 90%, which was slightly lower than those of the 4R orthologues and c. 60% for the 3R products. Through careful examination of the sequence data, however, only 14 loci could reliably be assigned as true orthologues. Locus-specific trees were constructed through maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods and were rooted using the information from a close relative, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis. All approaches generated congruent trees supporting the {Coregonus [Salmo (Oncorhynchus, Salvelinus)]} topology. The general phenotypic characteristics of sequences, however, were highly suggestive of the basal position of Oncorhynchus, raising the hypothesis of an accelerated rate of nucleotide evolution in this species. PMID:21884100

Moghadam, H K; Ferguson, M M; Danzmann, R G

2011-09-01

222

Arabidopsis Has Two Functional Orthologs of the Yeast V-ATPase Assembly Factor Vma21p  

PubMed Central

How individual protein subunits assemble into the higher order structure of a protein complex is not well understood. Four proteins dedicated to the assembly of the V0 subcomplex of the V-ATPase in the ER have been identified in yeast, but their precise mode of molecular action remains to be identified. In contrast to the highly conserved subunits of the V-ATPase, orthologs of the yeast assembly factors are not easily identified based on sequence similarity. We show here that two ER-localized Arabidopsis proteins that share only 25% sequence identity with Vma21p can functionally replace this yeast assembly factor. Loss of AtVMA21a function in RNAi seedlings caused impaired cell expansion and changes in Golgi morphology characteristic for plants with reduced V-ATPase activity, and we therefore conclude that AtVMA21a is the first V-ATPase assembly factor identified in a multicellular eukaryote Moreover, VMA21p acts as a dedicated ER escort chaperone, a class of substrate specific accessory proteins so far not identified in higher plants. PMID:18694437

Neubert, Christoph; Graham, Laurie A.; Black-Maier, Eric W.; Coonrod, Emily M.; Liu, Tzu-Yin; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Seidel, Thorsten; Stevens, Tom H.; Schumacher, Karin

2010-01-01

223

BLM helicase ortholog Sgs1 is a central regulator of meiotic recombination intermediate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Summary The BLM helicase has been shown to maintain genome stability by preventing accumulation of aberrant recombination intermediates. We show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLM ortholog, Sgs1, plays an integral role in normal meiotic recombination, beyond its documented activity limiting aberrant recombination intermediates. In wild type meiosis, temporally and mechanistically distinct pathways produce crossover and noncrossover recombinants. Crossovers form late in meiosis I prophase, by polo kinase-triggered resolution of Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates. Noncrossovers form earlier, via processes that do not involve stable HJ intermediates. In contrast, sgs1 mutants abolish early noncrossover formation. Instead, both noncrossovers and crossovers form by late HJ intermediate resolution, using an alternate pathway requiring the overlapping activities of Mus81-Mms4, Yen1, and Slx1Slx4, nucleases with minor roles in wild-type meiosis. We conclude that Sgs1 is a primary regulator of recombination pathway choice during meiosis, and suggest a similar function in the mitotic cell cycle. PMID:22500736

De Muyt, Arnaud; Jessop, Lea; Kolar, Elizabeth; Sourirajan, Anuradha; Chen, Jianhong; Dayani, Yaron; Lichten, Michael

2012-01-01

224

Localized expression of a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog in a coral embryo.  

PubMed

As the closest outgroup to the Bilateria, the Phylum Cnidaria is likely to be critical to understanding the origins and evolution of body axes. Proteins of the decapentaplegic (DPP)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2/4 subfamily are central to the specification of the dorsoventral (D/V) axis in bilateral animals, albeit with an axis inversion between arthropods and chordates. We show that a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog (bmp2/4-Am) is present in the reef-building scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa) and that it is capable of causing phenotypic effects in Drosophila that mimic those of the endogenous dpp gene. We also show that, during coral embryonic development, bmp2/4-Am expression is localized in an ectodermal region adjacent to the blastopore. Thus, a representative of the DPP/BMP2/4 subfamily of ligands was present in the common ancestor of diploblastic and triploblastic animals where it was probably expressed in a localized fashion during development. A localized source of DPP/BMP2/4 may have already been used in axis formation in this ancestor, or it may have provided a means by which an axis could evolve in triploblastic animals. PMID:12048233

Hayward, David C; Samuel, Gabrielle; Pontynen, Patricia C; Catmull, Julian; Saint, Robert; Miller, David J; Ball, Eldon E

2002-06-11

225

A Leishmania Ortholog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Modulates Host Macrophage Responses  

SciTech Connect

Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as revealed by a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure (1.03 A). Differences between the two proteins in the N-terminal tautomerization site are evident, and we provide evidence for the selective, species-specific inhibition of MIF by small-molecule antagonists that target this site. Lm1740MIF shows significant binding interaction with the MIF receptor, CD74 (K(d) = 2.9 x 10(-8) M). Like its mammalian counterpart, Lm1740MIF induces ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in a CD74-dependent manner and inhibits the activation-induced apoptosis of macrophages. The ability of Lm1740MIF to inhibit apoptosis may facilitate the persistence of Leishmania within the macrophage and contribute to its evasion from immune destruction.

Kamir,D.; Zierow, S.; Leng, L.; Cho, Y.; Diaz, Y.; Griffith, J.; McDonald, C.; Merk, M.; Mitchell, R.; et al

2008-01-01

226

Molecular characterization of the feline T-cell receptor ? alternate reading frame protein (TARP) ortholog  

PubMed Central

T-cell receptor ? alternate reading frame protein (TARP) is expressed by human prostate epithelial, prostate cancer, and mammary cancer cells, but is not found in normal mammary tissue. To date, this protein has only been described in humans. Additionally, no animal model has been established to investigate the potential merits of TARP as tumor marker or a target for adoptive tumor immunotherapy. In this study conducted to characterize feline T-cell receptor ? sequences, constructs very similar to human TARP transcripts were obtained by RACE from the spleen and prostate gland of cats. Transcription of TARP in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic feline mammary tissues was evaluated by conventional RT-PCR. In felines similarly to the situation reported in humans, a C-region encoding two open reading frames is spliced to a J-region gene. In contrast to humans, the feline J-region gene was found to be a pseudogene containing a deletion within its recombination signal sequence. Our findings demonstrated that the feline TARP ortholog is transcribed in the prostate gland and mammary tumors but not normal mammary tissues as is the case with human TARP. PMID:23271175

von Deetzen, Marie-Charlotte; Hecht, Werner; Reinacher, Manfred; Gruber, Achim D.

2012-01-01

227

Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains.  

PubMed

A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-?-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

2013-10-01

228

Genetical and comparative genomics of Brassica under altered Ca supply identifies Arabidopsis Ca-transporter orthologs.  

PubMed

Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization. PMID:25082855

Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; Lysenko, Artem; Mayes, Sean; O Lochlainn, Seosamh; Blasco, Bego; Bowen, Helen C; Rawlings, Chris J; Rios, Juan J; Welham, Susan; Carion, Pierre W C; Dupuy, Lionel X; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

2014-07-01

229

CT406 Encodes a Chlamydial Ortholog of NrdR, a Repressor of Ribonucleotide Reductase ?  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatisis an obligate intracellular bacterium that is dependent on its host cell for nucleotides. Chlamydiaimports ribonucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) but not deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and instead uses ribonucleotide reductase to convert imported ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. The genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase have been recently shown to be negatively controlled by a conserved regulator called NrdR. In this study, we provide direct evidence that Escherichia coliNrdR is a transcriptional repressor and that C. trachomatisCT406 encodes its chlamydial ortholog. We showed that CT406 binds specifically to two NrdR boxes upstream of the nrdABoperon in C. trachomatis. Using an in vitrotranscription assay, we confirmed that these NrdR boxes function as an operator since they were necessary and sufficient for CT406-mediated repression. We validated our in vitrofindings with reporter studies in E. colishowing that both E. coliNrdR and CT406 repressed transcription from the E. colinrdHand C. trachomatisnrdABpromoters in vivo. This in vivorepression was reversed by hydroxyurea treatment. Since hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and reduces intracellular deoxyribonucleotide levels, these results suggest that NrdR activity is modulated by a deoxyribonucleotide corepressor. PMID:21725017

Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Akers, Johnny C.; Tan, Ming

2011-01-01

230

Cattle predation by the golden jacakl canis aureus in the golan heights, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 1.5%-1.9% of the calves born in the Golan Heights die due to predation, mainly by golden jackals Canis aureus, and the total damage during 1993 was estimated at about US$ 42,000. Most attacks occur within 2 days after delivery, and male calves are more likely to be attacked than females, probably because they are heavier and more difficult to

Yoram Yom-Tov; Shoshana Ashkenazi; Omer Viner

1995-01-01

231

Cattle predation by the golden jackal Canis aureus in the Golan Heights, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 15%19% of the calves born in the Golan Heights die due to predation, mainly by golden jackals Canis aureus, and the total damage during 1993 was estimated at about US$ 42,000. Most attacks occur within 2 days after delivery, and male calves are more likely to be attacked than females, probably because they are heavier and more difficult to

Omer Viner

1995-01-01

232

Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

David, Mech, L.

2008-01-01

233

Cumulative effects of forestry on habitat use by gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) in the boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest harvesting involves the creation of roads and cutblocks, both of which can influence animal habitat use. We evaluated\\u000a the cumulative effects of forestry on habitat selection by six packs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) widely distributed in Quebecs boreal forest. Resource selection functions were used to evaluate cumulative effects at two\\u000a levels. First, we studied how the response of

Mlina Houle; Daniel Fortin; Christian Dussault; Rhaume Courtois; Jean-Pierre Ouellet

2010-01-01

234

A Photometric Study of Blue Plume Stars in the Canis Major Over-density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the Canis Major Over-Density (CMa) continues to be an unanswered question. We present the results of an analysis of photometry data for fields in the region around the CMa. We address the difficulty with definitively determining the effects of heavy differential reddening on data in this region of the Milky Way. We describe spectroscopic observations that were made on blue plume stars drawn from this photometric dataset.

Powell, William L.; Wilhelm, R. J.; Carrell, K. W.; White, J. K.

2013-01-01

235

Serum concentrations of eicosanoids and lipids in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with world-wide significance caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. The eicosanoids, as inflammatory mediators, are involved in the regulation of the immune response and inflammatory reaction. Metabolism of lipids is of great importance in babesiosis. In this study it was aimed to investigate the dynamics of serum concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), triglycerides, total cholesterol (Chol), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis and healthy dogs. Both groups were measured for all parameters on the admission day and on the first, second and seventh day of the disease. Dogs that were included in this study had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It was demonstrated that the level of LTB4, PGE2, TxB2 in dogs naturally infected with B. canis significantly changed during the disease. The level of LTB4 was significantly higher during the study, while the concentration of PGE2 was significantly higher second, third and seventh day of disease in relation with healthy dogs. The level of TxB2 was significantly lower at the beginning of the disease, but after seven days concentration was significantly higher. Both group of patients with SIRS and MODS had significantly higher level of LTB4. Substained high concentrations of PGE2 were observed in dogs with MODS after therapy but not in dogs with SIRS, and LTB4 followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, increases in TxB2 were only significant in dogs with SIRS. The lipid profile in naturally infected dogs with B. canis infection was significantly changed. Further studies are needed to assess the prognostic values of lipid mediators in dogs with B. canis infection, and the ability of these markers to predict the progress of SIRS and MODS. PMID:24468427

Mrljak, Vladimir; Ku?er, Nada; Kule, Josipa; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Brklja?i?, Mirna; Crnogaj, Martina; Zivi?njak, Tatjana; Smit, Iva; Ceron, Jose Joaquin; Rafaj, Renata Bari?

2014-03-17

236

Wilderness Discount on Livestock Compensation Costs for Imperiled Gray Wolf Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that Wilderness reduces costs for livestock depredations caused by the endangered and threatened gray wolf (Canis lupus) in the northern Rockies and upper Midwest, U.S.A. From 1995 to 2004, direct costs for compensation in the northern Rockies came to only 47 to 78 percent of losses anticipated at wolf reintroduction and projected from non-wilderness habitat. Compensation was

J. Christopher Haney; Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey; Alysa Quarforth; Gina Schrader; Suzanne Asha Stone

237

Interactions between cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large carnivore populations are recovering in many protected areas in North America, but the effect of increasing carnivore numbers on existing predator-prey and predator-predator interactions is poorly understood. We studied diet and spatial overlap among cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta (1993-2004) to evaluate how wolf recovery in the park influenced diet choice

Andrea D. KORTELLO; Thomas E. HURD; Dennis L. MURRAY

2007-01-01

238

INTERSPECIFIC TRANSMISSION OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO PARTURIENT CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four separate trials, 10 coyotes (Canis latrans) which had been individually fed mascerated bovine placental tissue experimentally inoculated with Brucella abortus strain 2308 were placed in a 1 ha isolation area with six parturient, non-B. abortus vaccinated, Brucella spp. seronegativeHereford heifers.During thesecond trial, three of the heifers became Brucella spp. seroreactive (as determined by the card, standard agglutination tube,

Donald S. Davis; Fred C. Heck; John D. Williams; T. R. Simpson; L. Garry Adams

239

New light curves and analysis of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observations of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris made between 25 Dec. 1992 and 1 Mar. 1993. Two new epochs of minimum light were determined and an improved ephemeris is given. Analysis of the observations with the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney program shows that the system is semidetached. Our solution does not indicate the presence of third light, whereas some previously published solutions required large amounts of third light.

Terrell, Dirk; Gunn, J. B.; Kaiser, Daniel H.

1994-02-01

240

Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans : the influence of social and ecological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 49 coyotes,Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456h and five transient coyotes for 51h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident

ERIC M. GESE; ROBERT L. RUFF

1997-01-01

241

Active use of coyotes ( Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a

A. R. Berentsen; M. R. Dunbar; S. R. Johnson; S. Robbe-Austerman; L. Martinez; R. L. Jones

2011-01-01

242

Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the United States where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas. Methods Dog blood samples (n = 8,662) were submitted from 14 veterinary colleges, 6 private veterinary practices and 4 diagnostic laboratories across this region. Samples were tested for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii specific antibodies using peptide microtiter ELISAs. Results Overall, E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seroprevalence was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3%) was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia). Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6%) followed by the southeast region (5.9%). The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) cases reported by the CDC. Conclusions The results of this study provide the first large scale regional documentation of exposure to E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii in pet dogs, highlighting regional differences in seroprevalence and providing the basis for heightened awareness of these emerging vector-borne pathogens by veterinarians and public health agencies. PMID:22316160

2012-01-01

243

First isolation and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Costa Rica, Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated Ehrlichia species in blood samples from dogs suspected of clinical ehrlichiosis, using molecular and isolation techniques in cell culture. From a total of 310 canine blood samples analyzed by 16S rRNA nested PCR, 148 (47.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. DNA from Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii was not detected in any sample using species-specific primers

L. E. Romero; A. I. Meneses; L. Salazar; M. Jimnez; J. J. Romero; D. M. Aguiar; M. B. Labruna; G. Dolz

2011-01-01

244

ORFEUS-SPAS IIEXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OFe CANIS MAJORIS (B2 II)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopic observations of the B bright giant e Canis Majoris made during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission. We assess the performance of the instrument in the EUV and find that the effective area is roughly 3 times that of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorerlong-wavelength spectrometer and that the spectral resolution is . We identify most of the features,

David H. Cohen; Mark Hurwitz; Joseph P. Cassinelli; Stuart Bowyer

245

Ultraviolet photometry with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite /ANS/ Observations of Beta Canis Majoris variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with detailed ANS observations of three Beta Canis Majoris variables: Xi-1 CMa, HD 61068 (whose discovery is reported here) and 15 CMa. Light curves at five ultraviolet wavelengths are presented, and the periods and amplitudes are discussed. The ultraviolet colors are used to derive temperatures and temperature variations, which are compared with the MK spectral types. The anomalously high luminosity found for Xi-1 CMa on the basis of certain line strengths is also discussed.

Lesh, J. R.; Wesselius, P. R.

1979-01-01

246

Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 20062008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma\\/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled

Renata Welc-Fal?ciak; Anna Rodo; Edward Si?ski; Anna Bajer

2009-01-01

247

The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Domestic Dog ( Canis familiaris) Mitochondrial Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the domestic dog,Canis familiaris,was determined. The length of the sequence was 16,728 bp; however, the length was not absolute due to the variation (heteroplasmy) caused by differing numbers of the repetitive motif, 5?-GTACACGT(A\\/G)C-3?, in the control region. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other mammalian

Kyung Seok Kim; Seong Eun Lee; Ho Won Jeong; Ji Hong Ha

1998-01-01

248

Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves  

PubMed Central

Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T.?canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T.?canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10?cm by 10?cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

Woldstad, Theresa M.; Dullen, Kimberly N.; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.

2014-01-01

249

Within-host evolution of Brucella canis during a canine brucellosis outbreak in a kennel  

PubMed Central

Background Little is currently known about Brucella evolution within the host during infection. The current study is the first to employ fine-scale genotyping on an isolate collection derived from a Brucella canis outbreak. Eight isolates of B. canis, cultured from different tissues of three dogs (female, stud dog, puppy of another female) from a single kennel over three months were genetically characterized with a 15-marker multi-locus, variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates and potential rapid mutational changes. Results MLVA discriminated among the otherwise indistinguishable isolates from different animals and from isolates collected at different time points within each host, with different VNTR alleles being detected at multiple dates and tissue sites. We suspect that all isolates cultured from the female, puppy, and stud dogs originated from the same strain, with subsequent rapid in vivo mutations. However, high mutation rates and apparent in several of the loci prevented making definitive epidemiological relationships among isolates. Conclusions This investigation highlights the rapid in vivo genetic mutations of several VNTRs of B. canis over a short time period in the host and the emergence of alternate alleles. However, this work also suggests the challenges of using highly mutable VNTRs to infer epidemiological relationships of strains within a short duration outbreak. PMID:23587163

2013-01-01

250

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L. D.; Nowak, R. M.; Weisberg, S.

2011-01-01

251

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 19701976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

2011-01-01

252

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia. PMID:24039286

Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho

2013-01-01

253

Comparison of Functional Gene Annotation of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara canis using CLC Genomics Workbench  

PubMed Central

The ascarids, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in dogs. In order to understand biological differences of 2 ascarids, we analyzed gene expression profiles of female adults of T. canis and T. leonina using CLC Genomics Workbench, and the results were compared with those of free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A total of 2,880 and 7,949 ESTs were collected from T. leonina and T. canis, respectively. The length of ESTs ranged from 106 to 4,637 bp with an average insert size of 820 bp. Overall, our results showed that most functional gene annotations of 2 ascarids were quite similar to each other in 3 major categories, i.e., cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Although some different transcript expression categories were found, the distance was short and it was not enough to explain their different lifestyles. However, we found distinguished transcript differences between ascarid parasites and free-living nematodes. Understanding evolutionary genetic changes might be helpful for studies of the lifestyle and evolution of parasites. PMID:24327777

Kim, Ki Uk; Park, Sang Kyun; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Mi Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Jung, Ho-jin; Kim, Kyung-Yun

2013-01-01

254

Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission. PMID:23568921

Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pdraig J; Kutz, Susan J

2013-04-01

255

Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB) assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S) of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 micro g/mL. The concentration of 250 micro g/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis. PMID:12219113

Morales, Olga Luca; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Nicholls, Rubn Santiago; Agudelo, Carlos

2002-01-01

256

Development of an experimental model of Microsporum canis infection in cats.  

PubMed

An experimental infection model was developed for reliable induction of Microsporum canis skin infections in cats, using a defined number of macroconidia harvested from the fungus in culture. The strain of M. canis used produced highly fluorescent hairs under ultraviolet illumination. Kittens 8 to 9 weeks of age (n = 6) received 10(5) macroconidia applied topically to a closely-shaved area of skin. Sites were dressed with an occlusive bandage for 3 days, then grooming was restricted for an additional 4 weeks. Lesions were first observed 2 weeks after inoculation, enlarged over the following 6 to 8 weeks, then decreased in size and appeared healed at 12 to 14 weeks after inoculation. Cats often developed satellite lesions on the face, ears, or other body regions. The experimental infections strongly resembled moderately severe cases of naturally-occurring feline dermatophytosis in clinical patients. This experimental infection model will be useful for evaluation of topical and systemic treatments for feline M. canis infection. PMID:9133054

DeBoer, D J; Moriello, K A

1994-12-01

257

Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic ad- aptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (21.86 to 1C) and three South American (4 to 10C) noto- thenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American

PETER A. FIELDS; GEORGE N. SOMERO

1998-01-01

258

BLISS 2.0: a web-based tool for predicting conserved regulatory modules in distantly-related orthologous sequences  

PubMed Central

Summary BLISS 2.0 is a web-based application for identifying conserved regulatory modules in distantly related orthologous sequences. Unlike existing approaches, it performs the cross-genome comparison at the binding site level. Experimental results on simulated and real world data indicate that BLISS 2.0 can identify conserved regulatory modules from sequences with little overall similarity at the DNA sequence level. PMID:17660203

Meng, Hailong; Banerjee, Arunava; Zhou, Lei

2008-01-01

259

Orthologs of a novel archaeal and of the bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase are nonessential in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (encoded by pth) is an essential enzyme in all bacteria, where it releases tRNA from the premature translation termination product peptidyl-tRNA. Archaeal genomes lack a recognizable peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) ortholog, although it is present in most eukaryotes. However, we detected Pth-like activity in extracts of the archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The uncharacterized MJ0051 ORF was shown to correspond to

Guillermina Rosas-Sandoval; Alexandre Ambrogelly; Jesse Rinehart; David Wei; L. Rogelio Cruz-Vera; David E. Graham; Karl O. Stetter; Gabriel Guarneros; Dieter Sll

2002-01-01

260

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

261

The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systemic model for floral induction, dubbed florigen, was conceived in photoperiod-sensitive plants but implies, in its ultimate form, a graft-transmissible signal that, although activated by different stimuli in different flowering systems, is common to all plants. We show that SFT (SINGLE-FLOWER TRUSS), the tomato ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), induces flowering in day-neutral tomato and tobacco plants and

Eliezer Lifschitz; Tamar Eviatar; Alexander Rozman; Akiva Shalit; Alexander Goldshmidt; Ziva Amsellem; John Paul Alvarez; Yuval Eshed

2006-01-01

262

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event. PMID:23095575

2012-01-01

263

Toxoplasma PRP1 is an ortholog of parafusin (PFUS) in vesicle scaffold assembly in Ca 2+-regulated exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paramecium tetraurelia protein parafusin (PFUS) and the Toxoplasma gondii protein parafusin-related protein 1 (PRP1) both have two covalent modifications (phosphorylation and phosphoglucosylation) and both are members of the phosphoglucomutase superfamily, associating with secretory vesicle scaffolds in their respective cells. This study tests the hypothesis that PRP1 is a functional ortholog of PFUS, functioning identically in Ca2+-regulated exocytosis. Electroporation of

Li Liu; Stephanie C. Tucker; Birgit H. Satir

2009-01-01

264

Functional analysis of cotton orthologs of GA signal transduction factors GID1 and SLR1.  

PubMed

Gibberellic acid (GA) is both necessary and sufficient to promote fiber elongation in cultured fertilized ovules of the upland cotton variety Coker 312. This is likely due to the temporal and spatial regulation of GA biosynthesis, perception, and subsequent signal transduction that leads to alterations in gene expression and morphology. Our results indicate that the initiation of fiber elongation by the application of GA to cultured ovules corresponds with increased expression of genes that encode xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin (EXP) that are involved in promoting cell elongation. To gain a better understanding of the GA signaling components in cotton, that lead to such changes in gene expression, two GA receptor genes (GhGID1a and GhGID1b) and two DELLA protein genes (GhSLR1a and GhSLR1b) that are orthologous to the rice GA receptor (GID1) and the rice DELLA gene (SLR1), respectively, were characterized. Similar to the GA biosynthetic genes, expression of GhGID1a and GhGID1b is under the negative regulation by GA while GA positively regulates GhSLR1a. Recombinant GST-GhGID1s showed GA-binding activity in vitro that was augmented in the presence of GhSLR1a, GhSLR1b, or rice SLR1, indicating complex formation between the receptors and repressor proteins. This was further supported by the GA-dependent interaction of these proteins in yeast cells. Ectopic expression of the GhGID1a in the rice gid1-3 mutant plants rescued the GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype, which demonstrates that it is a functional GA receptor. Furthermore, ectopic expression of GhSLR1b in wild type Arabidopsis led to reduced growth and upregulated expression of DELLA-responsive genes. PMID:18506581

Aleman, Lorenzo; Kitamura, Jun; Abdel-mageed, Haggag; Lee, Joohyun; Sun, Yan; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Allen, Randy D

2008-09-01

265

PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes  

PubMed Central

Background With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure. Results Here we describe an open access web server, which is designated as PSP (Positive Selection analysis for Prokaryotic genomes) for performing evolutionary analysis on orthologous coding genes, specially designed for rapid comparison of dozens of closely related prokaryotic genomes. Remarkably, PSP facilitates functional exploration at the multiple levels by assignments and enrichments of KO, GO or COG terms. To illustrate this user-friendly tool, we analyzed Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus genomes and found that several genes, which play key roles in human infection and antibiotic resistance, show significant evidence of positive selection. PSP is freely available to all users without any login requirement at: http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/PSP/. Conclusions PSP ultimately allows researchers to do genome-scale analysis for evolutionary selection across multiple prokaryotic genomes rapidly and easily, and identify the genes undergoing positive selection, which may play key roles in the interactions of host-pathogen and/or environmental adaptation. PMID:24373418

2013-01-01

266

The spartan ortholog maternal haploid is required for paternal chromosome integrity in the Drosophila zygote.  

PubMed

The animal sperm nucleus is characterized by an extremely compacted organization of its DNA after the global replacement of histones with sperm-specific nuclear basic proteins, such as protamines [1, 2]. In the absence of DNA repair activity in the mature gamete, the integrity of the paternal genome is potentially challenged by the unique topological constraints exerted on sperm DNA [3]. In addition, the maintenance of paternal DNA integrity during the rapid remodeling of sperm chromatin at fertilization has long been regarded as a maternal trait [4]. However, little is known about the nature of the egg proteins involved in this essential aspect of zygote formation [5, 6]. We had previously characterized the unique phenotype of the classical Drosophila maternal effect mutant maternal haploid (mh), which specifically affects the integration of paternal chromosomes in the zygote [7]. Here we show that MH is the fly ortholog of the recently identified human DVC1/Spartan protein, a conserved regulator of DNA damage tolerance [8-14]. Like Spartan, MH protein is involved in the resistance to UV radiation and recruits the p97/TER94 segregase to stalled DNA replication forks in somatic cells. In the zygote, we found that the mh phenotype is consistent with perturbed or incomplete paternal DNA replication. Remarkably, however, the specific accumulation of MH in the male pronucleus before the first S phase suggests that this maternal protein is required to maintain paternal DNA integrity during nuclear decondensation or to set the paternal chromatin landscape in preparation of the first zygotic cycle. PMID:25242033

Delabaere, Laetitia; Orsi, Guillermo A; Sapey-Triomphe, Laure; Horard, Batrice; Couble, Pierre; Loppin, Benjamin

2014-10-01

267

The cloned rat pancreatic polypeptide receptor exhibits profound differences to the orthologous receptor.  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is produced in the islets of Langerhans and released in response to meals. It belongs to a family of peptides that also includes neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. In the present communication, we describe a rat receptor with high affinity for PP, therefore named PP1. Clones for the PP1 receptor were obtained by PCR using sequence information for the neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 from several species. The PP1 receptor has 46% overall amino acid sequence identity to the rat Y1 receptor and 56% identity in the transmembrane regions. The PP1 receptor displays a pharmacological profile that is distinct from previously described neuropeptide Y-family receptors. In competition with iodinated bovine PP, it binds rat PP with an affinity (K(i)) of 0.017 nM, while the affinities for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y are substantially lower with K(i) values of 162 and 192 nM, respectively. In stably transfected CHO cells, the PP1 receptor inhibits forskolin-stimulated cAMP synthesis. Northern blot hybridizations to a panel of mRNAs detected transcripts in testis and lung. A faint band was seen in colon and total brain. In contrast, the human receptor is expressed primarily in colon and small intestine. Whereas rat and human PP1 bind PP with the same affinity, the rat receptor has much lower affinity than its human ortholog for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence identity between rat and human PP1 is only 75%. Thus, the sequence, the tissue distribution, and the binding profile of the PP1 receptor differ considerably between rat and human. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8643536

Lundell, I; Statnick, M A; Johnson, D; Schober, D A; Starback, P; Gehlert, D R; Larhammar, D

1996-01-01

268

Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.  

PubMed

Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10 days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42 bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1,311 bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6. PMID:24952136

Wei, Fei; Li, Min; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Wen, Liang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Shuai, Jie

2014-08-15

269

Non-human lnc-DC orthologs encode Wdnm1-like protein  

PubMed Central

In a recent publication in Science, Wang et al. found a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expressed in human dendritic cells (DC), which they designated lnc-DC. Based on lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in human and murine systems, they concluded that lnc-DC is important in differentiation of monocytes into DC. However, Wang et al. did not mention that their so-called mouse lnc-DC ortholog gene was already designated Wdnm1-like and is known to encode a small secreted protein. We found that incapacitation of the Wdnm1-like open reading frame (ORF) is very rare among mammals, with all investigated primates except for hominids having an intact ORF. The null-hypothesis by Wang et al. therefore should have been that the human lnc-DC transcript might only represent a non-functional relatively young evolutionary remnant of a protein coding locus. Whether this null-hypothesis can be rejected by the experimental data presented by Wang et al. depends in part on the possible off-target (immunogenic or otherwise) effects of their RNAi procedures, which were not exhaustive in regard to the number of analyzed RNAi sequences and control sequences. If, however, the conclusions by Wang et al. on their human model are correct, and they may be, current knowledge regarding the Wdnm1-like locus suggests an intriguing combination of different functions mediated by transcript and protein in the maturation of several cell types at some point in evolution. We feel that the article by Wang et al. tends to be misleading without the discussion presented here. PMID:25309733

Dijkstra, Johannes M.; Ballingall, Keith T.

2014-01-01

270

The complexity of vesicle transport factors in plants examined by orthology search.  

PubMed

Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the 'core-set' of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed. PMID:24844592

Paul, Puneet; Simm, Stefan; Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

2014-01-01

271

The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida's Newest Predator1 S.F. Coates, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, J.M. Schaefer, G.W. Tanner, M.E. Sunquist, and M.D.  

E-print Network

WEC124 The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida's Newest Predator1 S.F. Coates, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, Florida's newest fur-bearing predator. Background The coyote (Canis latrans) is becoming a common occur; decreased competition across its range from other predators--the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and red wolf

Jawitz, James W.

272

A phylogenetic approach to test for evidence of parental conflict or gene duplications associated with protein-encoding imprinted orthologous genes in placental mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are multiple theories on the evolution of genomic imprinting. We investigated whether the molecular evolution of true\\u000a orthologs of known imprinted genes provides support for theories based on gene duplication or parental conflicts (where mediated\\u000a by amino-acid changes). Our analysis of 34 orthologous genes demonstrates that the vast majority of mammalian imprinted genes\\u000a have not undergone any subsequent significant

Mary J. OConnell; Noeleen B. Loughran; Thomas A. Walsh; Mark T. A. Donoghue; Karl J. Schmid; Charles Spillane

2010-01-01

273

Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon. PMID:24502723

Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-10-01

274

Systemic acquired resistance in soybean is regulated by two proteins, Orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced in non-inoculated leaves following infection with certain pathogenic strains. SAR is effective against many pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule of the SAR pathway. The development of SAR is associated with the induction of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) is a regulatory gene of the SA signal pathway [1-3]. SAR in soybean was first reported following infection with Colletotrichum trancatum that causes anthracnose disease. We investigated if SAR in soybean is regulated by a pathway, similar to the one characterized in Arabidopsis. Results Pathogenesis-related gene GmPR1 is induced following treatment of soybean plants with the SAR inducer, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or infection with the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. In P. sojae-infected plants, SAR was induced against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Soybean GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes showed high identities to Arabidopsis NPR1. They showed similar expression patterns among the organs, studied in this investigation. GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 are the only soybean homologues of NPR1and are located in homoeologous regions. In GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 transformed Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants, SAR markers: (i) PR-1 was induced following INA treatment and (ii) BGL2 following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and SAR was induced following Pst infection. Of the five cysteine residues, Cys82, Cys150, Cys155, Cys160, and Cys216 involved in oligomer-monomer transition in NPR1, Cys216 in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 proteins was substituted to Ser and Leu, respectively. Conclusion Complementation analyses in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutants revealed that homoeologous GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1. Therefore, SAR pathway in soybean is most likely regulated by GmNPR1 genes. Substitution of Cys216 residue, essential for oligomer-monomer transition of Arabidopsis NPR1, with Ser and Leu residues in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2, respectively, suggested that there may be differences between the regulatory mechanisms of GmNPR1 and Arabidopsis NPR proteins. PMID:19656407

Sandhu, Devinder; Tasma, I Made; Frasch, Ryan; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

2009-01-01

275

Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.  

PubMed

Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

Esteban, Raquel; Fernndez-Marn, Beatriz; Becerril, Jos Mara; Garca-Plazaola, Jos Ignacio

2008-08-25

276

Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

Mech, L. D.; McIntyre, R. T.; Smith, D. W.

2004-01-01

277

Unusual behavior by bison, Bison bison, toward elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incidents are described of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the bison knocked a wolf-wounded elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

Mech, L. D.; McIntyre, R. T.; Smith, D. W.

2004-01-01

278

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

279

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

2007-07-01

280

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with parasites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and parasites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguination. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote. PMID:17939363

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V

2007-09-01

281

Bilateral cataracts in a coyote (Canis latrans) pup from Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

A free-ranging coyote (Canis latrans) pup was found in rural Saskatchewan and was subsequently presented to a veterinary teaching hospital by a wildlife rehabilitator. On physical examination, the pup was found to be blind as a result of bilateral, mature cataracts, which were confirmed on postmortem examination. No other significant intraocular or extraocular disease was detected, resulting in a presumptive diagnosis of congenital cataract. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of congenital cataract in any wild canid species. PMID:20597237

Granson, Hilary; Grahn, Bruce; Parker, Dennilyn; Himsworth, Chelsea

2010-06-01

282

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

283

A case of visceral leishmaniosis in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia.  

PubMed

The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leishmania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, indicated that lesions associated with infection by Leishmania infantum are, in this case, typical for visceral leshmaniosis commonly described in dogs. Review of the literature suggests that this is the first reported case of gray wolf death due to lesions caused by L. infantum. PMID:18436678

Beck, A; Beck, R; Kusak, J; Gudan, A; Martinkovic, F; Artukovic, B; Hohsteter, M; Huber, D; Marinculic, A; Grabarevic, Z

2008-04-01

284

ORFEUS-SPAS II EUV Spectroscopy of epsilon Canis Majoris (B2 II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopic observations of the B\\u000abright giant epsilon Canis Majoris made during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission. We\\u000aassess the performance of the instrument in the EUV and find that the effective\\u000aarea is roughly 3 times that of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE)\\u000along-wavelength spectrometer and that the spectral resolution is\\u000alambda\\/Delta(lambda) = 1250. We identify

David H. Cohen; Mark Hurwitz; Joseph P. Cassinelli; Stuart Bowyer

1997-01-01

285

ORFEUS-SPAS II EUV Spectroscopy of epsilon Canis Majoris (B2 II)  

E-print Network

We report on extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopic observations of the B bright giant epsilon Canis Majoris made during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission. We assess the performance of the instrument in the EUV and find that the effective area is roughly 3 times that of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) long-wavelength spectrometer and that the spectral resolution is lambda/Delta(lambda) = 1250. We identify most of the features, qualitatively compare different models, and examine the wind-broadened O V and Si IV lines, which display blue edge velocities up to 800 km/s.

David H. Cohen; Mark Hurwitz; Joseph P. Cassinelli; Stuart Bowyer

1997-12-05

286

Narrow-band, slowly varying decimetric radiation from the dwarf M flare star YZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of slowly varying radiation from the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris with a maximum flux density of 20 mJy and narrow-band frequency structure at frequencies near 1465 MHz are presented. Possible explanations for this radiation are examined. Thermal gyroresonant radiation would require impossibly large coronal loops and magnetic field strengths. The narrow-band structure cannot be explained by continuum emission processes such as thermal bremsstrahlung, thermal gyroresonant radiation, or nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation. Coherent burst mechanisms seem to be required.

Lang, K. R.; Willson, R. F.

1986-03-01

287

Narrow-band, slowly varying decimetric radiation from the dwarf M flare star YZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of slowly varying radiation from the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris with a maximum flux density of 20 mJy and narrow-band frequency structure at frequencies near 1465 MHz are presented. Possible explanations for this radiation are examined. Thermal gyroresonant radiation would require impossibly large coronal loops and magnetic field strengths. The narrow-band structure cannot be explained by continuum emission processes such as thermal bremsstrahlung, thermal gyroresonant radiation, or nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation. Coherent burst mechanisms seem to be required.

Lang, K. R.; Willson, R. F.

1986-01-01

288

Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland.  

PubMed

Eighty-nine samples of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) faeces were collected between 2002 and 2004 from two areas in the western Beskidy Mts (south Poland). Helminth eggs were observed in 56.2% of faeces examined. These included: Alaria alata (2.2%), taeniid eggs (11.2%), Toxocara canis (5.6%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (14.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (37%) and unidentified roundworm eggs of the family Strongyloididae (1.1%). Eucoleus aerophilus is recorded for the first time from Poland. The results are compared with the helminth fauna of other wolf populations in Europe. PMID:18251025

Popio?ek, Marcin; Szczesnaa, Justyna; Nowaka, Sabina; Mys?ajeka, Robert W

2007-12-01

289

A mutation in the human CBP4 ortholog UQCC3 impairs complex III assembly, activity and cytochrome b stability.  

PubMed

Complex III (cytochrome bc1) is a protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c. Its assembly requires the coordinated expression of mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome b and nuclear-encoded subunits and assembly factors. Complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder caused by mutations in subunit genes or assembly factors. Sequence-profile-based orthology predicts C11orf83, hereafter named UQCC3, to be the ortholog of the fungal complex III assembly factor CBP4. We describe a homozygous c.59T>A missense mutation in UQCC3 from a consanguineous patient diagnosed with isolated complex III deficiency, displaying lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypotonia and delayed development without dysmorphic features. Patient fibroblasts have reduced complex III activity and lower levels of the holocomplex and its subunits than controls. They have no detectable UQCC3 protein and have lower levels of cytochrome b protein. Furthermore, in patient cells, cytochrome b is absent from a high-molecular-weight complex III. UQCC3 is reduced in cells depleted for the complex III assembly factors UQCC1 and UQCC2. Conversely, absence of UQCC3 in patient cells does not affect UQCC1 and UQCC2. This suggests that UQCC3 functions in the complex III assembly pathway downstream of UQCC1 and UQCC2 and is consistent with what is known about the function of Cbp4 and of the fungal orthologs of UQCC1 and UQCC2, Cbp3 and Cbp6. We conclude that UQCC3 functions in complex III assembly and that the c.59T>A mutation has a causal role in complex III deficiency. PMID:25008109

Wanschers, Bas F J; Szklarczyk, Radek; van den Brand, Maril A M; Jonckheere, An; Suijskens, Janneke; Smeets, Roel; Rodenburg, Richard J; Stephan, Katharina; Helland, Ingrid B; Elkamil, Areej; Rootwelt, Terje; Ott, Martin; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Nijtmans, Leo G; Huynen, Martijn A

2014-12-01

290

From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.  

PubMed Central

For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfers vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfers vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of heart jogging and the direction of heart looping. Heart jogging is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward jog. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development. We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging. We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish heart jogging orthologs are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging. This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach. PMID:24627794

Lovering, Ruth C

2014-01-01

291

Helminths in the wolf, Canis lupus, from north-western Spain.  

PubMed

Fifteen helminth species were collected from 47 wolves (Canis lupus ) which were surveyed from 1993 to 1999 in northwestern Spain. These included the trematode Alaria alata (2.1%); the cestodes Taenia hydatigena (44.7%), T. multiceps (29.8%), T. serialis (2.1%), Dipylidium caninum (6.4%) and Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus (4.2%); and the nematodes Pearsonema plica (7.4%), Trichuris vulpis (10.6%), Trichinella britovi (12.8%), Ancylostoma caninum (8.5%), Uncinaria stenocephala (51.1%), Toxocara canis (6.4%) Toxascaris leonina (4.2%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (2.1%) and Dirofilaria immitis (2.1%). Only two wolves were not infected. A single infection occurred in 28.9% of the cases, but the commonest infracommunity (31.1%) involved three species. The helminths Alaria alata, Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, P. plica, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum parasitizing C. lupus are reported for the first time in Spain. Taenia serialis and D. immitis are reported for the first time in wolves in Europe. Angiostrongylus vasorum represents a new host record for wolves. The helminth fauna of Spanish wolves is compared with that of other European wolf populations. Some epidemiological considerations of the helminth fauna of wolves in Spain and the health risk to humans are also discussed. PMID:11520444

Segovia, J M; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Llaneza, L; Feliu, C

2001-06-01

292

Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain.  

PubMed

This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest of the species, Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847). Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780), Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902), Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) and Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), behave as satellite species. The linear intestinal distribution of all helminth species was analysed. The location of most species can be considered predictable, especially for core and secondary species. The analysis of interspecific relationships between infracommunities shows that negative associations are more numerous than positive associations. The role of A. caninum in the community is compared with that of U. stenocephala. PMID:14535350

Segovia, Juan-Matas; Guerrero, Ricardo; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos

2003-09-01

293

A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wroc?aw and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Pi?a (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobr, Jastrowo) and Zielona Gra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrza?skie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe. PMID:20236557

Szafra?ska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszy?ski, A

2010-12-01

294

The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

2005-09-01

295

Diagnosis of canine brucellosis by ELISA using an antigen obtained from wild Brucella canis.  

PubMed

An indirect ELISA test was developed for the diagnosis of Brucella canis infection in dogs. A bacterial whole cell extract was used as a solid phase antigen, using B. canis isolated from an infected animal. Sera from culture-positive and healthy negative animals were used as internal reference controls. The cut-off point was determined by a mathematical formula for a statistically valid value, which defined the upper prediction limit, based on the upper tail of the t-distribution of 21 negative control sera readings, for the confidence level of 99.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test were 95% and 91%, respectively. The ELISA test showed a significant concordance index (K=0.84) with the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The reliability of the ELISA for the detection of infected animals was established by a double blind study testing 280 sera provided by serum banks from different diagnostic and research institutions and analyzed by ROC Curve. PMID:17442351

Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Ribeiro, Marcos Borges; de Alcntara, Adriano Costa; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; Nascimento, Ivana Lcia; Schaer, Robert Eduard; Nascimento, Roberto Meyer; Freire, Songel Menezes

2007-12-01

296

Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment. PMID:24502735

Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

2013-10-01

297

Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.  

PubMed

Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes. PMID:25292192

Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

2014-11-01

298

Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of epsilon Canis Majoris between 600-920 Angstroms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the spectrum the brightest known extreme ultraviolet source, epsilon Canis Majoris, between 600 and 920 Angstroms. epsilon Canis Majoris (B2 II) was discovered to be the brightest EUV source in the sky during the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey. Subsequent spectroscopic observations found an anomolously low neutral hydrogen column density, allowing for the first time the observation of a B star between 500 and 730 Angstroms. Unexpectedly, the spectrum is still increasing at 730 Angstroms. By observing epsilon CMa between 600 and 920 Angstroms, the spectrum of epsilon CMa is now complete from the x-ray thru to the infrared. This provides a unique opportunity for studying the atmospheres of B stars and refining the current atmospheric models, which cannot currently model the stellar flux from epsilon CMa. epsilon CMa was observed on March 4, 1996 from White Sands Missile Range using a sounding rocket borne spectrograph. The spectrum has a resolution ranging between 1000 at 735 Angstroms to 450 at 900 Angstroms . Two data sets were acquired during the flight; one with a tin filter, to block out potential scattered light longward of 920 Angstroms, and one without the filter. We will present the spectrum epsilon CMa and discuss and the current state of our analysis.

Wilkinson, E.; Green, J. C.; McLean, R.; Welsh, B.

1996-05-01

299

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiab and Vrzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Isis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andreia Lima Tome; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

300

Spectral results for the blue plume stars in Canis Major Overdensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present distances and kinematics and look at the possible populations for the blue plume (BP) stars in the Canis Major Overdensity (CMO). We conducted a medium resolution spectral survey on the BP stars (N=303) in CMO (centered at l = 238o ; b = -8o) using the data from AAOmega Spectrograph. We used a modified version of the SNIP algorithm to normalize our fluxed absorption spectra. After determining the radial velocities from measurements of strong absorption features for the stars we use a Bayesian analysis of spectral feature strengths and photometric colors to determine Teff, Logg and [Fe/H]. Our procedure makes use of grid for model synthetic spectra computed using SPECTRUM with Atlas9 model atmospheres and Kurucz model colors. We determine the absolute magnitude using the stellar parameters and BaSTI isochrones and compute distances and ages for the BP stars. From stellar calibration data using our procedure our preliminary results suggest this technique can produce both reddening and distance determinations to within 10%. We will report on the spatial, kinematic, metallicity and age distribution for the BP stars at the center of the Canis Major Overdensity.

Sharoz Rafiul Islam, Mirza; Wilhelm, R. J.

2014-01-01

301

Colorimetric Detection of Ehrlichia Canis via Nucleic Acid Hybridization in Gold Nano-Colloids  

PubMed Central

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP). The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles' surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease. PMID:25111239

Muangchuen, Ajima; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

302

TaWRKY68 responses to biotic stresses are revealed by the orthologous genes from major cereals.  

PubMed

WRKY transcription factors have been extensively characterized in the past 20 years, but in wheat, studies on WRKY genes and their function are lagging behind many other species. To explore the function of wheat WRKY genes, we identified a TaWRKY68 gene from a common wheat cultivar. It encodes a protein comprising 313 amino acids which harbors 19 conserved motifs or active sites. Gene expression patterns were determined by analyzing microarray data of TaWRKY68 in wheat and of orthologous genes from maize, rice and barley using Genevestigator. TaWRKY68 orthologs were identified and clustered using DELTA-BLAST and COBALT programs available at NCBI. The results showed that these genes, which are expressed in all tissues tested, had relatively higher levels in the roots and were up-regulated in response to biotic stresses. Bioinformatics results were confirmed by RT-PCR experiments using wheat plants infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Blumeria graminis, or treated with Deoxynivalenol, a Fusarium graminearum-induced mycotoxin in wheat or barley. In summary, TaWRKY68 functions differ during plant developmental stages and might be representing a hub gene function in wheat responses to various biotic stresses. It was also found that including data from major cereal genes in the bioinformatics analysis gave more accurate and comprehensive predictions of wheat gene functions. PMID:24688294

Ding, Bo; Wang, Junbin; Song, Na; Li, Ming; Cheng, Qiaolin; Huang, Guozhong; Guo, Yaolin; Fu, Yang; Xie, Chaojie; Sun, Qixin; Xie, Xiaodong

2014-03-01

303

Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs.  

PubMed

When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL of the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) could be developed on the basis of pharmacological variation between species orthologs. For this, bovine FFA2 was characterized, revealing distinct ligand selectivity compared with human FFA2. Homology modeling and mutational analysis demonstrated a single mutation in human FFA2 of C4.57G resulted in a human FFA2 receptor with ligand selectivity similar to the bovine receptor. This was exploited to generate human FFA2-RASSL by the addition of a second mutation at a known orthosteric ligand interaction site, H6.55Q. The resulting FFA2-RASSL displayed a >100-fold loss of activity to endogenous ligands, while responding to the distinct ligand sorbic acid with pEC(50) values for inhibition of cAMP, 5.83 0.11; Ca(2+) mobilization, 4.63 0.05; ERK phosphorylation, 5.61 0.06; and dynamic mass redistribution, 5.35 0.06. This FFA2-RASSL will be useful in future studies on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs. PMID:22919070

Hudson, Brian D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Adams, David R; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

2012-12-01

304

Orthologs of Human Disease Associated Genes and RNAi Analysis of Silencing Insulin Receptor Gene in Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

305

Phosphorylation mimicking mutations of ALOX5 orthologs of different vertebrates do not alter reaction specificities of the enzymes.  

PubMed

5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes whereas 15-lipoxygenases (ALOX15) have been implicated in the formation of pro-resolving eicosanoids (lipoxins, resolvins). Recently, it has been suggested that a phosphorylation mimicking mutant (Ser663Asp) of a stabilized variant of human ALOX5 exhibits dominant arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase activity (>95%). To test whether similar alterations in the reaction specificity can also be observed for ALOX5 orthologs of other species we expressed wildtype and phosphorylation mimicking mutants (Ser271Asp, Ser523Asp, Ser663Asp, Ser663Glu) of human, mouse and zebrafish ALOX5 in pro- and eukaryotic overexpression systems and characterized their reaction specificities. We found that neither of the phosphorylation mimicking mutants produced significant amounts of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and the 5-lipoxygenation/15-lipoxygenation ratio for all wildtype and mutant enzyme species was lower than 100:2. Taken together, this data suggest that phosphorylation of native ALOX5 orthologs of different vertebrates may not induce major alterations in the reaction specificity and thus may not inverse their biological activity. PMID:25025884

Adel, Susan; Hofheinz, Katharina; Heydeck, Dagmar; Kuhn, Hartmut; Hfner, Ann-Kathrin

2014-10-01

306

Overlapping genes of Aedes aegypti: evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects  

PubMed Central

Background Although gene overlapping is a common feature of prokaryote and mitochondria genomes, such genes have also been identified in many eukaryotes. The overlapping genes in eukaryotes are extensively rearranged even between closely related species. In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). The overlapping gene pairs of A. aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. Results The results show that as much as ~10% of the predicted genes of A. aegypti and A. gambiae are localized in positional overlapping manner. Furthermore, the study shows that differential abundance of introns and simple sequence repeats have significant association with positional rearrangement of overlapping genes between the two species. Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. Conclusion Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects. PMID:23777277

2013-01-01

307

ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes  

SciTech Connect

The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

2009-07-23

308

The Pea Photoperiod Response Gene STERILE NODES Is an Ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The STERILE NODES (SN) locus in pea (Pisum sativum) was one of the first photoperiod response genes to be described and provided early evidence for the genetic control of long-distance signaling in flowering-time regulation. Lines homozygous for recessive sn mutations are early flowering and photoperiod insensitive, with an increased ability to promote flowering across a graft union in short-day conditions. Here, we show that SN controls developmental regulation of genes in the FT family and rhythmic regulation of genes related to circadian clock function. Using a positional and functional candidate approach, we identify SN as the pea ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO, a GARP transcription factor from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with an important role in circadian clock function. In addition to induced mutants, sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of at least three other independent, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations among known sn cultivars. Examination of genetic and regulatory interactions between SN and two other circadian clock genes, HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR) and DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), suggests a complex relationship in which HR regulates expression of SN and the role of DNE and HR in control of flowering is dependent on SN. These results extend previous work to show that pea orthologs of all three Arabidopsis evening complex genes regulate clock function and photoperiod-responsive flowering and suggest that the function of these genes may be widely conserved. PMID:24706549

Liew, Lim Chee; Hecht, Valerie; Sussmilch, Frances C.; Weller, James L.

2014-01-01

309

Orthologs of Human Disease Associated Genes and RNAi Analysis of Silencing Insulin Receptor Gene in Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

310

Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus), Ba86 (R. annulatus) and Bd86 (R. decoloratus) were cloned and characterized from African or Asian tick strains and the recombinant proteins were secreted and purified from P. pastoris. The secretion of recombinant Bm86 ortholog proteins in P. pastoris allowed for a simple purification process rendering a final product with high recovery (3542%) and purity (8085%) and likely to result in a more reproducible conformation closely resembling the native protein. Rabbit immunization experiments with recombinant proteins showed immune cross-reactivity between Bm86 ortholog proteins. Conclusion These experiments support the development and testing of vaccines containing recombinant Bm86, Ba86 and Bd86 secreted in P. pastoris for the control of tick infestations in Africa. PMID:18275601

Canales, Mario; de la Lastra, Jos M Prez; Naranjo, Victoria; Nijhof, Ard M; Hope, Michelle; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jos

2008-01-01

311

Identification of Putative Ortholog Gene Blocks Involved in Gestant and Lactating Mammary Gland Development: A Rodent Cross-Species Microarray Transcriptomics Approach  

PubMed Central

The mammary gland (MG) undergoes functional and metabolic changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, possibly by regulation of conserved genes. The objective was to elucidate orthologous genes, chromosome clusters and putative conserved transcriptional modules during MG development. We analyzed expression of 22,000 transcripts using murine microarrays and RNA samples of MG from virgin, pregnant, and lactating rats by cross-species hybridization. We identified 521 transcripts differentially expressed; upregulated in early (78%) and midpregnancy (89%) and early lactation (64%), but downregulated in mid-lactation (61%). Putative orthologous genes were identified. We mapped the altered genes to orthologous chromosomal locations in human and mouse. Eighteen sets of conserved genes associated with key cellular functions were revealed and conserved transcription factor binding site search entailed possible coregulation among all eight block sets of genes. This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous array hybridization for screening of orthologous gene expression from rat revealed sets of conserved genes arranged in chromosomal order implicated in signaling pathways and functional ontology. Results demonstrate the utilization power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using rodent microarrays to identification of putative coexpressed orthologous genes involved in the control of human mammary gland development. PMID:24288657

Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon M.; Hernandez-Stengele, Gabriel; Sanchez, Raul; Salazar, Emmanuel; Sanchez-Munoz, Fausto; Encarnacion-Guevara, Sergio; Ramirez-Salcedo, Jorge

2013-01-01

312

Spatial heterodyne interferometry of VY Canis Major's, alpha Orionis, alpha Scorpii, and R leonis at 11 microns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the technique of heterodyne interferometry, measurements were made of the spatial distribution of 11 micron radiation from four late type stars. The circumstellar shells surrounding VY Canis Majoris, alpha Orionis, and alpha Scorpii were resolved, whereas that of R Leonis was only partially resolved at a fringe spacing of 0.4 sec.

Sutton, E. C.; Storey, J. W. V.; Betz, A. L.; Townes, C. H.; Spears, D. L.

1977-01-01

313

Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Schoen, J.W.

2004-01-01

314

Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal concentrations in wolves ( Canis lupus L. 1758) from north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf Canis lupus is a major terrestrial predator in eastern Europe and, as a top carnivore, may be exposed to high concentrations of contaminants that are readily transferred through the food chain. Despite this, there are few published data on pollutant and pesticide levels in wolves. This study utilised tissues from animals legally killed by hunters for other reasons

Richard F Shore; Adriano Casulli; Valodia Bologov; Claire L Wienburg; Amjad Afsar; Paul Toyne; Giacomo Dell'Omo

2001-01-01

315

EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (2008), pp. 18 C. Alvarado and M.-P. Cani (Editors)  

E-print Network

EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (2008), pp. 1­8 C. Alvarado and M.- P. Cani (Editors) Volume Painter: Geometry-Guided Volume Modeling by Sketching on the Cross-Section S. Owada1, T. Harada2, P. Holzer1,3, and T. Igarashi2 1Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc., 2The

Igarashi, Takeo

316

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves ( Canis lupus), brown bears ( Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were

Antti Lavikainen; Sauli Laaksonen; Kimberlee Beckmen; Antti Oksanen; Marja Isomursu; Seppo Meri

2011-01-01

317

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors)  

E-print Network

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors) "Walk to here": A Voice Driven Animation System Z. Wang and M. van de Panne University of British Columbia Abstract We present a novel interface for directing the actions of computer animated characters

Panne, M. van de

318

A Survey of the Parasites of Coyotes (Canis latrans )i nNew York based on Fecal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colo- nized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coy- otes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite com- ponent community diversity was

Matthew E. Gompper; Rachel M. Goodman; Roland W. Kays; Justina C. Ray; Christine V. Fiorello

2003-01-01

319

Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why  

Microsoft Academic Search

Territorial defense and maintenance are an important facet of the social ecology of most carnivore species. From January 1991 to June 1993, we observed 54 coyotes (Canis latrans) for 2507 h in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, during which we observed 112 instances of territory defense. The identity of the coyotes involved in challenging and evicting intruding animals was known. Alpha

Eric M. Gese

2001-01-01

320

Serologic Survey for Canine Infectious Diseases among Sympatric Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) and Coyotes (Canis latrans )i n Southeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coy- otes (Canis latrans) are sympatric canids dis- tributed throughout many regions of the Great Plains of North America. The prevalence of ca- nid diseases among these two species where they occur sympatrically is presently unknown. From January 1997 to January 2001, we col- lected blood samples from 89 swift foxes and 122 coyotes on

Eric M. Gese; Seija M. Karki; Mead L. Klavetter; Edward R. Schauster; Ann M. Kitchen

2004-01-01

321

Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

1985-01-01

322

Dirofilaria immitis in the Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) in a Tropical Region of the Northern Territory, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart and lungs from 32 adult dingoes (Canis famihiaris dingo) were exam- med for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria imrnitis) infection. Eighteen of 32 (56%) samples were infected, with intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 31 worms per animal. Seven of 18 (39%) infections were single sex infections. Large numbers of circulating microfilariae were pres- ent in blood from all

T. W. Starr; R. C. MuIIey

323

Dogs, humans and island ecosystems: the distribution, antiquity and ecology of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) on California's Channel Islands, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeologists have made significant contributions to our understanding of ancient island environments, including the timing and implications of the introduction of non-native animals (pigs, chickens, rats, etc.) by humans. Here, we focus on the historical ecology and biogeography of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) on California's Channel Islands during the Holocene. Dogs are the only animal known unequivocally to have been

Torben C. Rick; Phillip L. Walker; Lauren M. Willis; Anna C. Noah; Jon M. Erlandson; Ren L. Vellanoweth; Todd J. Braje; Douglas J. Kennett

2008-01-01

324

Cues to food location that domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different ages do and do not use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of three experiments are reported. In the main study, a human experimenter presented domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) with a variety of social cues intended to indicate the location of hidden food. The novel findings of this study were: (1)\\u000a dogs were able to use successfully several totally novel cues in which they watched a human place a marker

Bryan Agnetta; Brian Hare; Michael Tomasello

2000-01-01

325

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

326

Functional Evolution of a Multigene Family: Orthologous and Paralogous Pheromone Receptor Genes in the Turnip Moth, Agrotis segetum  

PubMed Central

Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs), for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z)-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and relaxed evolutionary constraints or positive selection among paralogues allow functional divergence to occur in spite of purifying selection being the norm. PMID:24130875

Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lfstedt, Christer

2013-01-01

327

Characterization of gana-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene encoding a single ortholog of vertebrate ?-galactosidase and ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase  

PubMed Central

Background Human ?-galactosidase A (?-GAL) and ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (?-NAGA) are presumed to share a common ancestor. Deficiencies of these enzymes cause two well-characterized human lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) Fabry (?-GAL deficiency) and Schindler (?-NAGA deficiency) diseases. Caenorhabditis elegans was previously shown to be a relevant model organism for several late endosomal/lysosomal membrane proteins associated with LSDs. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize C. elegans orthologs to both human lysosomal luminal proteins ?-GAL and ?-NAGA. Results BlastP searches for orthologs of human ?-GAL and ?-NAGA revealed a single C. elegans gene (R07B7.11) with homology to both human genes (?-galactosidase and ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase) gana-1. We cloned and sequenced the complete gana-1 cDNA and elucidated the gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses and homology modeling of GANA-1 based on the 3D structure of chicken ?-NAGA, rice ?-GAL and human ?-GAL suggest a close evolutionary relationship of GANA-1 to both human ?-GAL and ?-NAGA. Both ?-GAL and ?-NAGA enzymatic activities were detected in C. elegans mixed culture homogenates. However, ?-GAL activity on an artificial substrate was completely inhibited by the ?-NAGA inhibitor, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. A GANA-1::GFP fusion protein expressed from a transgene, containing the complete gana-1 coding region and 3 kb of its hypothetical promoter, was not detectable under the standard laboratory conditions. The GFP signal was observed solely in a vesicular compartment of coelomocytes of the animals treated with Concanamycin A (CON A) or NH4Cl, agents that increase the pH of the cellular acidic compartment. Immunofluorescence detection of the fusion protein using polyclonal anti-GFP antibody showed a broader and coarsely granular cytoplasmic expression pattern in body wall muscle cells, intestinal cells, and a vesicular compartment of coelomocytes. Inhibition of gana-1 by RNA interference resulted in a decrease of both ?-GAL and ?-NAGA activities measured in mixed stage culture homogenates but did not cause any obvious phenotype. Conclusions GANA-1 is a single C. elegans ortholog of both human ?-GAL and ?-NAGA proteins. Phylogenetic, homology modeling, biochemical and GFP expression analyses support the hypothesis that GANA-1 has dual enzymatic activity and is localized in an acidic cellular compartment. PMID:15676072

Hujov, Jana; Sikora, Jakub; Dobrovoln, Robert; Poup?tov, Helena; Ledvinov, Jana; Kostrouchov, Marta; H?eb?ek, Martin

2005-01-01

328

Enigmatic orthology relationships between Hox clusters of the african butterfly fish and other teleosts following ancient whole-genome duplication.  

PubMed

Numerous ancient whole-genome duplications (WGD) have occurred during eukaryote evolution. In vertebrates, duplicated developmental genes and their functional divergence have had important consequences for morphological evolution. Although two vertebrate WGD events (1R/2R) occurred over 525 Ma, we have focused on the more recent 3R or TGD (teleost genome duplication) event which occurred approximately 350 Ma in a common ancestor of over 26,000 species of teleost fishes. Through a combination of whole genome and bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequencing we characterized all Hox gene clusters of Pantodon buchholzi, a member of the early branching teleost subdivision Osteoglossomorpha. We find 45 Hox genes organized in only five clusters indicating that Pantodon has suffered more Hox cluster loss than other known species. Despite strong evidence for homology of the five Pantodon clusters to the four canonical pre-TGD vertebrate clusters (one HoxA, two HoxB, one HoxC, and one HoxD), we were unable to confidently resolve 1:1 orthology relationships between four of the Pantodon clusters and the eight post-TGD clusters of other teleosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that many Pantodon genes segregate outside the conventional "a" and "b" post-TGD orthology groups, that extensive topological incongruence exists between genes physically linked on a single cluster, and that signal divergence causes ambivalence in assigning 1:1 orthology in concatenated Hox cluster analyses. Out of several possible explanations for this phenomenon we favor a model which keeps with the prevailing view of a single TGD prior to teleost radiation, but which also considers the timing of diploidization after duplication, relative to speciation events. We suggest that although the duplicated hoxa clusters diploidized prior to divergence of osteoglossomorphs, the duplicated hoxb, hoxc, and hoxd clusters concluded diploidization independently in osteoglossomorphs and other teleosts. We use the term "tetralogy" to describe the homology relationship which exists between duplicated sequences which originate through a shared WGD, but which diploidize into distinct paralogs from a common allelic pool independently in two lineages following speciation. PMID:24974377

Martin, Kyle J; Holland, Peter W H

2014-10-01

329

Enigmatic Orthology Relationships between Hox Clusters of the African Butterfly Fish and Other Teleosts Following Ancient Whole-Genome Duplication  

PubMed Central

Numerous ancient whole-genome duplications (WGD) have occurred during eukaryote evolution. In vertebrates, duplicated developmental genes and their functional divergence have had important consequences for morphological evolution. Although two vertebrate WGD events (1R/2R) occurred over 525 Ma, we have focused on the more recent 3R or TGD (teleost genome duplication) event which occurred approximately 350 Ma in a common ancestor of over 26,000 species of teleost fishes. Through a combination of whole genome and bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequencing we characterized all Hox gene clusters of Pantodon buchholzi, a member of the early branching teleost subdivision Osteoglossomorpha. We find 45 Hox genes organized in only five clusters indicating that Pantodon has suffered more Hox cluster loss than other known species. Despite strong evidence for homology of the five Pantodon clusters to the four canonical pre-TGD vertebrate clusters (one HoxA, two HoxB, one HoxC, and one HoxD), we were unable to confidently resolve 1:1 orthology relationships between four of the Pantodon clusters and the eight post-TGD clusters of other teleosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that many Pantodon genes segregate outside the conventional a and b post-TGD orthology groups, that extensive topological incongruence exists between genes physically linked on a single cluster, and that signal divergence causes ambivalence in assigning 1:1 orthology in concatenated Hox cluster analyses. Out of several possible explanations for this phenomenon we favor a model which keeps with the prevailing view of a single TGD prior to teleost radiation, but which also considers the timing of diploidization after duplication, relative to speciation events. We suggest that although the duplicated hoxa clusters diploidized prior to divergence of osteoglossomorphs, the duplicated hoxb, hoxc, and hoxd clusters concluded diploidization independently in osteoglossomorphs and other teleosts. We use the term tetralogy to describe the homology relationship which exists between duplicated sequences which originate through a shared WGD, but which diploidize into distinct paralogs from a common allelic pool independently in two lineages following speciation. PMID:24974377

Martin, Kyle J.; Holland, Peter W.H.

2014-01-01

330

'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' proteins orthologous with pSymA-encoded proteins of Sinorhizobium meliloti: hypothetical roles in plant host interaction.  

PubMed

Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021, a nitrogen-fixing, root-nodulating bacterial microsymbiont of alfalfa, has a 3.5 Mbp circular chromosome and two megaplasmids including 1.3 Mbp pSymA carrying nonessential 'accessory' genes for nitrogen fixation (nif), nodulation and host specificity (nod). A related bacterium, psyllid-vectored 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,' is an obligate phytopathogen with a reduced genome that was previously analyzed for genes orthologous to genes on the S. meliloti circular chromosome. In general, proteins encoded by pSymA genes are more similar in sequence alignment to those encoded by S. meliloti chromosomal orthologs than to orthologous proteins encoded by genes carried on the 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' genome. Only two 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' proteins were identified as having orthologous proteins encoded on pSymA but not also encoded on the chromosome of S. meliloti. These two orthologous gene pairs encode a Na(+)/K+ antiporter (shared with intracellular pathogens of the family Bartonellacea) and a Co++, Zn++ and Cd++ cation efflux protein that is shared with the phytopathogen Agrobacterium. Another shared protein, a redox-regulated K+ efflux pump may regulate cytoplasmic pH and homeostasis. The pSymA and 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' orthologs of the latter protein are more highly similar in amino acid alignment compared with the alignment of the pSymA-encoded protein with its S. meliloti chromosomal homolog. About 182 pSymA encoded proteins have sequence similarity (? E-10) with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' proteins, often present as multiple orthologs of single 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' proteins. These proteins are involved with amino acid uptake, cell surface structure, chaperonins, electron transport, export of bioactive molecules, cellular homeostasis, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and synthesis of amino acids and metabolic cofactors. The presence of multiple orthologs defies mutational analysis and is consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins may be of particular importance in host/microbe interaction and their duplication likely facilitates their ongoing evolution. PMID:22761700

Kuykendall, L David; Shao, Jonathan Y; Hartung, John S

2012-01-01

331

Human listeners are able to classify dog (Canis familiaris) barks recorded in different situations.  

PubMed

The authors investigated whether human listeners could categorize played-back dog (Canis familiaris) barks recorded in various situations and associate them with emotional ratings. Prerecorded barks of a Hungarian herding dog breed (Mudi) provided the sample. Human listeners were asked to rate emotionality of the vocalization and to categorize the situations on the basis of alternative situations provided on a questionnaire. The authors found almost no effect of previous experience with the given dog breed or of owning a dog. Listeners were able to categorize bark situations high above chance level. Emotionality ratings for particular bark samples correlated with peak and fundamental frequency and interbark intervals. The authors did not find a significant effect of tonality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) on either the emotionality rating or situation categorization of the human listeners. Humans' ability to recognize meaning suggests that barks could serve as an effective means of communication between dog and human. PMID:15982157

Pongrcz, Pter; Molnr, Csaba; Miklsi, Adm; Csnyi, Vilmos

2005-05-01

332

Attachment behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris): a new application of Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test.  

PubMed

Fifty-one owner-dog pairs were observed in a modified version of M. D. S. Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test. The results demonstrate that adult dogs (Canis familiaris) show patterns of attachment behavior toward the owner. Although there was considerable variability in dogs' attachment behavior to humans, the authors did not find any effect of gender, age, living conditions, or breed on most of the behavioral variables. The human-dog relationship was described by means of a factor analysis in a 3-dimensional factor space: Anxiety, Acceptance, and Attachment. A cluster analysis revealed 5 substantially different classes of dogs, and dogs could be categorized along the secure-insecure attached dimensions of Ainsworth's original test. A dog's relationship to humans is analogous to child-parent and chimpanzee-human attachment behavior because the observed behavioral phenomena and the classification are similar to those described in mother-infant interactions. PMID:9770312

Topl, J; Miklsi, A; Csnyi, V; Dka, A

1998-09-01

333

Verbal attention getting as a key factor in social learning between dog (Canis familiaris) and human.  

PubMed

Pet dogs (Canis familiaris) learn to detour a V-shaped fence effectively from an unfamiliar human demonstrator. In this article, 4 main features of the demonstrator's behavior are highlighted: (a) the manipulation of the target, (b) the familiarity of the demonstrator, (c) the role of verbal attention-getting behavior, and (d) whether a strange trained dog could also be an effective demonstrator. The results show that the main factor of a successful human demonstration is the continuous verbal communication with the dog during detouring. It was also found that an unfamiliar dog demonstrator was as efficient as the unfamiliar experimenter. The experiments provide evidence that in adult dogs, communicative context with humans is needed for effective interspecific social learning to take place. PMID:15584774

Pongrcz, Pter; Miklsi, Adm; Timr-Geng, Katalin; Csnyi, Vilmos

2004-12-01

334

Dogs (Canis familiaris) learn from their owners via observation in a manipulation task.  

PubMed

Eighty-seven pet dogs (Canis familiaris) were involved in an experiment in which they had to solve a task to obtain a ball. After witnessing a full demonstration by their owner (10 times pushing the handle of the box, which released a ball), most dogs preferred to touch the handle sooner and more frequently in comparison with other parts of the box, and they used the handle to get the ball. In contrast, dogs in 3 control groups developed their own respective methods. The lack of emergence of the ball and playing after the demonstration did not affect the learning performance strongly. This suggests that in dogs the outcome of a demonstration plays only a restricted role in the manifestation of social learning. PMID:12856786

Kubinyi, Eniko; Topl, Jzsef; Miklsi, Adm; Csnyi, Vilmos

2003-06-01

335

High Resolution Near-IR Imaging of VY Canis Majoris with LBT / LMIRCam (2 - 5 ?m)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HST imaging of the famous red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris shows a complex circumstellar reflection nebula indicative of multiple asymmetric ejection episodes. Constructing a more complete picture of the mass loss mechanism compels extending high resolution imaging of massive stars such as VY CMa into the near-infrared, where the mechanism for emission from circumstellar ejecta transitions from scattering to thermal. We present LBT/LMIRCam observations of VY CMa at Ks (2.2 ?m), L' (3.8 ?m) and M (4.9 ?m) at sub-arcsecond resolution, comparable to the HST in the optical. The peculiar Southwest (SW) Clump, first identified as a highly reddened feature seen only at the longest wavelength (1 ?m) in the HST images, appears bright in the three LMIRCam filters. The SW Clump is found to be optically thick at all three wavelengths. A silicate grain model yields a lower limit mass on the order of 7E-4 M?

Shenoy, Dinesh; Jones, T. J.; Humphreys, R. M.; LMIRCam Instrument Team

2013-06-01

336

Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

Moks, E; Jgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Jrvis, T; Valdmann, H

2006-04-01

337

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America. PMID:16456176

Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

2005-10-01

338

Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents. PMID:25121408

Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

2014-10-01

339

A survey of the parasites of coyotes (Canis latrans) in New York based on fecal analysis.  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colonized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coyotes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite component community diversity was higher (n = 16 species) in southern New York than in middle and northern sites (nine species each) and infracommunity species richness was greater in southern New York than at the other sites. These differences may reflect the variable diets of coyotes, as well as recent colonization of the region and the mixing of component communities from expanding coyote populations. PMID:14567236

Gompper, Matthew E; Goodman, Rachel M; Kays, Roland W; Ray, Justina C; Fiorello, Christine V; Wade, Susan E

2003-07-01

340

Faint early-type stars and emission-line stars in the Canis Majoris complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of OB stars in the Canis Majoris complex, a survey and classification have been done for stars in the area. The study is based on spectral observations at the Kiso Schmidt tlescope. In the present field about 1800 OBA stars were classified, where the majority is dominated by B late and A early type stars. A survey for emission-line stars was also carried out in the same region. In total, 128 emission-line stars were detected, ranging from V = 6 to 15. A comparison shows that some emission-line stars of this region contained in the existing catalogs are common with the authors', and some exhibit no detectable emission line on the plates. This can probably be considered as the result of variation in emission-line strength.

Wiramihardja, S. D.; Kogure, T.

341

ORFEUS-SPAS II Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of ? Canis Majoris (B2 II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopic observations of the B bright giant ? Canis Majoris made during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission. We assess the performance of the instrument in the EUV and find that the effective area is roughly 3 times that of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer long-wavelength spectrometer and that the spectral resolution is ?/??~1250. We identify most of the features, qualitatively compare different models, and examine the wind-broadened O V and Si IV lines, which display blue-edge velocities up to 800 km s-1. Based on the development and utilization of ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometers), a collaboration of the Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Tbingen, the Space Astrophysics Group of the University of California at Berkeley, and the Landessternwarte Heidelberg.

Cohen, David H.; Hurwitz, Mark; Cassinelli, Joseph P.; Bowyer, Stuart

1998-06-01

342

Intense extreme ultraviolet emission from the B star Epsilon Canis Majoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of the brightest nonsolar source of EUV emission: the B2 II star Epsilon Canis Majoris. This source has been detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite's all-sky photometric survey. It is approximately 30 times brighter at 600 A than the predicted emission from the hot white dwarf star HZ 43, previously believed to be the brightest EUV source. We have fitted a simple B star photospheric model to the observed broadband EUV fluxes to explain this emission. Assuming a stellar temperature of 25,000 K and a gravity (log g) of 3.3, we derive an interstellar hydrogen column density of 1.05 +/- 0.05 x 10 exp 18/sq cm over the 187 pc to the star. This corresponds to a line-of-sight number density of hydrogen, of 0.002/cu cm, which is comparable to values found in the rarefied Local Bubble region which surrounds the sun.

Vallerga, John V.; Vedder, Peter W.; Welsh, Barry Y.

1993-01-01

343

Intense extreme ultraviolet emission from the B star Epsilon Canis Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of the brightest nonsolar source of EUV emission: the B2 II star Epsilon Canis Majoris. This source has been detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite's all-sky photometric survey. It is approximately 30 times brighter at 600 A than the predicted emission from the hot white dwarf star HZ 43, previously believed to be the brightest EUV source. We have fitted a simple B star photospheric model to the observed broadband EUV fluxes to explain this emission. Assuming a stellar temperature of 25,000 K and a gravity (log g) of 3.3, we derive an interstellar hydrogen column density of 1.05 +/- 0.05 x 10 exp 18/sq cm over the 187 pc to the star. This corresponds to a line-of-sight number density of hydrogen, of 0.002/cu cm, which is comparable to values found in the rarefied Local Bubble region which surrounds the sun.

Vallerga, John V.; Vedder, Peter W.; Welsh, Barry Y.

1993-09-01

344

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

2009-01-01

345

Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.  

PubMed

Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

Szll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Srter, T

2013-10-18

346

Humoral and cellular immune response to a Microsporum canis recombinant keratinolytic metalloprotease (r-MEP3) in experimentally infected guinea pigs.  

PubMed

In order to better understand the host-fungus relationship in Microsporum canis dermatophytosis and to identify major fungal antigens, the immune response to a crude exoantigen preparation and to a purified recombinant keratinolytic metalloprotease (r-MEP3) was evaluated in guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis. Humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed from day 0 to day 57 post-infection (PI), the former by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the latter via a lymphocyte proliferation assay. Infected guinea pigs developed humoral and cellular responses to both M. canis exoantigen and r-MEP3, while no specific immune response to these antigens was observed in control animals. This is the first report on the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a purified keratinase in M. canis dermatophytosis. PMID:14725323

Brouta, Frdric; Descamps, Frdric; Vermout, Sandy; Monod, Michel; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

2003-12-01

347

RNAi screening of human glycogene orthologs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the construction of the C. elegans glycogene database.  

PubMed

In this study, we selected 181 nematode glycogenes that are orthologous to human glycogenes and examined their RNAi phenotypes. The results are deposited in the Caenorhabditis elegans Glycogene Database (CGGDB) at AIST, Tsukuba, Japan. The most prominent RNAi phenotypes observed are disruptions of cell cycle progression in germline mitosis/meiosis and in early embryonic cell mitosis. Along with the previously reported roles of chondroitin proteoglycans, glycosphingolipids and GPI-anchored proteins in cell cycle progression, we show for the first time that the inhibition of the functions of N-glycan synthesis genes (cytoplasmic alg genes) resulted in abnormal germline formation, ER stress and small body size phenotypes. The results provide additional information on the roles of glycoconjugates in the cell cycle progression mechanisms of germline and embryonic cells. PMID:25091817

Akiyoshi, Sayaka; Nomura, Kazuko H; Dejima, Katsufumi; Murata, Daisuke; Matsuda, Ayako; Kanaki, Nanako; Takaki, Tetsuro; Mihara, Hiroyuki; Nagaishi, Takayuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Ando, Keiko-Gengyo; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Togayachi, Akira; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Shikanai, Toshihide; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Nomura, Kazuya

2015-01-01

348

Impairment of Drosophila Orthologs of the Human Orphan Protein C19orf12 Induces Bang Sensitivity and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the orphan gene C19orf12 were identified as a genetic cause in a subgroup of patients with NBIA, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of iron in the basal ganglia. C19orf12 was shown to be localized in mitochondria, however, nothing is known about its activity and no functional link exists to the clinical phenotype of the patients. This situation led us to investigate the effects of C19orf12 down-regulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Two genes are present in D. melanogaster, which are orthologs of C19orf12, CG3740 and CG11671. Here we provide evidence that transgenic flies with impaired C19orf12 homologs reflect the neurodegenerative phenotype and represent a valid tool to further analyze the pathomechanism in C19orf12-associated NBIA. PMID:24586779

Iuso, Arcangela; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Gorza, Matteo; Heim, Katharina; Organisti, Cristina; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger

2014-01-01

349

The trehalose utilization gene thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti does not influence competitiveness for nodulation on Lotus spp.  

PubMed

Competitiveness for nodulation is a desirable trait in rhizobia strains used as inoculant. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 mutation in either of the trehalose utilization genes thuA or thuB influences its competitiveness for root colonization and nodule occupancy depending on the interacting host. We have therefore investigated whether mutation in the thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 also leads to a similar competitive phenotype on its hosts. The results show that M. loti thuA mutant Ml7023 was symbiotically effective and was as competitive as the wild type in colonization and nodule occupancy on Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus. The thuA gene in M. loti was not induced during root colonization or in the infection threads unlike in S. meliloti, despite its induction by trehalose and high osmolarity in in vitro assays. PMID:24142427

Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Jensen, John Beck

2014-03-01

350

Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.  

PubMed

Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

2014-01-01

351

Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry  

PubMed Central

Background Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. Methodology/ Principal Findings We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves. PMID:18841199

Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

352

Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program. PMID:22006189

Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

2012-05-01

353

Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

2012-01-01

354

Cross-species hybridisation of human and bovine orthologous genes on high density cDNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-species gene-expression comparison is a powerful tool for the discovery of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms and pathways of expression control. The usefulness of cDNA microarrays in this context is that broad areas of homology are compared and hybridization probes are sufficiently large that small inter-species differences in nucleotide sequence would not affect the analytical results. This comparative genomics approach would allow a common set of genes within a specific developmental, metabolic, or disease-related gene pathway to be evaluated in experimental models of human diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of cross-species analysis employing a human cDNA microarray as probe. Results As a proof of principle, total RNA derived from human and bovine fetal brains was used as a source of labelled targets for hybridisation onto a human cDNA microarray composed of 349 characterised genes. Each gene was spotted 20 times representing 6,980 data points thus enabling highly reproducible spot quantification. Employing high stringency hybridisation and washing conditions, followed by data analysis, revealed slight differences in the expression levels and reproducibility of the signals between the two species. We also assigned each of the genes into three expression level categories- i.e. high, medium and low. The correlation co-efficient of cross hybridisation between the orthologous genes was 0.94. Verification of the array data by semi-quantitative RT-PCR using common primer sequences enabled co-amplification of both human and bovine transcripts. Finally, we were able to assign gene names to previously uncharacterised bovine ESTs. Conclusions Results of our study demonstrate the harnessing and utilisation power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using human microarrays to facilitate the identification of co-expressed orthologous genes in common tissues derived from different species. PMID:15511299

Adjaye, James; Herwig, Ralf; Herrmann, Doris; Wruck, Wasco; BenKahla, Alia; Brink, Thore C; Nowak, Monika; Carnwath, Joseph W; Hultschig, Claus; Niemann, Heiner; Lehrach, Hans

2004-01-01

355

Cryptococcus neoformans phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) ortholog is required for stress tolerance and survival in murine phagocytes.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neoformans PKH2-01 and PKH2-02 are orthologous to mammalian PDK1 kinase genes. Although orthologs of these kinases have been extensively studied in S. cerevisiae, little is known about their function in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we show that PKH2-02 but not PKH2-01 is required for C. neoformans to tolerate cell wall, oxidative, nitrosative, and antifungal drug stress. Deletion of PKH2-02 leads to decreased basal levels of Pkc1 activity and, consequently, reduced activation of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in response to cell wall, oxidative, and nitrosative stress. PKH2-02 function also is required for tolerance of fluconazole and amphotericin B, two important drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis. Furthermore, OSU-03012, an inhibitor of human PDK1, is synergistic and fungicidal in combination with fluconazole. Using a Galleria mellonella model of low-temperature cryptococcosis, we found that PKH2-02 is also required for virulence in a temperature-independent manner. Consistent with the hypersensitivity of the pkh2-02? mutant to oxidative and nitrosative stress, this mutant shows decreased survival in murine phagocytes compared to that of wild-type (WT) cells. In addition, we show that deletion of PKH2-02 affects the interaction between C. neoformans and phagocytes by decreasing its ability to suppress production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and reactive oxygen species. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that Pkh2-02-mediated signaling in C. neoformans is crucial for stress tolerance, host-pathogen interactions, and both temperature-dependent and -independent virulence. PMID:23087368

Chabrier-Rosell, Yeissa; Gerik, Kimberly J; Koselny, Kristy; DiDone, Louis; Lodge, Jennifer K; Krysan, Damian J

2013-01-01

356

Identification of the Minus-Dominance Gene Ortholog in the Mating-Type Locus of Gonium pectorale  

PubMed Central

The evolution of anisogamy/oogamy in the colonial Volvocales might have occurred in an ancestral isogamous colonial organism like Gonium pectorale. The unicellular, close relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a mating-type (MT) locus harboring several mating-type-specific genes, including one involved in mating-type determination and another involved in the function of the tubular mating structure in only one of the two isogametes. In this study, as the first step in identifying the G. pectorale MT locus, we isolated from G. pectorale the ortholog of the C. reinhardtii mating-type-determining minus-dominance (CrMID) gene, which is localized only in the MT? locus. 3?- and 5?-RACE RTPCR using degenerate primers identified a CrMID-orthologous 164-amino-acid coding gene (GpMID) containing a leucine-zipper RWP-RK domain near the C-terminal, as is the case with CrMID. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that GpMID was coded only in the minus strain of G. pectorale. RTPCR revealed that GpMID expression increased during nitrogen starvation. Analysis of F1 progeny suggested that GpMID and isopropylmalate dehydratase LEU1S are tightly linked, suggesting that they are harbored in a chromosomal region under recombinational suppression that is comparable to the C. reinhardtii MT locus. However, two other genes present in the C. reinhardtii MT locus are not linked to the G. pectorale LEU1S/MID, suggesting that the gene content of the volvocalean MT loci is not static over time. Inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondria genomes in G. pectorale is uniparental from the plus and minus parents, respectively, as is also the case in C. reinhardtii. PMID:18202374

Hamaji, Takashi; Ferris, Patrick J.; Coleman, Annette W.; Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Takahashi, Fumio; Nishii, Ichiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

2008-01-01

357

Orthology Guided Assembly in highly heterozygous crops: creating a reference transcriptome to uncover genetic diversity in Lolium perenne.  

PubMed

Despite current advances in next-generation sequencing data analysis procedures, de novo assembly of a reference sequence required for SNP discovery and expression analysis is still a major challenge in genetically uncharacterized, highly heterozygous species. High levels of polymorphism inherent to outbreeding crop species hamper De Bruijn Graph-based de novo assembly algorithms, causing transcript fragmentation and the redundant assembly of allelic contigs. If multiple genotypes are sequenced to study genetic diversity, primary de novo assembly is best performed per genotype to limit the level of polymorphism and avoid transcript fragmentation. Here, we propose an Orthology Guided Assembly procedure that first uses sequence similarity (tBLASTn) to proteins of a model species to select allelic and fragmented contigs from all genotypes and then performs CAP3 clustering on a gene-by-gene basis. Thus, we simultaneously annotate putative orthologues for each protein of the model species, resolve allelic redundancy and fragmentation and create a de novo transcript sequence representing the consensus of all alleles present in the sequenced genotypes. We demonstrate the procedure using RNA-seq data from 14 genotypes of Lolium perenne to generate a reference transcriptome for gene discovery and translational research, to reveal the transcriptome-wide distribution and density of SNPs in an outbreeding crop and to illustrate the effect of polymorphisms on the assembly procedure. The results presented here illustrate that constructing a non-redundant reference sequence is essential for comparative genomics, orthology-based annotation and candidate gene selection but also for read mapping and subsequent polymorphism discovery and/or read count-based gene expression analysis. PMID:23433242

Ruttink, Tom; Sterck, Lieven; Rohde, Antje; Bendixen, Christian; Rouz, Pierre; Asp, Torben; Van de Peer, Yves; Roldan-Ruiz, Isabel

2013-06-01

358

The Caenorhabditis elegans HEN1 Ortholog, HENN-1, Methylates and Stabilizes Select Subclasses of Germline Small RNAs  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs regulate diverse biological processes by directing effector proteins called Argonautes to silence complementary mRNAs. Maturation of some classes of small RNAs involves terminal 2?-O-methylation to prevent degradation. This modification is catalyzed by members of the conserved HEN1 RNA methyltransferase family. In animals, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and some endogenous and exogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are methylated, whereas microRNAs are not. However, the mechanisms that determine animal HEN1 substrate specificity have yet to be fully resolved. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a HEN1 ortholog has not been studied, but there is evidence for methylation of piRNAs and some endogenous siRNAs. Here, we report that the worm HEN1 ortholog, HENN-1 (HEN of Nematode), is required for methylation of C. elegans small RNAs. Our results indicate that piRNAs are universally methylated by HENN-1. In contrast, 26G RNAs, a class of primary endogenous siRNAs, are methylated in female germline and embryo, but not in male germline. Intriguingly, the methylation pattern of 26G RNAs correlates with the expression of distinct male and female germline Argonautes. Moreover, loss of the female germline Argonaute results in loss of 26G RNA methylation altogether. These findings support a model wherein methylation status of a metazoan small RNA is dictated by the Argonaute to which it binds. Loss of henn-1 results in phenotypes that reflect destabilization of substrate small RNAs: dysregulation of target mRNAs, impaired fertility, and enhanced somatic RNAi. Additionally, the henn-1 mutant shows a weakened response to RNAi knockdown of germline genes, suggesting that HENN-1 may also function in canonical RNAi. Together, our results indicate a broad role for HENN-1 in both endogenous and exogenous gene silencing pathways and provide further insight into the mechanisms of HEN1 substrate discrimination and the diversity within the Argonaute family. PMID:22548001

Billi, Allison C.; Alessi, Amelia F.; Khivansara, Vishal; Han, Ting; Freeberg, Mallory; Mitani, Shohei; Kim, John K.

2012-01-01

359

Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations  

PubMed Central

Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results Recombinant Ba86 (Israel strain) was used to immunize cattle to test its efficacy for the control of B. annulatus (Mercedes, Texas, USA strain) and B. microplus (Susceptible, Mexico strain) infestations. Bm86 (Gavac and Mozambique strain) and adjuvant/saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vaccination with Ba86 reduced tick infestations (71% and 40%), weight (8% and 15%), oviposition (22% and 5%) and egg fertility (25% and 50%) for B. annulatus and B. microplus, respectively. The efficacy of both Ba86 and Bm86 was higher for B. annulatus than for B. microplus. The efficacy of Ba86 was higher for B. annulatus (83.0%) than for B. microplus (71.5%). The efficacy of Bm86 (Gavac; 85.2%) but not Bm86 (Mozambique strain; 70.4%) was higher than that of Ba86 (71.5%) on B. microplus. However, the efficacy of Bm86 (both Gavac and Mozambique strain; 99.6%) was higher than that of Ba86 (83.0%) on B. annulatus. Conclusion These experiments showed the efficacy of recombinant Ba86 for the control of B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations in cattle and suggested that physiological differences between B. microplus and B. annulatus and those encoded in the sequence of Bm86 orthologs may be responsible for the differences in susceptibility of these tick species to Bm86 vaccines. PMID:19335900

Canales, Mario; Almazn, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jos

2009-01-01

360

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

361

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed. PMID:16884021

Khan, R A; Evans, L

2006-06-01

362

Differentiation of venoms of predatory marine gastropods: divergence of orthologous toxin genes of closely related Conus species with different dietary specializations.  

PubMed

Venoms of Conus are remarkably diverse among species and the genes that encode conotoxins show high rates of evolution. Yet no prior studies have specifically explored how conotoxin gene evolution contributes to the differentiation of venoms of closely related Conus species. Previous investigations of four-loop conotoxin expression patterns of six closely related Conus species identified 12 sets of putative orthologous loci from these species, including eight pairs of loci that are coexpressed by two of these six species, C. abbreviatus and C. miliaris. Here I analyze the molecular evolution of orthologous conotoxin loci of these species and specifically examine the divergence of the eight orthologous counterparts of C. abbreviatus and C. miliaris. Tree and maximum likelihood-based analyses of these sequences reveal that positive selection promotes the divergence of orthologous genes among species and that the evolution of orthologues of C. abbreviatus and C. miliaris is asymmetric among species. The asymmetric evolution of conotoxin loci among species may result from lineage-specific dietary shifts or interspecific differences in the impact of selection from predator-prey interactions on conotoxin loci. PMID:18696024

Duda, Thomas F

2008-09-01

363

The expression of a hunchback ortholog in the polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii suggests an ancestral role in mesoderm development and neurogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthologs of the Drosophila gap gene hunchback have been isolated so far only in protostomes. Phylogenetic analysis of recently available genomic data allowed us to confirm that hunchback genes are widely found in protostomes (both lophotrochozoans and ecdysozoans). In contrast, no unequivocal hunchback gene can be found in the genomes of deuterostomes and non-bilaterians. We cloned hunchback in the marine

Pierre Kerner; Fabiola Zelada Gonzlez; Martine Le Gouar; Valrie Ledent; Detlev Arendt; Michel Vervoort

2006-01-01

364

Using OrthoMCL to assign proteins to OrthoMCL-DB groups or to cluster proteomes into new ortholog groups  

PubMed Central

OrthoMCL is an algorithm for grouping proteins into ortholog groups based on their sequence similarity. OrthoMCL-DB is a public database that allows users to browse and view ortholog groups that were pre-computed using the OrthoMCL algorithm. Version 4 of this database contained 116,536 ortholog groups clustered from 1,270,853 proteins obtained from 88 eukaryotic genomes, 16 archaeal genomes and 34 bacterial genomes. Future versions of OrthoMCL-DB will include more proteomes as more genomes are sequenced. Here, we describe how you can group your proteins of interest into ortholog clusters using two different means provided by the OrthoMCL system. The OrthoMCL-DB website has a tool for uploading and grouping a set of protein sequences, typically representing a proteome. This method maps the uploaded proteins to existing groups in OrthoMCL-DB. Alternatively, if you have proteins from a set of genomes that need to be grouped, you can download, install and run the standalone OrthoMCL software. PMID:21901743

Fischer, Steve; Brunk, Brian P.; Chen, Feng; Gao, Xin; Harb, Omar S.; Iodice, John B.; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Roos, David S.; Stoeckert, Christian J.

2011-01-01

365

Control of Compound Leaf Development by FLORICAULA/LEAFY Ortholog SINGLE LEAFLET1 in Medicago truncatula1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Molecular genetic studies suggest that FLORICAULA (FLO)/LEAFY (LFY) orthologs function to control compound leaf development in some legume species. However, loss-of-function mutations in the FLO/LFY orthologs result in reduction of leaf complexity to different degrees in Pisum sativum and Lotus japonicus. To further understand the role of FLO/LFY orthologs in compound leaf development in legumes, we studied compound leaf developmental processes and characterized a leaf development mutant, single leaflet1 (sgl1), from the model legume Medicago truncatula. The sgl1 mutants exhibited strong defects in compound leaf development; all adult leaves in sgl1 mutants are simple due to failure in initiating lateral leaflet primordia. In addition, the sgl1 mutants are also defective in floral development, producing inflorescence-like structures. Molecular cloning of SGL1 revealed that it encodes the M. truncatula FLO/LFY ortholog. When properly expressed, LFY rescued both floral and compound leaf defects of sgl1 mutants, indicating that LFY can functionally substitute SGL1 in compound leaf and floral organ development in M. truncatula. We show that SGL1 and LFY differed in their promoter activities. Although the SGL1 genomic sequence completely rescued floral defects of lfy mutants, it failed to alter the simple leaf structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that initiation of lateral leaflet primordia required for compound leaf development involves regulatory processes mediated by the SGL1 function in M. truncatula. PMID:18287485

Wang, Hongliang; Chen, Jianghua; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Li, Guangming; Liu, Yu; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Ratet, Pascal; Chen, Rujin

2008-01-01

366

A simplified method for hatching and isolating Toxocara canis larvae to facilitate excretory-secretory antigen collection in vitro.  

PubMed

Human toxocariasis causes several dangerous syndromes that can involve the viscera, vision and central nervous system. Diagnosing toxocariasis requires the identification of antibodies against Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati excretions and secretions (ES). To obtain ES it is necessary to collect a large number of larvae. However, since the earliest work describing the culture of Toxocara larvae, few advances in the method have been made. It has been suggested that carbon dioxide triggers molecular mechanisms that enable nematode hatching. A similar hypothesis has been made regarding Giardia excystation. To test the hypothesis we used the Giardia excystation HBSS method to hatch embryonated T. canis eggs. We found that the HBSS method was more effective than the original De Savigny method. Our results suggest that both parasites require stimulation in an acidic environment, and the abrupt change to a basic milieu in duodenum. This physiological adaptation is successful to exploit the intestinal habitat. PMID:21074327

Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Rodrguez-Caballero, Aarn; Peralta-Abarca, Gustavo E; Martnez-Gordillo, Mario N

2011-02-10

367

Sandwich ELISA detection of excretory-secretory antigens of Toxocara canis larvae using a specific monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

We produced a new monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Toxocara canis larvae. The mAb (IgG1) reacts specifically with the 120 kDa protein of many ES molecules and does not have any cross-reactivity with adult T. canis antigens. Sandwich ELISA to detect the ES antigens was performed using the mAb and rabbit polyclonal antiserum. The lower limit for the detection of ES antigen was 4 ng/ml; assay was proportional within a concentration range of 4 ng/ml to 1 microg/ml of ES antigen. This assay system may prove valuable when seeking to quantify parasite burden early in infection and when determining the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment. PMID:12118456

Yokoi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Fumie; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Usui, Masahiko; Tsuji, Moriyasu

2002-03-01

368

An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.  

PubMed

SUMMARY An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

2014-12-01

369

Human chromosome 21 orthologous region on mouse chromosome 17 is a major determinant of Down syndrome-related developmental cognitive deficits.  

PubMed

Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental cognitive deficits, and the so-called Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) has been proposed as a major determinant of this phenotype. The regions on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) are syntenically conserved on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. DSCR is conserved between the Cbr1 and Fam3b genes on Mmu16. Ts65Dn mice carry three copies of ?100 Hsa21 gene orthologs on Mmu16 and exhibited impairments in the Morris water maze and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Converting the Cbr1-Fam3b region back to two copies in Ts65Dn mice rescued these phenotypes. In this study, we performed similar conversion of the Cbr1-Fam3b region in Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice that is triplicated for all ?115 Hsa21 gene orthologs on Mmu16, which also resulted in the restoration of the wild-type phenotypes in the Morris water maze and hippocampal LTP. However, converting the Cbr1-Fam3b region back to two copies in a complete model, Dp(10)1Yey/+;Dp(16)1Yey/+;Dp(17)1Yey/+, failed to yield the similar phenotypic restorations. But, surprisingly, converting both the Cbr1-Fam3b region and the Hsa21 orthologous region on Mmu17 back to two copies in the complete model did completely restore these phenotypes to the wild-type levels. Our results demonstrated that the Hsa21 orthologous region on Mmu17 is a major determinant of DS-related developmental cognitive deficits. Therefore, the inclusion of the three copies of this Hsa21 orthologous region in mouse models is necessary for unraveling the mechanism underlying DS-associated developmental cognitive deficits and for developing effective interventions for this clinical manifestation. PMID:24041763

Zhang, Li; Meng, Kai; Jiang, Xiaoling; Liu, Chunhong; Pao, Annie; Belichenko, Pavel V; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Josselyn, Sheena; Liang, Ping; Ye, Ping; Mobley, William C; Yu, Y Eugene

2014-02-01

370

Urine-marking and ground-scratching by free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in summer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.

Mech, L. D.

2006-01-01

371

Testosterone concentrations and male genital organ morphology in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether low-level, long-term in utero and post-natal exposure to organohalogen pollutants disrupts male reproductive organ morphology and testosterone production in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris), as a model of Arctic top predators feeding on marine mammals. Six male dogs were followed for 1 year and testosterone concentrations, testes\\/baculum morphology and baculum bone mineral density (BMD) was determined.

Maja Kirkegaard; Christian Sonne; Rune Dietz; Bjrn Munro Jenssen; Pall S. Leifsson; Jens-Erik Bech Jensen; Robert J. Letcher

2010-01-01

372

Winterspring food habits of an island population of Coyote Canis Latrans in Baja California, Mxico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of the coyote (Canis latrans) on San Luis Gonzaga Island of Baja California, Mexico were investigated. We collected 239 scat samples for analysis on 14 May 1997. Samples ranged from fresh to approximately 2 months old. Frequency of diet components was 48.9% birds, 21.9% fish, 14.8% plants, 3.6% mammals, 4.0% insects, 0.7% reptiles, 0.5% arachnids, and 5% crustaceans.

S. T. lvarez-Castaeda; P. Gonzlez-Quintero

2005-01-01

373

Effects of canine heartworm ( Dirofilaria immitis ) on body condition and activity of free-ranging coyotes ( Canis latrans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used radiotelemetry to study relationships among canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection, body condition, and activity of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans). Average body mass at death was lower for 17 coyotes in a high-intensity infected group (x = 33.6 heartworms) than for 18 coyotes in a control group (x = 3.6 heartworms; p < 0.01). Coyotes in the infected group

Benjamin N. Sacks; Karen M. Blejwas

2000-01-01

374

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew Valley, Utah, 1977-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey abundances with prey consumption rates. Previous studies reported a cyclic trend in black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus Gray, 1837) density with a period of 10 years and >150-fold amplitude, as well as short-term fluctuations among some rodent species that exceeded an 8-fold

Rebecca A. Bartel; Frederick F. Knowlton

2005-01-01

375

Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

Sovada, M. A.; Telesco, D. J.; Roy, C. C.

2000-01-01

376

Biophysical analysis of astrocytes apoptosis triggered by larval E/S antigen from cerebral toxocarosis-causing pathogen Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocarosis is a zoonosis caused by the transmission of the Toxocara canis (T. canis) larvae to humans. Its infectious third-stage larvae can invade the brains of paratenic hosts. The resultant brain damage can result in cerebral toxocarosis (CT). Astrocytes have important neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions in the brain. Substantial studies have shown that astrocyte apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. We propose an alternation detection method, a combination of the astigmatic detection microscopy (ADM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, to investigate the apoptosis of astrocytes triggered with T. canis larval excretory/secretory (Tc E/S) antigen. The variation in the pathology of a cell's morphological changes was investigated with ADM and AFM analyses and then confirmed by western blotting. The results showed that the round cells increased as the concentration of Tc E/S antigen and incubated time increased. In addition, the mean height of apoptotic cells was approximately twice that of untreated normal cells, which meant there was correlation between the Tc E/S antigen treatment and cell height. For each cleaved caspase-3 in the cells cocultured with Tc E/S antigen and incubated for 9 h, the corresponding intensities increased about 34-fold (34.4 1.8) compared with those of the control cells. This method can provide researchers with a perspective for understanding the limited information on the mechanism of astroglial injury and death during a T. canis larval invasion in a brain infection. PMID:24025572

Hsiao, Wesley W; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Lin, Hsing-Hung; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Liao, Chien-Wei; Lin, Po-Yen; Hwu, En-Te; Chang, Chia-Seng

2013-01-01

377

Behavioural responses of Canis familiaris to different tail lengths of a remotely-controlled life-size dog replica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The tail of dogs and allies (Canidae) is important for intraspecific communication. We used a life-sized dog model and varied the tail length and motion as an experimental method of examining effects of tail-docking on intraspecific signaling in domestic dogs, Canis famil- iaris. We videotaped interactions of 492 off-leash dogs and quantified size and behaviour of approaching dogs to

S. D. A. Leaver; T. E. Reimchen

2008-01-01

378

How do guide dogs of blind owners and pet dogs of sighted owners ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during humandog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear.\\u000a Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted\\u000a owners, respectively, is one way to tackle this problem; more

Florence Gaunet

2008-01-01

379

A Spherical Non-LTE Line-blanketed Stellar Atmosphere Model of the Early B Giant epsilon Canis Majoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a spherical non-LTE fully line-blanketed model atmosphere to fit the full multiwavelength spectrum, including the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) continuum observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, of the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (CMa). The available spectrophotometry of epsilon CMa from 350 Angstroms to 25 mu m is best fitted with model parameters Teff = 21,750 K, log g

J. P. Aufdenberg; P. H. Hauschildt; S. N. Shore; E. Baron

1998-01-01

380

Monitoring wolves ( Canis lupus ) by non-invasive genetics and camera trapping: a small-scale pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring populations of elusive large carnivores like wolves (Canis lupus), which are often distributed at low density in widespread forested areas, is difficult or exceedingly expensive. Aiming\\u000a to assess the power of two indirect monitoring methods, non-invasive genetic sampling and camera trapping, we designed a small-scale\\u000a pilot study that was carried out from 2006 to 2008 in and around the

Marco Galaverni; Davide Palumbo; Elena Fabbri; Romolo Caniglia; Claudia Greco; Ettore Randi

381

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2011-01-01

382

FINDING THE TROPHIC TRICKLE: USING HERBACEOUS INDICATOR SPECIES TO INVESTIGATE PLANT RECOVERY FROM INTENSE BROWSING BY WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AFTER THE RE-COLONIZATION OF A TOP PREDATOR (CANIS LUPUS).  

E-print Network

??High densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been implicated in changing forest community structure and composition. Top predators, including gray wolf (Canis lupus), were (more)

Bouchard, Krystle A.

2009-01-01

383

Host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, Ehrlichia canis  

PubMed Central

The ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. Ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Historically, advances in tick-borne disease control strategies have typically followed explication of tick-pathogen-vertebrate interactions, thus it is reasonable to expect novel, more sustainable approaches to control of these diseases as the transmission of their associated infections are investigated at the molecular through ecological levels. Better understanding of the interactions between E. canis and its canine and tick hosts would also elucidate similar interactions for other Ehrlichia species as well as the potential roles of canine sentinels, reservoirs and models of tick-borne zoonoses. This article summarizes natural exposure studies and experimental investigations of E. canis in the context of what is understood about biological vectors of tick-borne Anaplasmataceae. PMID:18963493

Stich, R. W.; Schaefer, John J.; Bremer, William G.; Needham, Glen R.; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2008-01-01

384

Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland.  

PubMed

The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in W??e 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from W??e 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in W??e 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals. PMID:24969730

Ivanoff, Dmitry V; Wolsan, Mieczys?aw; Marciszak, Adrian

2014-08-01

385

Representative Syllabus for P140 Prof. Sandra Shapshay P140 M/W 11:15pm-12:05pm Woodburn Hall 009  

E-print Network

to a culture or to the individual? What is the real relationship between religion and morality? In a more of ethics: How should I live? What is a good person? What is a moral life? What kind of treatment do we owe of Western civilization. (2) To challenge you to examine critically your own pre-conceived ideas about what

Indiana University

386

Sina and Sinb genes in triticale do not determine grain hardness contrary to their orthologs Pina and Pinb in wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Secaloindoline a (Sina) and secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) are orthologs of puroindoline a (Pina) and puroindoline b (Pinb) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of Pina and Pinb genes significantly decreased the puroindoline a and puroindoline b proteins in wheat and essentially increased grain hardness (J Exp Bot 62:4025-4036, 2011). The function of Sina and Sinb in triticale was tested by means of RNAi silencing and compared to wheat. Results Novel Sina and Sinb alleles in wild-type plants of cv. Wanad were identified and their expression profiles characterized. Alignment with wheat Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles showed 95% and 93.3% homology with Sina and Sinb coding sequences. Twenty transgenic lines transformed with two hpRNA silencing cassettes directed to silence Sina or Sinb were obtained by the Agrobacterium-mediated method. A significant decrease of expression of both Sin genes in segregating progeny of tested T1 lines was observed independent of the silencing cassette used. The silencing was transmitted to the T4 kernel generation. The relative transcript level was reduced by up to 99% in T3 progeny with the mean for the sublines being around 90%. Silencing of the Sin genes resulted in a substantial decrease of secaloindoline a and secaloindoline b content. The identity of SIN peptides was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The hardness index, measured by the SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) method, ranged from 22 to 56 in silent lines and from 37 to 49 in the control, and the mean values were insignificantly lower in the silent ones, proving increased softness. Additionally, the mean total seed protein content of silenced lines was about 6% lower compared with control lines. Correlation coefficients between hardness and transcript level were weakly positive. Conclusions We documented that RNAi-based silencing of Sin genes resulted in significant decrease of their transcripts and the level of both secaloindoline proteins, however did not affect grain hardness. The unexpected, functional differences of Sin genes from triticale compared with their orthologs, Pin of wheat, are discussed. PMID:24279512

2013-01-01

387

Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples  

PubMed Central

Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits. PMID:23216873

2012-01-01

388

Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lubke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

2013-01-01

389

Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  

PubMed

From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against CPV. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was associated with the age of the coyote, with 88%, 54%, 23%, and 0% prevalence among adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Prevalence of CDV antibodies declined over time from 100% in 1989 to 33% in 1992. The prevalence of canine infectious hepatitis (ICH) virus antibodies was 97%, 82%, 54%, and 33%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. The percentage of coyotes with ICH virus antibodies also declined over time from a high of 100% in 1989 to 31% in 1992, and 42% in 1993. Prevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 86%, 33%, 80%, and 7%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively, and changed over time from 57% in 1991 to 0% in 1993. The prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis was 21%, 17%, 10%, and 20%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. No coyotes had serologic evidence of exposure to brucellosis, either Brucella abortus or Brucella canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months of life; eight of 21 transmitted pups died of CPV infection in 1992. The potential impact of these canine pathogens on wolves (C. lupus) reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park remains to be documented. PMID:9027690

Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

1997-01-01

390

The COP1 ortholog PPS regulates the juvenile-adult and vegetative-reproductive phase changes in rice.  

PubMed

Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA(3) content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots. PMID:21705640

Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Hironori; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

2011-06-01

391

Different types and rates of genome evolution detected by comparative sequence analysis of orthologous segments from four cereal genomes.  

PubMed Central

Orthologous regions in barley, rice, sorghum, and wheat were studied by bacterial artificial chromosome sequence analysis. General microcolinearity was observed for the four shared genes in this region. However, three genic rearrangements were observed. First, the rice region contains a cluster of 48 predicted small nucleolar RNA genes, but the comparable region from sorghum contains no homologous loci. Second, gene 2 was inverted in the barley lineage by an apparent unequal recombination after the ancestors of barley and wheat diverged, 11-15 million years ago (mya). Third, gene 4 underwent direct tandem duplication in a common ancestor of barley and wheat 29-41 mya. All four of the shared genes show the same synonymous substitution rate, but nonsynonymous substitution rates show significant variations between genes 4a and 4b, suggesting that gene 4b was largely released from the strong purifying selection that acts on gene 4a in both barley and wheat. Intergenic retrotransposon blocks, many of them organized as nested insertions, mostly account for the lower gene density of the barley and wheat regions. All but two of the retrotransposons were found in the regions between genes, while all but 2 of the 51 inverted repeat transposable elements were found as insertions in genic regions and outside the retrotransposon blocks. PMID:12454082

Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Park, Yong-Jin; Busso, Carlos; Emberton, John; SanMiguel, Phillip; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

2002-01-01

392

Functional characterization of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in lamprey showing orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes  

PubMed Central

Background The melanocortin (MC) receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The purpose of this study was to identify ancestral MC receptors in agnathan, river lamprey. Results We report cloning of two MC receptors from river lamprey. The lamprey receptors, designated MCa and MCb, showed orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes, respectively. The molecular clock analysis suggested that lamprey MC receptor genes were not duplicated recently and diverged from each other more than 400 MYR ago. Expression and pharmacological characterization showed that the lamprey MCa receptor was able to bind and be activated by both lamprey and human MSH peptides. The lamprey MCa receptor had relatively high affinity for ACTH derived peptides similarly to the fish MC receptors. We found that both of the lamprey MC receptors were expressed in skin, while the MCb receptor was also found in liver, heart and skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study shows presence of MC receptors in agnathans indicating early signs of specific functions of melanocortin receptor subtypes. PMID:17603878

Haitina, Tatjana; Klovins, Janis; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Lowgren, Maja; Ringholm, Aneta; Enberg, Johan; Kawauchi, Hiroshi; Larson, Earl T; Fredriksson, Robert; Schioth, Helgi B

2007-01-01

393

Rye Pm8 and wheat Pm3 are orthologous genes and show evolutionary conservation of resistance function against powdery mildew.  

PubMed

The improvement of wheat through breeding has relied strongly on the use of genetic material from related wild and domesticated grass species. The 1RS chromosome arm from rye was introgressed into wheat and crossed into many wheat lines, as it improves yield and fungal disease resistance. Pm8 is a powdery mildew resistance gene on 1RS which, after widespread agricultural cultivation, is now widely overcome by adapted mildew races. Here we show by homology-based cloning and subsequent physical and genetic mapping that Pm8 is the rye orthologue of the Pm3 allelic series of mildew resistance genes in wheat. The cloned gene was functionally validated as Pm8 by transient, single-cell expression analysis and stable transformation. Sequence analysis revealed a complex mosaic of ancient haplotypes among Pm3- and Pm8-like genes from different members of the Triticeae. These results show that the two genes have evolved independently after the divergence of the species 7.5 million years ago and kept their function in mildew resistance. During this long time span the co-evolving pathogens have not overcome these genes, which is in strong contrast to the breakdown of Pm8 resistance since its introduction into commercial wheat 70 years ago. Sequence comparison revealed that evolutionary pressure acted on the same subdomains and sequence features of the two orthologous genes. This suggests that they recognize directly or indirectly the same pathogen effectors that have been conserved in the powdery mildews of wheat and rye. PMID:24124925

Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Buchmann, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Jordan, Tina; Krukowski, Patricia; Wicker, Thomas; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Mago, Rohit; Keller, Beat

2013-12-01

394

Quickly Finding Orthologs as Reciprocal Best Hits with BLAT, LAST, and UBLAST: How Much Do We Miss?  

PubMed Central

Reciprocal Best Hits (RBH) are a common proxy for orthology in comparative genomics. Essentially, a RBH is found when the proteins encoded by two genes, each in a different genome, find each other as the best scoring match in the other genome. NCBI's BLAST is the software most usually used for the sequence comparisons necessary to finding RBHs. Since sequence comparison can be time consuming, we decided to compare the number and quality of RBHs detected using algorithms that run in a fraction of the time as BLAST. We tested BLAT, LAST and UBLAST. All three programs ran in a hundredth to a 25th of the time required to run BLAST. A reduction in the number of homologs and RBHs found by the faster algorithms compared to BLAST becomes apparent as the genomes compared become more dissimilar, with BLAT, a program optimized for quickly finding very similar sequences, missing both the most homologs and the most RBHs. Though LAST produced the closest number of homologs and RBH to those produced with BLAST, UBLAST was very close, with either program producing between 0.6 and 0.8 of the RBHs as BLAST between dissimilar genomes, while in more similar genomes the differences were barely apparent. UBLAST ran faster than LAST, making it the best option among the programs tested. PMID:25013894

Ward, Natalie; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

2014-01-01

395

Archaeal ?-CASP ribonucleases of the aCPSF1 family are orthologs of the eukaryal CPSF-73 factor  

PubMed Central

Bacterial RNase J and eukaryal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF-73) are members of the ?-CASP family of ribonucleases involved in mRNA processing and degradation. Here we report an in-depth phylogenomic analysis that delineates aRNase J and archaeal CPSF (aCPSF) as distinct orthologous groups and establishes their repartition in 110 archaeal genomes. The aCPSF1 subgroup, which has been inherited vertically and is strictly conserved, is characterized by an N-terminal extension with two K homology (KH) domains and a C-terminal motif involved in dimerization of the holoenzyme. Pab-aCPSF1 (Pyrococcus abyssi homolog) has an endoribonucleolytic activity that preferentially cleaves at single-stranded CA dinucleotides and a 5?3? exoribonucleolytic activity that acts on 5? monophosphate substrates. These activities are the same as described for the eukaryotic cleavage and polyadenylation factor, CPSF-73, when engaged in the CPSF complex. The N-terminal KH domains are important for endoribonucleolytic cleavage at certain specific sites and the formation of stable high molecular weight ribonucleoprotein complexes. Dimerization of Pab-aCPSF is important for exoribonucleolytic activity and RNA binding. Altogether, our results suggest that aCPSF1 performs an essential function and that an enzyme with similar activities was present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and Eukarya. PMID:23222134

Phung, Duy Khanh; Rinaldi, Dana; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Quentin, Yves; Carpousis, Agamemnon J.; Clouet-dOrval, Batrice

2013-01-01

396

Structure, transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of the bread wheat orthologs of the barley cleistogamy gene Cly1.  

PubMed

The majority of genes present in the hexaploid bread wheat genome are present as three homoeologs. Here, we describe the three homoeologous orthologs of the barley cleistogamy gene Cly1, a member of the AP2 gene family. As in barley, the wheat genes (designated TaAP2-A, -B and -D) map to the sub-telomeric region of the long arms of the group 2 chromosomes. The structure and pattern of transcription of the TaAP2 homoeologs were similar to those of Cly1. Transcript abundance was high in the florets, and particularly in the lodicule. The TaAP2 message was cleaved at its miR172 target sites. The set of homoeolog-specific PCR assays developed will be informative for identifying either naturally occurring or induced cleistogamous alleles at each of the three wheat homoeologs. By combining such alleles via conventional crossing, it should be possible to generate a cleistogamous form of bread wheat, which would be advantageous both with respect to improving the level of the crop's resistance against the causative pathogen of fusarium head blight, and for controlling pollen-mediated gene flow to and from genetically modified cultivars. PMID:23381807

Ning, Shunzong; Wang, Ning; Sakuma, Shun; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Koba, Takato; Komatsuda, Takao

2013-05-01

397

Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains[S  

PubMed Central

A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-?-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

2013-01-01

398

Gp93, the Drosophila GRP94 ortholog, is required for gut epithelial homeostasis and nutrient assimilation-coupled growth control  

PubMed Central

GRP94, the endoplasmic reticulum Hsp90, is a metazoan-restricted chaperone essential for early development in mammals, yet dispensable for mammalian cell viability. This dichotomy suggests that GRP94 is required for the functional expression of secretory and/or membrane proteins that enable the integration of cells into tissues. To explore this hypothesis, we have identified the Drosophila ortholog of GRP94, Gp93, and report that Gp93 is an essential gene in Drosophila. Loss of zygotic Gp93 expression is late larval lethal and causes prominent defects in the larval midgut, the sole endoderm-derived larval tissue. Gp93 mutant larvae display pronounced defects in the midgut epithelium, with aberrant copper cell structure, markedly reduced gut acidification, atypical septate junction structure, depressed gut motility, and deficits in intestinal nutrient uptake. The metabolic consequences of the loss of Gp93-expression are profound; Gp93 mutant larvae exhibit a starvation-like metabolic phenotype, including suppression of insulin signaling and extensive mobilization of amino acids and triglycerides. The defects in copper cell structure/function accompanying loss of Gp93 expression resemble those reported for mutations in labial, an endodermal homeotic gene required for copper cell specification, and ?-spectrin, thus suggesting an essential role for Gp93 in the functional expression of secretory/integral membrane protein-encoding lab protein target genes and/or integral membrane protein(s) that interact with the spectrin cytoskeleton to confer epithelial membrane specialization. PMID:20044986

Maynard, Jason C.; Pham, Trang; Zheng, Tianli; Jockheck-Clark, Angela; Rankin, Helen B.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Spana, Eric P.; Nicchitta, Christopher V.

2010-01-01

399

TP0326, a Treponema pallidum ?-Barrel Assembly Machinery A (BamA) Ortholog and Rare Outer Membrane Protein  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Definitive identification of Treponema pallidum (Tp) rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has long eluded researchers. TP0326, the sole protein in Tp with sequence homology to a Gram-negative OMP, belongs to the BamA family of proteins essential for OM biogenesis. Structural modeling predicted that five polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains comprise the N-terminus of TP0326, while the C-terminus forms an 18-stranded amphipathic ?-barrel. Circular dichroism, heat-modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning and liposome incorporation supported these topological predictions and confirmed that the ?-barrel is responsible for the native protein's amphiphilicity. Expression analyses revealed that native TP0326 is expressed at low abundance, while a protease-surface accessibility assay confirmed surface exposure. Size-exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a modular Bam complex in Tp considerably larger than that of E. coli. Non-orthologous ancillary factors and self-association of TP0326 via its ?-barrel may both contribute to the Bam complex. Tp-infected rabbits mount a vigorous antibody response to both POTRA and ?-barrel portions of TP0326, whereas humans with secondary syphilis respond predominantly to POTRA. The syphilis spirochete appears to have devised a stratagem for harnessing the Bam pathway while satisfying its need to limit surface antigenicity. PMID:21488980

Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star M; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cummings, Michael A. D.; Eshghi, Azad; Cameron, Caroline E.; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Radolf, Justin D.

2011-01-01

400

Reprogramming the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Seeds of Oilseed Rape by Suppressing the Orthologs of REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE11[W  

PubMed Central

As a result of the phenylpropanoid pathway, many Brassicaceae produce considerable amounts of soluble hydroxycinnamate conjugates, mainly sinapate esters. From oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we cloned two orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 (REF1) encoding a coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase. The enzyme is involved in the formation of ferulate and sinapate from the corresponding aldehydes, thereby linking lignin and hydroxycinnamate biosynthesis as a potential branch-point enzyme. We used RNA interference to silence REF1 genes in seeds of oilseed rape. Nontargeted metabolite profiling showed that BnREF1-suppressing seeds produced a novel chemotype characterized by reduced levels of sinapate esters, the appearance of conjugated monolignols, dilignols, and trilignols, altered accumulation patterns of kaempferol glycosides, and changes in minor conjugates of caffeate, ferulate, and 5-hydroxyferulate. BnREF1 suppression affected the level of minor sinapate conjugates more severely than that of the major component sinapine. Mapping of the changed metabolites onto the phenylpropanoid metabolic network revealed partial redirection of metabolic sequences as a major impact of BnREF1 suppression. PMID:23424250

Mittasch, Juliane; Bottcher, Christoph; Frolov, Andrej; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

2013-01-01

401

Female gametophytic cell specification and seed development require the function of the putative Arabidopsis INCENP ortholog WYRD.  

PubMed

In plants, gametes, along with accessory cells, are formed by the haploid gametophytes through a series of mitotic divisions, cell specification and differentiation events. How the cells in the female gametophyte of flowering plants differentiate into gametes (the egg and central cell) and accessory cells remains largely unknown. In a screen for mutations that affect egg cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, we identified the wyrd (wyr) mutant, which produces additional egg cells at the expense of the accessory synergids. WYR not only restricts gametic fate in the egg apparatus, but is also necessary for central cell differentiation. In addition, wyr mutants impair mitotic divisions in the male gametophyte and endosperm, and have a parental effect on embryo cytokinesis, consistent with a function of WYR in cell cycle regulation. WYR is upregulated in gametic cells and encodes a putative plant ortholog of the inner centromere protein (INCENP), which is implicated in the control of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in yeast and animals. Our data reveal a novel developmental function of the conserved cell cycle-associated INCENP protein in plant reproduction, in particular in the regulation of egg and central cell fate and differentiation. PMID:21752930

Kirioukhova, Olga; Johnston, Amal J; Kleen, Daniela; Kgi, Christina; Baskar, Ramamurthy; Moore, James M; Bumlein, Helmut; Gross-Hardt, Rita; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2011-08-01

402

Can domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use referential emotional expressions to locate hidden food?  

PubMed

Although many studies have investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) use of human communicative cues, little is known about their use of humans' emotional expressions. We conducted a study following the general paradigm of Repacholi in Dev Psychol 34:1017-1025, (1998) and tested four breeds of dogs in the laboratory and another breed in the open air. In our study, a human reacted emotionally (happy, neutral or disgust) to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the dog was then allowed to choose one of the boxes. Dogs tested in the laboratory distinguished between the most distinct of the expressed emotions (Happy-Disgust condition) by choosing appropriately, but performed at chance level when the two emotions were less distinct (Happy-Neutral condition). The breed tested in the open air passed both conditions, but this breed's differing testing setup might have been responsible for their success. Although without meaningful emotional expressions, when given a choice, these subjects chose randomly, their performance did not differ from that in the experimental conditions. Based on the findings revealed in the laboratory, we suggest that some domestic dogs recognize both the directedness and the valence of some human emotional expressions. PMID:22960805

Buttelmann, David; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

403

Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to agreement among human informants on location of food.  

PubMed

When interacting with others, informants may offer conflicting information or information of varying accuracy. Recent research suggests that young children do not trust all informants equally and are selective in both whom they solicit for information and whose claims they support. We explored whether domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are similarly sensitive to agreement among informants. To this end, we utilized a common human gesture, pointing, to which recent research suggests dogs are sensitive. We conducted two experiments in which an experimenter secretly hid food in one of two clear containers while the dog was distracted. Next, a small group moved to indicate the food's location using stationary points positioned above the containers. In Experiment 1, two experimenters moved to stand behind the non-baited container, while a third experimenter moved to stand behind the baited container. Then, all directed one static point at the container in front of them. Experiment 2 exactly resembled Experiment 1 with the exception that the single experimenter standing behind the baited container directed two static points at the container (one with each hand). Dogs chose the container indicated by the majority in Experiment 1 significantly more often than chance, but chose the container indicated by the minority in Experiment 2 significantly more often than chance. This suggests that the number of points, not the number of people, more strongly influenced dogs' choices. PMID:22763506

Kundey, Shannon M A; German, Rebecca; De Los Reyes, Andres; Monnier, Brittany; Swift, Patrick; Delise, Justin; Tomlin, Meghan

2012-09-01

404

Breed differences in dogs' (Canis familiaris) gaze to the human face.  

PubMed

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been submitted to a vast process of artificial selection and to date, there are hundreds of breeds that differ in their physical and behavioral features. In addition, dogs possess important skills to communicate with humans. Previous evidence indicates that those abilities are related to the domestication process and are modulated by instrumental learning processes. Very few studies, however, have evaluated breed differences in the use and learning of interspecific communicative responses. In Study 1 Retrievers, German Shepherds and Poodles were compared in the acquisition and extinction of their gaze toward the human face, in a conflict situation involving food within sight but out of reach. The groups did not differ in the acquisition of the response, but throughout the extinction phase Retrievers gazed to the human significantly more than the other groups. In Study 2, similar results were obtained in a test without any previous explicit training. These results suggest that these three major popular breeds differ in gazing to humans in a communicative situation. PMID:20385214

Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

2010-06-01

405

First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

PubMed Central

Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species. PMID:25075291

Monzon, Javier

2014-01-01

406

Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris  

PubMed Central

Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

2013-01-01

407

Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1969-1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the dispersal patterns of radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) from 21 packs in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1969 to 1989. A total of 316 wolves (542 wolf-years) were captured, radio-collared, and followed during 21 years of radio-tracking; 75 were identified as dispersers. Both sexes dispersed equally. Of the adults, yearlings, and pups, 8, 75, and 16%, respectively, dispersed. Most dispersers left when they were 11-12 months old, only a few wolves dispersing as adults. Dispersal occurred mainly in February-April and October-November. Adults dispersed short distances into nearby territories, but yearlings and pups dispersed both short and long distances. Yearling and pup dispersal rates were highest when the wolf population was increasing or decreasing and low when the population was stable. Adults had the highest pairing and denning success, yearlings had moderate pairing and low denning success, and pups had low pairing and denning success. Yearlings and pups that dispersed a short distance had a higher success of settling in a new territory, likely reflecting available vacancies in nearby territories. Thirty-five percent of the known-age wolves remained in their natal territory for >2 years; two wolves were known to have remained for >7 years. The relative weight of pups at capture apparently did not affect their age or success of dispersal or the tendency to disperse.

Gese, E.M.; Mech, L.D.

1991-01-01

408

Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant.  

PubMed

The fragmentation of populations is an increasingly important problem in the conservation of endangered species. Under these conditions, rare migration events may have important effects for the rescue of small and inbred populations. However, the relevance of such migration events to genetically depauperate natural populations is not supported by empirical data. We show here that the genetic diversity of the severely bottlenecked and geographically isolated Scandinavian population of grey wolves (Canis lupus), founded by only two individuals, was recovered by the arrival of a single immigrant. Before the arrival of this immigrant, for several generations the population comprised only a single breeding pack, necessarily involving matings between close relatives and resulting in a subsequent decline in individual heterozygosity. With the arrival of just a single immigrant, there is evidence of increased heterozygosity, significant outbreeding (inbreeding avoidance), a rapid spread of new alleles and exponential population growth. Our results imply that even rare interpopulation migration can lead to the rescue and recovery of isolated and endangered natural populations. PMID:12590776

Vil, Carles; Sundqvist, Anna-Karin; Flagstad, ystein; Seddon, Jennifer; Bjrnerfeldt, Susanne; Kojola, Ilpo; Casulli, Adriano; Sand, Hkan; Wabakken, Petter; Ellegren, Hans

2003-01-01

409

An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

Kami?ski, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

2013-12-01

410

Adaptive Optics Imaging of VY Canis Majoris at 2-5 ?m with LBT/LMIRCam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the Ks , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 ?m) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar "Southwest Clump" previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 ?m appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 10-3 M ? to 2.5 10-2 M ? depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

2013-10-01

411

Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf canis lupus  

PubMed

The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data from a worldwide sample of grey wolves and a more limited sample of coyotes were analysed. The results suggest that fluctuating population sizes during the late Pleistocene have left a genetic signature on levels of variation in both species. Genealogical measures of nucleotide diversity suggest that historical population sizes were much larger in both species and grey wolves were more numerous than coyotes. Currently, about 300 000 wolves and 7 million coyotes exist. In grey wolves, genetic diversity is greater than that predicted from census population size, reflecting recent historical population declines. By contrast, nucleotide diversity in coyotes is smaller than that predicted by census population size, reflecting a recent population expansion following the extirpation of wolves from much of North America. Both species show little partitioning of haplotypes on continental or regional scales. However, a statistical parsimony analysis indicates local genetic structure that suggests recent restricted gene flow. PMID:10632860

Vila; Amorim; Leonard; Posada; Castroviejo; Petrucci-Fonseca; Crandall; Ellegren; Wayne

1999-12-01

412

Arcsecond Resolution Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Emission in the Circumstellar Envelope of VY Canis Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO2 emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ?1''. SO2 emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO2 is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO2 column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO2 are found to be ~1016 cm-2 in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO2 distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO} is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 1016 cm. SO2 is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO}>1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO2 in the CSE.

Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.

2012-02-01

413

The spectroscopic orbit of the K-giant binary ? Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined an improved orbit for the bright, evolved, double lined binary ? Canis Minoris. The system has an orbital period of 389.31 days and an eccentricity of 0.2586. We have revised the secondary to primary mass ratio to 0.987. The spectral types of the primary and secondary are K4 III and K1: III, respectively, and the components have a V magnitude difference of 2.2. Orbital fits to the Hipparcos astrometry are not definitive, but they suggest an orbital inclination of 66o, which produces masses of 1.88 and 1.85 M? for the components. A comparison with evolutionary tracks results in an age of 1.3 Gyr. STELLA very low amplitude radial velocity residuals of the secondary indicate a period of 278 days. We interpret this as the rotation period of the secondary, detectable because of star spots rotating in and out of view. This period is nearly identical to the pseudosynchronous rotation period of the star. The primary is rotating more slowly than its pseudosynchronous rate. Based partly on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated with IAC.

Fekel, F. C.; Williamson, M. H.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Pourbaix, D.

2013-03-01

414

Evolution in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the megafaunal extinctions.  

PubMed

Living coyotes modify their behavior in the presence of larger carnivores, such as wolves. However, little is known about the effects of competitor presence or absence on morphological change in coyotes or wolves over long periods of time. We examined the evolution of coyotes and wolves through time from the late Pleistocene, during which many large carnivorous species coexisted as predators and competitors, to the Recent; this allowed us to investigate evolutionary changes in these species in response to climate change and megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. We measured postcranial skeletal morphologies of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) from Pleistocene-aged tar deposits, as well as early, mid, and recent Holocene populations of both. We found few morphological differences between Pleistocene and Holocene wolf populations. Conversely, we found many differences in coyotes: Pleistocene coyotes were larger and more robust than Holocene populations. However, within 1,000 y of the megafaunal extinctions, coyotes are morphologically indistinguishable from modern populations. We cannot attribute these differences directly to climate change because modern coyotes do not follow Bergmann's rule, which states body size increases with decreasing temperature. Instead, we suggest that Pleistocene coyotes may have been larger and more robust in response to larger competitors and a larger-bodied prey base. Although we cannot separate competition from predator-prey interactions, this study indicates that the effects of biotic interactions can be detected in the fossil record. PMID:22371581

Meachen, Julie A; Samuels, Joshua X

2012-03-13

415

Isotopic investigation of niche partitioning among native carnivores and the non-native coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

We employed stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes within a hypothetico-deductive framework to explore potential resource partitioning among terrestrial mammalian carnivores. Isotope values were acquired using guard hair samples from bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Adirondack Park, NY, USA. Enrichment along the ?(13)C axis was expected to reflect the use of human sources of food (reflecting a corn subsidy), and by extension tolerance for human-modified environments, whereas enrichment along the ?(15)N axis was expected to reflect a higher level of carnivory (i.e. amount of animal-based protein in the diet) - two mechanisms by which these now sympatric species may achieve a dynamic coexistence. Although bobcats were the only obligate carnivore, all four species shared a similar ?(15)N space. In contrast, bobcat had a lower and distinct ?(13)C signature compared to foxes, consistent with the a priori expectation of bobcats being the species least tolerant of human activities. Isotope signatures for coyotes, which colonized the region in the 1920s, overlapped all three native carnivores, bobcats the least, gray fox the most, indicating their potential competitive influence on this suite of native carnivores. PMID:24666214

Warsen, Scott A; Frair, Jacqueline L; Teece, Mark A

2014-01-01

416

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are similar. However, research has demonstrated that the hormone relaxin can be detected in maternal blood after embryonic implantation, but remains negligible in non-pregnant females. We investigated the use of relaxin as a diagnostic marker of pregnancy in the coyote (C. latrans). A commercially available canine relaxin enzyme immunoassay (ReproCHEK) was used to test plasma collected from 124 female coyotes over four consecutive breeding seasons. Mating activities of the captive females were observed; then peripheral blood samples were collected at intervals throughout pregnancy, as well as after parturition. Results demonstrated that relaxin could be detected in the plasma of pregnant coyotes after 28 days of gestation, and in some cases as early as 23 days, while non-pregnant females and male coyotes consistently tested negative. Relaxin also remained detectable in the plasma of the majority of females tested 10-12 weeks after parturition. This qualitative assay for relaxin proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote. In addition, blood sampling was relatively easy, could be accomplished with minimal handling, and did not require sedation or anesthesia. PMID:17069998

Carlson, Debra A; Gese, Eric M

2007-10-01

417

Coyote (Canis latrans) mammalian prey diet shifts in response to seasonal vegetation change.  

PubMed

Drylands typically have strong seasonal variation in rainfall and primary productivity. This study examines the effects of seasonal change in grass-derived resource availability on the base of the food chain of a mammalian predator. Seasonal changes in live grass cover were measured in two vegetation types at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, USA. Non-invasive genetic sampling of scat was used to identify individuals in the local coyote (Canis latrans) population. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of hair removed from scats of 45 different coyotes was used to assess seasonal variation in the diet of mammalian coyote prey that came from C4 grasses. Live grass cover increased from the spring to the summer and fall; contribution of C4 grasses to the diet of mammalian coyote prey increased from the summer to the fall and was higher in grassland areas. There were significant differences in the seasonal patterns in the prey diet between grassland and shrubland areas. PMID:24999056

Seamster, Virginia A; Waits, Lisette P; Macko, Stephen A; Shugart, Herman H

2014-01-01

418

Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospo