These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Major species-specific antibody epitopes of the Ehrlichia chaffeensis p120 and E. canis p140 orthologs in surface-exposed tandem repeat regions.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. canis have a small subset of tandem repeat (TR)-containing protein orthologs, including p120/p140, which elicit strong antibody responses. The TR regions of these protein orthologs are immunoreactive, but the molecular characteristics of the p120/p140 epitopes have not been determined. In this study, the immunodeterminants of the E. chaffeensis p120 and E. canis p140 were identified and molecularly defined. Major antibody epitope-containing regions of both p120 and p140 were localized to the TR regions, which reacted strongly by Western immunoblotting with antibodies in sera from E. chaffeensis-infected dogs or patients and E. canis-infected dogs, respectively. Single continuous species-specific major epitopes within the E. chaffeensis p120 and E. canis p140 TRs were mapped to homologous surface-exposed glutamate/aspartate-rich regions (19 to 22 amino acids). In addition, minor cross-reactive epitopes were localized to homologous N- and C-terminal regions of p120 and p140. Furthermore, although the native and recombinant p120 and p140 proteins exhibited higher-than-predicted molecular masses, posttranslational modifications were not present on abnormally migrating p120 and p140 TR recombinant proteins as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:19420187

Luo, Tian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; McBride, Jere W

2009-07-01

2

Canis Minor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(the Lesser Dog; abbrev. CMi, gen. Canis Minoris; area 183 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Gemini and Monoceros, and culminates at midnight in mid-January. It represents one of the two dogs of Orion (the Hunter), which dominates the sky to the west (the other dog being represented by Canis Major). Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

3

Adamantane-based dendrons for trimerization of the therapeutic P140 peptide.  

PubMed

Dendrons constituted of an adamantane core, a focal point and three arms, were synthetized starting from a multifunctional adamantane derivative. Maleimido groups at the periphery of the scaffold were used to covalently attach the peptide called P140, a therapeutic phosphopeptide controlling disease activity in systemic lupus, both in mice and patients. Biotinylation of the trimers at the focal point was performed using click chemistry and the conjugates were studied in terms of solubility, binding affinity to its receptor, the HSPA8/HSC70 chaperone protein, effect on HSPA8 folding property and in vivo activity. The results showed that the trimerization of P140 peptide does not trigger aggregation or steric hindrances during the interaction with HSPA8 protein. Compared to the monomeric cognate peptide, the trivalent P140 peptide displayed the same capacity, in vitro, to down-regulate HSPA8 activity and, in vivo in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice, to reduce abnormal blood hypercellularity. The control trimer synthesized with the same scaffold and a scrambled sequence of P140 showed no effect in vivo. This work reveals that adamantane-based scaffolds with a well-defined spatial conformation are promising trivalent systems for molecular recognition and for biomedical applications. PMID:24889033

Lamanna, Giuseppe; Grillaud, Maxime; Macri, Christophe; Chaloin, Olivier; Muller, Sylviane; Bianco, Alberto

2014-08-01

4

p130Cas-associated Protein (p140Cap) as a New Tyrosine-phosphorylated Protein Involved in Cell Spreading  

PubMed Central

Integrin-mediated cell adhesion stimulates a cascade of signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, migration, and survival, mostly through tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling molecules. p130Cas, originally identified as a major substrate of v-Src, is a scaffold molecule that interacts with several proteins and mediates multiple cellular events after cell adhesion and mitogen treatment. Here, we describe a novel p130Cas-associated protein named p140Cap (Cas-associated protein) as a new tyrosine phosphorylated molecule involved in integrin- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent signaling. By affinity chromatography of human ECV304 cell extracts on a MBP-p130Cas column followed by mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight analysis, we identified p140Cap as a protein migrating at 140 kDa. We detected its expression in human, mouse, and rat cells and in different mouse tissues. Endogenous and transfected p140Cap proteins coimmunoprecipitate with p130Cas in ECV304 and in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and associate with p130Cas through their carboxy-terminal region. By immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrated that in ECV304 cells plated on fibronectin, the endogenous p140Cap colocalizes with p130Cas in the perinuclear region as well as in lamellipodia. In addition p140Cap codistributes with cortical actin and actin stress fibers but not with focal adhesions. We also show that p140Cap is tyrosine phosphorylated within 15 min of cell adhesion to integrin ligands. p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation is also induced in response to EGF through an EGF receptor dependent-mechanism. Interestingly expression of p140Cap in NIH3T3 and in ECV304 cells delays the onset of cell spreading in the early phases of cell adhesion to fibronectin. Therefore, p140Cap is a novel protein associated with p130Cas and actin cytoskeletal structures. Its tyrosine phosphorylation by integrin-mediated adhesion and EGF stimulation and its involvement in cell spreading on matrix proteins suggest that p140Cap plays a role in controlling actin cytoskeleton organization in response to adhesive and growth factor signaling. PMID:14657239

Di Stefano, Paola; Cabodi, Sara; Erba, Elisabetta Boeri; Margaria, Valentina; Bergatto, Elena; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tarone, Guido; Turco, Emilia; Defilippi, Paola

2004-01-01

5

P130Cas-associated protein (p140Cap) as a new tyrosine-phosphorylated protein involved in cell spreading.  

PubMed

Integrin-mediated cell adhesion stimulates a cascade of signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, migration, and survival, mostly through tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling molecules. p130Cas, originally identified as a major substrate of v-Src, is a scaffold molecule that interacts with several proteins and mediates multiple cellular events after cell adhesion and mitogen treatment. Here, we describe a novel p130Cas-associated protein named p140Cap (Cas-associated protein) as a new tyrosine phosphorylated molecule involved in integrin- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent signaling. By affinity chromatography of human ECV304 cell extracts on a MBP-p130Cas column followed by mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight analysis, we identified p140Cap as a protein migrating at 140 kDa. We detected its expression in human, mouse, and rat cells and in different mouse tissues. Endogenous and transfected p140Cap proteins coimmunoprecipitate with p130Cas in ECV304 and in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and associate with p130Cas through their carboxy-terminal region. By immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrated that in ECV304 cells plated on fibronectin, the endogenous p140Cap colocalizes with p130Cas in the perinuclear region as well as in lamellipodia. In addition p140Cap codistributes with cortical actin and actin stress fibers but not with focal adhesions. We also show that p140Cap is tyrosine phosphorylated within 15 min of cell adhesion to integrin ligands. p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation is also induced in response to EGF through an EGF receptor dependent-mechanism. Interestingly expression of p140Cap in NIH3T3 and in ECV304 cells delays the onset of cell spreading in the early phases of cell adhesion to fibronectin. Therefore, p140Cap is a novel protein associated with p130Cas and actin cytoskeletal structures. Its tyrosine phosphorylation by integrin-mediated adhesion and EGF stimulation and its involvement in cell spreading on matrix proteins suggest that p140Cap plays a role in controlling actin cytoskeleton organization in response to adhesive and growth factor signaling. PMID:14657239

Di Stefano, Paola; Cabodi, Sara; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Margaria, Valentina; Bergatto, Elena; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tarone, Guido; Turco, Emilia; Defilippi, Paola

2004-02-01

6

Adult Toxocara canis encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 48-year-old patient with Toxocara canis infection developed severe ataxia, rigor and neuropsychological disturbances. An aetiology was proven by an indirect immunofluorescence test. CT and MRI revealed both diffuse and circumscribed white matter lesions. Angiography showed multiple occlusion of branches of the middle cerebral artery. Anthelminthic treatment was beneficial in the initial stage of the disease, but had no effect

C Sommer; E B Ringelstein; R Biniek; W M Glöckner

1994-01-01

7

Production of human factor VIII-FL in 293T cells using the bicistronic MGMT(P140K)-retroviral vector.  

PubMed

Hemophilia A is the most common X-linked bleeding disorder; it is caused by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Replacement therapy with rFVIII produced from human cell line is a major goal for treating hemophilia patients. We prepared a full-length recombinant FVIII (FVIII-FL), using the pMFG-P140K retroviral vector. The IRES DNA fragment was cloned upstream to the P140K gene, providing a 9.34-kb bicistronic vector. FVIII-FL cDNA was then cloned upstream to IRES, resulting in a 16.6-kb construct. In parallel, an eGFP control vector was generated, resulting in a 10.1- kb construct. The 293T cells were transfected with these constructs, generating the 293T-FVIII-FL/P140K and 293T-eGFP/P140K cell lines. In 293T-FVIII-FL/P140K cells, FVIII and P140K mRNAs levels were 4,410 (±931.7)- and 295,400 (±75,769)-fold higher than in virgin cells. In 293T-eGFP/P140K cells, the eGFP and P140K mRNAs levels were 1,501,000 (±493,700)- and 308,000 (±139,300)-fold higher than in virgin cells. The amount of FVIII-FL was 0.2 IU/mL and 45 ng/mL FVIII cells or 4.4 IU/?g protein. These data demonstrate the efficacy of the bicistronic retroviral vector expressing FVIII-FL and MGMT(P140K), showing that it could be used for producing the FVIII-FL protein in a human cell line. PMID:22576836

Fontes, A M; Melo, F U F; Greene, L J; Faça, V M; Lin, Y; Gerson, S L; Covas, D T

2012-01-01

8

Adult Toxocara canis encephalitis.  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old patient with Toxocara canis infection developed severe ataxia, rigor and neuropsychological disturbances. An aetiology was proven by an indirect immunofluorescence test. CT and MRI revealed both diffuse and circumscribed white matter lesions. Angiography showed multiple occlusion of branches of the middle cerebral artery. Anthelminthic treatment was beneficial in the initial stage of the disease, but had no effect on progression of CNS symptoms. Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine yielded partial recovery and stabilisation of the patient. Images PMID:8126514

Sommer, C; Ringelstein, E B; Biniek, R; Glöckner, W M

1994-01-01

9

The Spliceosomal Phosphopeptide P140 Controls the Lupus Disease by Interacting with the HSC70 Protein and via a Mechanism Mediated by ?? T Cells  

PubMed Central

The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4+ T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4?CD8?B220+ T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on ?? T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4+ T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity. PMID:19390596

Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

2009-01-01

10

The spliceosomal phosphopeptide P140 controls the lupus disease by interacting with the HSC70 protein and via a mechanism mediated by gammadelta T cells.  

PubMed

The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4(+) T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4(+) T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4(-)CD8(-)B220(+) T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on gammadelta T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4(+) T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity. PMID:19390596

Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

2009-01-01

11

Characterization of the DNA binding and structural properties of the BRCT region of human replication factor C p140 subunit.  

PubMed

BRCT domains, present in a large number of proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication or repair, are primarily thought to be involved in protein-protein interactions. The large (p140) subunit of replication factor C contains a sequence of approximately 100 amino acids in the N-terminal region that binds DNA and is distantly related to known BRCT domains. Here we show that residues 375-480, which include 28 amino acids N-terminal to the BRCT domain, are required for 5'-phosphorylated double-stranded DNA binding. NMR chemical shift analysis indicated that the N-terminal extension includes an alpha-helix and confirmed the presence of a conserved BRCT domain. Sequence alignment of the BRCT region in the p140 subunit of replication factor C from various eukaryotes has identified very few absolutely conserved amino acid residues within the core BRCT domain, whereas none were found in sequences immediately N-terminal to the BRCT domain. However, mapping of the limited number of conserved, surface-exposed residues that were found onto a homology model of the BRCT domain, revealed a clustering on one side of the molecular surface. The cluster, as well as a number of amino acids in the N-terminal alpha-helix, were mutagenized to determine the importance for DNA binding. To ensure minimal structural changes because of the introduced mutations, proteins were checked using one-dimensional (1)H NMR and CD spectroscopy. Mutation of weakly conserved residues on one face of the N-terminal alpha-helix and of residues within the cluster disrupted DNA binding, suggesting a likely binding interface on the protein. PMID:16361700

Kobayashi, Masakazu; Figaroa, Francis; Meeuwenoord, Nico; Jansen, Lars E T; Siegal, Gregg

2006-02-17

12

Functional and molecular characterization of a KIR3DL2/p140 expressing tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone infiltrating a human lung carcinoma.  

PubMed

T lymphocytes infiltrating a human lung carcinoma stimulated in vitro with autologous tumor cell line showed a TCRVbeta13.6(+) T-cell expansion. This subset was isolated using TCRVbeta-specific antibody and several T-cell clones were generated. All these clones expressed a unique Vbeta13.6-Jbeta2.7 TCR with the same junctional region strongly suggesting that they derived from the same cell. They were CD8(+)/CD28(-) and expressed the MHC class I binding killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR)3DL2/p140, but not KIR3DL1/p70, KIR2DL1/p58.1 and KIR2DL2/3/p58.2. Sequence analysis indicated that KIR3DL2/p140 cDNA was identical to the previously reported 3DL2*002 allele except for two nucleic acid substitutions. Functional studies showed that KIR3DL2/p140(+) CTL secrete a significant level of IFNgamma and mediate an HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxicity against the autologous and some allogeneic tumor cells but not towards the autologous EBV-B cells. Strikingly, both the lytic and the cytokine secretion activities induced upon specific cell interactions were unaffected by anti-KIR3DL2/p140 antibody. In addition, crosslinking KIR3DL2/p140 molecules on CTL did not result into the modification of cytotoxicity and cytokine production triggered by anti-CD3 antibody. These results strongly suggest that, as opposed to distinct KIR expressed by CTL, the in vitro KIR3DL2/p140 engagement does not result into inhibitory (nor activatory) effects on tumor-specific CTL. PMID:14562047

Dorothée, Guillaume; Echchakir, Hamid; Le Maux Chansac, Béatrice; Vergnon, Isabelle; El Hage, Faten; Moretta, Alessandro; Bensussan, Armand; Chouaib, Salem; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia

2003-10-16

13

Gene tree correction guided by orthology  

PubMed Central

Background Reconciled gene trees yield orthology and paralogy relationships between genes. This information may however contradict other information on orthology and paralogy provided by other footprints of evolution, such as conserved synteny. Results We explore a way to include external information on orthology in the process of gene tree construction. Given an initial gene tree and a set of orthology constraints on pairs of genes or on clades, we give polynomial-time algorithms for producing a modified gene tree satisfying the set of constraints, that is as close as possible to the original one according to the Robinson-Foulds distance. We assess the validity of the modifications we propose by computing the likelihood ratio between initial and modified trees according to sequence alignments on Ensembl trees, showing that often the two trees are statistically equivalent. Availability Software and data available upon request to the corresponding author. PMID:24564227

2013-01-01

14

Protein kinase CK2 is inhibited by human nucleolar phosphoprotein p140 in an inositol hexakisphosphate-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous protein kinase that can phosphorylate various proteins involved in central cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell division, and proliferation. We have shown that the human nucleolar phosphoprotein p140 (hNopp140) is able to regulate the catalytic activity of CK2. Unphosphorylated hNopp140 and phospho-hNopp140 bind to the regulatory and catalytic subunits of CK2, respectively, and the interaction between hNopp140 and CK2 was prevented by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)). Phosphorylation of alpha-casein, genimin, or human phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-like protein by CK2 was inhibited by hNopp140, and InsP(6) recovered the suppressed activity of CK2 by hNopp140. These observations indicated that hNopp140 serves as a negative regulator of CK2 and that InsP(6) stimulates the activity of CK2 by blocking the interaction between hNopp140 and CK2. PMID:17038328

Kim, Yun-Kyoung; Lee, Kong Joo; Jeon, Hyesung; Yu, Yeon Gyu

2006-12-01

15

Efficiency and safety of O?-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K))-mediated in vivo selection in a humanized mouse model.  

PubMed

Efficient O?-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K))-mediated myeloprotection and in vivo selection have been demonstrated in numerous animal models and most recently in a phase I clinical study in glioblastoma patients. However, this strategy may augment the genotoxic risk of integrating vectors because of chemotherapy-induced DNA damage and the proliferative stress exerted during the in vivo selection. Thus, to improve the safety of the procedure, we evaluated a self-inactivating lentiviral MGMT(P140K) vector for transduction of human cord blood-derived CD34? cells followed by transplantation of the cells into NOD/LtSz-scid/Il2r??/? mice. These experiments demonstrated significant and stable enrichment of MGMT(P140K) transgenic human cells in the murine peripheral blood and bone marrow. Clonal inventory analysis utilizing linear amplification-mediated polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing revealed a characteristic lentiviral integration profile. Among the bone marrow insertions retrieved, we observed considerable overlap to previous MGMT(P140K) preclinical models or the clinical study. However, no significant differences between our chemotherapy-treated and nontreated cohorts were observed. This also hold true when specific cancer gene databases and a functional annotation of hit genes by the Panther Database with respect to molecular function, biological process, or cellular component were assessed. Thus, in summary, our data demonstrate efficient and long-term in vivo selection without overt hematological abnormalities using the lentiviral MGMT(P140K) vector. Furthermore, the study introduces humanized mouse models as a novel tool for the pre-clinical assessment of human gene therapy related toxicity. PMID:24218991

Phaltane, Ruhi; Haemmerle, Reinhard; Rothe, Michael; Modlich, Ute; Moritz, Thomas

2014-02-01

16

ORIGINAL PAPER Rosaceae conserved orthologous sequences marker  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Rosaceae conserved orthologous sequences marker polymorphism in sweet cherry September 2011 /Published online: 18 October 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract The Rosaceae Conserved=2Ã?=16) species and a member of the Rosaceae family. Domesticat- ed and wild forms, grown

van der Knaap, Esther

17

The Effect of Orthology and Coregulation on Detecting Regulatory Motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComputational de novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites is still a challenging problem. The growing number of sequenced genomes allows integrating orthology evidence with coregulation information when searching for motifs. Moreover, the more advanced motif detection algorithms explicitly model the phylogenetic relatedness between the orthologous input sequences and thus should be well adapted towards using orthologous information. In this

Valerie Storms; Marleen Claeys; Aminael Sanchez; Bart de Moor; Annemieke Verstuyf; Kathleen Marchal; Ilya Ruvinsky

2010-01-01

18

Phylogenetic trees & orthology Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010  

E-print Network

3/6/2013 1 Phylogenetic trees & orthology #12;Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010 ·Med11 vs kinases: orthology ·Trees are useful beyond that: HGT, timing of duplication, study of all kinds of evolutionary processes #12;Gene Trees, Gene Duplications, and Orthology · How to make trees · Bootstrap · Interpreting

Utrecht, Universiteit

19

Mapping of p140Cap Phosphorylation Sites: The EPLYA and EGLYA Motifs Have a Key Role in Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Csk Binding, and Are Substrates of the Abl Kinase  

PubMed Central

Protein phosphorylation tightly regulates specific binding of effector proteins that control many diverse biological functions of cells (e. g. signaling, migration and proliferation). p140Cap is an adaptor protein, specifically expressed in brain, testis and epithelial cells, that undergoes phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant protein, in which both EPLYA/EGLYA tyrosines were converted to phenylalanine, was no longer tyrosine phosphorylated, despite the presence of other tyrosine residues in p140Cap sequence. Moreover, this mutant lost its ability to bind the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), previously shown to interact with p140Cap by Far Western analysis. In addition, we found that in vitro and in HEK-293 cells, the Abelson kinase is the major kinase involved in p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation on the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences. Overall, these data represent an original attempt to in vivo characterise phosphorylated residues of p140Cap. Elucidating the function of p140Cap will provide novel insights into its biological activity not only in normal cells, but also in tumors. PMID:23383002

Sharma, Nanaocha; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Jensen, Ole N.; Cabodi, Sara; Turco, Emilia; Di Stefano, Paola; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

20

Zebrafish orthologs of human muscular dystrophy genes  

PubMed Central

Background Human muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders which cause decreased muscle strength and often result in premature death. There is no known cure for muscular dystrophy, nor have all causative genes been identified. Recent work in the small vertebrate zebrafish Danio rerio suggests that mutation or misregulation of zebrafish dystrophy orthologs can also cause muscular degeneration phenotypes in fish. To aid in the identification of new causative genes, this study identifies and maps zebrafish orthologs for all known human muscular dystrophy genes. Results Zebrafish sequence databases were queried for transcripts orthologous to human dystrophy-causing genes, identifying transcripts for 28 out of 29 genes of interest. In addition, the genomic locations of all 29 genes have been found, allowing rapid candidate gene discovery during genetic mapping of zebrafish dystrophy mutants. 19 genes show conservation of syntenic relationships with humans and at least two genes appear to be duplicated in zebrafish. Significant sequence coverage on one or more BAC clone(s) was also identified for 24 of the genes to provide better local sequence information and easy updating of genomic locations as the zebrafish genome assembly continues to evolve. Conclusion This resource supports zebrafish as a dystrophy model, suggesting maintenance of all known dystrophy-associated genes in the zebrafish genome. Coupled with the ability to conduct genetic screens and small molecule screens, zebrafish are thus an attractive model organism for isolating new dystrophy-causing genes/pathways and for use in high-throughput therapeutic discovery. PMID:17374169

Steffen, Leta S; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Vogel, Emily D; Beltre, Rosanna; Pusack, Timothy J; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I; Kunkel, Louis M

2007-01-01

21

Mycoplasma genitalium P140 and P110 cytadhesins are reciprocally stabilized and required for cell adhesion and terminal-organelle development.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that mediates cell adhesion by a complex structure known as the attachment organelle. This structure is composed of cytadhesins and cytadherence-associated proteins, but few data are available about the specific role of these proteins in M. genitalium cytadherence. We have deleted by homologous recombination the mg191 and mg192 genes from the MgPa operon encoding the P140 and P110 cytadhesins. Molecular characterization of these mutants has revealed a reciprocal posttranslational stabilization between the two proteins. Loss of either P140 or P110 yields a hemadsorption-negative phenotype and correlates with decreased or increased levels of cytoskeleton-related proteins MG386 and DnaK, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analysis reveals the absolute requirement of P140 and P110 for the proper development of the attachment organelle. The phenotype described for these mutants resembles that of the spontaneous class I and class II cytadherence-negative mutants [G. R. Mernaugh, S. F. Dallo, S. C. Holt, and J. B. Baseman, Clin. Infect. Dis. 17(Suppl. 1):S69-S78, 1993], whose genetic basis remained undetermined until now. Complementation assays and sequencing analysis demonstrate that class I and class II mutants are the consequence of large deletions affecting the mg192 and mg191-mg192 genes, respectively. These deletions originated from single-recombination events involving sequences of the MgPa operon and the MgPa island located immediately downstream. We also demonstrate the translocation of MgPa sequences to a particular MgPa island by double-crossover events. Based on these observations, we propose that in addition to being a source of antigenic variation, MgPa islands could be also involved in a general phase variation mechanism switching on and off, in a reversible or irreversible way, the adhesion properties of M. genitalium. PMID:17028283

Burgos, Raul; Pich, Oscar Q; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Baseman, Joel B; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

2006-12-01

22

The adaptor proteins p140CAP and p130CAS as molecular hubs in cell migration and invasion of cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The assembly of molecular hubs upon integrin and growth factor stimulation represents a preferential way to transduce signals throughout the cell. Among the intracellular kinases that are responsive to integrin and growth factor activation, Src Family Kinases (SFKs) are crucial regulators of cell migration and invasion. Increasing evidence highlight the importance of adaptor proteins in these processes, based on their ability to create signalling platforms that control downstream signals. Among these adaptors we will discuss the molecular features of p130Cas and p140Cap proteins in terms of regulation of cell migration and invasion in normal and transformed cells. PMID:21994904

Di Stefano, Paola; Leal, Maria Pilar Camacho; Tornillo, Giusy; Bisaro, Brigitte; Repetto, Daniele; Pincini, Alessandra; Santopietro, Emanuela; Sharma, Nanaocha; Turco, Emilia; Cabodi, Sara; Defilippi, Paola

2011-01-01

23

ORAL PAPILLOMATOSIS IN COYOTES (Canis latrans) AND WOLVES (Canis lupus) OF ALBERTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of oral papillomatosis were detected in wild carnivores of Alberta, ten in coyotes (Canis latrans) and two in wolves (Canis lupus). Lesions ranged from mild with a few small papillomas to severe with much of the surface of the lips, tongue and buccal cavity covered with papillomas. Three of five coyotes with severe papillomatosis were in obvious poor

W. M. SAMUEL; G. A. CHALMERS; J. R. GUNSON

1978-01-01

24

Big data and other challenges in the quest for orthologs  

PubMed Central

Given the rapid increase of species with a sequenced genome, the need to identify orthologous genes between them has emerged as a central bioinformatics task. Many different methods exist for orthology detection, which makes it difficult to decide which one to choose for a particular application. Here, we review the latest developments and issues in the orthology field, and summarize the most recent results reported at the third ‘Quest for Orthologs’ meeting. We focus on community efforts such as the adoption of reference proteomes, standard file formats and benchmarking. Progress in these areas is good, and they are already beneficial to both orthology consumers and providers. However, a major current issue is that the massive increase in complete proteomes poses computational challenges to many of the ortholog database providers, as most orthology inference algorithms scale at least quadratically with the number of proteomes. The Quest for Orthologs consortium is an open community with a number of working groups that join efforts to enhance various aspects of orthology analysis, such as defining standard formats and datasets, documenting community resources and benchmarking. Availability and implementation: All such materials are available at http://questfororthologs.org. Contact: erik.sonnhammer@scilifelab.se or c.dessimoz@ucl.ac.uk PMID:25064571

Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.; Gabaldón, Toni; Sousa da Silva, Alan W.; Martin, Maria; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Thomas, Paul D.; Dessimoz, Christophe

2014-01-01

25

Differences in evolutionary pressure acting within highly conserved ortholog groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In highly conserved widely distributed ortholog groups, the main evolutionary force is assumed to be purifying selection that enforces sequence conservation, with most divergence occurring by accumulation of neutral substitutions. Using a set of ortholog groups from prokaryotes, with a single representative in each studied organism, we asked the question if this evolutionary pressure is acting similarly on different

Teresa M Przytycka; Raja Jothi; L Aravind; David J Lipman

2008-01-01

26

Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36. PMID:23490559

Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

2013-06-28

27

Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys infection in a dog.  

PubMed

A 12-month-old male neutered mixed breed dog was presented with a history of diarrhea, lethargy, emaciation, polydypsia, and sniffling. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, and normal rectal temperature (38°C). Hematologic abnormalities included anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated ALP and ALT activities. A SNAP 4Dx test result was positive for Ehrlichia canis. Babesia canis vogeli organisms were found in the peripheral blood films, while morulae of E canis were not seen. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed the presence of both B c vogeli and E canis organisms, and also was positive for Anaplasma platys infection. The dog recovered following treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate, with normal hematology and biochemical profiles. PMID:24138512

Al Izzi, Salah; Martin, Donald S; Chan, Roxanne Y Y; Leutenegger, Christian M

2013-12-01

28

Coyotes ( Canis latrans) and the matching law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them

Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton; Timothy A. Shahan; John A. Shivik

2009-01-01

29

Functional prediction: identification of protein orthologs and paralogs.  

PubMed Central

Orthologs typically retain the same function in the course of evolution. Using beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family as a model, we demonstrate that orthologs can be confidently identified. The strategy is based on our recent findings that substitutions of only a few amino acid residues in these enzymes are sufficient to exchange substrate and coenzyme specificities. Hence, the few major specificity determinants can serve as reliable markers for determining orthologous or paralogous relationships. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by correcting similarity-based functional misassignment and discovering new genes and related pathways, and should be broadly applicable to other enzyme families. PMID:11206056

Chen, R.; Jeong, S. S.

2000-01-01

30

Differences in evolutionary pressure acting within highly conserved ortholog groups  

PubMed Central

Background In highly conserved widely distributed ortholog groups, the main evolutionary force is assumed to be purifying selection that enforces sequence conservation, with most divergence occurring by accumulation of neutral substitutions. Using a set of ortholog groups from prokaryotes, with a single representative in each studied organism, we asked the question if this evolutionary pressure is acting similarly on different subgroups of orthologs defined as major lineages (e.g. Proteobacteria or Firmicutes). Results Using correlations in entropy measures as a proxy for evolutionary pressure, we observed two distinct behaviors within our ortholog collection. The first subset of ortholog groups, called here informational, consisted mostly of proteins associated with information processing (i.e. translation, transcription, DNA replication) and the second, the non-informational ortholog groups, mostly comprised of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. The evolutionary pressure acting on non-informational proteins is more uniform relative to their informational counterparts. The non-informational proteins show higher level of correlation between entropy profiles and more uniformity across subgroups. Conclusion The low correlation of entropy profiles in the informational ortholog groups suggest that the evolutionary pressure acting on the informational ortholog groups is not uniform across different clades considered this study. This might suggest "fine-tuning" of informational proteins in each lineage leading to lineage-specific differences in selection. This, in turn, could make these proteins less exchangeable between lineages. In contrast, the uniformity of the selective pressure acting on the non-informational groups might allow the exchange of the genetic material via lateral gene transfer. PMID:18637201

2008-01-01

31

Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological study of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 500 canine blood samples were collected from veterinary clinics and dog shelters. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using genus-specific primers followed by PCR using E. canis species-specific primers. Ten out of 500 dogs were positive for E. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of the E. canis Malaysia strain showed that it was grouped tightly with other E. canis strains from different geographic regions. The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of genetically confirmed E. canis with a prevalence rate of 2.0% in naturally infected dogs in Malaysia. PMID:23301114

Nazari, Mojgan; Lim, Sue Yee; Watanabe, Mahira; Sharma, Reuben S. K.; Cheng, Nadzariah A. B. Y.; Watanabe, Malaika

2013-01-01

32

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

33

Comparing the FAT-CAT webserver against other orthology prediction web servers Description of benchmark dataset: We compared the FAT-CAT webserver against the top orthology  

E-print Network

Comparing the FAT-CAT webserver against other orthology prediction web servers Description of benchmark dataset: We compared the FAT-CAT webserver against the top orthology databases providing broad evaluated: We compared FAT-CAT (both High Recall and High Precision settings) against seven major orthology

Sjölander, Kimmen

34

Molecular characterization of DSC1 orthologs in invertebrate species.  

PubMed

DSC1 and BSC1 are two founding members of a novel family of invertebrate voltage-gated cation channels with close structural and evolutionary relationships to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. In this study, we searched the published genome sequences for DSC1 orthologs. DSC1 orthologs were found in all 48 insect species, and in other invertebrate species belonging to phyla Mollusca, Cnidaria, Hemichordata and Echinodermata. However, DSC1 orthologs were not found in four arachnid species, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Tetranychus urticae and Varroa destructor, two species in Annelida or any vertebrate species. We then cloned and sequenced NlSC1 and BmSC1 full-length cDNAs from the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and the silkworm (Bombyx mori), respectively. NlSC1 and BmSC1 share about 50% identity with DSC1, and the expression of NlSC1 and BmSC1 transcripts was most abundant in the head and antenna in adults. All DSC1 orthologs contain a unique and conserved DEEA motif, instead of the EEEE or EEDD motif in classical calcium channels or the DEKA motif in sodium channels. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that DSC1 and its orthologs form a separate group distinct from the classical voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels and constitute a unique family of cation channels. The DSC1/BSC1-family channels could be potential targets of new and safe insecticides for pest control. PMID:22321571

Cui, Ying-Jun; Yu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2012-05-01

35

A new perspective on barking in dogs (Canis familaris.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disparity in bark frequency and context between dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves (Canis lupus) has led some researchers to conclude that barking in the domestic dog is nonfunctional. This conclusion attributes the differences primarily to genetic variation caused by domestication rather than to the influence of social environment on ontogeny. Other researchers, however, have concluded that vocal usage and

Sophia Yin

2002-01-01

36

"Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

Marmor, Michael; And Others

1987-01-01

37

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF MESOCESTOIDES SPP. (CESTODA: MESOCESTOIDIDAE) FROM DOMESTIC DOGS ( CANIS FAMILIARIS ) AND COYOTES ( CANIS LATRANS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n 5 10), as well as

Paul R. Crosbie; Steven A. Nadler; Edward G. Platzer; Cynthia Kerner; J. Mariaux; Walter M. Boyce

2000-01-01

38

Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon canis. Five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with H. canis, and all became infected with H. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. Antibodies reactive with H. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), with IgM detected initially in all dogs 16 to 39 days post infection (PI) and IgG 22 to 43 days PI. The presence of gametocytes was first observed within peripheral blood neutrophils in Giemsa-stained blood smears between days 28 and 43 PI. Gametocyte-reactive antibodies were detected before the appearance of blood gametocytes in three of the four parasitemic dogs and also in a dog with no observed parasitemia. The detection of serum antibodies prior to the detection of blood gametocytes, or without apparent parasitemia, suggests that antibodies reactive with gametocytes may be formed against earlier forms of the parasite developing in the parenchymal tissues. Sera of dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni and Ehrlichia canis exhibited no reactivity when tested with H. canis antigen. Additionally, sera positive for H. canis were not reactive with antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania donovani and E. canis. In conclusion, incoculation of dogs with ticks infected with H. canis results in production of antibodies reactive with peripheral blood gametocytes. Detection of IgG titres would be beneficial for the diagnosis of progressive infections with undetectable parasitemia, for seroprevalence studies, and as an adjunct to IgM titres in early infections. PMID:9561714

Baneth, G; Shkap, V; Samish, M; Pipano, E; Savitsky, I

1998-01-31

39

ZZ Canis Minoris as a symbiotic star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-aplha and Na I D-line regions of the M6 giant star ZZ Canis Minoris (ZZ CMi) were observed with the Kitt Peak coude feed telescope and a CCD detector. It is shown that ZZ CMi has similar spectroscopic and photoproperties to the symbiotic star EG And. The data are used to argue for the classification of ZZ CMi as a symbiotic star despite its current listing in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) as a semi-regular variable. The infrared magnitudes of ZZ CMi and the known symbiotic stars are compared in a table.

Bopp, B. W.

1984-11-01

40

Sequence conservation at human and mouse orthologous common fragile regions,  

E-print Network

orthologous to the fragile epicenter of FRA3B, and determined the Fhit deletion break points in a mouse kidney). Deletions and structural rearrangements in FRA3B have been observed in a large fraction of tumor types. The tumor sup- presser gene FHIT encompasses the FRA3B fragile region and is altered by deletion

Miller, Webb

41

Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1993-01-01

42

Fasciclin II: The NCAM Ortholog in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a NCAM-type genes form an evolutionary ancient gene family that is expressed in the developing nervous system of a wide variety\\u000a of different species, including many invertebrates. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, Fasciclin II represents the structural and functional ortholog of vertebrate NCAM. The genetic and developmental analysis\\u000a of the fasII gene and its protein product, Fasciclin II, has uncovered

Lars V. Kristiansen; Michael Hortsch

43

KIF27 is one of orthologs for Drosophila Costal-2.  

PubMed

Signals of Hedgehog family proteins (SHH, IHH and DHH) are transduced through Patched family receptors (PTCH1 and PTCH2) and Smoothened (SMO) to GLI family transcription factors (GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3). SHH plays a key role in development and progression of pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and brain tumors. Drosophila Costal-2 (Cos2) is implicated in the Hedgehog pathway through the interaction with Smoothened (Smo), Cubitus interruptus (Ci), Fused (Fu), and microtubule; however, mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 remained to be identified. Here we identified and characterized human ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 by using bioinformatics. Full-length Drosophila Cos2 was most homologous to human KIF27, followed by mouse Kif7, and other KIF family members. KIF27 gene at human chromosome 9q22.1 and KIF7 gene at human chromosome 15q26.1 were paralogs within the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KIF27, Kif7, KIF4A, KIF4B and KIF21A constitute the KIF27 subfamily among mammalian Kinesin family. Drosophila Cos2 protein consists of Kinesin motor (KISc) domain, Ci-binding domain, and Smo-binding domain. KIF27 itself shared the common domain structure with Drosophila Cos2, while other members of KIF27 subfamily shared partial domain structure with Drosophila Cos2. These facts indicate that KIF27 is one of mammalian orthologs for Drosophila Cos2. PMID:15547729

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2004-12-01

44

Life cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis was systematically investigated in vivo. The life cycle of females and males consisted of an egg, larva, protonymph, and a tritonymph that gave rise to an adult. Development from egg to adult required 10.06-13.16 days for the male and 9.93-13.03 days for the female. Egg incubation times were greater than 50.1 to less than 52.97 hr. Larval duration was between 3.22 and 4.20 days. The durations of protonymphal stages that were destined to become females and males were greater than 2.40 to less than 3.40 days and greater than 2.33 to less than 3.33 days, respectively. Tritonymphs destined to become females and males molted in greater than 2.22 to less than 3.22 days and greater than 2.42 to less than 3.42 days, respectively. During development, all life stages frequently left their burrows and wandered on the skin surface. PMID:3132547

Arlian, L G; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

1988-06-01

45

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and the matching law.  

PubMed

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them to survive and extend their range in stochastic environments remains unknown. We tested eight wild-born, captive coyotes individually on an operant two-choice test using concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules. We held the overall rate of reinforcement constant but manipulated the ratio of reinforcement available from the two choices. We analyzed sensitivity of coyotes' tracking of resource change by fitting the generalized matching equation to the data. Results showed all coyotes efficiently tracked changes in reinforcement ratios within the first few sessions of each new condition and matched their relative rate of foraging time to relative rate of resources. We suggest the matching paradigm provides a methodology to explore coyote foraging strategies, and a potential framework to compare behavioral flexibility across species, by measuring the ability to track resource change under variable resource conditions. PMID:19555745

Gilbert-Norton, Lynne B; Shahan, Timothy A; Shivik, John A

2009-10-01

46

Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

2012-01-01

47

Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

48

Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of

AHMET UNVER; MIRIAM PEREZ; NELSON ORELLANA; HAIBIN HUANG; YASUKO RIKIHISA; Departmento de Medicina Cirugia

2001-01-01

49

Toxocara canis infection in preschool age children: Risk factors and the cognitive development of preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection were evaluated in a prospective study of disadvantaged preschool children. In addition, the hypothesis that T. canis exposure is associated with lower intelligence was tested. Seropositivity was tested at 2 years, 3 years, and at 4 years 10 months (4–10). Intelligence was measured at age 4–10 by the Full Scale IQ of

Suchitra Nelson; Tom Greene; Claire B Ernhart

1996-01-01

50

ECOLOGY OF THE COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS) AT WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY OF THE COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS) AT WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK BY JAMIE M. CHRONERT A thesis (CANIS LATRANS) AT WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK This thesis is approved as a creditable and independent to finish the grand task I had begun. Thank you... #12;v Abstract ECOLOGY OF THE COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS

51

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the  

E-print Network

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) et leurs proies dans la vallée Curlew, Utah, en comparant l

Bartel, Becky

52

Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode  

E-print Network

Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode Rick in revised form 21 January 2000; accepted 21 January 2000 Abstract Toxocara canis is a widely distributed Toxocara canis, the common roundworm of dogs, exhibits a series of remarkable biological, developmen- tal

Maizels, Rick

53

Prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens in dogs from the Stretto di Messina area (Italy).  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia canis in outdoor-kennelled dogs (n=249) from the Stretto di Messina (Italy) and to compare seroprevalence in 2 public shelters and 4 privately-owned kennels where different tick-preventive measures were implemented in order to focus on the specific sanitary risk posed by public shelters in southern Italy for tick-borne pathogens. R. conorii (72%) and B. canis (70%) were the most prevalent infections when compared to E. canis (46%) and A. phagocytophilum (38%). Seroprevalence for R. conorii, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher in public shelters than in private kennels. However, B. canis seropositivity was similar in both types of kennels. In addition, in private kennels where a regular ectocide treatment was carried out by means of spot-on devices, dogs did not present E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies. One hundred fifty-one dogs out of 249 (61%) were seropositive to more than one pathogen with R. conorii and B. canis the most common ones. Coinfections were more frequently found in public-shelter dogs. This study demonstrated high seroprevalences against R. conorii, B. canis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in kennelled dogs from both coastal sites of the Stretto di Messina and the importance of regular tick-bite prevention by means of individual spot-on devices. PMID:23140895

Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Caprì, Alessandra; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Lombardo, Gabriella; Torina, Alessandra; Masucci, Marisa

2012-12-01

54

A Framework for Comparing Phenotype Annotations of Orthologous Genes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Animal models are a key resource for the investigation of human diseases. In contrast to functional annotation, phenotype annotation is less standard, and comparing phenotypes across species remains challenging. The objective of this paper is to propose a framework for comparing phenotype annotations of orthologous genes based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of biomedical articles in which these genes are discussed. Methods 17,769 pairs of orthologous genes (mouse and human) are downloaded from the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) system and linked to biomedical articles through Entrez Gene. MeSH index terms corresponding to diseases are extracted from Medline. Results 11,111 pairs of genes exhibited at least one phenotype annotation for each gene in the pair. Among these, 81% have at least one phenotype annotation in common, 80% have at least one annotation specific to the human gene and 84% have at least one annotation specific to the mouse gene. Four disease categories represent 54% of all phenotype annotations. Conclusions This framework supports the curation of phenotype annotation and the generation of research hypotheses based on comparative studies. PMID:20841896

Bodenreider, Olivier; Burgun, Anita

2015-01-01

55

Clinical Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog in Turkey.  

PubMed

A five-year-old female dog was presented with a four-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and skin and gait abnormalities. Physical examination revealed weakness, depression, incoordination of the posterior limbs, emaciation, skin and hair coat alterations, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and fever. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed abnormalities which included anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low serum glucose and albumin concentrations, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The diagnosis was confirmed microscopically, by demonstrating the presence of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes within neutrophils in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Treatment consisting of toltrazuril and a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was effective in relieving the clinical signs and clearing the blood of H. canis gametocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of H. canis infection in a dog in Turkey. PMID:15600273

Voyvoda, H; Pasa, S; Uner, A

2004-12-01

56

Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317?Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite's gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host-parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites. PMID:25649139

Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

2015-01-01

57

Meningitis by Toxocara canis after Ingestion of Raw Ostrich Liver  

PubMed Central

Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antigen but had no symptoms or signs suggesting toxocariasis. This is the first report of toxocariasis in a family due to ingestion of raw ostrich liver in Korea. PMID:22969260

Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun

2012-01-01

58

Meningitis by Toxocara canis after ingestion of raw ostrich liver.  

PubMed

Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antigen but had no symptoms or signs suggesting toxocariasis. This is the first report of toxocariasis in a family due to ingestion of raw ostrich liver in Korea. PMID:22969260

Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S

2012-09-01

59

Signalogs: Orthology-Based Identification of Novel Signaling Pathway Components in Three Metazoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUncovering novel components of signal transduction pathways and their interactions within species is a central task in current biological research. Orthology alignment and functional genomics approaches allow the effective identification of signaling proteins by cross-species data integration. Recently, functional annotation of orthologs was transferred across organisms to predict novel roles for proteins. Despite the wide use of these methods, annotation

Tamás Korcsmáros; Máté S. Szalay; Petra Rovó; Robin Palotai; Dávid Fazekas; Katalin Lenti; Illés J. Farkas; Péter Csermely; Tibor Vellai; Vincent Laudet

2011-01-01

60

RABIES AND MORTALITY IN ETHIOPIAN WOLVES (CANIS SIMENSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1991 and February 1992, 41 of 53 known adult and subadult Ethiopian wolves (Canis sinien.s'u) in five adjacent packs in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, died or disappeared. Brain smears from two carcasses were positive for rabies by the immunofluorescence test, and rabies virus was isolated from the brains by mouse inoculation. Based on monoclonal antibody tests

C. Sillero-Zubiri; A. A. King; D. W. Macdonald

1996-01-01

61

EXPERIMENTAL SALMON POISONING DISEASE IN JUVENILE COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon poisoning disease (SPD) was experimentally induced in juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans). The disease was lethal in 11 of 12 coyotes within 15 days after inoculation with 1,000 or 4,000 metacercariae of Nanophyetus salmincola. Clinical manifestations of the disease included lymph node enlargement, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea and death. Coccoid bodies indistinguishable from rickettsiae were observed in macrophages of spleen, liver,

WILLIAM J. FOREYT; J. R. GORHAM

62

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

63

REPRODUCTION AND BODY CONDITION OF CALIFORNIA COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population dynamics and life-history evolution depend heavily on fecundity, which, in the coyote (Canis latrans), can vary substantially according to environmental conditions. Although well studied in the central part of its range, little is known about coyote reproduction in the Mediterranean climates associated with Pacific- coastal North America. I used postmortem examinations of 441 coyotes collected throughout central California to

Benjamin N. Sacks

2005-01-01

64

Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)  

E-print Network

Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Jonathan J. Cooper* , Clare, Riseholme, Lincoln LN2 2LG, UK Abstract This paper reviews the reasons why domestic dogs make good models be adopted to investigate such processes in dogs. Domestic dogs are suitable models for investigating social

65

Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae) has previously been shown to be a potential healthy carrier of dermatophyte fungi both geophilic (Microsporum gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes). In this communication, the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a symptomatic dermatophyte infection in S. floridanus is described.

P. Tizzani; M. G. Gallo; A. Peano; A. Molinar Min; C. Martínez-Carrasco Pleite; P. G. Meneguz

2007-01-01

66

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

67

OrthoDB: a hierarchical catalog of animal, fungal and bacterial orthologs  

PubMed Central

The concept of orthology provides a foundation for formulating hypotheses on gene and genome evolution, and thus forms the cornerstone of comparative genomics, phylogenomics and metagenomics. We present the update of OrthoDB—the hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org). From its conception, OrthoDB promoted delineation of orthologs at varying resolution by explicitly referring to the hierarchy of species radiations, now also adopted by other resources. The current release provides comprehensive coverage of animals and fungi representing 252 eukaryotic species, and is now extended to prokaryotes with the inclusion of 1115 bacteria. Functional annotations of orthologous groups are provided through mapping to InterPro, GO, OMIM and model organism phenotypes, with cross-references to major resources including UniProt, NCBI and FlyBase. Uniquely, OrthoDB provides computed evolutionary traits of orthologs, such as gene duplicability and loss profiles, divergence rates, sibling groups, and now extended with exon–intron architectures, syntenic orthologs and parent–child trees. The interactive web interface allows navigation along the species phylogenies, complex queries with various identifiers, annotation keywords and phrases, as well as with gene copy-number profiles and sequence homology searches. With the explosive growth of available data, OrthoDB also provides mapping of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes to the current orthologous groups. PMID:23180791

Waterhouse, Robert M.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

2013-01-01

68

Excavation of Pid3 Orthologs with Differential Resistance Spectra to Magnaporthe oryzae in Rice Resource  

PubMed Central

Twenty-six orthologs of the rice blast resistance gene Pid3 from cultivated varieties and wild rice accessions distributed in different areas were cloned by allele mining. Sequence analysis showed that while each of the orthologous genes from indica varieties and most wild accessions encodes a complete NBS-LRR protein, each of the proteins encoded by those from japonica varieties and few wild rice accessions presents a premature termination. Eleven of the 26 orthologs were selected for blast resistance testing by transforming into the blast susceptible rice variety TP309, respectively. Inoculation of 23 M. oryzae strains collected from diverse regions of China to the respective transgenic plants revealed that 6 Pid3 orthologs showed susceptible to all the tested strains, while the other 5 orthologs showed differential resistance spectra in a gradually spectrum-widen order as Pid3-W3, Pid3-W4, Pid3-I3, Pid3-W5 and Pid3-I1. Amino acid sequences alignment of these orthologs indicated that the sequence diversities between the blast resistance orthologs were mostly located in the LRR domain such as the substitutions of Q694H,D856H,Q896R,D899E etc. However, the differences between the resistance orthologs and the susceptible ones were mostly located in the NBS domain. The present experiments provide an example of that the ortholog evaluation of plant R genes could be an efficient way to expand the rice blast resistance and some other plant disease resistance as well for breeding. PMID:24681716

Shang, Junjun; Pang, Zhiqian; Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Guanghuai; Tao, Yong; Xu, Qian; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xianfeng; Li, Shigui; Xu, Jichen; Zhu, Lihuang

2014-01-01

69

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

2014-06-16

70

Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis. PMID:24725503

Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

2014-04-11

71

Tissue-specific distribution of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 of Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is expressed in developing and reproductively active male Toxocara canis. To investigate the tissue-specific expression of PP1 in T. canis, the PP1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was used to generate a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. Indirect fluorescence immunohistochemical analysis of adult male T. canis showed that PP1 was expressed in the germ line tissues, primarily in the testis, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and sperm cells, indicating the potential roles of PP1 in spermatogenesis. What's more, structural predictions of PP1 in T. canis were performed. The predictions of the structure indicated that PP1 may be a potential target for antihelmintic drugs. This is the first report of the tissue distributions and structural prediction of PP1 in T. canis, which might lead to the development of novel, innovative strategies for controlling T. canis infestations. PMID:25282049

Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Huang, Han Cheng; Hu, Shi Jun; Lin, Jie

2014-10-15

72

Outbreaks of Keratoconjunctivitis in a Camel Herd Caused by a Specific Biovar of Moraxella canis?  

PubMed Central

Two tributyrin hydrolysis-negative Moraxella isolates obtained in cases of keratoconjunctivitis in Camelus dromedarius in the Canary Islands showed highest degrees of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Moraxella canis. A level of DNA relatedness to the M. canis type strain of 79% confirmed the identity of the isolates as a tributyrin hydrolysis-negative biovar of M. canis. PMID:20032257

Tejedor-Junco, María Teresa; Gutiérrez, Carlos; González, Margarita; Fernández, Ana; Wauters, Georges; De Baere, Thierry; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2010-01-01

73

Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

2006-06-01

74

Inhibitory effect of interferon gamma on frequency of Ehrlichia canis-infected cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects the macrophage-monocyte cells of dogs, causing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Interferon-? (IFN-?), along with other cytokines, mediates the immune response to such intracellular bacterial invasions. To determine the role of IFN-? in the immunity of dogs to E. canis infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white blood cells (WBC) were collected from E. canis-infected dogs and added to a culture of E. canis in DH82 cells. The number of E. canis inclusion-positive cells was significantly reduced in cultures containing PBMC and WBC from E. canis-infected dogs compared to uninfected dogs. However, this resistance was inhibited by the addition of an anti-dog IFN-? antibody. Resistance was also observed when PBMC were added to the Cell Culture Inserts, which prohibited contact of PBMC to DH82 cells, while allowed the diffusion of soluble cell products. The results of this study indicate that resistance was not dependent on cell to cell contact, but was associated with soluble cell products, such as IFN-?. The addition of recombinant canine IFN-? to the E. canis culture also reduced the number of infected cells. A commercial recombinant canine IFN-?, which is sold in Japan, was also effective at reducing E. canis-infected cell number. These results indicate that IFN-? has an inhibitory effect on the frequency of E. canis-infected cells in vitro and that contact between effector and target cells is not necessary for the resistance. PMID:24148826

Tajima, Tomoko; Wada, Makoto

2013-12-15

75

The tryptic peptides of coyote ( Canis latrans ) hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tryptic peptides from a- and ß-chains of coyote (Canis latrans) hemoglobin have been isolated and their amino acid compositions determined. The compositions are identical to those previously found for dog hemoglobin in all respects except one: the aT-13 peptide of coyote has only threonine at residue 130 of the chain. This indicates only one a-chain in coyote instead of

Douglas Runkel; S. L. Dresler; B. Brimhall; R. T. Jones

1974-01-01

76

The OMA orthology database in 2015: function predictions, better plant support, synteny view and other improvements.  

PubMed

The Orthologous Matrix (OMA) project is a method and associated database inferring evolutionary relationships amongst currently 1706 complete proteomes (i.e. the protein sequence associated for every protein-coding gene in all genomes). In this update article, we present six major new developments in OMA: (i) a new web interface; (ii) Gene Ontology function predictions as part of the OMA pipeline; (iii) better support for plant genomes and in particular homeologs in the wheat genome; (iv) a new synteny viewer providing the genomic context of orthologs; (v) statically computed hierarchical orthologous groups subsets downloadable in OrthoXML format; and (vi) possibility to export parts of the all-against-all computations and to combine them with custom data for 'client-side' orthology prediction. OMA can be accessed through the OMA Browser and various programmatic interfaces at http://omabrowser.org. PMID:25399418

Altenhoff, Adrian M; Škunca, Nives; Glover, Natasha; Train, Clément-Marie; Sueki, Anna; Piližota, Ivana; Gori, Kevin; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Müller, Steven; Redestig, Henning; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

2015-01-28

77

Identification of Novel Human Damage Response Proteins Targeted through Yeast Orthology  

E-print Network

Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for ...

Svensson, J. Peter

78

The murine ortholog of matrix metalloproteinase 19: its cloning, gene organization, and expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a murine cDNA orthologous to the human matrix metalloproteinase 19 (hMMP-19). The murine MMP-19 cDNA was amplified by RT–PCR using specific primers whose DNA sequences were derived from both murine MMP-19 genomic DNA and partial cDNA sequences. The murine MMP-19 (mMMP-19) is 79% identical to the human ortholog and encodes a protein of 527 amino acids with

Markus Stefan Mueller; Mona Harnasch; Cornelia Kolb; Justine Kusch; Thorsten Sadowski; Radislav Sedlacek

2000-01-01

79

OrthoMCL-DB: querying a comprehensive multi-species collection of ortholog groups  

PubMed Central

The OrthoMCL database () houses ortholog group predictions for 55 species, including 16 bacterial and 4 archaeal genomes representing phylogenetically diverse lineages, and most currently available complete eukaryotic genomes: 24 unikonts (12 animals, 9 fungi, microsporidium, Dictyostelium, Entamoeba), 4 plants/algae and 7 apicomplexan parasites. OrthoMCL software was used to cluster proteins based on sequence similarity, using an all-against-all BLAST search of each species' proteome, followed by normalization of inter-species differences, and Markov clustering. A total of 511?797 proteins (81.6% of the total dataset) were clustered into 70?388 ortholog groups. The ortholog database may be queried based on protein or group accession numbers, keyword descriptions or BLAST similarity. Ortholog groups exhibiting specific phyletic patterns may also be identified, using either a graphical interface or a text-based Phyletic Pattern Expression grammar. Information for ortholog groups includes the phyletic profile, the list of member proteins and a multiple sequence alignment, a statistical summary and graphical view of similarities, and a graphical representation of domain architecture. OrthoMCL software, the entire FASTA dataset employed and clustering results are available for download. OrthoMCL-DB provides a centralized warehouse for orthology prediction among multiple species, and will be updated and expanded as additional genome sequence data become available. PMID:16381887

Chen, Feng; Mackey, Aaron J.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Roos, David S.

2006-01-01

80

Iterative orthology prediction uncovers new mitochondrial proteins and identifies C12orf62 as the human ortholog of COX14, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background Orthology is a central tenet of comparative genomics and ortholog identification is instrumental to protein function prediction. Major advances have been made to determine orthology relations among a set of homologous proteins. However, they depend on the comparison of individual sequences and do not take into account divergent orthologs. Results We have developed an iterative orthology prediction method, Ortho-Profile, that uses reciprocal best hits at the level of sequence profiles to infer orthology. It increases ortholog detection by 20% compared to sequence-to-sequence comparisons. Ortho-Profile predicts 598 human orthologs of mitochondrial proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe with 94% accuracy. Of these, 181 were not known to localize to mitochondria in mammals. Among the predictions of the Ortho-Profile method are 11 human cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly proteins that are implicated in mitochondrial function and disease. Their co-expression patterns, experimentally verified subcellular localization, and co-purification with human COX-associated proteins support these predictions. For the human gene C12orf62, the ortholog of S. cerevisiae COX14, we specifically confirm its role in negative regulation of the translation of cytochrome c oxidase. Conclusions Divergent homologs can often only be detected by comparing sequence profiles and profile-based hidden Markov models. The Ortho-Profile method takes advantage of these techniques in the quest for orthologs. PMID:22356826

2012-01-01

81

A phylogeny-based benchmarking test for orthology inference reveals the limitations of function-based validation.  

PubMed

Accurate orthology prediction is crucial for many applications in the post-genomic era. The lack of broadly accepted benchmark tests precludes a comprehensive analysis of orthology inference. So far, functional annotation between orthologs serves as a performance proxy. However, this violates the fundamental principle of orthology as an evolutionary definition, while it is often not applicable due to limited experimental evidence for most species. Therefore, we constructed high quality "gold standard" orthologous groups that can serve as a benchmark set for orthology inference in bacterial species. Herein, we used this dataset to demonstrate 1) why a manually curated, phylogeny-based dataset is more appropriate for benchmarking orthology than other popular practices and 2) how it guides database design and parameterization through careful error quantification. More specifically, we illustrate how function-based tests often fail to identify false assignments, misjudging the true performance of orthology inference methods. We also examined how our dataset can instruct the selection of a "core" species repertoire to improve detection accuracy. We conclude that including more genomes at the proper evolutionary distances can influence the overall quality of orthology detection. The curated gene families, called Reference Orthologous Groups, are publicly available at http://eggnog.embl.de/orthobench2. PMID:25369365

Trachana, Kalliopi; Forslund, Kristoffer; Larsson, Tomas; Powell, Sean; Doerks, Tobias; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

2014-01-01

82

Diets of coyotes (Canis latrans) have been studied in a variety of habitats over most of their  

E-print Network

Diets of coyotes (Canis latrans) have been studied in a variety of habitats over most coyote (Canis latrans) scats (feces). Remains of 27 foods were identified with eastern cottontails. Proceedings of the North American Prairie Conference 20:255-268 Key words: Canis latrans, cattle, eastern

83

Efficacy of selamectin against experimentally induced and naturally acquired ascarid ( Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) infections in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of selamectin against adult ascarids was evaluated in eight controlled and masked studies in dogs. Three laboratory studies evaluated selamectin against experimentally induced infections of Toxocara canis; three laboratory studies evaluated selamectin against naturally acquired infections of T. canis; one laboratory study evaluated selamectin against naturally acquired infections of both T. canis and Toxascaris leonina; one field study

T. L McTier; E. M Siedek; R. G Clemence; J. A Wren; D. D Bowman; K Hellmann; M. S Holbert; M. G Murphy; D. R Young; L. R Cruthers; D. G Smith; D. J Shanks; T. G Rowan; A. D Jernigan

2000-01-01

84

North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)  

E-print Network

North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus) Astrid with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining) North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS ONE 8

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

85

Genic variation in the coyote, Canis latrans, in Tennessee, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein variation, levels of heterozygosity, and interlocality gene variation were studied in the coyote, Canis latrans, using starch gel electrophoresis. Canis latrans were obtained from 27 counties in Tennessee. Eleven of 20 loci examined were found to be polymorphic with the remaining nine loci fixed for the same gene in all populations. Mean heterozygosity (\\\\-H) varied from 0.0% to 1.9%

M. J. Hamilton; M. L. Kennedy

1986-01-01

86

Reproductive biology of the coyote (Canis latrans): integration of mating behavior, reproductive hormones, and vaginal cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of wild Canis species is often described as unique among mammals because an unusual combination of behavioral and physiological characteristics including a seasonally monestrous cycle, copulatory lock or tie, obligatory pseudopregnancy, social monogamy, and biparental care of the young. We investigated social behavior, endocrine profiles, and vaginal cytology of female coyotes (Canis latrans) during 4 breeding seasons,

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2008-01-01

87

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competitionmam_148 265..283  

E-print Network

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competitionmam_148 265 of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA ABSTRACT 1. Dogs Canis familiaris are the world's most common carnivore. Despite these varied roles in the community, the interaction of dogs with sympatric wild carnivore species

Gompper, Matthew E.

88

Landmark-Based Search Memory in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Sylvain Fiset  

E-print Network

Landmark-Based Search Memory in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Sylvain Fiset Universite´ de the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), a mammalian species, encodes the distance and direction from land- marks. Dogs were trained to find a ball hidden next to an array of two distinct landmarks that remained

Indiana University

89

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril\\u000a may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the

Serdar Pasa; Huseyin Voyvoda; Tulin Karagenc; Abidin Atasoy; Serkal Gazyagci

90

Incentive Contrast in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Mariana Bentosela, Adriana Jakovcevic,  

E-print Network

Incentive Contrast in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Mariana Bentosela, Adriana Jakovcevic, Angel Christian University Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food

Cooper, Brenton G.

91

Persistent airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice  

E-print Network

Persistent airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in Toxocara canis- infected BALB/c mice E, Bilthoven, The Netherlands Summary Background Infection with Toxocara canis, the roundworm of dogs, has been not differ from those of uninfected controls. Toxocara-specific stimulation of spleen cells using recombinant

Maizels, Rick

92

Amplification of Ehrlichial DNA from Dogs 34 Months after Infection with Ehrlichia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether dogs in the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) are carriers of Ehrlichia canis and to determine the significance of persistent indirect immunofluorescent anti-E. canis antibody titers during this phase, PCR was performed with blood, bone marrow, and splenic aspirates collected 34 months postinoculation from six clinically healthy beagle dogs experimentally infected with E.

SHIMON HARRUS; TREVOR WANER; ITZHAK AIZENBERG; JANET E. FOLEY; AMY M. POLAND; HYLTON BARK

1998-01-01

93

ANTIBODY RESPONSES TO TOXOCARA CANIS USING SERA FROM PARASITE-INFECTED MICE AND PROTECTION FROM TOXOCARIASIS BY IMMUNISATION WITH ES ANTIGENS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for serological cross-reactions between Toxocara canis and related nematode parasites has been sought using sera from infected mice and the immunodiagnostic excretory\\/secretory (ES) antigen of T. canis larvae. Sera from mice experimentally infected with either T. canis, T. cati, T. pteropodis, Toxascaris leonina or Ascaris suum were tested for the presence of antibodies to T. canis ES antigen by

WL Nicholas; AC Stewart; GF Mitchell

1984-01-01

94

High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines. PMID:24704311

Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-06-01

95

Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old spayed female coyote (Canis latrans) was evaluated for an elliptical swelling of the skin beneath its right eye and an elevated mass that involved the soft and hard palate and gingivae around the upper right carnassial tooth and molars. Histopathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma, and a postmortem examination revealed no evidence of vascular invasion or dissemination to the regional lymph nodes or viscera. This report describes the biology and progresion of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive coyote. PMID:10484152

Bernstein, K S; Schelling, S H

1999-06-01

96

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-10-01

97

Bioinformatics analysis of plant orthologous introns: identification of an intronic tRNA-like sequence.  

PubMed

Orthologous introns have identical positions relative to the coding sequence in orthologous genes of different species. By analyzing the complete genomes of five plants we generated a database of 40,512 orthologous intron groups of dicotyledonous plants, 28,519 orthologous intron groups of angiosperms, and 15,726 of land plants (moss and angiosperms). Multiple sequence alignments of each orthologous intron group were obtained using the Mafft algorithm. The number of conserved regions in plant introns appeared to be hundreds of times fewer than that in mammals or vertebrates. Approximately three quarters of conserved intronic regions among angiosperms and dicots, in particular, correspond to alternatively-spliced exonic sequences. We registered only a handful of conserved intronic ncRNAs of flowering plants. However, the most evolutionarily conserved intronic region, which is ubiquitous for all plants examined in this study, including moss, possessed multiple structural features of tRNAs, which caused us to classify it as a putative tRNA-like ncRNA. Intronic sequences encoding tRNA-like structures are not unique to plants. Bioinformatics examination of the presence of tRNA inside introns revealed an unusually long-term association of four glycine tRNAs inside the Vac14 gene of fish, amniotes, and mammals. PMID:25014137

Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Walters, Lorraine; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Khandekar, Sushant; Crawford, Erin; Zirbel, Craig L; Leisner, Scott; Prakash, Ashwin; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

2014-09-10

98

Identification and Expression Analysis of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Co-orthologs in Solanum lycopersicum  

PubMed Central

Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed.

Simm, Stefan; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Paul, Puneet; Keller, Mario; Einloft, Jens; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

2015-01-01

99

A new Brucella canis species-specific PCR assay for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, and the development of a rapid, accurate, and widely available identification method is essential for diagnosing this disease. In this study, we developed a new Brucella canis species-specific (BcSS) PCR assay and evaluated its specificity and sensitivity. A specific PCR primer set was designed based on the BCAN_B0548-0549 region in chromosome II of B. canis. The PCR detection for B. canis included amplification of a 300-bp product that is, not found on other Brucella species or, genetically or serologically related bacteria. The detection limit of BcSS-PCR assay was 6pg/?l by DNA dilution, or 3×10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) in the buffy coats separated from whole blood experimentally inoculated with B. canis. Using the buffy coat in this PCR assay resulted in approximately 100-times higher sensitivity for B. canis as compared to detect directly from whole blood. This is the first report of a species-specific PCR assay to detect B. canis, and the new assay will provide a valuable tool for the diagnosis of B. canis infection. PMID:25128932

Kang, Sung-Il; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Kichan; Kim, Jong-Wan; Lee, Hyang-Keun; Sung, So-Ra; Heo, Young-Ran; Jung, Suk Chan; Her, Moon

2014-09-01

100

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing on embryonation of Toxocara canis eggs.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is a zoonotic nematode parasite that can be transmitted to humans by food or water contaminated with T. canis eggs from infected dog feces. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a useful alternative to thermal treatments to eliminate pathogens from foods. Most of the research on HPP has focused on prokaryotes, but little is known about its effects on eukaryotic organisms. We evaluated the ability of HPP to affect embryonation of T. canis eggs to test the hypothesis that HPP treatment can delay development of T. canis eggs. Efficacy of HPP was determined by using an embryonation assay on T. canis eggs from naturally infected puppies. For each treatment, 2500 T. canis eggs in tap water were placed in sealable plastic bags and subjected to 138-400 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60 s in a commercial HPP unit. We found that treatment with 300 or 400 MPa for 60 s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207 MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively. Results from this study suggest that HPP may be a useful treatment to protect foods from T. canis contamination. PMID:24866420

Rosypal, Alexa C; Houk, Alice E; Flick, George J; Lindsay, David S

2014-07-01

101

Use of an automated system for detection of canine serum antibodies against Ehrlichia canis glycoprotein 36.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis is the most common cause of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs around the world. The purpose of the present study was to validate a new automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4™ BioCD system; Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York) to detect antibodies against the E. canis immunodominant glycoprotein 36 (gp36). Sera and blood samples (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) were collected from mixed sex beagles (n = 8) on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 98 after intravenous inoculation with culture-derived E. canis. Sera were assayed using the Accuplex4 BioCD system (Accuplex4), an E. canis indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and a commercially available kit. A complete blood cell count and a proprietary E. canis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on each blood sample. On the day thrombocytopenia was first detected for each dog, E. canis DNA was amplified from blood of all dogs. At those times, E. canis antibodies were detected in 7 of 8 dogs by the Accuplex4, 1 of 8 dogs by the commercial kit, and 4 of 8 dogs by IFAT. Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from blood before seroconversion in any antibody assay for 6 dogs. Antibodies against gp36 were detected by Accuplex4 within 3 days of PCR-positive test results and were detected up to 25 days sooner than the commercial kit. After starting doxycycline treatment, E. canis DNA was no longer amplified by PCR assay, but serum antibodies remained detectable by all assays. PMID:25027497

Moroff, Scott; Sokolchik, Irene; Woodring, Todd; Woodruff, Colby; Atkinson, Brett; Lappin, Michael R

2014-07-15

102

Divergence of the TRP36 protein (gp36) in Ehrlichia canis strains found in Brazil.  

PubMed

The molecular characterization of 16S rRNA gene and immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis usually provide little information about the overall diversity of this organism. On the other hand, distinct sequences of the Tandem Repeat Protein 36 (TRP36/gp36) gene of E. canis have been reported, indicating substantial degree of diversity. The present letter aims to update and discuss the molecular divergence of the TRP36 protein between strains of E. canis isolated in different countries including Brazil. PMID:25467070

Aguiar, Daniel M; Melo, Andreia L T

2014-11-01

103

Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population.  

PubMed

The principal threat to the persistence of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) in the wild is hybridization with the coyote (Canis latrans). To facilitate idengification and removal of hybrids, assignment tests are developed which use genotype data to estimate identity as coyote, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or full red wolf. The tests use genotypes from the red wolves that founded the surviving population and the resulting pedigree, rather than a contemporary red wolf sample. The tests are evaluated by analysing both captive red wolves at 18 microsatellite loci, and data simulated under a highly parameterized, biologically reasonable model. The accuracy of assignment rates are generally high, with over 95% of known red wolves idengified correctly. There are, however, tradeoffs between ambiguous assignments and misassignments, and between misidengifying red wolves as hybrids and hybrids as red wolves. These result in a compromise between limiting introgression and avoiding demographic losses. The management priorities and level of introgression determine the combination of test and removal strategy that best balances these tradeoffs. Ultimately, we conclude that the use of the assignment tests has the capacity to arrest and reverse introgression. To our knowledge, the presented approach is novel in that it accounts for genetic drift when the genotypes under analysis are temporally separated from the reference populations to which they are being assigned. These methods may be valuable in cases where reference databases for small populations have aged substantially, pedigree information is available or data are generated from historical samples. PMID:14629346

Miller, Craig R; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

2003-12-01

104

Molecular systematics of Mesocestoides sPP (cestoda: mesocestoididae) from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n = 10), as well as proglottids from dogs (n = 3) and coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823 [n = 2]), and tetrathyridia representing laboratory isolates of M. corti (n = 3), and these data were analyzed phylogenetically. Two nuclear genetic markers, 18S ribosomal DNA and the second internal-transcribed spacer (ITS 2), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA data recovered a monophyletic group composed of all samples of Mesocestoides spp., distinct from closely related outgroup taxa (Amurotaenia Akhmerov, 1941 and Tetrabothrius Rudolphi, 1819). Initial analysis of the ITS 2 data resolved 3 clades within Mesocestoides. Two proglottids from dogs formed a basal clade, a second clade was represented by tetrathyridial isolates, and a third clade included all other samples. Interpretation of these data from an apomorphy-based perspective identified 6 evolutionary lineages. We also assessed whether metacestodes from dogs (n = 4) are capable of asexual proliferation in laboratory mice. One tetrathyridial and 2 acephalic isolates from dogs proliferated asexually. Further investigation is warranted to determine which of the lineages represent distinct species and to determine the life history strategies of Mesocestoides spp. PMID:10780557

Crosbie, P R; Nadler, S A; Platzer, E G; Kerner, C; Mariaux, J; Boyce, W M

2000-04-01

105

PpASCL, a moss ortholog of anther-specific chalcone synthase-like enzymes, is a hydroxyalkylpyrone synthase  

E-print Network

PpASCL, a moss ortholog of anther-specific chalcone synthase-like enzymes, is a hydroxyalkylpyrone to be involved in sporopollenin biosynthesis. The genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens contains putative sequence tag (EST) data for putative moss orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes of sporopollenin biosynthesis

Suh, Dae-Yeon

106

OrthoSelect: a protocol for selecting orthologous groups in phylogenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies using expressed sequence tags (EST) are becoming a standard approach to answer evolutionary questions. Such studies are usually based on large sets of newly generated, unannotated, and error-prone EST sequences from different species. A first crucial step in EST-based phylogeny reconstruction is to identify groups of orthologous sequences. From these data sets, appropriate target genes are selected,

Fabian Schreiber; Kerstin Pick; Dirk Erpenbeck; Gert Wörheide; Burkhard Morgenstern

2009-01-01

107

Colinearity and Its Exceptions in Orthologous adh Regions of Maize and Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthologous adh regions of the sorghum and maize genomes were sequenced and analyzed. Nine known or candidate genes, including adh1, were found in a 225-kilobase (kb) maize sequence. In a 78-kb space of sorghum, the nine homologues of the maize genes were identified in a colinear order, plus five additional genes. The major fraction of DNA in maize, occupying 166

Alexander P. Tikhonov; Phillip J. Sanmiguel; Yuko Nakajima; Nina M. Gorenstein; Jeffrey L. Bennetzen; Zoya Avramova

1999-01-01

108

A complex history of rearrangement in an orthologous region of the maize, sorghum, and rice genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of large insert clones containing genomic DNA that is orthologous to the maize adh1 region were obtained for sorghum, rice, and the adh1-homoeologous region of maize, a remnant of the tetraploid history of the Zea lineage. By using all four genomes, it was possible to describe the nature, timing, and lineages of most of the genic rearrangements that

Katica Ilic; Phillip J. Sanmiguel; Jeffrey L. Bennetzen

2003-01-01

109

OrthoDB: the hierarchical catalog of eukaryotic orthologs in 2011  

PubMed Central

The concept of homology drives speculation on a gene’s function in any given species when its biological roles in other species are characterized. With reference to a specific species radiation homologous relations define orthologs, i.e. descendants from a single gene of the ancestor. The large-scale delineation of gene genealogies is a challenging task, and the numerous approaches to the problem reflect the importance of the concept of orthology as a cornerstone for comparative studies. Here, we present the updated OrthoDB catalog of eukaryotic orthologs delineated at each radiation of the species phylogeny in an explicitly hierarchical manner of over 100 species of vertebrates, arthropods and fungi (including the metazoa level). New database features include functional annotations, and quantification of evolutionary divergence and relations among orthologous groups. The interface features extended phyletic profile querying and enhanced text-based searches. The ever-increasing sampling of sequenced eukaryotic genomes brings a clearer account of the majority of gene genealogies that will facilitate informed hypotheses of gene function in newly sequenced genomes. Furthermore, uniform analysis across lineages as different as vertebrates, arthropods and fungi with divergence levels varying from several to hundreds of millions of years will provide essential data for uncovering and quantifying long-term trends of gene evolution. OrthoDB is freely accessible from http://cegg.unige.ch/orthodb. PMID:20972218

Waterhouse, Robert M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

2011-01-01

110

RIO: Analyzing proteomes by automated phylogenomics using resampled inference of orthologs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: When analyzing protein sequences using sequence similarity searches, orthologous sequences (that diverged by speciation) are more reliable predictors of a new protein's function than paralogous sequences (that diverged by gene duplication). The utility of phylogenetic information in high-throughput genome annotation (\\

Christian M. Zmasek; Sean R. Eddy

2002-01-01

111

The Ortholog Conjecture Is Untestable by the Current Gene Ontology but Is Supported by RNA Sequencing  

E-print Network

The Ortholog Conjecture Is Untestable by the Current Gene Ontology but Is Supported by RNA of experimentally derived Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and microarray gene expression data in human and mouse or in different species. Our analysis of a large RNA-Seq dataset of multiple tissues from eight mammals

Zhang, Jianzhi

112

The ortholog of mVSOP was also isolated from an ascidian, C. intestinalis (called  

E-print Network

of a human ortholog, Hv1 (22). References and Notes 1. F. Bezanilla, Physiol. Rev. 80, 555 (2000). 2. S. B. Long, E. B. Campbell, R. Mackinnon, Science 309, 903 (2005). 3. D. M. Starace, F. Bezanilla, Nature 427, 548 (2004). 4. D. M. Starace, F. Bezanilla, J. Gen. Physiol. 117, 469 (2001). 5. S. Sokolov, T

Chapman, Edwin R.

113

Analyses of humanchimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging  

E-print Network

Analyses of human­chimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging Joa~o Pedro de Magalha~es *, George M. Church Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 Abstract Compared to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the onset of aging appears to be delayed in the human

Church, George M.

114

Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010 Med11 vs kinases: orthology  

E-print Network

3/4/2014 1 Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010 ·Med11 vs kinases: orthology ·Trees are useful beyond thatPhylogenetic trees &trees & orthologyorthology Phylogenetic gene trees: how to makePhylogenetic gene trees: how to make themthem · Homology: are two pieces of sequence related; Trees: when did they diverge (how

Utrecht, Universiteit

115

Probing the Boundaries of Orthology: The Unanticipated Rapid Evolution of Drosophila centrosomin  

PubMed Central

The rapid evolution of essential developmental genes and their protein products is both intriguing and problematic. The rapid evolution of gene products with simple protein folds and a lack of well-characterized functional domains typically result in a low discovery rate of orthologous genes. Additionally, in the absence of orthologs it is difficult to study the processes and mechanisms underlying rapid evolution. In this study, we have investigated the rapid evolution of centrosomin (cnn), an essential gene encoding centrosomal protein isoforms required during syncytial development in Drosophila melanogaster. Until recently the rapid divergence of cnn made identification of orthologs difficult and questionable because Cnn violates many of the assumptions underlying models for protein evolution. To overcome these limitations, we have identified a group of insect orthologs and present conserved features likely to be required for the functions attributed to cnn in D. melanogaster. We also show that the rapid divergence of Cnn isoforms is apparently due to frequent coding sequence indels and an accelerated rate of intronic additions and eliminations. These changes appear to be buffered by multi-exon and multi-reading frame maximum potential ORFs, simple protein folds, and the splicing machinery. These buffering features also occur in other genes in Drosophila and may help prevent potentially deleterious mutations due to indels in genes with large coding exons and exon-dense regions separated by small introns. This work promises to be useful for future investigations of cnn and potentially other rapidly evolving genes and proteins. PMID:23749319

Eisman, Robert C.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

116

MouseHuman Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster  

E-print Network

to construct a putative physical map of the OR gene cluster at the mouse Olfr1 locus. Several pointsMouse­Human Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster Michal Lapidot,* Yitzhak gene family in mammals, disposed in clusters on numerous chromosomes. One of the best characterized

Church, George M.

117

First isolation and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Costa Rica, Central America.  

PubMed

The present study investigated Ehrlichia species in blood samples from dogs suspected of clinical ehrlichiosis, using molecular and isolation techniques in cell culture. From a total of 310 canine blood samples analyzed by 16S rRNA nested PCR, 148 (47.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. DNA from Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii was not detected in any sample using species-specific primers in separated reactions. Leukocytes from five PCR-positive dogs were inoculated into DH82 cells; successful isolation of E. canis was obtained in four samples. Partial sequence of the dsb gene of eight canine blood samples (including the five samples for in vitro isolation) was obtained by PCR and their analyses through BLAST showed 100% of identity with the corresponding sequence of E. canis in GenBank. This study represents the first molecular diagnosis, isolation, and molecular characterization of E. canis in dogs from Costa Rica. PMID:20723954

Romero, L E; Meneses, A I; Salazar, L; Jiménez, M; Romero, J J; Aguiar, D M; Labruna, M B; Dolz, G

2011-08-01

118

75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service's gray wolf (Canis lupus...required by the Endangered Species Act (Act...listed as an endangered subspecies of gray wolf in 1976 (41...listed the gray wolf species in North America...of Canada as endangered, except...

2010-05-05

119

MRI of cervical cord lesions and their resolution in Toxocara canis myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report serial MRI findings in a 58-year-old man with cervical cord involvement by Toxocara canis, in whom antihelminthic chemotherapy yielded improvement of the neurological deficits and cord lesions seen on MRI.

T. P. J. Duprez; G. Bigaignon; E. Delgrange; P. Desfontaines; M. Hermans; T. Vervoort; C. J. M. Sindic; M. Buysschaert

1996-01-01

120

EUROGRAPHICS 2004 / M.-P. Cani and M. Slater (Guest Editors)  

E-print Network

EUROGRAPHICS 2004 / M.-P. Cani and M. Slater (Guest Editors) Volume 23 (2004), Number 3 Measurement by Bullyland Inc., N.Y., USA This is a preprint of an Article accepted for publication in Computer Graphics

Lang, Jochen

121

Rotational disturbance in the intermediate polar BG Canis Minoris.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author reports on the independent discovery of a feature in the intermediate polar BG Canis Minoris which resembles a rotational disturbance. A similar effect has already been reported by de Martino et al., but in the He II ?4686 line only, whereas the data presented in the present article show the effect in the Balmer lines only. Another difference is that the new disturbance occurs at phase 0.75 - this is 0.25 orbital cycles prior to that reported previously. There is, however, indication of a change in the V/R ratio at phase zero as well, in phase with that reported previously, and in phase with an apparent eclipse of the He II ?4686 line flux. These results corroborate the suggestion of de Martino et al. that BG CMi is at a relatively high inclination, and moreover imply that some intriguing and previously unseen transient behaviour is at work in this system.

Garlick, M. A.

1996-04-01

122

Seismic analysis of the massive ? Cephei star 15 Canis Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

15 Canis Majoris is a quite massive (M ~ 14 M?) main sequence pulsator of the ? Cephei type. Recent photometric (Handler 2014) and spectroscopic (Saesen & Briquet, priv. comm.) observations confirm four pulsational frequencies and indicate possible additional modes. We calculated models fitting two frequencies identified as radial and dipole modes. Our analysis indicates rather effective overshooting from the convective core as well as a strong dependence of the minimal required overshooting parameter (?ov,min) on the metallicity, Z (?ov,min ~ -2.5 Z). When incorporating the non-adiabatic f-parameter (Daszyn?ka-Daszkiewicz & Walczak 2009), defined as the ratio of the bolometric flux changes to the radial displacement, significant differences between the opacity tables were obtained. The comparison of the models derived with different codes is also interesting. We used two evolutionary codes: Warsaw-New Jersey (Pamyatnykh et al. 1998) and MESA (Paxton et al. 2011) and some systematic differences were found.

Walczak, Przemys?aw; Handler, Gerald

2015-01-01

123

Experimental Babesia gibsoni infection in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Four 5 mo old captive raised coyotes (Canis latrans) were experimentally inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(6) Babesia gibsoni organisms. Parasites were detected 1 wk post-inoculation in all coyotes with maximum parasitemia of 8-11% occurring at 34 wk. Parasitemias remained at or above 1% for at least 12 wk and were still detectable 20 wk post-inoculation. All experimentally infected coyotes developed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, and a positive heme reaction in urine while one coyote exhibited mild depression and inappetence. Infected coyotes also developed a regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The mild clinical signs coupled with the high level and long duration of parasitemia indicate that coyotes could serve as reservoirs for B. gibsoni. Entrance of this foreign parasite into the United States suggests the need for strict quarantines and thorough health and blood film examinations for imported animals. PMID:14733288

Evers, Holly V; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Meinkoth, James H

2003-10-01

124

Contraception has gone to the coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are predators of livestock. Current management programs, primarily lethal control, are ineffective for long-term management of predation. Controlling reproduction of coyotes may reduce depredations if territory fidelity is maintained by breeding pairs. Surgical sterilization is successful in altering predatory behaviors of coyotes but may provide a challenge for field implementation. An alternative approach is the development of a one-time non-transferable chemical contraceptive. This research is investigating the efficacy of a single high dose treatment of a sustained release gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, on coyotes as a long term contraceptive. Male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin subcutaneously. Preliminary data show full suppression of the reproductive axis for over 12 mo as indicated by complete absence of sperm. PMID:24437078

MacGregor, Marjorie J; Perkins, Elsey G; Asa, Cheryl; Skinner, Donal C

2013-12-01

125

Primary lymphangiectasia in a dingo (Canis familiaris dingo).  

PubMed

A 3-yr-old intact male dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) presented with a 3-mo history of diarrhea. The diarrhea did not resolve with antibiotics or intestinal protectants. Fecal examination for parasites, fecal cultures, physical examination, and radiographs were unremarkable. Enteroscopic duodenal biopsies showed dilated lacteals without inflammation. Results of serum folate, cobalamin, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were normal. Low serum total protein and albumin combined with increased fecal levels of alpha-1 protease inhibitor suggested the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum revealed dilated mucosal and submucosal lacteals without associated inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of primary lymphangiectasia. Currently, the dingo is being maintained with nutritional management. PMID:15732606

Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Ludlow, Chris; Layton, Candace; Dennis, Jeff; Miller, Margaret

2004-12-01

126

Myotonic dystrophy in two European grey wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Two related European Grey wolves (Canis lupus) with the history of muscle stiffness beginning at 2 weeks of age were examined in this study. Muscle tone and muscle mass were increased in both animals. Muscle stiffness was worsened by stress so that the animals fell into lateral recumbency. Blood chemistry revealed mildly increased serum creatine kinase activity. Abnormal potentials typical of myotonic discharges were recorded by electromyography. Cataract, first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and inhomogeneous myocardial texture by ultrasound suggested extramuscular involvement. Myopathology demonstrated dystrophic signs in the muscle biopsy specimen. The presumptive diagnosis based on the in vivo findings was myotonic dystrophy. Immunochemistry of the striated muscles revealed focal absence of dystrophin 1 and beta-dystroglycan in both cases. Cardiac and ophthalmologic involvement suggested a disorder very similar to a human form of myotonic dystrophy. This is the first description of myotonic dystrophy in wolves. PMID:17385559

Pákozdy, A; Leschnik, M; Nell, B; Kolm, U S; Virányi, Z; Belényi, B; Molnár, M J; Bilzer, T

2007-03-01

127

Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed\\u000a paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the

Ivan Ravera; Laura Altet; Olga Francino; Mar Bardagí; Armand Sánchez; Lluís Ferrer

2011-01-01

128

Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.  

PubMed

Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

2014-11-01

129

Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil; and to investigate their association with hematological abnormalities. Serum samples from 196 dogs were first tested using dot-ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia canis. Peripheral blood samples from 199 dogs were subjected to 16S rRNA nested PCR (nPCR) for A. platys and E. canis, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. A total of 19/196 samples (9.69%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. using ELISA and 28/199 (14.07%) samples were positive for A. platys by nested PCR. All the dog samples were negative for E. canis, both in anti-E. canis antibody tests and in nested PCR. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between A. platys-PCR positive and negative dogs and Anaplasma spp. serologically positive dogs, except for basophil counts, which were higher in nPCR-positive dogs. This is the first report showing A. platys presence in dogs in Southern Brazil. In conclusion, hematological parameters may not be sufficient to diagnose A. platys infection in dogs in Southern Brazil, probably due either to low pathogenicity or to chronic infection. On the other hand, E. canis may either have very low occurrence or be absent in dogs in Porto Alegre. PMID:24142166

Lasta, Camila Serina; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Messick, Joanne Belle; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Dalmolin, Magnus Larruscaim; González, Félix Hilario Diaz

2013-01-01

130

Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

2012-01-01

131

Further characteristics of Arcanobacterium canis, a novel species of genus Arcanobacterium.  

PubMed

Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations characterizing Arcanobacterium canis, a newly described species with the type strain A. canis DSM 25104 isolated from an otitis externa of a dog, four additional A. canis strains isolated from infections of three dogs and one cat could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, 23S rDNA, and the genes rpoB and gap. All four A. canis investigated in the present study were isolated from the infected animals together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. canis remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might help to identify A. canis in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs and cats. PMID:24144861

Sammra, O; Balbutskaya, A; Zhang, S; Hijazin, M; Nagib, S; Lämmler, C; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Kostrzewa, M; Timke, M

2013-12-27

132

Orthology Inference in Nonmodel Organisms Using Transcriptomes and Low-Coverage Genomes: Improving Accuracy and Matrix Occupancy for Phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Orthology inference is central to phylogenomic analyses. Phylogenomic data sets commonly include transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes that are incomplete and contain errors and isoforms. These properties can severely violate the underlying assumptions of orthology inference with existing heuristics. We present a procedure that uses phylogenies for both homology and orthology assignment. The procedure first uses similarity scores to infer putative homologs that are then aligned, constructed into phylogenies, and pruned of spurious branches caused by deep paralogs, misassembly, frameshifts, or recombination. These final homologs are then used to identify orthologs. We explore four alternative tree-based orthology inference approaches, of which two are new. These accommodate gene and genome duplications as well as gene tree discordance. We demonstrate these methods in three published data sets including the grape family, Hymenoptera, and millipedes with divergence times ranging from approximately 100 to over 400 Ma. The procedure significantly increased the completeness and accuracy of the inferred homologs and orthologs. We also found that data sets that are more recently diverged and/or include more high-coverage genomes had more complete sets of orthologs. To explicitly evaluate sources of conflicting phylogenetic signals, we applied serial jackknife analyses of gene regions keeping each locus intact. The methods described here can scale to over 100 taxa. They have been implemented in python with independent scripts for each step, making it easy to modify or incorporate them into existing pipelines. All scripts are available from https://bitbucket.org/yangya/phylogenomic_dataset_construction. PMID:25158799

Yang, Ya; Smith, Stephen A.

2014-01-01

133

Orthology inference in nonmodel organisms using transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes: improving accuracy and matrix occupancy for phylogenomics.  

PubMed

Orthology inference is central to phylogenomic analyses. Phylogenomic data sets commonly include transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes that are incomplete and contain errors and isoforms. These properties can severely violate the underlying assumptions of orthology inference with existing heuristics. We present a procedure that uses phylogenies for both homology and orthology assignment. The procedure first uses similarity scores to infer putative homologs that are then aligned, constructed into phylogenies, and pruned of spurious branches caused by deep paralogs, misassembly, frameshifts, or recombination. These final homologs are then used to identify orthologs. We explore four alternative tree-based orthology inference approaches, of which two are new. These accommodate gene and genome duplications as well as gene tree discordance. We demonstrate these methods in three published data sets including the grape family, Hymenoptera, and millipedes with divergence times ranging from approximately 100 to over 400 Ma. The procedure significantly increased the completeness and accuracy of the inferred homologs and orthologs. We also found that data sets that are more recently diverged and/or include more high-coverage genomes had more complete sets of orthologs. To explicitly evaluate sources of conflicting phylogenetic signals, we applied serial jackknife analyses of gene regions keeping each locus intact. The methods described here can scale to over 100 taxa. They have been implemented in python with independent scripts for each step, making it easy to modify or incorporate them into existing pipelines. All scripts are available from https://bitbucket.org/yangya/phylogenomic_dataset_construction. PMID:25158799

Yang, Ya; Smith, Stephen A

2014-11-01

134

Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea  

PubMed Central

Background An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for refining COGs but also represents a challenge because of error amplification. One of the practical strategies involves construction of refined COGs for phylogenetically compact subsets of genomes. Results New Archaeal Clusters of Orthologous Genes (arCOGs) were constructed for 41 archaeal genomes (13 Crenarchaeota, 27 Euryarchaeota and one Nanoarchaeon) using an improved procedure that employs a similarity tree between smaller, group-specific clusters, semi-automatically partitions orthology domains in multidomain proteins, and uses profile searches for identification of remote orthologs. The annotation of arCOGs is a consensus between three assignments based on the COGs, the CDD database, and the annotations of homologs in the NR database. The 7538 arCOGs, on average, cover ~88% of the genes in a genome compared to a ~76% coverage in COGs. The finer granularity of ortholog identification in the arCOGs is apparent from the fact that 4538 arCOGs correspond to 2362 COGs; ~40% of the arCOGs are new. The archaeal gene core (protein-coding genes found in all 41 genome) consists of 166 arCOGs. The arCOGs were used to reconstruct gene loss and gene gain events during archaeal evolution and gene sets of ancestral forms. The Last Archaeal Common Ancestor (LACA) is conservatively estimated to possess 996 genes compared to 1245 and 1335 genes for the last common ancestors of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, respectively. It is inferred that LACA was a chemoautotrophic hyperthermophile that, in addition to the core archaeal functions, encoded more idiosyncratic systems, e.g., the CASS systems of antivirus defense and some toxin-antitoxin systems. Conclusion The arCOGs provide a convenient, flexible framework for functional annotation of archaeal genomes, comparative genomics and evolutionary reconstructions. Genomic reconstructions suggest that the last common ancestor of archaea might have been (nearly) as advanced as the modern archaeal hyperthermophiles. ArCOGs and related information are available at: . Reviewers This article was reviewed by Peer Bork, Patrick Forterre, and Purificacion Lopez-Garcia. PMID:18042280

Makarova, Kira S; Sorokin, Alexander V; Novichkov, Pavel S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

2007-01-01

135

Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.  

PubMed

A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis. PMID:23962826

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

2013-11-01

136

First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

2013-02-01

137

Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids.  

PubMed

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems. We used global positioning system telemetry and probabilistic measures of spatial overlap to investigate spatial segregation between adjacent Canis packs. Our hypothesis was supported as: (1) the probability of locating wolves, coyotes, and hybrids within home ranges ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) or core areas ([Formula: see text] < 0.01) of adjacent packs was low; and (2) the amount of shared space use was negligible. Spatial segregation did not vary substantially in relation to genotypes of adjacent packs or local environmental conditions (i.e., harvest regulations or road densities). We provide the first telemetry-based demonstration of spatial segregation between wolves and coyotes, highlighting the novel relationships between Canis types in the Ontario hybrid zone relative to areas where wolves and coyotes are reproductively isolated. Territoriality among Canis may increase the likelihood of eastern wolves joining coyote and hybrid packs, facilitate hybridization, and could play a role in limiting expansion of the genetically distinct APP eastern wolf population. PMID:23864253

Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R

2013-12-01

138

Identification of mammalian orthologs associates PYPAF5 with distinct functional roles.  

PubMed

PYRIN- and CARD-containing proteins belong to a recently identified protein family involved in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammatory processes. Variations in the gene products of the family members PYPAF1 and NOD2/CARD15 have been associated with several autoinflammatory diseases. We could identify the mouse orthologs of PYPAF1, PYPAF5, NOD1, NOD2 and the rat ortholog of PYPAF5. Intriguingly, we found that PYPAF5 has been reported previously not only as regulator of NF-kappaB and caspase-1, but also as angiotensin II and vasopressin receptor. In particular, based on a comprehensive sequence analysis, we propose a structural model for this hormone receptor that is different from the model suggested previously. PMID:12633874

Albrecht, Mario; Domingues, Francisco S; Schreiber, Stefan; Lengauer, Thomas

2003-03-13

139

Lepidopteran Ortholog of Drosophila Breathless Is a Receptor for the Baculovirus Fibroblast Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) encodes a gene homologous to the mammalian fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. We report the cloning of B. mori and Spodoptera frugiperda orthologous genes (Bmbtl and Sfbtl, respectively) of Drosophila melanogaster breathless (btl) encoding a receptor for Branchless\\/ FGF and show that these genes encode the receptor for a baculovirus-encoded FGF (vFGF). Sequence analysis showed

Susumu Katsuma; Takaaki Daimon; Kazuei Mita; Toru Shimada

2006-01-01

140

Multiple roles for the E\\/Daughterless ortholog HLH-2 during C. elegans gonadogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLH-2 is the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the Drosophila Daughterless and mammalian E basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcriptional activators that function during diverse events during animal development. HLH-2 has been implicated in cell fate specification in different neural lineages and in the LIN-12\\/Notch-mediated anchor cell (AC)\\/ventral uterine precursor cell (VU) decision in the somatic gonad. Here, we show that hlh-2 plays

Xantha Karp; Iva Greenwald

2004-01-01

141

wALADin Benzimidazoles Differentially Modulate the Function of Porphobilinogen Synthase Orthologs  

PubMed Central

The heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a potential drug target in several human pathogens. wALADin1 benzimidazoles have emerged as species-selective PBGS inhibitors against Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial worms. In the present study, we have systematically tested wALADins against PBGS orthologs from bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and plants to elucidate the inhibitory spectrum. However, the effect of wALADin1 on different PBGS orthologs was not limited to inhibition: several orthologs were stimulated by wALADin1; others remained unaffected. We demonstrate that wALADins allosterically modulate the PBGS homooligomeric equilibrium with inhibition mediated by favoring low-activity oligomers, while 5-aminolevulinic acid, Mg2+, or K+ stabilized high-activity oligomers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS could be inhibited or stimulated by wALADin1 depending on these factors and pH. We have defined the wALADin chemotypes responsible for either inhibition or stimulation, facilitating the design of tailored PBGS modulators for potential application as antimicrobial agents, herbicides, or drugs for porphyric disorders. PMID:24568185

2015-01-01

142

Phytochrome mediates the external light signal to repress FT orthologs in photoperiodic flowering of rice  

PubMed Central

Phytochromes confer the photoperiodic control of flowering in rice (Oryza sativa), a short-day plant. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of day-length recognition, we examined the interaction between phytochrome signals and circadian clocks in photoperiodic-flowering mutants of rice. Monitoring behaviors of circadian clocks revealed that phase setting of circadian clocks is not affected either under short-day (SD) or under long-day (LD) conditions in a phytochrome-deficient mutant that shows an early-flowering phenotype with no photoperiodic response. Non-24-hr-light/dark-cycle experiments revealed that a rice counterpart gene of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO), named PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY 1 (Heading date 1) [SE1 (Hd1)], functions as an output of circadian clocks. In addition, the phytochrome deficiency does not affect the diurnal mRNA expression of SE1 upon floral transition. Downstream floral switch genes were further identified with rice orthologs of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Our RT-PCR data indicate that phytochrome signals repress mRNA expression of FT orthologs, whereas SE1 can function to promote and suppress mRNA expression of the FT orthologs under SD and LD, respectively. This SE1 transcriptional activity may be posttranscriptionally regulated and may depend on the coincidence with Pfr phytochromes. We propose a model to explain how a short-day plant recognizes the day length in photoperiodic flowering. PMID:12154129

Izawa, Takeshi; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Sugiyama, Nobuko; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Yano, Masahiro; Shimamoto, Ko

2002-01-01

143

Tracing Nonlegume Orthologs of Legume Genes Required for Nodulation and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses  

PubMed Central

Most land plants can form a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for assimilation of inorganic phosphate from the soil. In contrast, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis is almost completely restricted to the legumes. The finding that the two symbioses share common signaling components in legumes suggests that the evolutionarily younger nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has recruited functions from the more ancient AM symbiosis. The recent advances in cloning of the genes required for nodulation and AM symbioses from the two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, provide a unique opportunity to address biological questions pertaining to the evolution of root symbioses in plants. Here, we report that nearly all cloned legume genes required for nodulation and AM symbioses have their putative orthologs in nonlegumes. The orthologous relationship can be clearly defined on the basis of both sequence similarity and microsyntenic relationship. The results presented here serve as a prelude to the comparative analysis of orthologous gene function between legumes and nonlegumes and facilitate our understanding of how gene functions and signaling pathways have evolved to generate species- or family-specific phenotypes. PMID:16452143

Zhu, Hongyan; Riely, Brendan K.; Burns, Nicole J.; Ané, Jean-Michel

2006-01-01

144

Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).  

PubMed

Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential. PMID:24450062

Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

2013-12-01

145

Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.  

PubMed

At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n?=?81 scats) and prey remains (n?=?31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains. PMID:22448046

Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

2012-04-01

146

Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

1998-01-01

147

Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012.  

PubMed

Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Laboratory-acquired infections can occur following contact with Brucella spp. We identified a paediatric B. canis case, the source and other exposed persons. A 3-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnoea was hospitalized for 48 h for bronchiolitis. After her admission, blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed anti-microbials and recovered. B. canis was also isolated from blood of the child's pet dog; these isolates were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the dog's infection. Additionally, 31 laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first report strongly suggesting B. canis zoonotic transmission to a child in the United States, and highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

Dentinger, C M; Jacob, K; Lee, L V; Mendez, H A; Chotikanatis, K; McDonough, P L; Chico, D M; De, B K; Tiller, R V; Traxler, R M; Campagnolo, E R; Schmitt, D; Guerra, M A; Slavinski, S A

2014-11-01

148

Genetic comparison of Brucella canis isolates by the MLVA assay in South Korea.  

PubMed

The multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) assay is a method frequently employed as a molecular epidemiological tool for Brucella genetic fingerprinting. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotyping of 77 B. canis isolates from 14 different dog breeding farms in Korea by the MLVA assay and to compare the epidemiological relationships between the Korean isolates and foreign ones. Simpson's diversity index for 17 loci showed a range from 0 to 0.846 in 77 B. canis isolates. B. canis isolates in Korea were observed to have high genetic diversity at the most variable loci and were divided into 30 distinct genotypes by phylogenetic analysis. Some B. canis isolates were closely related to previously typed isolates in other countries. The MLVA assay can be helpful to analyze the epidemiological correlation of B. canis isolates in domestic pet animals and to track the geographic origin by comparing the genetic patterns with foreign isolates. Therefore, the MLVA assay will be useful as a tool for control and preventive measures of canine brucellosis. PMID:21307620

Kang, Sung-Il; Heo, Eun Jeong; Cho, Donghee; Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Her, Moon

2011-06-01

149

Evolutionary conservation and selection of human disease gene orthologs in the rat and mouse genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Model organisms have contributed substantially to our understanding of the etiology of human disease as well as having assisted with the development of new treatment modalities. The availability of the human, mouse and, most recently, the rat genome sequences now permit the comprehensive investigation of the rodent orthologs of genes associated with human disease. Here, we investigate whether human disease genes differ significantly from their rodent orthologs with respect to their overall levels of conservation and their rates of evolutionary change. Results Human disease genes are unevenly distributed among human chromosomes and are highly represented (99.5%) among human-rodent ortholog sets. Differences are revealed in evolutionary conservation and selection between different categories of human disease genes. Although selection appears not to have greatly discriminated between disease and non-disease genes, synonymous substitution rates are significantly higher for disease genes. In neurological and malformation syndrome disease systems, associated genes have evolved slowly whereas genes of the immune, hematological and pulmonary disease systems have changed more rapidly. Amino-acid substitutions associated with human inherited disease occur at sites that are more highly conserved than the average; nevertheless, 15 substituting amino acids associated with human disease were identified as wild-type amino acids in the rat. Rodent orthologs of human trinucleotide repeat-expansion disease genes were found to contain substantially fewer of such repeats. Six human genes that share the same characteristics as triplet repeat-expansion disease-associated genes were identified; although four of these genes are expressed in the brain, none is currently known to be associated with disease. Conclusions Most human disease genes have been retained in rodent genomes. Synonymous nucleotide substitutions occur at a higher rate in disease genes, a finding that may reflect increased mutation rates in the chromosomal regions in which disease genes are found. Rodent orthologs associated with neurological function exhibit the greatest evolutionary conservation; this suggests that rodent models of human neurological disease are likely to most faithfully represent human disease processes. However, with regard to neurological triplet repeat expansion-associated human disease genes, the contraction, relative to human, of rodent trinucleotide repeats suggests that rodent loci may not achieve a 'critical repeat threshold' necessary to undergo spontaneous pathological repeat expansions. The identification of six genes in this study that have multiple characteristics associated with repeat expansion-disease genes raises the possibility that not all human loci capable of facilitating neurological disease by repeat expansion have as yet been identified. PMID:15239832

Huang, Hui; Winter, Eitan E; Wang, Huajun; Weinstock, Keith G; Xing, Heming; Goodstadt, Leo; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Smith, Douglas; Albà, M Mar; Ponting, Chris P; Fechtel, Kim

2004-01-01

150

OrthoDB v8: update of the hierarchical catalog of orthologs and the underlying free software.  

PubMed

Orthology, refining the concept of homology, is the cornerstone of evolutionary comparative studies. With the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, inference of orthology has become instrumental for generating hypotheses about gene functions crucial to many studies. This update of the OrthoDB hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org) covers 3027 complete genomes, including the most comprehensive set of 87 arthropods, 61 vertebrates, 227 fungi and 2627 bacteria (sampling the most complete and representative genomes from over 11,000 available). In addition to the most extensive integration of functional annotations from UniProt, InterPro, GO, OMIM, model organism phenotypes and COG functional categories, OrthoDB uniquely provides evolutionary annotations including rates of ortholog sequence divergence, copy-number profiles, sibling groups and gene architectures. We re-designed the entirety of the OrthoDB website from the underlying technology to the user interface, enabling the user to specify species of interest and to select the relevant orthology level by the NCBI taxonomy. The text searches allow use of complex logic with various identifiers of genes, proteins, domains, ontologies or annotation keywords and phrases. Gene copy-number profiles can also be queried. This release comes with the freely available underlying ortholog clustering pipeline (http://www.orthodb.org/software). PMID:25428351

Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Petty, Tom J; Waterhouse, Robert M; Simão, Felipe A; Pozdnyakov, Igor A; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

2015-01-28

151

PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/. PMID:24250218

Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

152

Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Understand Invisible Displacement? Emma Collier-Baker, Joanne M. Davis, and Thomas Suddendorf  

E-print Network

Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Understand Invisible Displacement? Emma Collier-Baker, Joanne M. Davis, and Thomas Suddendorf University of Queensland Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) perform above chance abilities. Four experiments investigated how dogs find an object that has been hidden in 1 of 3 opaque boxes

Indiana University

153

EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (2008) C. Alvarado and M.-P. Cani (Editors)  

E-print Network

EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (2008) C. Alvarado and M.- P. Cani. Cani1 , L. Barthe2 1Grenoble Universities (LJK-CNRS) & INRIA, France 2University of Toulouse (IRIT different viewpoints. The Matisse art-work served as a loose inspiration. c The Eurographics Association

Barthe, Loïc

154

A molecular and serologic survey of Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii in dogs and ticks from Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization were used to survey for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii in blood samples of 65 dogs that harbored ticks from northcentral and northeastern Oklahoma. Dog blood samples were also examined for antibodies against E. canis and E. chaffeensis, using an immunofluorescent antibody test. Ten of 65 dogs (15.4%) examined

George L Murphy; S. A Ewing; Lisa C Whitworth; J. Carl Fox; A. Alan Kocan

1998-01-01

155

Ehrlichia canis in dogs in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil: serology, molecular detection and associated factors.  

PubMed

This study investigated infection by Ehrlichia spp. agents by PCR, immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), and by Giemsa-stained blood smears in 108 dogs from a semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Seventy-five (69.4%) of the 108 dogs were found to be seropositive to Ehrlichia canis, while only four dogs (3.7%) were positive in real-time PCR for E. canis. In six dogs (5.6%) E. canis-like morulae were observed in monocytes. Animals that stayed in environment whose floor was dried dirt, and dogs whose owners reported low frequency of cleaning the dog environment had higher (P<0.05) PCR positivity for E. canis. Increasing seropositivity was found in older dogs (P=0.012). This study provides the first molecular detection of E. canis in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:23141416

Tanikawa, A; Labruna, M B; Costa, A; Aguiar, D M; Justiniano, S V; Mendes, R S; Melo, A L T; Alves, C J; Azevedo, S S

2013-06-01

156

The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.  

PubMed

Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. PMID:24953751

Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Pe?ko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

2014-08-29

157

Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.  

PubMed

In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

2014-03-01

158

Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. PMID:24522164

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2014-03-17

159

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

160

Serological evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Central Italian healthy domestic cats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present survey was to estimate the seroprevalences of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Central Italian feline population. Serum samples of 560 healthy domestic cats were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), considering an antibody titre of 1:40 as cut-off. Seroprevalences of 6.4% and 4.5% were found for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Adult, mixed breed cats showed seroprevalences higher than younger and purebred subjects, whereas no differences were observed in relation to gender and living conditions. PMID:25113987

Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio

2014-10-01

161

ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts. PMID:25651332

Telmo, Paula de Lima; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; dos Santos, Cristina Araújo; de Aguiar, Patrícia de Souza; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

2015-01-01

162

ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts. PMID:25651332

Telmo, Paula de Lima; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Santos, Cristina Araújo Dos; Aguiar, Patrícia de Souza de; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

2015-02-01

163

Characterization of AtSTOP1 orthologous genes in tobacco and other plant species.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) and proton (H?) tolerances are essential traits for plants to adapt to acid soil environments. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these tolerances are mediated by a zinc-finger transcription factor, SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (AtSTOP1), which regulates the transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to both stressors. Here, the functions of orthologous proteins (STOP1-like proteins) in other plant species were characterized by reverse genetics analyses and in planta complementation assays. RNA interference of a gene for NtSTOP1 repressed Al and H? tolerances of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) roots. Tobacco roots released citrate in response to Al, concomitant with the up-regulated transcription of an ortholog of an Al tolerance gene encoding a citrate-transporting multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein. The RNA interference repression of NtSTOP1 blocked this process and also repressed the transcription of another orthologous gene for Al tolerance, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3, which encodes a prokaryote-type transporter. These results demonstrated that NtSTOP1 regulates Al tolerance in tobacco through the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The in planta complementation assays revealed that other plant species, including woody plants, a legume, and a moss (Physcomitrella patens), possess functional STOP1-like proteins that can activate several H? and Al-tolerance genes in Arabidopsis. Knocking out the gene encoding the STOP1-like protein decreased the Al tolerance of P. patens. Together, our results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation by STOP1-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved among land plants and that it confers the ability to survive in acid soils through the transcriptional regulation of Al- and H?-tolerance genes. PMID:23749850

Ohyama, Yoshinao; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Imaizumi, Ryujiro; Aoki, Toshio; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2013-08-01

164

Dynamic evolution of bz orthologous regions in the Andropogoneae and other grasses.  

PubMed

Genome structure exhibits remarkable plasticity within Zea mays. To examine how haplotype structure has evolved within the Andropogoneae tribe, we have analyzed the bz gene-rich region of maize (Zea mays), the Zea teosintes mays ssp. mexicana, luxurians and diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides, Coix lacryma-jobi and Sorghum propinquum. We sequenced and annotated BAC clones from these species and re-annotated the orthologous Sorghum bicolor region. Gene colinearity in the region is well conserved within the genus Zea. However, the orthologous regions of Coix and Sorghum exhibited several micro-rearrangements relative to Zea, including addition, truncation and deletion of genes. The stc1 gene, involved in the production of a terpenoid insect defense signal, is evolving particularly fast, and its progressive disappearance from some species is occurring by microhomology-mediated recombination. LTR retrotransposons are the main contributors to the dynamic evolution of the bz region. Common transposon insertion sites occur among haplotypes from different Zea mays sub-species, but not outside the species. As in Zea, different patterns of interspersion between genes and retrotransposons are observed in Sorghum. We estimate that the mean divergence times between maize and Tripsacum, Coix and Sorghum are 8.5, 12.1 and 12.4 million years ago, respectively, and that between Coix and Sorghum is 9.3 million years ago. A comparison of the bz orthologous regions of Zea, Sorghum and Coix with those of Brachypodium, Setaria and Oryza allows us to infer how the region has evolved by addition and deletion of genes in the approximately 50 million years since these genera diverged from a common progenitor. PMID:22621343

Wang, Qinghua; Dooner, Hugo K

2012-10-01

165

Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery area in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Predicting spatial patterns of hybridization is important for evolutionary and conservation biology yet are hampered by poor understanding of how hybridizing species can interact. This is especially pertinent in contact zones where hybridizing populations are sympatric. In this study, we examined the extent of red wolf (Canis rufus) colonization and introgression where the species contacts a coyote (C. latrans) population in North Carolina, USA. We surveyed 22,000km(2) in the winter of 2008 for scat and identified individual canids through genetic analysis. Of 614 collected scats, 250 were assigned to canids by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. Canid samples were genotyped at 6-17 microsatellite loci (nDNA) and assigned to species using three admixture criteria implemented in two Bayesian clustering programs. We genotyped 82 individuals but none were identified as red wolves. Two individuals had red wolf mtDNA but no significant red wolf nDNA ancestry. One individual possessed significant red wolf nDNA ancestry (approximately 30%) using all criteria, although seven other individuals showed evidence of red wolf ancestry (11-21%) using the relaxed criterion. Overall, seven individuals were classified as hybrids using the conservative criteria and 37 using the relaxed criterion. We found evidence of dog (C. familiaris) and gray wolf (C. lupus) introgression into the coyote population. We compared the performance of different methods and criteria by analyzing known red wolves and hybrids. These results suggest that red wolf colonization and introgression in North Carolina is minimal and provide insights into the utility of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization. PMID:21486372

Bohling, Justin H; Waits, Lisette P

2011-05-01

166

Comparative Manipulation-Test Performance in Ten-Week-Old Wolves (Canis lupus) and Alaskan Malamutes (Canis familiaris ): A Piagetian Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 10-week-old Eastern timber wolves (Canis lupus lycaon) and four 10-week-old malamutes (C. familiaris) were presented a series of puzzle boxes that required them to perform increasingly complex manipulations in order to extract a food dish. Wolves averaged 5.8 successes in eight trials, and malamutes averaged 1.5 successes. This difference was significant at the .05 level, which supports Frank's (1980)

Harry Frank; Martha Gialdini Frank

1985-01-01

167

The N137 and P140 amino acids in the p51 and the P95 amino acid in the p66 subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase are instrumental to maintain catalytic activity and to design new classes of anti-HIV-1 drugs.  

PubMed

Amino acids N137 and P140 in the p51 subunit of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) are part of the beta7-beta8-loop that contributes to the formation of the base of the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-binding pocket and makes up a substantial part of the dimerization interface. Amino acid P95 in p66 also markedly contributes to the dimerization binding energy. Nine RT mutants at amino acid 137 were constructed bearing the mutations Y, K, T, D, A, Q, S, H or E. The prolines at amino acid positions 95 and 140 were replaced by alanine in separate enzymes. We found that all mutant RT enzymes showed a dramatically decreased RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. None of the mutant RT enzymes showed marked resistance against any of the clinically used NNRTIs but they surprisingly lost significant sensitivity for NRTIs such as ddGTP. The denaturation analyses of the mutant RTs by urea are suggestive for a relevant role of N137 in the stability of the RT heterodimer and support the view that the beta7-beta8 loop in p51 is a hot spot for RT dimerization and instrumental for efficient polymerase catalytic activity. Consequently, N137 and P140 in p51 and P95 in p66 should be attractive targets in the design of new structural classes of RT inhibitors aimed at compromising the optimal interaction of the beta7-beta8 loop in p51 at the p66/p51 dimerization interface. PMID:15848161

Auwerx, Joeri; Van Nieuwenhove, Joke; Rodríguez-Barrios, Fátima; de Castro, Sonia; Velázquez, Sonsoles; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; De Clercq, Erik; Camarasa, María-José; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Gago, Federico; Balzarini, Jan

2005-04-25

168

Sequential Evaluation of Dogs Naturally Infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Bartonella vinsonii  

PubMed Central

Historically, disease manifestations in dogs seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis antigens by indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing have been attributed to infection with either E. canis or Ehrlichia ewingii. A 1996 study by Dawson and colleagues provided PCR evidence that healthy dogs from southeastern Virginia could be naturally infected with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. This observation stimulated us to determine which Ehrlichia spp. infected sick dogs that were referred to our hospital from the same region. Based upon PCR amplification with species-specific primers, sick dogs seroreactive to E. canis antigens were determined to be infected with four Ehrlichia species: E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. equi, and E. ewingii. Coinfection with three Ehrlichia species (E. canis, E. ewingii, and E. equi) was documented for one dog. An additional canine pathogen presumed to be tick transmitted, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, was identified in 7 of 12 dogs. Importantly, our results indicate that in naturally infected dogs, E. chaffeensis can cause severe disease manifestations that are clinically and serologically indistinguishable from disease manifestations of E. canis or E. ewingii. In addition, our findings support the efficacy of doxycycline for treatment of E. canis, E. equi, and E. ewingii infections but indicate that, based upon the persistence of E. chaffeensis DNA for 1 year following treatment, E. chaffeensis infection in dogs may be more refractory to doxycycline treatment. Undetected coinfection with Bartonella may also complicate the evaluation of treatment efficacy while resulting in disease manifestations that mimic ehrlichiosis. PMID:9705408

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Hancock, Susan I.

1998-01-01

169

Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in Wolves (Canis lupus), Coyotes (Canis latrans), and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).  

PubMed

We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25446624

Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

2015-01-01

170

The PhyloFacts FAT-CAT web server: ortholog identification and function prediction using fast approximate tree classification.  

PubMed

The PhyloFacts 'Fast Approximate Tree Classification' (FAT-CAT) web server provides a novel approach to ortholog identification using subtree hidden Markov model-based placement of protein sequences to phylogenomic orthology groups in the PhyloFacts database. Results on a data set of microbial, plant and animal proteins demonstrate FAT-CAT's high precision at separating orthologs and paralogs and robustness to promiscuous domains. We also present results documenting the precision of ortholog identification based on subtree hidden Markov model scoring. The FAT-CAT phylogenetic placement is used to derive a functional annotation for the query, including confidence scores and drill-down capabilities. PhyloFacts' broad taxonomic and functional coverage, with >7.3 M proteins from across the Tree of Life, enables FAT-CAT to predict orthologs and assign function for most sequence inputs. Four pipeline parameter presets are provided to handle different sequence types, including partial sequences and proteins containing promiscuous domains; users can also modify individual parameters. PhyloFacts trees matching the query can be viewed interactively online using the PhyloScope Javascript tree viewer and are hyperlinked to various external databases. The FAT-CAT web server is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/fatcat/. PMID:23685612

Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Samad, Bushra; Dineen, David; Meacham, Christopher; Sjölander, Kimmen

2013-07-01

171

Comparative Sequence Analysis of the Ghd7 Orthologous Regions Revealed Movement of Ghd7 in the Grass Genomes  

PubMed Central

Ghd7 is an important rice gene that has a major effect on several agronomic traits, including yield. To reveal the origin of Ghd7 and sequence evolution of this locus, we performed a comparative sequence analysis of the Ghd7 orthologous regions from ten diploid Oryza species, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum and maize. Sequence analysis demonstrated high gene collinearity across the genus Oryza and a disruption of collinearity among non-Oryza species. In particular, Ghd7 was not present in orthologous positions except in Oryza species. The Ghd7 regions were found to have low gene densities and high contents of repetitive elements, and that the sizes of orthologous regions varied tremendously. The large transposable element contents resulted in a high frequency of pseudogenization and gene movement events surrounding the Ghd7 loci. Annotation information and cytological experiments have indicated that Ghd7 is a heterochromatic gene. Ghd7 orthologs were identified in B. distachyon, sorghum and maize by phylogenetic analysis; however, the positions of orthologous genes differed dramatically as a consequence of gene movements in grasses. Rather, we identified sequence remnants of gene movement of Ghd7 mediated by illegitimate recombination in the B. distachyon genome. PMID:23185584

Yang, Lu; Liu, Tieyan; Li, Bo; Sui, Yi; Chen, Jinfeng; Shi, Jinfeng; Wing, Rod A.; Chen, Mingsheng

2012-01-01

172

Differential Effects of a Mutation on the Normal and Promiscuous Activities of Orthologs: Implications for Natural and Directed Evolution  

PubMed Central

Neutral drift occurring over millions or billions of years results in substantial sequence divergence among enzymes that catalyze the same reaction. Although natural selection maintains the primary activity of orthologous enzymes, there is, by definition, no selective pressure to maintain physiologically irrelevant promiscuous activities. Thus, the levels and the evolvabilities of promiscuous activities may vary among orthologous enzymes. Consistent with this expectation, we have found that the levels of a promiscuous activity in nine gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase (ProA) orthologs vary by about 50-fold. Remarkably, a single amino acid change from Glu to Ala near the active site appeared to be critical for improvement of the promiscuous activity in every ortholog. The effects of this change varied dramatically. The improvement in the promiscuous activity varied from 50- to 770-fold, and, importantly, was not correlated with the initial level of the promiscuous activity. The decrease in the original activity varied from 190- to 2,100-fold. These results suggest that evolution of a novel enzyme may be possible in some microbes, but not in others. Further, these results underscore the importance of using multiple orthologs as starting points for directed evolution of novel enzyme activities. PMID:25246702

Khanal, Akhil; Yu McLoughlin, Sean; Kershner, Jamie P.; Copley, Shelley D.

2015-01-01

173

Differential effects of a mutation on the normal and promiscuous activities of orthologs: implications for natural and directed evolution.  

PubMed

Neutral drift occurring over millions or billions of years results in substantial sequence divergence among enzymes that catalyze the same reaction. Although natural selection maintains the primary activity of orthologous enzymes, there is, by definition, no selective pressure to maintain physiologically irrelevant promiscuous activities. Thus, the levels and the evolvabilities of promiscuous activities may vary among orthologous enzymes. Consistent with this expectation, we have found that the levels of a promiscuous activity in nine gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase (ProA) orthologs vary by about 50-fold. Remarkably, a single amino acid change from Glu to Ala near the active site appeared to be critical for improvement of the promiscuous activity in every ortholog. The effects of this change varied dramatically. The improvement in the promiscuous activity varied from 50- to 770-fold, and, importantly, was not correlated with the initial level of the promiscuous activity. The decrease in the original activity varied from 190- to 2,100-fold. These results suggest that evolution of a novel enzyme may be possible in some microbes, but not in others. Further, these results underscore the importance of using multiple orthologs as starting points for directed evolution of novel enzyme activities. PMID:25246702

Khanal, Akhil; Yu McLoughlin, Sean; Kershner, Jamie P; Copley, Shelley D

2015-01-01

174

SUSTAINED RELEASE CYCLOSPORINE THERAPY FOR BILATERAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA IN A RED WOLF (CANIS RUFUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-yr-old intact male red wolf (Canis rufus) diagnosed with bilateral idiopathic dry eye was treated with subconjunctival drug delivery implants designed to release therapeutic levels of cyclosporine from 12-24 mo. Normal tear production and corneal health has been maintained, alleviating the need for daily handling of the animal for topical medication.

Anne E. Acton; A. Brady Beale; Brian C. Gilger; Michael K. Stoskopf

2006-01-01

175

Detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA using multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

We hereby propose a novel sensitive, specific, and cost-efficient method to detect Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA from canine whole blood samples by multiplex PCR. Blood samples from hemoparasited dogs attending the Veterinary Hospital at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém, Brazil, were collected in tubes containing EDTA. Amplification of E. canis and A. platys 16S rDNA by nested (n) PCR was successfully achieved by using primers specific to the Anaplasmataceae in the first round of PCR, followed by a second round of PCR using E. canis-specific primers in conjunction with A. platys-specific primers. The amplicons obtained were cloned and sequenced, yielding sequences of 478 and 473?bp (including primers) pertaining to regions of the 16S rDNA of E. canis and A. platys, respectively. The protocol we here propose may help to measure the prevalence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrompocytopenia, not only in northern Brazil, where there is no data available, but also elsewhere. PMID:24107211

Rufino, Claudia Pinheiro; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; Reis, Thais; Campos, Ruan; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; McCulloch, John Anthony; Meneses, Andre Marcelo Conceição; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

2013-12-01

176

Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

177

Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

178

The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte. PMID:24031632

Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

2011-01-01

179

BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A. Zevallos; dos Santos, Sergio Vieira

2014-01-01

180

Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPopulation densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi)

Frank Hailer; Jennifer A. Leonard; Henry Harpending

2008-01-01

181

Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples.  

PubMed

The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the hairs of all 14 dogs with a firm diagnosis of demodicosis and consistently failed to amplify on negative controls. Eleven of 12 skin biopsies with a morphologic diagnosis of canine demodicosis were also positive. Sampling hairs on two skin points (lateral face and interdigital skin), D. canis DNA was detected on nine of 51 healthy dogs (17.6%) a much higher percentage than previously reported with microscopic studies. Furthermore, it is foreseen that if the number of samples were increased, the percentage of positive dogs would probably also grow. Moreover, in four of the six dogs with demodicosis, the samples taken from non-lesioned skin were positive. This finding, if confirmed in further studies, suggests that demodicosis is a generalized phenomenon in canine skin, due to proliferation of local mite populations, even though macroscopic lesions only appear in certain areas. The real-time PCR technique to detect D. canis DNA described in this work is a useful tool to advance our understanding of canine demodicosis. PMID:20865428

Ravera, Ivan; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

2011-02-01

182

Predation on European wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by wolves (Canis lupus) in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that predation by wolves Canis lupus is one of the major factors limiting densities of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou in North America. Conversely, little is known about the role of European wild forest reindeer R. t. fennicus as wolf prey, or about the influence of wolf predation on populations of this rare subspecies. This relationship

Ilpo Kojola; Otso Huitu; Katri Toppinen; Kalevi Heikura; Samuli Heikkinen; Seppo Ronkainen

2004-01-01

183

Helicobacter canis Bacteremia in a Patient with Fever of Unknown Origin  

PubMed Central

A 57-year-old woman with common variable immune deficiency and liver failure of unknown etiology presented with recurrent fevers over a 5-month period. She was found to have Helicobacter canis bacteremia. Immunocompromised hosts with exposure to cats or dogs may be at risk for infection with this organism, which may be challenging to diagnose. PMID:23284025

Abidi, Maheen Z.; Wilhelm, Mark P.; Neff, Jadee L.; Hughes, John G.; Cunningham, Scott A.

2013-01-01

184

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils,

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; John Kilgo; Scott Ray; Karl V. Miller

2007-01-01

185

Daily activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest of western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the activity patterns of the coyote (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mexican Pacific coast over 3 years. Fifteen coyotes (six females, nine males) were fitted with radio-collars equipped with activity sensors to determine the influence of seasonality (dry vs. wet), gender (males vs. females) and diel intervals (dusk, night, dawn, and day) on activity

Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart; Lisette Cantú-Salazar; Samia E. Carrillo-Percastegui; Carlos A. López-González

2009-01-01

186

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2007-01-01

187

BLINDNESS IN A COYOTE, Canis latrans, FROM THE ROLLING PLAINS OF TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross and histopathologiclesionsin the eyes of a blind coyote, Canis \\/atrans, collectedin King County, Texas are discussed.The animal was in good condition and its age estimated at 7 years. The left globe presented with a superficial corneal erosion, a small punctate erosion, and an apparent lenticular opacity. Histo- logically, there was a mild anterior uveitis and lenticular degeneration with thicken-

DANNY B. PENCEE; WYMAN P. MEINZEREU

188

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella

B. R Hoar; B. B Chomel; D. L Rolfe; C. C Chang; C. L Fritz; B. N Sacks; T. E Carpenter

2003-01-01

189

Modeling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Habitat in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were once widespread throughout most of North America including the Pacific Northwest. Wolves were extirpated from the Pacific Northwest in the early 20th century and have been absent for over 60 years. The success of reintroduction efforts in Idaho and the greater Yellowstone area, however, has caused wolf populations in these regions to rise dramatically, giving

Tad Larsen; William J. Ripple

2006-01-01

190

Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)  

E-print Network

Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Amanda C not been examined. In a study of a dog agility competition among human/dog teams, men's pre-competition basal testosterone (T) levels were positively related to changes in dogs' cortisol levels from pre

Josephs, Robert

191

Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections. PMID:25583345

Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

2015-03-01

192

Failure of imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril/emodepside plus clindamycin in treating Hepatozoon canis infection.  

PubMed

Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) is among the most widespread vector-borne infections of dogs, primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks. Based on the absence of a consensus on the treatment regimes for canine hepatozoonosis, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate (5-6 mg/kg subcutaneously once a week for 6 weeks), and of toltrazuril/emodepside (Procox(®), 15 mg/kg once a day for 6 days) in association with clindamycin (15 mg/kg once a day for 21 days) in treating naturally infected dogs. At the enrollment time (T0), 32 dogs, cytologically or molecularly positive for H. canis, were assigned to test and control groups. Animals were treated according to the specific therapeutic protocol, and the presence of H. canis gamonts was assessed weekly by cytology and PCR throughout six months (T1-T19). In addition, any abnormality in leucocyte morphology was evaluated and recorded. Results indicate that, in spite of a reduction in the percentage of infected dogs, both treatments did not provide parasitological cure. Accordingly, new treatment protocols or active compounds against H. canis should be investigated. PMID:24439769

De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Giannelli, Alessio; de Caprariis, Donato; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

2014-03-01

193

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. PMID:24657583

Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

2014-06-01

194

Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxocara canis is a widely distributed nematode parasite which reaches maturity in dogs. However, eggs voided by canid animals are infective to a very wide range of paratenic hosts including humans. In noncanid hosts, infective larvae emerge from the eggs and invade the soft tissues, often entering the brain and musculature. Such larvae may remain for many months or years

Rick M. Maizels; Kevin K. A. Tetteh; Alex Loukas

2000-01-01

195

Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs. PMID:24808645

Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

2014-06-01

196

Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP)

K Taira; I Saeed; A Permin; C. M. O Kapel

2004-01-01

197

Reintroduction of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) to the Southwestern United States: An economic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998 the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was reintroduced to the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area (BRWRA), located in east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico, as a result of efforts to reestablish a wild population of Mexican gray wolves in the species' former home range. Because the gray wolf is a large predator and a species that elicits

Timm Kroeger; Frank Case; Chris Haney

2006-01-01

198

Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon), that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus) and coyotes (C. latrans) than grey wolves (C. lupus).

Linda Y Rutledge; Brent R Patterson; Bradley N White

2010-01-01

199

The Pea Photoperiod Response Gene STERILE NODES Is an Ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO.  

PubMed

The STERILE NODES (SN) locus in pea (Pisum sativum) was one of the first photoperiod response genes to be described and provided early evidence for the genetic control of long-distance signaling in flowering-time regulation. Lines homozygous for recessive sn mutations are early flowering and photoperiod insensitive, with an increased ability to promote flowering across a graft union in short-day conditions. Here, we show that SN controls developmental regulation of genes in the FT family and rhythmic regulation of genes related to circadian clock function. Using a positional and functional candidate approach, we identify SN as the pea ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO, a GARP transcription factor from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with an important role in circadian clock function. In addition to induced mutants, sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of at least three other independent, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations among known sn cultivars. Examination of genetic and regulatory interactions between SN and two other circadian clock genes, HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR) and DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), suggests a complex relationship in which HR regulates expression of SN and the role of DNE and HR in control of flowering is dependent on SN. These results extend previous work to show that pea orthologs of all three Arabidopsis evening complex genes regulate clock function and photoperiod-responsive flowering and suggest that the function of these genes may be widely conserved. PMID:24706549

Liew, Lim Chee; Hecht, Valérie; Sussmilch, Frances C; Weller, James L

2014-04-01

200

POGO-DB—a database of pairwise-comparisons of genomes and conserved orthologous genes  

PubMed Central

POGO-DB (http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/) provides an easy platform for comparative microbial genomics. POGO-DB allows users to compare genomes using pre-computed metrics that were derived from extensive computationally intensive BLAST comparisons of >2000 microbes. These metrics include (i) average protein sequence identity across all orthologs shared by two genomes, (ii) genomic fluidity (a measure of gene content dissimilarity), (iii) number of ‘orthologs’ shared between two genomes, (iv) pairwise identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and (v) pairwise identity of an additional 73 marker genes present in >90% prokaryotes. Users can visualize these metrics against each other in a 2D plot for exploratory analysis of genome similarity and of how different aspects of genome similarity relate to each other. The results of these comparisons are fully downloadable. In addition, users can download raw BLAST results for all or user-selected comparisons. Therefore, we provide users with full flexibility to carry out their own downstream analyses, by creating easy access to data that would normally require heavy computational resources to generate. POGO-DB should prove highly useful for researchers interested in comparative microbiology and benefit the microbiome/metagenomic communities by providing the information needed to select suitable phylogenetic marker genes within particular lineages. PMID:24198250

Lan, Yemin; Morrison, J. Calvin; Hershberg, Ruth; Rosen, Gail L.

2014-01-01

201

Movement of DNA sequence recognition domains between non-orthologous proteins.  

PubMed

Comparisons of proteins show that they evolve through the movement of domains. However, in many cases, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we observed the movements of DNA recognition domains between non-orthologous proteins within a prokaryote genome. Restriction-modification (RM) systems, consisting of a sequence-specific DNA methyltransferase and a restriction enzyme, contribute to maintenance/evolution of genomes/epigenomes. RM systems limit horizontal gene transfer but are themselves mobile. We compared Type III RM systems in Helicobacter pylori genomes and found that target recognition domain (TRD) sequences are mobile, moving between different orthologous groups that occupy unique chromosomal locations. Sequence comparisons suggested that a likely underlying mechanism is movement through homologous recombination of similar DNA sequences that encode amino acid sequence motifs that are conserved among Type III DNA methyltransferases. Consistent with this movement, incongruence was observed between the phylogenetic trees of TRD regions and other regions in proteins. Horizontal acquisition of diverse TRD sequences was suggested by detection of homologs in other Helicobacter species and distantly related bacterial species. One of these RM systems in H. pylori was inactivated by insertion of another RM system that likely transferred from an oral bacterium. TRD movement represents a novel route for diversification of DNA-interacting proteins. PMID:22821560

Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Ichizo

2012-10-01

202

TFClass: a classification of human transcription factors and their rodent orthologs.  

PubMed

TFClass aims at classifying eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) according to their DNA-binding domains (DBDs). For this, a classification schema comprising four generic levels (superclass, class, family and subfamily) was defined that could accommodate all known DNA-binding human TFs. They were assigned to their (sub-)families as instances at two different levels, the corresponding TF genes and individual gene products (protein isoforms). In the present version, all mouse and rat orthologs have been linked to the human TFs, and the mouse orthologs have been arranged in an independent ontology. Many TFs were assigned with typical DNA-binding patterns and positional weight matrices derived from high-throughput in-vitro binding studies. Predicted TF binding sites from human gene upstream sequences are now also attached to each human TF whenever a PWM was available for this factor or one of his paralogs. TFClass is freely available at http://tfclass.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/ through a web interface and for download in OBO format. PMID:25361979

Wingender, Edgar; Schoeps, Torsten; Haubrock, Martin; Dönitz, Jürgen

2015-01-28

203

Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

2011-08-15

204

Orthologous Gene Clusters and Taxon Signature Genes for Viruses of Prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and encompass a vast amount of genetic diversity. The recent rapid increase in the number of sequenced viral genomes has created unprecedented opportunities for gaining new insight into the structure and evolution of the virosphere. Here, we present an update of the phage orthologous groups (POGs), a collection of 4,542 clusters of orthologous genes from bacteriophages that now also includes viruses infecting archaea and encompasses more than 1,000 distinct virus genomes. Analysis of this expanded data set shows that the number of POGs keeps growing without saturation and that a substantial majority of the POGs remain specific to viruses, lacking homologues in prokaryotic cells, outside known proviruses. Thus, the great majority of virus genes apparently remains to be discovered. A complementary observation is that numerous viral genomes remain poorly, if at all, covered by POGs. The genome coverage by POGs is expected to increase as more genomes are sequenced. Taxon-specific, single-copy signature genes that are not observed in prokaryotic genomes outside detected proviruses were identified for two-thirds of the 57 taxa (those with genomes available from at least 3 distinct viruses), with half of these present in all members of the respective taxon. These signatures can be used to specifically identify the presence and quantify the abundance of viruses from particular taxa in metagenomic samples and thus gain new insights into the ecology and evolution of viruses in relation to their hosts. PMID:23222723

Kristensen, David M.; Waller, Alison S.; Yamada, Takuji; Bork, Peer; Mushegian, Arcady R.

2013-01-01

205

Rapid Genome Evolution Revealed by Comparative Sequence Analysis of Orthologous Regions from Four Triticeae Genomes  

PubMed Central

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid species, consisting of three subgenomes (A, B, and D). To study the molecular evolution of these closely related genomes, we compared the sequence of a 307-kb physical contig covering the high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenin locus from the A genome of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, AABB) with the orthologous regions from the B genome of the same wheat and the D genome of the diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii (Anderson et al., 2003; Kong et al., 2004). Although gene colinearity appears to be retained, four out of six genes including the two paralogous HMW-glutenin genes are disrupted in the orthologous region of the A genome. Mechanisms involved in gene disruption in the A genome include retroelement insertions, sequence deletions, and mutations causing in-frame stop codons in the coding sequences. Comparative sequence analysis also revealed that sequences in the colinear intergenic regions of these different genomes were generally not conserved. The rapid genome evolution in these regions is attributable mainly to the large number of retrotransposon insertions that occurred after the divergence of the three wheat genomes. Our comparative studies indicate that the B genome diverged prior to the separation of the A and D genomes. Furthermore, sequence comparison of two distinct types of allelic variations at the HMW-glutenin loci in the A genomes of different hexaploid wheat cultivars with the A genome locus of durum wheat indicates that hexaploid wheat may have more than one tetraploid ancestor. PMID:15122014

Gu, Yong Qiang; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Kong, Xiuying; Anderson, Olin D.

2004-01-01

206

A detailed synteny map of the eggplant genome based on conserved ortholog set II (COSII) markers.  

PubMed

We report herein the mapping of 115 PCR-based orthologous markers, including 110 conserved ortholog set or COSII markers, on the reference RFLP map of eggplant. The result permitted inference of a detailed syntenic relationship between the eggplant and tomato genomes. Further, the position of additional 522 COSII markers was inferred in the eggplant map via eggplant-tomato synteny, bringing the total number of markers in the eggplant genome to 869. Since divergence from their last common ancestor approximately 12 million years ago, the eggplant and tomato genomes have become differentiated by a minimum number of 24 inversions and 5 chromosomal translocations, as well as a number of single gene transpositions possibly triggered by transposable elements. Nevertheless, the two genomes share 37 conserved syntenic segments (CSSs) within which gene/marker order is well preserved. The high-resolution COSII synteny map described herein provides a platform for cross-reference of genetic and genomic information (including the tomato genome sequence) between eggplant and tomato and therefore will facilitate both applied and basic research in eggplant. PMID:19132336

Wu, Feinan; Eannetta, Nancy T; Xu, Yimin; Tanksley, Steven D

2009-03-01

207

First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

2014-01-01

208

Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs. PMID:24655375

2014-01-01

209

On the Use of Gene Ontology Annotations to Assess Functional Similarity among Orthologs and Paralogs: A Short Report  

PubMed Central

A recent paper (Nehrt et al., PLoS Comput. Biol. 7:e1002073, 2011) has proposed a metric for the “functional similarity” between two genes that uses only the Gene Ontology (GO) annotations directly derived from published experimental results. Applying this metric, the authors concluded that paralogous genes within the mouse genome or the human genome are more functionally similar on average than orthologous genes between these genomes, an unexpected result with broad implications if true. We suggest, based on both theoretical and empirical considerations, that this proposed metric should not be interpreted as a functional similarity, and therefore cannot be used to support any conclusions about the “ortholog conjecture” (or, more properly, the “ortholog functional conservation hypothesis”). First, we reexamine the case studies presented by Nehrt et al. as examples of orthologs with divergent functions, and come to a very different conclusion: they actually exemplify how GO annotations for orthologous genes provide complementary information about conserved biological functions. We then show that there is a global ascertainment bias in the experiment-based GO annotations for human and mouse genes: particular types of experiments tend to be performed in different model organisms. We conclude that the reported statistical differences in annotations between pairs of orthologous genes do not reflect differences in biological function, but rather complementarity in experimental approaches. Our results underscore two general considerations for researchers proposing novel types of analysis based on the GO: 1) that GO annotations are often incomplete, potentially in a biased manner, and subject to an “open world assumption” (absence of an annotation does not imply absence of a function), and 2) that conclusions drawn from a novel, large-scale GO analysis should whenever possible be supported by careful, in-depth examination of examples, to help ensure the conclusions have a justifiable biological basis. PMID:22359495

Thomas, Paul D.; Wood, Valerie; Mungall, Christopher J.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Blake, Judith A.

2012-01-01

210

OrthoMaM: A database of orthologous genomic markers for placental mammal phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular sequence data have become the standard in modern day phylogenetics. In particular, several long-standing questions of mammalian evolutionary history have been recently resolved thanks to the use of molecular characters. Yet, most studies have focused on only a handful of standard markers. The availability of an ever increasing number of whole genome sequences is a golden mine for modern systematics. Genomic data now provide the opportunity to select new markers that are potentially relevant for further resolving branches of the mammalian phylogenetic tree at various taxonomic levels. Description The EnsEMBL database was used to determine a set of orthologous genes from 12 available complete mammalian genomes. As targets for possible amplification and sequencing in additional taxa, more than 3,000 exons of length > 400 bp have been selected, among which 118, 368, 608, and 674 are respectively retrieved for 12, 11, 10, and 9 species. A bioinformatic pipeline has been developed to provide evolutionary descriptors for these candidate markers in order to assess their potential phylogenetic utility. The resulting OrthoMaM (Orthologous Mammalian Markers) database can be queried and alignments can be downloaded through a dedicated web interface . Conclusion The importance of marker choice in phylogenetic studies has long been stressed. Our database centered on complete genome information now makes possible to select promising markers to a given phylogenetic question or a systematic framework by querying a number of evolutionary descriptors. The usefulness of the database is illustrated with two biological examples. First, two potentially useful markers were identified for rodent systematics based on relevant evolutionary parameters and sequenced in additional species. Second, a complete, gapless 94 kb supermatrix of 118 orthologous exons was assembled for 12 mammals. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods unambiguously supported the new placental phylogeny by retrieving the monophyly of Glires, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, and Boreoeutheria. Muroid rodents thus do not represent a basal placental lineage as it was mistakenly reasserted in some recent phylogenomic analyses based on fewer taxa. We expect the OrthoMaM database to be useful for further resolving the phylogenetic tree of placental mammals and for better understanding the evolutionary dynamics of their genomes, i.e., the forces that shaped coding sequences in terms of selective constraints. PMID:18053139

Ranwez, Vincent; Delsuc, Frédéric; Ranwez, Sylvie; Belkhir, Khalid; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel JP

2007-01-01

211

78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...additional information to: GRAY WOLF QUESTIONS, U.S. Fish...our proposal to remove the gray wolf (Canis lupus) from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife...endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

2013-09-05

212

78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened...proposal to remove the gray wolf from the List of Endangered and Threatened...proposal to remove the gray wolf from the List of Endangered and...

2013-10-02

213

A cDNA encoding Tc-MUC-5, a mucin from Toxocara canis larvae identified by expression screening   

E-print Network

Toxocara canis is an ascarid nematode parasite of canids. Larvae infect a wide range of accidental hosts including humans, in whom they are the aetiologic agent of visceral and ocular Larva migrans. The labile surface ...

Doedens, Andrew; Loukas, Alex; Maizels, Rick

2001-01-01

214

In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is an obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative tick-borne bacterium belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. E. canis is distributed worldwide and can cause serious and fatal infections in dogs. Among strains of E. canis, the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences are highly conserved. Using this gene to genetically differentiate isolates is therefore difficult. As an alternative, the gene gp36, which encodes for a major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, has been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of this pathogen. The present study describes the isolation and continuous propagation of a Spanish and 2 South African isolates of E. canis in IDE8 tick cells. Subsequently, canine DH82 cell cultures were infected using initial bodies obtained from infected IDE8 cultures. It was possible to mimic the life cycle of E. canis in vitro by transferring infection from tick cells to canine cells and back again. To characterize these E. canis strains at the molecular level, the 16S rRNA and gp36 genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and aligned with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. All 16S rRNA sequences amplified in this study were identical to previously reported E. canis strains. Maximum likelihood analysis based on the gp36 amino acid sequences showed that the South African and Spanish strains fall into 2 well-defined phylogenetic clusters amongst other E. canis strains. The members of these 2 phylogenetic clusters shared 2 unique molecular properties in the gp36 amino acid sequences: (i) deletion of glycine 117 and (ii) the presence of an additional putative N-linked glycosylation site. We further show correlation between the putative secondary structure and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of the gp36 amino acid sequences. A putative role of gp36 as an adhesin in E. canis is discussed. Overall, we report the successful in vitro culture of 3 new E. canis strains which present different molecular properties in their gp36 sequences. PMID:24713279

Zweygarth, Erich; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, Antoinette I; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matjila, Paul T; Lis, Katarzyna; Broniszewska, Marzena; Schöl, Heidrun; Ferrolho, Joana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia M F

2014-06-01

215

Development of Experimental Cystoisospora canis Infection Models in Beagle Puppies and Efficacy Evaluation of 5?% Ponazuril (Toltrazuril sulfone) Oral Suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pilot study, three pairs of Beagle puppies were inoculated with 2.5, 3.75 or 5?x?104 sporulated oocysts of Cystoisospora canis. All exhibited patent infections within ten days post-inoculation. In an efficacy study, 33 puppies were given 5?x?104 oocysts of C. canis and randomly allocated to receive 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg\\/kg ponazuril on day 0, or 30 mg\\/kg ponazuril or

C. R. Reinemeyer; D. S. Lindsay; S. M. Mitchell; H.-C. Mundt; S. D. Charles; R. G. Arther; T. L. Settje

2007-01-01

216

Seroepidemiology of Toxocara Canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. Methods A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7–12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. Results The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR?=?5.52, 95% CI?=?1.15–26.61, p?=?0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR?=?2.86, 95% CI?=?1.08–7.60, p?=?0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. Conclusions This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides regarding T. canis epidemiology can facilitate developing strategies for disease prevention and control. PMID:24886153

2014-01-01

217

SCO5745, a Bifunctional RNase J Ortholog, Affects Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5?-to-3? exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5? monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5? triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha

2014-01-01

218

SCO5745, a bifunctional RNase J ortholog, affects antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor.  

PubMed

The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5' monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5' triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha; Jones, George H

2014-03-01

219

The Fission Yeast FANCM Ortholog Directs Non-Crossover Recombination During Meiosis  

PubMed Central

The formation of healthy gametes depends on programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are each repaired as a crossover (CO) or non-crossover (NCO) from a homologous template. Although most of these DSBs are repaired without giving COs, little is known about the genetic requirements of NCO-specific recombination. We show that Fml1, the Fanconi anemia complementation group M (FANCM)-ortholog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, directs the formation of NCOs during meiosis in competition with the Mus81-dependent pro-CO pathway. We also define the Rad51/Dmc1-mediator Swi5-Sfr1 as a major determinant in biasing the recombination process in favour of Mus81, to ensure the appropriate amount of COs to guide meiotic chromosome segregation. The conservation of these proteins from yeast to Humans suggests that this interplay may be a general feature of meiotic recombination. PMID:22723423

Lorenz, Alexander; Osman, Fekret; Sun, Weili; Nandi, Saikat; Steinacher, Roland; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

220

Sequence similarity and functional comparisons of pheromone receptor orthologs in two closely related Helicoverpa species.  

PubMed

The olfactory system of moth species in subfamily Heliothinae is an attractive model to study the evolution of the pheromone reception because they show distinct differentiation in sex pheromone components or ratios that activate pheromone receptors (PRs). However, functional assessment of PRs in closely related species remains largely untried. Here we present a special cloning strategy to isolate full-length cDNAs encoding candidate odorant receptors (ORs) from Helicoverpa armigera (Harm) and Helicoverpa assulta (Hass) on the basis of Heliothis virescens ORs, and investigate the functional properties of PRs to determine how the evolution of moth PRs contribute to intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension. We cloned 11 OR orthologs from H. armigera and 10 from H. assulta. We functionally characterized the responses of PRs of both species to seven pheromone compounds using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus ooctyes. HassOR13 was found to be highly tuned to the sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald, and unexpectedly, both HarmOR14b and HassOR16 were specific for Z9-14:Ald. However, HarmOR6 and HassOR6 showed much higher specificity to Z9-16:OH than to Z9-16:Ald or Z9-14:Ald. HarmOR11, HarmOR14a, HassOR11 and HassOR14b failed to respond to the tested chemicals. Based on our results and previous research, we can show that some PR orthologs from H. armigera, H. assulta and H. virescens such as OR13s have similar ligand selectivity, but others have different ligand specificity. The combined PR function and sex pheromone component analysis suggests that the evolution of PRs can meet species-specific demands. PMID:24632377

Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Hao; Di, Chang; Yu, Shanlin; Zhu, Ligui; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

2014-05-01

221

Linking the potato genome to the conserved ortholog set (COS) markers  

PubMed Central

Background Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://solgenomics.net/) and many of these have been placed on the genetic maps of a number of solanaceous species. Results We amplified over 300 COS markers from eight potato accessions involving two diploid landraces of Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group (formerly classified as S. goniocalyx, S. phureja), and a dihaploid clone derived from a modern tetraploid cultivar of S. tuberosum and the wild species S. berthaultii, S. chomatophilum, and S. paucissectum. By BLASTn (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information) algorithm we mapped the DNA sequences of these markers into the potato genome sequence. Additionally, we mapped a subset of these markers genetically in potato and present a comparison between the physical and genetic locations of these markers in potato and in comparison with the genetic location in tomato. We found that most of the COS markers are single-copy in the reference genome of potato and that the genetic location in tomato and physical location in potato sequence are mostly in agreement. However, we did find some COS markers that are present in multiple copies and those that map in unexpected locations. Sequence comparisons between species show that some of these markers may be paralogs. Conclusions The sequence-based physical map becomes helpful in identification of markers for traits of interest thereby reducing the number of markers to be tested for applications like marker assisted selection, diversity, and phylogenetic studies. PMID:23758607

2013-01-01

222

Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions. PMID:23409865

Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

2014-02-01

223

Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis in naturally exposed dogs in Iran: an analysis on associated risk factors.  

PubMed

The general aim of this study, which was conducted for the first time in Iran, was to evaluate the seroprevalence and geographical distribution of Ehrlichia canis in a dog population in Iran, followed by molecular confirmation using PCR and sequencing. Blood samples were collected from 240 dogs in different areas of Alborz and Tehran Provinces and initially analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test to detect anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies. Subsequently, nested PCR was performed based on a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of E. canis on serologically positive samples. The results showed that 40/240 dogs (16.6%) presented anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies and that nine of the blood samples from the 40 seropositive dogs (22.5%) contained E. canis DNA, which was confirmed by sequencing. The seroprevalence of E. canis tended to be higher in purebred, one to three-year-old male dogs living in the Plain zone, in rural areas; however, this difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24728356

Maazi, Nadi; Malmasi, Abdolali; Shayan, Parviz; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian

2014-03-01

224

Relationship between clinical manifestations and pulsed-field gel profiles of Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Little is known regarding the degree of genotypic relatedness between Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether correlations existed between the genotypes of canine and feline S. canis isolates as determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and different clinical manifestations of disease. Eighty-two isolates of S. canis were examined that had been collected from dogs and cats presenting to the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) between 1998 and 2005. Associated clinical manifestations included sepsis, otitis, pyometra, skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis, respiratory disease, and urinary tract infections. In addition, 9 feline isolates from a southern California shelter that experienced an outbreak of S. canis infection manifesting as necrotizing fasciitis and death were examined. Bacterial isolates were characterized by PFGE analysis using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The relationships between banding patterns were analyzed using gel analysis software combined with visual interpretation. The feline shelter isolates of S. canis were 99% similar in bacterial PFGE profile. The remainder of samples had less than 80% similarity in PFGE banding patterns. The relatedness of the PFGE profile in the feline shelter isolates suggested a clonal origin. In the isolates from the VMTH population, there was no relationship between specific disease manifestations and PFGE profile. PFGE typing does not appear to be useful for identifying isolates associated with specific disease presentations; however may be more useful to identify outbreaks of S. canis infections or to detect clonal populations in outbreaks. PMID:20605376

Kruger, E Freya; Byrne, Barbara A; Pesavento, Patricia; Hurley, Kate F; Lindsay, Leanne L; Sykes, Jane E

2010-11-20

225

Berkeley PHOG: PhyloFacts Orthology Group Prediction Web Server Supplement 1: Description of the PHOG Algorithm  

E-print Network

. Definition 1: A protein P in species S is a nearest-neighbor ortholog of Q in S, if the distance between P and Q in the tree is shortest among all proteins from S that are present in the tree. Definition 2. Definition 4. Two proteins in a protein family tree are defined as inparalogs if they are from the same

Sjölander, Kimmen

226

The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: Orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Drosophila melanogaster, three ABC transporters (white, scarlet and brown) are required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned one of the orthologous genes, Tc white (Tcw), from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translation of Tcw reveals that it is 52% identical t...

227

Natural variation in maize architecture is mediated by allelic differences at the PINOID co-ortholog barren inflorescence2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We characterized allelic variation at barren inflorescence2 (bif2), a maize co-ortholog of the Arabidopsis PINOID protein kinase (PID), and tested for trait associations with bif2 in both an association mapping population of 277 diverse maize inbreds and in the inter-mated B73-Mo17 (IBM) linkage pop...

228

barren inflorescence2 Encodes a Co-Ortholog of the PINOID Serine/Threonine Kinase and Is Required for  

E-print Network

barren inflorescence2 Encodes a Co-Ortholog of the PINOID Serine/Threonine Kinase and Is Required for Organogenesis during Inflorescence and Vegetative Development in Maize1[C][W][OA] Paula McSteen*, Simon) and rice (Oryza sativa) have additional types of axillary meristems in the inflorescence compared

Malcomber, Simon

229

Roles of the duplicate FLORICAULA/LEAFY orthologs, zfl1 and zfl2, in maize development and domestication  

E-print Network

inflorescence architecture and flower patterning in maize. Chapter 3 Page 89 Quantitative effects on development and teosinte is in the structure and phyllotaxy of the grain-bearing ear, or female inflorescence. A large teosinte and maize. A maize ortholog of the FLORICAULA(FLO)/LEAFY(LFY) genes, which affect inflorescence

Doebley, John

230

THE retinoid-X receptor ORTHOLOG, ULTRASPIRACLE, BINDS WITH HIGH nanomolar AFFINITY TO AN ENDOGENOUS MORPHOGENETIC LIGAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vivo ligand binding function and ligand-binding activity of the Drosophila melanogaster RXR ortholog, ultraspiracle, toward natural farnesoid products of the ring gland were assessed. Using an equilibrium fluorescence binding assay, farnesoid products in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis ...

231

Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

A two-year-old female neutered Tibetan terrier was referred following a one-month history of lethargy, inappetence and pancytopenia, which had been poorly responsive to immunosuppressive and fluoroquinolone treatment. The dog was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia and was found to be positive for Ehrlichia canis by both antibody titre measurement and polymerase chain reaction. The dog lived in London and had not travelled outside the UK. The dog was treated with doxycycline, prednisolone and ciclosporin, but died as a result of gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of Ehrlichia canis in a dog in the UK with no previous travel history. PMID:23718904

Wilson, H E; Mugford, A R; Humm, K R; Kellett-Gregory, L M

2013-08-01

232

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

233

Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

2014-10-01

234

The effects of freezing on the viability of Toxocara canis and T. cati embryonated eggs.  

PubMed

Suspensions of embryonated (L2) Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs were maintained under freezing conditions in order to study the impact on their long term viability. The eggs had been removed from the uteri of adult Toxocara spp. worms and the suspended in a 0.4% formalin solution before being frozen in 20 ml plastic tubes in the freezer compartment of a domestic refrigerator. Assessment of embryonated egg viability over a period of 34 days was conducted by microscopic examination under a high light intensity. Embryonated T. cati eggs were found to exhibit a greater resistance to freezing than those of T. canis. A difference in the size, design of the egg shell or the metabolism of the larval form may have accounted for the observed differences in the percentage viabilities over time between the two species of Toxocara. PMID:7636161

O'Lorcain, P

1995-06-01

235

Characteristics of fresh and frozen–thawed red wolf ( Canis rufus) spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ejaculates of the red wolf (Canis rufus) were evaluated immediately after collection and freeze–thawing to initiate a reproductive database for this endangered species. Electroejaculates from 13 adult red wolves collected during the breeding season (February–March; n=25; 1–3 collections\\/male) had a mean volume of 4.7±0.7 ml, 146.5±25.7×106 spermatozoa\\/ml and 71.2% motile spermatozoa. The mean proportion of cells with normal morphology was

K. L Goodrowe; M. A Hay; C. C Platz; S. K Behrns; M. H Jones; W. T Waddell

1998-01-01

236

Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves.  

PubMed

Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T.?canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T.?canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10?cm by 10?cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers. PMID:25426419

Woldstad, Theresa M; Dullen, Kimberly N; Hundertmark, Kris J; Beckmen, Kimberlee B

2014-12-01

237

Genetic diversity and relatedness within packs in an intensely hunted population of wolves Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of grey wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 inhabiting Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF) on the Polish-Belarussian border has recovered after near extermination\\u000a in the 1970s. Currently, it is intensively hunted in the Belarussian part of BPF and protected in the Polish part. We used\\u000a a combination of molecular analysis, radiotracking, and field observation to study genetic diversity of the population

W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Wojciech Branicki; Claudia Veit; Ivica Me?ugorac; Ma?gorzata Pilot; Aleksei N. Bunevich; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska; Krzysztof Schmidt; Jörn Theuerkauf; Henryk Okarma; Roman Gula; Lucyna Szymura

2005-01-01

238

Interactions between cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large carnivore populations are recovering in many protected areas in North America, but the effect of increasing carnivore numbers on existing predator-prey and predator-predator interactions is poorly understood. We studied diet and spatial overlap among cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta (1993-2004) to evaluate how wolf recovery in the park influenced diet choice

Andrea D. KORTELLO; Thomas E. HURD; Dennis L. MURRAY

2007-01-01

239

New light curves and analysis of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observations of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris made between 25 Dec. 1992 and 1 Mar. 1993. Two new epochs of minimum light were determined and an improved ephemeris is given. Analysis of the observations with the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney program shows that the system is semidetached. Our solution does not indicate the presence of third light, whereas some previously published solutions required large amounts of third light.

Terrell, Dirk; Gunn, J. B.; Kaiser, Daniel H.

1994-02-01

240

INTERSPECIFIC TRANSMISSION OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO PARTURIENT CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four separate trials, 10 coyotes (Canis latrans) which had been individually fed mascerated bovine placental tissue experimentally inoculated with Brucella abortus strain 2308 were placed in a 1 ha isolation area with six parturient, non-B. abortus vaccinated, Brucella spp. seronegativeHereford heifers.During thesecond trial, three of the heifers became Brucella spp. seroreactive (as determined by the card, standard agglutination tube,

Donald S. Davis; Fred C. Heck; John D. Williams; T. R. Simpson; L. Garry Adams

241

Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans : the influence of social and ecological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 49 coyotes,Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456h and five transient coyotes for 51h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident

ERIC M. GESE; ROBERT L. RUFF

1997-01-01

242

Active use of coyotes ( Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a

A. R. Berentsen; M. R. Dunbar; S. R. Johnson; S. Robbe-Austerman; L. Martinez; R. L. Jones

2011-01-01

243

Use of human-given cues by domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and four horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to use human-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task. Two of the four horses\\u000a used touch as a cue and one horse successfully used pointing. The performance of the dogs was considerably better, with 12\\u000a subjects able to use pointing as a cue,

Jean McKinley; Thomas D. Sambrook

2000-01-01

244

EOSINOPHILIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS DUE TO TOXOCARA CANIS: CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxocariasis is usually manifested as visceral larva migrans. Nervous system involvement is a rare com- plication. In this report, we describe one case of meningoencephalitis du et oToxocara canis and review the literature. We report a previously healthy two-year-old boy who was admitted after 24 hours of severe neurologic symptoms with marked eosinophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid and a

JOSE E. VIDAL; JAQUES SZTAJNBOK; ANTONIO CARLOS SEGURO

245

Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves ( Canis lupus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the mid 20th century, the grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) was exterminated from most of the conterminous United States (cUS) and Mexico. However, because wolves disperse over long distances, extant populations in Canada and Alaska might have retained a substantial proportion of the genetic diversity once found in the cUS. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 34 pre-extermination

JENNIFER A. L EONARD; CARLES VILÀ; ROBERT K. W AYNE

2005-01-01

246

Sex identification of wolf ( Canis lupus ) using non-invasive samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed new specific primers for sex determination from forensic samples of wolves (Canis lupus), such as hair, saliva, faecal, tooth and urine samples. In order to improve molecular sexing, we performed a multiplex semi-nested\\u000a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and several replicated amplifications per sample to avoid errors in low quantity DNA samples,\\u000a such as allelic dropout and false

Natalia Sastre; Olga Francino; Gabriel Lampreave; Vladimir V. Bologov; José María López-Martín; Armand Sánchez; Oscar Ramírez

2009-01-01

247

Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, all the clinical and hematological findings observed in these dogs were reported. PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used for diagnostic purposes, and the TRP19 and TRP36 genes were sequenced to evaluate the genetic diversity. Fifteen samples were positive for E. canis. The polymerase chain reaction for the TRP19 gene resulted in 11 amplicons (11/15), which were cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector for sequencing. The complete sequence of TRP19 gene was compared to those in the GenBank, revealing high identicalness. Phylogenetic analysis on the TRP36 gene sequences demonstrated two distinct strains from two dogs, named 56C and 70C. The 56C strain was grouped with the strain Cuiaba 16, which is a hybrid strain formed by Brazilian and US genogroups; and the 70C strain was grouped with other strains of the US genogroup, thus suggesting that there are at least two genogroups of E. canis in Rio de Janeiro (US and Brazilian). Those animals, in which the 70C and 56C strains were isolated, showed distinct clinical and hematological manifestations of the disease. The appearance of different genotypes may express new phenotypes, thus resulting in different forms of presentation of the disease and making its diagnosis more complex. PMID:25271448

Ferreira, Renata Fernandes; Cerqueira, Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Ferreira, Eliane de Oliveira; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves; Barbosa, André Victor; Macieira, Daniel de Barros; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

2014-01-01

248

Postmortem small babesia-like morphology of Babesia canis - short communication.  

PubMed

Here we report a case of canine babesiosis with unusual morphology of the causative agent. A male, seven-week-old Labrador retriever puppy, exhibiting severe anaemia and haemoglobinuria, was presented at the Clinic of Internal Medicine in February 2011. The puppy was euthanised. The most relevant pathological changes were icterus, severe splenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and haemoglobin nephrosis. Samples were collected from various organs for histology within one hour post mortem. Impression smears were also prepared from the spleen after overnight storage at 4 °C. Tissue sections and smears showed the presence of multiple, coccoid intraerythrocytic bodies that measured 1-2 ?m and resembled small babesiae. No large piroplasms were seen. DNA was extracted from the spleen, and a conventional PCR was performed for the amplification of a 450-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasms. The causative agent was identified as Babesia canis canis, with 99% sequence identity to other European isolates. Sequence identity to B. gibsoni was only 91%. This is the first account to verify that the morphology of the large canine piroplasm, B. canis, can be uniformly small babesia-like post mortem or following the storage of tissue samples. PMID:22079703

Demeter, Zoltán; Palade, Elena Alina; Balogh, Eva; Jakab, Csaba; Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Hornok, Sándor

2011-12-01

249

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L.D.; Nowak, R.M.; Weisberg, S.

2011-01-01

250

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

2011-01-01

251

Identification of Streptococcus canis Isolated from Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus canis was isolated from 31 milk samples from 11 cows in a dairy herd (with 49 lactating cows) affected by subclinical mastitis in north Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Thirty-one isolates from the infected udder quarters were further characterized for their phenotypic and molecular properties. Most isolates (83.9%) produced ?-galactosidase, and all were negative for ?-d-glucuronidase. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene by the PCR method and digestion with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and AvaII yielded species-specific patterns. Additional identification by species-specific amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region, the CAMP factor-encoding gene cfg, and the internal fragments of the sodA gene was consistent with S. canis. Macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the S. canis isolates originated from a single clone or were very closely related. PMID:15750089

Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Akineden, Ömer; Usleber, Ewald

2005-01-01

252

Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission. PMID:23568921

Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan J

2013-04-01

253

Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 ?g/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis. PMID:24530039

Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

2014-03-14

254

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia. PMID:24039286

Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho

2013-01-01

255

Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.  

PubMed

An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus. PMID:20646832

Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curkovi?, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljevi?, Zeljko; Cvetni?, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

2010-09-20

256

High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus  

PubMed Central

Background Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar) are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12) between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41). Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary. Estimated silent substitution rates were 1.28 × 10-9 and 1.68 × 10-9 per site and year, which are close to rates found in other perennials but much lower than rates in annuals. PMID:20178595

2010-01-01

257

A Lepidopteran ortholog of reaper reveals functional conservation and evolution of IAP antagonists  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that IAP (Inhibitor of Apoptosis) proteins and IAP antagonists such as reaper play a pivotal role in controlling cell death in insects. Interestingly, while the sequences and structures of IAPs are highly conserved, the sequence of IAP antagonists diverged very rapidly during evolution, making their identification difficult. Using a customized bioinformatics approach, we identified an IAP antagonist, Ibm1, from the genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori. This is the first reaper/grim ortholog identified in a non-Dipteran insect. Previous analysis indicated that both Reaper and Grim induce cell death through their N-terminal IAP-binding motif (IBM) as well as the Grim_helix3 (GH3) domain. Functional studies indicated that Ibm1 binds to an IAP protein from Bombyx mori, BmIAP1, and induces apoptosis in insect cells via the IAP-binding motif, a 7 amino acid sequence that is highly conserved in all IAP antagonists. Interestingly, Ibm1 also contains a region that is a statistically significant match to the GH3 domain. Mutational analysis indicated that the GH3-like motif in Ibm1 has an important supportive role in IAP-antagonist function and can trigger cell death under certain conditions. PMID:19523066

Bryant, Bart; Zhang, Yanping; Zhang, Can; Santos, Carl P.; Clem, Rollie J.; Zhou, Lei

2010-01-01

258

The Spartan ortholog maternal haploid is required for paternal chromosome integrity in the Drosophila zygote.  

PubMed

The animal sperm nucleus is characterized by an extremely compacted organization of its DNA after the global replacement of histones with sperm-specific nuclear basic proteins, such as protamines. In the absence of DNA repair activity in the mature gamete, the integrity of the paternal genome is potentially challenged by the unique topological constraints exerted on sperm DNA. In addition, the maintenance of paternal DNA integrity during the rapid remodeling of sperm chromatin at fertilization has long been regarded as a maternal trait. However, little is known about the nature of the egg proteins involved in this essential aspect of zygote formation. We had previously characterized the unique phenotype of the classical Drosophila maternal effect mutant maternal haploid (mh), which specifically affects the integration of paternal chromosomes in the zygote. Here we show that MH is the fly ortholog of the recently identified human DVC1/Spartan protein, a conserved regulator of DNA damage tolerance. Like Spartan, MH protein is involved in the resistance to UV radiation and recruits the p97/TER94 segregase to stalled DNA replication forks in somatic cells. In the zygote, we found that the mh phenotype is consistent with perturbed or incomplete paternal DNA replication. Remarkably, however, the specific accumulation of MH in the male pronucleus before the first S phase suggests that this maternal protein is required to maintain paternal DNA integrity during nuclear decondensation or to set the paternal chromatin landscape in preparation of the first zygotic cycle. PMID:25242033

Delabaere, Laetitia; Orsi, Guillermo A; Sapey-Triomphe, Laure; Horard, Béatrice; Couble, Pierre; Loppin, Benjamin

2014-10-01

259

The Drosophila Huntington's disease gene ortholog dhtt influences chromatin regulation during development.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT, the gene encoding huntingtin. Evidence from both human genotype-phenotype relationships and mouse model systems suggests that the mutation acts by dysregulating some normal activity of huntingtin. Recent work in the mouse has revealed a role for huntingtin in epigenetic regulation during development. Here, we examine the role of the Drosophila huntingtin ortholog (dhtt) in chromatin regulation in the development of the fly. Although null dhtt mutants display no overt phenotype, we found that dhtt acts as a suppressor of position-effect variegation (PEV), suggesting that it influences chromatin organization. We demonstrate that dhtt affects heterochromatin spreading in a PEV model by modulating histone H3K9 methylation levels at the heterochromatin-euchromatin boundary. To gain mechanistic insights into how dhtt influences chromatin function, we conducted a candidate genetic screen using RNAi lines targeting known PEV modifier genes. We found that dhtt modifies phenotypes caused by knockdown of a number of key epigenetic regulators, including chromatin-associated proteins, histone demethylases (HDMs) and methyltransferases. Notably, dhtt strongly modifies phenotypes resulting from loss of the HDM dLsd1, in both the ovary and wing, and we demonstrate that dhtt appears to act as a facilitator of dLsd1 function in regulating global histone H3K4 methylation levels. These findings suggest that a fundamental aspect of huntingtin function in heterochromatin/euchromatin organization is evolutionarily conserved across phyla. PMID:25168387

Dietz, Kevin N; Di Stefano, Luisa; Maher, Robert C; Zhu, Hui; Macdonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Walker, James A

2015-01-15

260

Hcfc1b, a zebrafish ortholog of HCFC1, regulates craniofacial development by modulating mmachc expression.  

PubMed

Mutations in HCFC1 (MIM300019), have been recently associated with cblX (MIM309541), an X-linked, recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial abnormalities. HCFC1 is a transcriptional co-regulator that modulates the expression of numerous downstream target genes including MMACHC, but it is not clear how these HCFC1 targets play a role in the clinical manifestations of cblX. To begin to elucidate the mechanism by which HCFC1 modulates disease phenotypes, we have carried out loss of function analyses in the developing zebrafish. Of the two HCFC1 orthologs in zebrafish, hcfc1a and hcfc1b, the loss of hcfc1b specifically results in defects in craniofacial development. Subsequent analysis revealed that hcfc1b regulates cranial neural crest cell differentiation and proliferation within the posterior pharyngeal arches. Further, the hcfc1b-mediated craniofacial abnormalities were rescued by expression of human MMACHC, a downstream target of HCFC1 that is aberrantly expressed in cblX. Furthermore, we tested distinct human HCFC1 mutations for their role in craniofacial development and demonstrated variable effects on MMACHC expression in humans and craniofacial development in zebrafish. Notably, several individuals with mutations in either HCFC1 or MMACHC have been reported to have mild to moderate facial dysmorphia. Thus, our data demonstrates that HCFC1 plays a role in craniofacial development, which is in part mediated through the regulation of MMACHC expression. PMID:25281006

Quintana, Anita M; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Achilly, Nate; Rosenblatt, David S; Maclean, Kenneth N; Stabler, Sally P; Artinger, Kristin B; Appel, Bruce; Shaikh, Tamim H

2014-12-01

261

The mammalian Ced-1 ortholog MEGF10/KIAA1780 displays a novel adhesion pattern  

SciTech Connect

Ced-1 protein is a Caenorhabditis elegans cell surface receptor involved in phagocytosis of dead cells. The gene encoding the mammalian ortholog of Ced-1 is yet to be identified. Here, we describe a potential candidate: human MEGF10. MEGF10 has the overall domain organization of Ced-1, containing a signal peptide, a EMI domain, 17 atypical EGF-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with NPXY and YXXL motifs. MEGF10-EGFP fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells produced an irregular, mosaic-like pattern on the surface of coated glass. Protruded MEGF10 bound tightly to the glass, in effect 'pinning' the cytoplasmic membrane firmly onto the glass, thereby restricting cell motility. These cells also took on a flat appearance. Although MEGF10-EGFP localized throughout the cytoplasmic membrane, no MEGF10-EGFP was found in lamellipodia. The MEGF10-EGFP signal was surrounded by a 1-2-{mu}m-wide dark strip lacking EGFP. Expression analyses of various MEGF10 deletion mutants revealed that the irregular, mosaic-like adhesion pattern characteristic of MEGF10 family members is due to concerted interactions between the EMI and 17 atypical EGF-like domains. Co-culturing of MEGF10-EGFP-expressing cells with apoptotic cells revealed that MEGF10 protein accumulated around the contact region during engulfment of apoptotic cells.

Suzuki, Emiko [Department of Human Genome Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7, Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818 (Japan); Nakayama, Manabu [Department of Human Genome Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7, Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818 (Japan) and Laboratory of Pharmacogenomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 2-6-7, Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818 (Japan)]. E-mail: nmanabu@kazusa.or.jp

2007-07-01

262

Comprehensive identification of host modulators of HIV-1 replication using multiple orthologous RNAi reagents.  

PubMed

RNAi screens have implicated hundreds of host proteins as HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs). While informative, these early studies overlap poorly due to false positives and false negatives. To ameliorate these issues, we combined information from the existing HDF screens together with new screens performed with multiple orthologous RNAi reagents (MORR). In addition to being traditionally validated, the MORR screens and the historical HDF screens were quantitatively integrated by the adaptation of an established analysis program, RIGER, for the collective interpretation of each gene's phenotypic significance. False positives were addressed by the removal of poorly expressed candidates through gene expression filtering, as well as with GESS, which identifies off-target effects. This workflow produced a quantitatively integrated network of genes that modulate HIV-1 replication. We further investigated the roles of GOLGI49, SEC13, and COG in HIV-1 replication. Collectively, the MORR-RIGER method minimized the caveats of RNAi screening and improved our understanding of HIV-1-host cell interactions. PMID:25373910

Zhu, Jian; Davoli, Teresa; Perriera, Jill M; Chin, Christopher R; Gaiha, Gaurav D; John, Sinu P; Sigiollot, Frederic D; Gao, Geng; Xu, Qikai; Qu, Hongjing; Pertel, Thomas; Sims, Jennifer S; Smith, Jennifer A; Baker, Richard E; Maranda, Louise; Ng, Aylwin; Elledge, Stephen J; Brass, Abraham L

2014-10-23

263

High-resolution cardiovascular function confirms functional orthology of myocardial contractility pathways in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Phenotype-driven screens in larval zebrafish have transformed our understanding of the molecular basis of cardiovascular development. Screens to define the genetic determinants of physiological phenotypes have been slow to materialize as a result of the limited number of validated in vivo assays with relevant dynamic range. To enable rigorous assessment of cardiovascular physiology in living zebrafish embryos, we developed a suite of software tools for the analysis of high-speed video microscopic images and validated these, using established cardiomyopathy models in zebrafish as well as modulation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Quantitative analysis in wild-type fish exposed to NO or in a zebrafish model of dilated cardiomyopathy demonstrated that these tools detect significant differences in ventricular chamber size, ventricular performance, and aortic flow velocity in zebrafish embryos across a large dynamic range. These methods also were able to establish the effects of the classic pharmacological agents isoproterenol, ouabain, and verapamil on cardiovascular physiology in zebrafish embryos. Sequence conservation between zebrafish and mammals of key amino acids in the pharmacological targets of these agents correlated with the functional orthology of the physiological response. These data provide evidence that the quantitative evaluation of subtle physiological differences in zebrafish can be accomplished at a resolution and with a dynamic range comparable to those achieved in mammals and provides a mechanism for genetic and small-molecule dissection of functional pathways in this model organism. PMID:20388839

Pomerantsev, Eugene V.; Mably, John D.; MacRae, Calum A.

2010-01-01

264

Genetical and comparative genomics of Brassica under altered Ca supply identifies Arabidopsis Ca-transporter orthologs.  

PubMed

Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization. PMID:25082855

Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; Lysenko, Artem; Mayes, Sean; O Lochlainn, Seosamh; Blasco, Bego; Bowen, Helen C; Rawlings, Chris J; Rios, Juan J; Welham, Susan; Carion, Pierre W C; Dupuy, Lionel X; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

2014-07-01

265

Localized expression of a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog in a coral embryo  

PubMed Central

As the closest outgroup to the Bilateria, the Phylum Cnidaria is likely to be critical to understanding the origins and evolution of body axes. Proteins of the decapentaplegic (DPP)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2/4 subfamily are central to the specification of the dorsoventral (D/V) axis in bilateral animals, albeit with an axis inversion between arthropods and chordates. We show that a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog (bmp2/4-Am) is present in the reef-building scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa) and that it is capable of causing phenotypic effects in Drosophila that mimic those of the endogenous dpp gene. We also show that, during coral embryonic development, bmp2/4-Am expression is localized in an ectodermal region adjacent to the blastopore. Thus, a representative of the DPP/BMP2/4 subfamily of ligands was present in the common ancestor of diploblastic and triploblastic animals where it was probably expressed in a localized fashion during development. A localized source of DPP/BMP2/4 may have already been used in axis formation in this ancestor, or it may have provided a means by which an axis could evolve in triploblastic animals. PMID:12048233

Hayward, David C.; Samuel, Gabrielle; Pontynen, Patricia C.; Catmull, Julian; Saint, Robert; Miller, David J.; Ball, Eldon E.

2002-01-01

266

The tailless ortholog nhr-67 functions in the development of the C. elegans ventral uterus.  

PubMed

The development of the C. elegans uterus provides a model for understanding the regulatory pathways that control organogenesis. In C. elegans, the ventral uterus develops through coordinated signaling between the uterine anchor cell (AC) and a ventral uterine (VU) cell. The nhr-67 gene encodes the nematode ortholog of the tailless nuclear receptor gene. Fly and vertebrate tailless genes function in neuronal and ectodermal developmental pathways. We show that nhr-67 functions in multiple steps in the development of the C. elegans uterus. First, it functions in the differentiation of the AC. Second, it functions in reciprocal signaling between the AC and an equipotent VU cell. Third, it is required for a later signaling event between the AC and VU descendants. nhr-67 is required for the expression of both the lag-2/Delta signal in the AC and the lin-12/Notch receptor in all three VU cells and their descendants, suggesting that nhr-67 may be a key regulator of Notch-signaling components. We discuss the implications of these findings for proposed developmental regulatory pathways that include the helix-loop-helix regulator hlh-2/daughterless and transcription factor egl-43/Evi1 in the differentiation of ventral uterine cell types. PMID:21718694

Verghese, Eliana; Schocken, John; Jacob, Sandrine; Wimer, Angela M; Royce, Rebecca; Nesmith, Jessica E; Baer, G Michael; Clever, Sheila; McCain, Elizabeth; Lakowski, Bernard; Wightman, Bruce

2011-08-15

267

A Leishmania Ortholog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Modulates Host Macrophage Responses  

SciTech Connect

Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as revealed by a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure (1.03 A). Differences between the two proteins in the N-terminal tautomerization site are evident, and we provide evidence for the selective, species-specific inhibition of MIF by small-molecule antagonists that target this site. Lm1740MIF shows significant binding interaction with the MIF receptor, CD74 (K(d) = 2.9 x 10(-8) M). Like its mammalian counterpart, Lm1740MIF induces ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in a CD74-dependent manner and inhibits the activation-induced apoptosis of macrophages. The ability of Lm1740MIF to inhibit apoptosis may facilitate the persistence of Leishmania within the macrophage and contribute to its evasion from immune destruction.

Kamir,D.; Zierow, S.; Leng, L.; Cho, Y.; Diaz, Y.; Griffith, J.; McDonald, C.; Merk, M.; Mitchell, R.; et al

2008-01-01

268

Whole genome duplication: challenges and considerations associated with sequence orthology assignment in Salmoninae.  

PubMed

To illustrate some of the challenges and considerations in assigning correct orthology necessary for any comparative genomic investigation among salmonids, sequence data from the non-coding regions of different chromosomes in three members of the subfamily Salmoninae, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, were compared. By analysing c. 55 distinct loci, corresponding to c. 142 kbp sequence information per species, 18 duplicated patterns representative of the two sequential rounds of teleost-specific whole genome duplications (i.e. 3R and 4R WGD) were identified. Sequence similarities between the 4R paralogues were c. 90%, which was slightly lower than those of the 4R orthologues and c. 60% for the 3R products. Through careful examination of the sequence data, however, only 14 loci could reliably be assigned as true orthologues. Locus-specific trees were constructed through maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods and were rooted using the information from a close relative, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis. All approaches generated congruent trees supporting the {Coregonus [Salmo (Oncorhynchus, Salvelinus)]} topology. The general phenotypic characteristics of sequences, however, were highly suggestive of the basal position of Oncorhynchus, raising the hypothesis of an accelerated rate of nucleotide evolution in this species. PMID:21884100

Moghadam, H K; Ferguson, M M; Danzmann, R G

2011-09-01

269

Isolation, in vitro propagation, genetic analysis, and immunogenic characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from a blood sample obtained from a dog in southeastern Brazil was used to confirm a naturally acquired Ehrlichia (E.) canis infection. Following isolation and culturing of the new bacterial strain called Uberlandia, partial sequences of the dsb and p28 genes were obtained. The dsb partial sequence of the novel strain was 100% similar to dsb gene sequences of E. canis obtained from different geographic areas around the world. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for the E. canis Uberlândia strain differed at several nucleotides from other sequences available in GenBank. To confirm the antigenic profile of the Uberlândia strain, an indirect immunofluorescence assay against E. canis antigens was performed using dog sera collected from two different areas in Brazil (Uberlândia and São Paulo). The results suggest that both antigens were able to identify animals seropositive for E. canis in Brazil since these Brazilian strains appear to be highly conserved. PMID:24136211

Alves, Rosiane Nascimento; Rieck, Susana Elisa; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beletti, Marcelo EmÍlio

2014-01-01

270

The spreading process of Ehrlichia canis in macrophages is dependent on actin cytoskeleton, calcium and iron influx and lysosomal evasion.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis is an obligate intracellular microorganism and the etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The invasion process has already been described for some bacteria in this genus, such as E. muris and E. chaffeensis, and consists of four stages: adhesion, internalisation, intracellular proliferation and intercellular spreading. However, little is known about the spreading process of E. canis. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium, iron and lysosomes from the host cell in the spreading of E. canis in dog macrophages in vitro. Different inhibitory drugs were used: cytochalasin D (actin polymerisation inhibitor), verapamil (calcium channel blocker) and deferoxamine (iron chelator). Our results showed a decrease in the number of bacteria in infected cells treated with all drugs when compared to controls. Lysosomes in infected cells were cytochemically labelled with acid phosphatase to allow the visualisation of phagosome-lysosome fusion and were further analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Phagosome-lysosome fusion was rarely observed in vacuoles containing viable E. canis. These data suggest that the spreading process of E. canis in vitro is dependent on cellular components analysed and lysosomal evasion. PMID:24378068

Alves, R N; Levenhagen, M A; Levenhagen, M M M D; Rieck, S E; Labruna, M B; Beletti, M E

2014-01-31

271

Isolation, in vitro propagation, genetic analysis, and immunogenic characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from a blood sample obtained from a dog in southeastern Brazil was used to confirm a naturally acquired Ehrlichia (E.) canis infection. Following isolation and culturing of the new bacterial strain called Uberlândia, partial sequences of the dsb and p28 genes were obtained. The dsb partial sequence of the novel strain was 100% similar to dsb gene sequences of E. canis obtained from different geographic areas around the world. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for the E. canis Uberlândia strain differed at several nucleotides from other sequences available in GenBank. To confirm the antigenic profile of the Uberlândia strain, an indirect immunofluorescence assay against E. canis antigens was performed using dog sera collected from two different areas in Brazil (Uberlândia and São Paulo). The results suggest that both antigens were able to identify animals seropositive for E. canis in Brazil since these Brazilian strains appear to be highly conserved. PMID:24136211

Rieck, Susana Elisa; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio

2014-01-01

272

The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.  

PubMed

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

273

The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

274

Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

PubMed

Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

2013-04-01

275

Risk of infection by the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with low doses of Toxocara canis eggs.  

PubMed

Experimental studies and registries of cases of human toxocariasis have shown that the consumption of raw or undercooked offal of the paratenic host of Toxocara canis may pose a risk of infection. Thus, we evaluated the risk of infection due to the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with different doses of embryonated T. canis eggs. Doses were 5-100 times smaller than the ones previously employed in this type of study. Groups of five chickens were inoculated with 5000 (control), 1000, 500, 300 or 50 eggs of T. canis, and at 72 h post-inoculation, the liver of each bird was consumed by a BALB/c receptor mouse. Forty-eight hours after consumption, we examined the organs and carcasses of the mice for larvae of T. canis. All mice were positive for larvae, except the group that consumed the chicken liver inoculated with 50 eggs. This group contained only one positive mouse, in which the larva was lodged in the brain. In mice that consumed livers of chickens inoculated with ?300 eggs, larvae concentration was primarily in the liver and lungs, characterizing the initial phase of infection. We conclude that the consumption of raw poultry liver, under the studied conditions, poses a risk of infection even with a low number of infected T. canis eggs. PMID:24746238

Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Dutra, Paula Cardoso; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Rodrigues, Lourdes Helena; Silva, Ana Maria Wolkmer Azambuja; Scaini, Carlos James

2014-06-16

276

Cooperative Plasminogen Recruitment to the Surface of Streptococcus canis via M Protein and Enolase Enhances Bacterial Survival  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Streptococcus canis is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans. Surface-exposed M proteins and metabolic enzymes have been characterized as major virulence determinants in various streptococcal species. Recently, we have identified SCM, the M-like protein of S. canis, as the major receptor for miniplasminogen localized on the bacterial surface. The present study now characterizes the glycolytic enzyme enolase as an additional surface-exposed plasminogen-binding protein. According to its zoonotic properties, purified S. canis enolase binds to both human and canine plasminogen and facilitates degradation of aggregated fibrin matrices after activation with host-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Unlike SCM, which binds to the C terminus of human plasminogen, the S. canis enolase interacts N terminally with the first four kringle domains of plasminogen, representing angiostatin. Radioactive binding analyses confirmed cooperative plasminogen recruitment to both surface-exposed enolase and SCM. Furthermore, despite the lack of surface protease activity via SpeB in S. canis, SCM is released and reassociated homophilically to surface-anchored SCM and heterophilically to surface-bound plasminogen. In addition to plasminogen-mediated antiphagocytic activity, reassociation of SCM to the bacterial surface significantly enhanced bacterial survival in phagocytosis analyses using human neutrophils. PMID:23481605

Fulde, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Polok, Andy; Preissner, Klaus T.; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Bergmann, Simone

2013-01-01

277

Bacterial and algal orthologs of prostaglandin H2 synthase: novel insights into the evolution of an integral membrane protein.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS; EC 1.14.99.1), a bi-functional heme enzyme that contains cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities, plays a central role in the inflammatory response, pain, and blood clotting in higher eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss the progenitors of the mammalian enzyme by using modern bioinformatics and homology modeling to draw comparisons between this well-studied system and its orthologs from algae and bacterial sources. A clade of bacterial and algal orthologs is described that have salient structural features distinct from eukaryotic counterparts, including the lack of a dimerization and EGF-like domains, the absence of gene duplicates, and minimal membrane-binding domains. The functional implications of shared and variant features are discussed. PMID:25281773

Gupta, Kushol; Selinsky, Barry S

2015-01-01

278

The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida's Newest Predator1 S.F. Coates, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, J.M. Schaefer, G.W. Tanner, M.E. Sunquist, and M.D.  

E-print Network

WEC124 The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida's Newest Predator1 S.F. Coates, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, Florida's newest fur-bearing predator. Background The coyote (Canis latrans) is becoming a common occur; decreased competition across its range from other predators--the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and red wolf

Jawitz, James W.

279

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

280

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event. PMID:23095575

2012-01-01

281

Characterization of a Drosophila Ortholog of the Cdc7 Kinase: A Role for Cdc7 in Endoreplication Independent of Chiffon.  

PubMed

Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates components of the pre-Replication Complex during DNA replication initiation. Cdc7 is highly conserved, and Cdc7 orthologs have been characterized in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Cdc7 is activated specifically during late G1/S phase by binding to its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. Drosophila melanogaster contains a Dbf4 ortholog, Chiffon, which is essential for chorion amplification in Drosophila egg chambers. However, no Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7 has been characterized as of yet. Here we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7. Co-expression of Drosophila Cdc7 and Chiffon is able to complement a growth defect in yeast containing a temperature-sensitive Cdc7 mutant. Cdc7 and Chiffon physically interact, and can be co-purified from insect cells. Cdc7 phosphorylates the known Cdc7 substrates Mcm2 and histone H3 in vitro, and Cdc7 kinase activity is stimulated by Chiffon and inhibited by the Cdc7-specific inhibitor XL413. Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells deficient for Cdc7 have a defect in two types of DNA replication, endoreplication and chorion gene amplification. However, follicle cells deficient for Chiffon have a defect in chorion gene amplification, but still undergo endocycling. Our results show that Cdc7 interacts with Chiffon to form a functional Dbf4-Dependent Kinase (DDK) complex, and that Cdc7 is necessary for DNA replication in Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells. Additionally, we show that Chiffon is a member of an expanding subset of DNA replication initiation factors that are not strictly required for endoreplication in Drosophila. PMID:25451925

Stephenson, Robert; Hosler, Marcus R; Gavande, Navnath S; Ghosh, Arun K; Weake, Vikki M

2014-12-01

282

Characterization, chromosomal location, and genomic neighborhood of a ratite ortholog of a gene with gonadal expression in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis A locus that we name SubA was discovered during large-scale sequencing and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library from an emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae. This locus yields a significantly negative Tajima's D in emus and is conserved across emu, chicken, mouse, and human. Expression of SubA orthologs has been reported in human ovaries and in mouse testes, but remains

Daniel E. Janes; Tariq Ezaz; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves; Scott V. Edwards

2008-01-01

283

An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human risk of infection with larvae of Toxocara canis was estimated in people from the Marche region of Italy. This region includes both urban and rural areas and its inhabitants frequently keep dogs for company, hunting, as guardians or shepherds. T. canis infection was diagnosed in 33.6% out of 295 dogs examined. Nearly half of the dogs (48.4%) living

A. Habluetzel; G. Traldi; S. Ruggieri; A. R. Attili; P. Scuppa; R. Marchetti; G. Menghini; F. Esposito

2003-01-01

284

CLUMSY VEIN, the Arabidopsis DEAH-box Prp16 ortholog, is required for auxin-mediated development.  

PubMed

Pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is essential in eukaryotic cells. In animals and yeasts, the DEAH-box RNA-dependent ATPase Prp16 mediates conformational change of the spliceosome, thereby facilitating pre-mRNA splicing. In yeasts, Prp16 also plays an important role in splicing fidelity. Conversely, PRP16 orthologs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and nematode do not have an important role in general pre-mRNA splicing, but are required for gene silencing and sex determination, respectively. Functions of PRP16 orthologs in higher plants have not been described until now. Here we show that the CLUMSY VEIN (CUV) gene encoding the unique Prp16 ortholog in Arabidopsis thaliana facilitates auxin-mediated development including male-gametophyte transmission, apical-basal patterning of embryonic and gynoecium development, stamen development, phyllotactic flower positioning, and vascular development. cuv-1 mutation differentially affects splicing and expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, polar auxin transport, auxin perception and auxin signaling. The cuv-1 mutation does not have an equal influence on pre-mRNA substrates. We propose that Arabidopsis PRP16/CUV differentially facilitates expression of genes, which include genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling, thereby collectively influencing auxin-mediated development. PMID:25384462

Tsugeki, Ryuji; Tanaka-Sato, Nana; Maruyama, Nozomi; Terada, Shiho; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Okada, Kiyotaka

2015-01-01

285

Initial stage of development and migratory behavior of Toxocara canis larvae in BALB/c mouse experimental model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the initial developmental stage of Toxocara canis eggs and larvae, and number of recovered larvae from BALB/c mouse-infected organs are described. In vitro culture of T. canis detects the frequencies of interphasic, mitotic and embryonated eggs only within a 7-day period. Analysis by egg counting was carried out for 32 days. The results showed that at 7 days after cultivation, the frequency of larvae was 50.4% and that this frequency reached 52.8% in 32 days. In the experimental infection of BALB/c mice with T. canis, the number of recovered larvae statistically increased in the brain and liver, with doses of approximately 200 and 1000 eggs. After 7 days of infection, a larger number of larvae were obtained in the lung and liver, although a maximum amount was found in the brain after a 15- or 30-day post-infection period. PMID:18551411

Camparoto, M L; Fulan, B; Colli, C M; Paludo, M L; Falavigna-Guilherme, A L; Fernandez, M A

2008-01-01

286

Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon. PMID:24502723

Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-10-01

287

Structural Investigation of a Viral Ortholog of Human NEIL2/3 DNA Glycosylases  

PubMed Central

Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04 Å resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E.; Averill, April M.; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

2013-01-01

288

An RNAi-Based Suppressor Screen Identifies Interactors of the Myt1 Ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Oocyte maturation in all species is controlled by a protein complex termed the maturation promoting factor (MPF). MPF comprises a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and its partner cyclin, and it is regulated by dueling regulatory phosphorylation events on the CDK. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Wee1/Myt1 ortholog WEE-1.3 provides the inhibitory phosphorylations on CDK-1 that keep MPF inactive and halt meiosis. Prior work has shown that depletion of WEE-1.3 in C. elegans results in precocious oocyte maturation in vivo and a highly penetrant infertility phenotype. This study sought to further define the precocious maturation phenotype and to identify novel interactors with WEE-1.3. We found that WEE-1.3 is expressed throughout the germline and in developing embryos in a perinuclear pattern, and demonstrated that oocytes in WEE-1.3–depleted germlines have begun to transcribe embryonic genes and exhibit inappropriate expression of proteins normally restricted to fertilized eggs. In addition, we performed an RNAi suppressor screen of the infertile phenotype to identify novel factors that, when co-depleted with WEE-1.3, restore fertility to these animals. We screened ?1900 essential genes by RNAi feeding and identified 44 (?2% of the tested genes) that are suppressors of the WEE-1.3 depletion phenotype. The suppressors include many previously unidentified players in the meiotic cell cycle and represent a pool of potential WEE-1.3 interacting proteins that function during C. elegans oocyte maturation and zygotic development. PMID:25298536

Allen, Anna K.; Nesmith, Jessica E.; Golden, Andy

2014-01-01

289

The Complexity of Vesicle Transport Factors in Plants Examined by Orthology Search  

PubMed Central

Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the ‘core-set’ of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed. PMID:24844592

Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

2014-01-01

290

Dsc orthologs are required for hypoxia adaptation, triazole drug responses, and fungal virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ?dscA and ?dscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ?dscA and ?dscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ?dscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

Willger, Sven D; Cornish, E Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A; Lehmann, Margaret M; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Cramer, Robert A

2012-12-01

291

Dsc Orthologs Are Required for Hypoxia Adaptation, Triazole Drug Responses, and Fungal Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ?dscA and ?dscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ?dscA and ?dscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ?dscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

Willger, Sven D.; Cornish, E. Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A.; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat

2012-01-01

292

A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.  

PubMed

It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely absent in the adjacent matrix. PMID:24669720

Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

2014-02-01

293

A fluoroquinolone induces a novel mitogen-encoding bacteriophage in Streptococcus canis.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the recently recognized emergence of canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) might be partly attributed to the use of fluoroquinolones to treat Streptococcus canis infections in dogs. Both mitomycin and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin caused bacteriophage-induced lysis of S. canis strain 34, an isolate from a case of canine STSS and NF. Fluoroquinolone-evoked, bacteriophage-induced lysis occurred over a range of concentrations similar to those that would occur after treatment of dogs with these agents. To search for a possible bacteriophage-encoded streptococcal superantigen gene(s), a library of the 36.5 (+/-1.1)-kb bacteriophage, designated phisc1, was made by ligating 3- to 7-kb Tsp5091-digested phisc1 fragments into an EcoRI-digested lambdaZapII vector. Recombinants were screened for mitogenic activity by using canine peripheral blood lymphocytes. Of 800 recombinants screened, 11 recombinants with mitogenic effects were identified, and their inserts were sequenced. The highest homology of 11.6 kb of sequenced phisc1 DNA was to the completely sequenced Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage MM1. Seven of the 11 phisc1 sequenced inserts contained a 552-bp open reading frame, scm, with 27% amino acid similarity to pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) mitogen. PCR showed this gene to be present in 22 of 23 S. canis isolates tested. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that bacteriophage induction was associated with a 58-fold enhancement of expression of this gene relative to that in a noninduced culture of a similar age. The presence of this gene on a fluoroquinolone-induced bacteriophage may explain the association observed between fluoroquinolone use in dogs and the development of canine STTS and NF. PMID:12761079

Ingrey, Keely T; Ren, Jun; Prescott, John F

2003-06-01

294

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger) was sequenced using blood samples obtained from a wild female Tibetan wolf captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average elevation above 3500?m, is the highest plateau in the world. Sequence analysis showed that its structure is in accordance with other Canidae species, but GTG is used as the start codon in ND4L gene which is different from many canide animals. PMID:24438245

Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Guangshuai

2014-01-17

295

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

296

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

297

Bilateral cataracts in a coyote (Canis latrans) pup from Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

A free-ranging coyote (Canis latrans) pup was found in rural Saskatchewan and was subsequently presented to a veterinary teaching hospital by a wildlife rehabilitator. On physical examination, the pup was found to be blind as a result of bilateral, mature cataracts, which were confirmed on postmortem examination. No other significant intraocular or extraocular disease was detected, resulting in a presumptive diagnosis of congenital cataract. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of congenital cataract in any wild canid species. PMID:20597237

Granson, Hilary; Grahn, Bruce; Parker, Dennilyn; Himsworth, Chelsea

2010-06-01

298

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with parasites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and parasites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguination. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote. PMID:17939363

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V

2007-09-01

299

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

300

Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland.  

PubMed

Eighty-nine samples of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) faeces were collected between 2002 and 2004 from two areas in the western Beskidy Mts (south Poland). Helminth eggs were observed in 56.2% of faeces examined. These included: Alaria alata (2.2%), taeniid eggs (11.2%), Toxocara canis (5.6%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (14.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (37%) and unidentified roundworm eggs of the family Strongyloididae (1.1%). Eucoleus aerophilus is recorded for the first time from Poland. The results are compared with the helminth fauna of other wolf populations in Europe. PMID:18251025

Popio?ek, Marcin; Szczesnaa, Justyna; Nowaka, Sabina; Mys?ajeka, Robert W

2007-12-01

301

Ecological Changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Response to the Ice Age Megafaunal Extinctions.  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

Meachen, Julie A; Janowicz, Adrianna C; Avery, Jori E; Sadleir, Rudyard W

2014-01-01

302

Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.  

PubMed

We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090

Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

2013-10-01

303

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.  

PubMed

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

304

Hematological values associated to the serological and molecular diagnostic in cats suspected of Ehrlichia canis infection.  

PubMed

The literature contains several studies on feline ehrlichiosis. However, information about the characteristics of Ehrlichia infection in cats is still scanty. This study evaluated the association between Ehrlichia spp. infection and the hematologic data of 93 cats treated at the Federal University of Mato Grosso Veterinary Hospital in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of or exposure to Ehrlichia spp. infection was evaluated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the dsb and 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia, and by detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA), respectively. Eight (8.6%) cats tested positive by PCR and the partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products was a 100% match to E. canis. Forty-two (45.1%) cats showed antibody reactivity against Ehrlichia spp. Hematological alterations such as low erythrocyte count, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and monocytosis were observed in PCR positive cats. Among them, low erythrocyte counts were associated with IgG antibody titers of 40 to 640 and five cats also tested positive by PCR. Furthermore, PCR-positive cats showed a tendency to be lymphopenic. No correlation was found between age and sex, and no ticks were observed in any of the examined cats. PMID:24473870

Braga, Isis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Jaune, Felipe Wolf; Ziliani, Thaysa Felfili; Girardi, Angela Ferronatto; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2013-01-01

305

Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation. PMID:6434601

Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

1984-08-01

306

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

307

Colorimetric detection of Ehrlichia canis via nucleic acid hybridization in gold nano-colloids.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP). The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles' surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease. PMID:25111239

Muangchuen, Ajima; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

308

Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ? 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ? 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503

Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

2014-04-01

309

Ecological Changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Response to the Ice Age Megafaunal Extinctions  

PubMed Central

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13–29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8–10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary – from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

Meachen, Julie A.; Janowicz, Adrianna C.; Avery, Jori E.; Sadleir, Rudyard W.

2014-01-01

310

Colorimetric Detection of Ehrlichia Canis via Nucleic Acid Hybridization in Gold Nano-Colloids  

PubMed Central

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP). The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles' surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease. PMID:25111239

Muangchuen, Ajima; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

311

Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment. PMID:24502735

Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

2013-10-01

312

The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

2005-09-01

313

Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse  

SciTech Connect

Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.

Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

1987-02-01

314

A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wroc?aw and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Pi?a (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrza?skie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe. PMID:20236557

Szafra?ska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszy?ski, A

2010-12-01

315

Experimental reestablishment of red wolves (Canis rufus) on the Tennessee Valley Authority's Land Between the Lakes (LBL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all practical purposes the red wolf (Canis rufus) is extirpated in its final range in southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Although the species can be preserved in captivity, the only means by which it can be preserved as a naturally occurring element of our national heritage is to reestablish viable populations within the wolf's historic range in the southeastern

C. J. Carley; J. L. Mechler

1983-01-01

316

Increase nitric oxide and oxidative stress in dogs experimentally infected by Ehrlichia canis: effect on the pathogenesis of the disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate nitric oxide levels, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and glutathione reductase activity in serum of dogs experimentally infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked serum samples of dogs divided into two groups were used: negative control (n=5) and infected by E. canis (n=5). The concentration of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in sera were evaluated. Samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6, 18 and 30 post-infection (PI). NOx and TBARS levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected group at 18 and 30 days PI, as well as AOPP levels at 30 days PI when compared to samples from control group. The GR activity was significant (P<0.05) increased in serum of dogs infected by E. canis on days 18 and 30 PI. Based on the increased levels of NOx, TBARS, AOPP and GR activity we concluded that dogs experimentally infected by E. canis develop a state of redox imbalance and that these changes might be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:23540584

Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice L M; Vargas-Hérnandez, Giovanni; Machado, Rosangela Z; Almeida, Taís C; Moresco, Rafael N; Stefani, Lenita M; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

2013-06-28

317

Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995–1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho

Scott Creel; Jay J. Rotella

2010-01-01

318

A Survey of the Parasites of Coyotes (Canis latrans )i nNew York based on Fecal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colo- nized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coy- otes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite com- ponent community diversity was

Matthew E. Gompper; Rachel M. Goodman; Roland W. Kays; Justina C. Ray; Christine V. Fiorello

2003-01-01

319

Serologic Survey for Canine Infectious Diseases among Sympatric Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) and Coyotes (Canis latrans )i n Southeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coy- otes (Canis latrans) are sympatric canids dis- tributed throughout many regions of the Great Plains of North America. The prevalence of ca- nid diseases among these two species where they occur sympatrically is presently unknown. From January 1997 to January 2001, we col- lected blood samples from 89 swift foxes and 122 coyotes on

Eric M. Gese; Seija M. Karki; Mead L. Klavetter; Edward R. Schauster; Ann M. Kitchen

2004-01-01

320

Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why  

Microsoft Academic Search

Territorial defense and maintenance are an important facet of the social ecology of most carnivore species. From January 1991 to June 1993, we observed 54 coyotes (Canis latrans) for 2507 h in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, during which we observed 112 instances of territory defense. The identity of the coyotes involved in challenging and evicting intruding animals was known. Alpha

Eric M. Gese

2001-01-01

321

Validation for use with coyotes ( Canis latrans) of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Dirofilaria immitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological tests offer a potentially powerful tool for monitoring parasites in wildlife populations. However, such tests must be validated before using them with target wildlife populations. We evaluated in coyotes (Canis latrans) the performance of a commercially available serological test used to detect canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in domestic dogs. We obtained 265 coyote carcasses and serological specimens from 54

B. N. Sacks; B. B. Chomel; R. W. Kasten; C. C. Chang; R. K. Sanders; S. D. Leterme

2002-01-01

322

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors)  

E-print Network

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors) Interactive Animation of Dynamic Manipulation Yeuhi Abe and Jovan Popovi´c Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract Lifelike animation of object

Popovic, Jovan

323

Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

1985-01-01

324

IS THE DOMESTIC DOG (CANIS FAMILIARIS ) A RESERVOIR HOST OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS? A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE CURRENT EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originally associated with forested areas, the transmission cycle of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has now adapted to the domestic environment in at least 9 Latin American countries. Several studies have suggested that the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), which is already incriminated as the primary reservoir host of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL), may have a reservoir role in the domestic transmission

RICHARD REITHINGER; CLIVE R. DAVIES

1999-01-01

325

Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs) against Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma caninum in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala) was evaluated in nine randomised,blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies in naturally or experimentally infected dogs. The product was used at the proposed minimum dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy. Worm burdens in the control dogs ranged between 0 and 409 worms of the respective stage for T. canis and between 4 and 655 worms for hookworms. The studies demonstrated 100 % efficacy of emodepside/toltrazuril suspension against mature adult, ? 94.7 %efficacy against immature adult and 99.3 % efficacy against the L4 larval stage of T. canis. The efficacy against mature adult A. caninum was ? 99.5 % and the efficacy against mature adult U. stenocephala was 100 %. All differences between treatment and control groups were statistically significant and no gender effect was found. It can be concluded that the emodepside/toltrazuril suspension represents a safe and highly effective product in dogs with nematode (T. canis, hookworms) infection. PMID:21739370

Schimmel, Annette; Schroeder, Iris; Altreuther, Gertraut; Settje, Terry; Charles, Samuel; Wolken, Sonja; Kok, Dawid J; Ketzis, Jennifer; Young, David; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

2011-08-01

326

Dirofilaria immitis in the Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) in a Tropical Region of the Northern Territory, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart and lungs from 32 adult dingoes (Canis famihiaris dingo) were exam- med for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria imrnitis) infection. Eighteen of 32 (56%) samples were infected, with intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 31 worms per animal. Seven of 18 (39%) infections were single sex infections. Large numbers of circulating microfilariae were pres- ent in blood from all

T. W. Starr; R. C. MuIIey

327

The Cryptic African Wolf: Canis aureus lupaster Is Not a Golden Jackal and Is Not Endemic to Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Egyptian jackal (Canis aureus lupaster) has hitherto been considered a large, rare subspecies of the golden jackal (C. aureus). It has maintained its taxonomical status to date, despite studies demonstrating morphological similarities to the grey wolf (C. lupus). We have analyzed 2055 bp of mitochondrial DNA from C. a. lupaster and investigated the similarity to C. aureus and C.

Eli Knispel Rueness; Maria Gulbrandsen Asmyhr; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; David W. MacDonald; Afework Bekele; Anagaw Atickem; Nils Chr. Stenseth; Thomas M. Gilbert

2011-01-01

328

From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.  

PubMed Central

For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfer’s vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfer’s vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of ‘heart jogging’ and the direction of ‘heart looping’.  ‘Heart jogging’ is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward ‘jog’. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development.    We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging.  We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish ‘heart jogging orthologs’ are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging.    This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach. PMID:24627794

Lovering, Ruth C

2014-01-01

329

Molecular Characterization and Alternative Splicing of a Sodium Channel and DSC1 Ortholog Genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

330

Molecular characterization and alternative splicing of a sodium channel and DSC1 ortholog genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).  

PubMed

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

331

Characterization of AtSTOP1 Orthologous Genes in Tobacco and Other Plant Species1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Aluminum (Al) and proton (H+) tolerances are essential traits for plants to adapt to acid soil environments. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these tolerances are mediated by a zinc-finger transcription factor, SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (AtSTOP1), which regulates the transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to both stressors. Here, the functions of orthologous proteins (STOP1-like proteins) in other plant species were characterized by reverse genetics analyses and in planta complementation assays. RNA interference of a gene for NtSTOP1 repressed Al and H+ tolerances of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) roots. Tobacco roots released citrate in response to Al, concomitant with the up-regulated transcription of an ortholog of an Al tolerance gene encoding a citrate-transporting multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein. The RNA interference repression of NtSTOP1 blocked this process and also repressed the transcription of another orthologous gene for Al tolerance, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3, which encodes a prokaryote-type transporter. These results demonstrated that NtSTOP1 regulates Al tolerance in tobacco through the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The in planta complementation assays revealed that other plant species, including woody plants, a legume, and a moss (Physcomitrella patens), possess functional STOP1-like proteins that can activate several H+ and Al-tolerance genes in Arabidopsis. Knocking out the gene encoding the STOP1-like protein decreased the Al tolerance of P. patens. Together, our results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation by STOP1-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved among land plants and that it confers the ability to survive in acid soils through the transcriptional regulation of Al- and H+-tolerance genes. PMID:23749850

Ohyama, Yoshinao; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Imaizumi, Ryujiro; Aoki, Toshio; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

332

ZmPep1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis elicitor peptide 1, regulates maize innate immunity and enhances disease resistance.  

PubMed

ZmPep1 is a bioactive peptide encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize (Zea mays) gene, ZmPROPEP1. ZmPROPEP1 was identified by sequence similarity as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPROPEP1 gene, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1 and AtPEPR2, AtPep1 functions to activate and amplify innate immune responses in Arabidopsis and enhances resistance to both Pythium irregulare and Pseudomonas syringae. Candidate orthologs to the AtPROPEP1 gene have been identified from a variety of crop species; however, prior to this study, activities of the respective peptides encoded by these orthologs were unknown. Expression of the ZmPROPEP1 gene is induced by fungal infection and treatment with jasmonic acid or ZmPep1. ZmPep1 activates de novo synthesis of the hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene and induces the expression of genes encoding the defense proteins endochitinase A, PR-4, PRms, and SerPIN. ZmPep1 also stimulates the expression of Benzoxazineless1, a gene required for the biosynthesis of benzoxazinoid defenses, and the accumulation of 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside in leaves. To ascertain whether ZmPep1-induced defenses affect resistance, maize plants were pretreated with the peptide prior to infection with fungal pathogens. Based on cell death and lesion severity, ZmPep1 pretreatment was found to enhance resistance to both southern leaf blight and anthracnose stalk rot caused by Cochliobolis heterostrophus and Colletotrichum graminicola, respectively. We present evidence that peptides belonging to the Pep family have a conserved function across plant species as endogenous regulators of innate immunity and may have potential for enhancing disease resistance in crops. PMID:21205619

Huffaker, Alisa; Dafoe, Nicole J; Schmelz, Eric A

2011-03-01

333

Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs  

PubMed Central

When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL of the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) could be developed on the basis of pharmacological variation between species orthologs. For this, bovine FFA2 was characterized, revealing distinct ligand selectivity compared with human FFA2. Homology modeling and mutational analysis demonstrated a single mutation in human FFA2 of C4.57G resulted in a human FFA2 receptor with ligand selectivity similar to the bovine receptor. This was exploited to generate human FFA2-RASSL by the addition of a second mutation at a known orthosteric ligand interaction site, H6.55Q. The resulting FFA2-RASSL displayed a >100-fold loss of activity to endogenous ligands, while responding to the distinct ligand sorbic acid with pEC50 values for inhibition of cAMP, 5.83 ± 0.11; Ca2+ mobilization, 4.63 ± 0.05; ERK phosphorylation, 5.61 ± 0.06; and dynamic mass redistribution, 5.35 ± 0.06. This FFA2-RASSL will be useful in future studies on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.—Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs. PMID:22919070

Hudson, Brian D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Adams, David R.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

2012-01-01

334

Orthologs of the small RPB8 subunit of the eukaryotic RNA polymerases are conserved in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and "Korarchaeota"  

PubMed Central

Although most of the key components of the transcription apparatus, and in particular, RNA polymerase (RNAP) subunits, are conserved between archaea and eukaryotes, no archaeal homologs of the small RPB8 subunit of eukaryotic RNAP have been detected. We report that orthologs of RPB8 are encoded in all sequenced genomes of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and a recently sequenced "korarchaeal" genome, but not in Euryarchaeota or the mesophilic crenarchaeon Cenarchaeum symbiosum. These findings suggest that all 12 core subunits of eukaryotic RNAPs were already present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea. This article was reviewed by Purificacion Lopez-Garcia and Chris Ponting. PMID:18081935

Koonin, Eugene V; Makarova, Kira S; Elkins, James G

2007-01-01

335

Yeast 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) orthologs Pkh1-3 differentially regulate phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the protein kinase B (PKB)/S6K ortholog Sch9.  

PubMed

Pkh1, -2, and -3 are the yeast orthologs of mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Although essential for viability, their functioning remains poorly understood. Sch9, the yeast protein kinase B and/or S6K ortholog, has been identified as one of their targets. We now have shown that in vitro interaction of Pkh1 and Sch9 depends on the hydrophobic PDK1-interacting fragment pocket in Pkh1 and requires the complementary hydrophobic motif in Sch9. We demonstrated that Pkh1 phosphorylates Sch9 both in vitro and in vivo on its PDK1 site and that this phosphorylation is essential for a wild type cell size. In vivo phosphorylation on this site disappeared during nitrogen deprivation and rapidly increased again upon nitrogen resupplementation. In addition, we have shown here for the first time that the PDK1 site in protein kinase A is phosphorylated by Pkh1 in vitro, that this phosphorylation is Pkh-dependent in vivo and occurs during or shortly after synthesis of the protein kinase A catalytic subunits. Mutagenesis of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 abolished binding of the regulatory subunit and cAMP dependence. As opposed to PDK1 site phosphorylation of Sch9, phosphorylation of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 was not regulated by nitrogen availability. These results bring new insight into the control and prevalence of PDK1 site phosphorylation in yeast by Pkh protein kinases. PMID:21531713

Voordeckers, Karin; Kimpe, Marlies; Haesendonckx, Steven; Louwet, Wendy; Versele, Matthias; Thevelein, Johan M

2011-06-24

336

A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.  

PubMed

Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity. PMID:24589112

Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

2013-11-01

337

Tinea faciei due to microsporum canis in children: a survey of 46 cases in the District of Cagliari (Italy).  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention. PMID:22011084

Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica

2012-01-01

338

The parasite assemblage in the spiral intestine of the shark Mustelus canis.  

PubMed

The parasite assemblage in the 8 chambers of the spiral intestine of 49 specimens of the shark Mustelus canis collected from Long Island Sound and off the coast of Virginia was investigated. Assemblages within host individuals were composed of up to 3 of 4 species of cestodes: the trypanorhynch species Prochristianella tumidula and Lacistorhynchus tenuis and the hooked tetraphyllidean species Calliobothrium verticillatum and Calliobothrium lintoni. Each individual shark hosted 1-3 (mean = 2.17) tapeworm species and 1-166 (mean = 34.3) tapeworm individuals. The assemblage consisted of 2 core species, 1 secondary species, and 1 satellite species. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the areas of the 8 intestinal chambers. ANOVAs of worm density among chambers revealed that each of the 4 species exhibited site specificity within the spiral intestine. Least significant difference analysis revealed that each of the species, except C. verticillatum, was usually found in the anterior 3 chambers. Calliobothrium verticillatum was more commonly found in the middle region of the organ, centered around chamber 4. Horn's information index indicated that L. tenuis and C. lintoni had the greatest amount of overlap within the spiral intestine and the congeners C. lintoni and C. verticillatum had the least amount of overlap. No evidence of interaction among the species in this assemblage was found. In cases where observations could be made, neither cestode total length nor location within the spiral intestine appeared to be affected by the presence of other individuals or species respectively. There was some evidence of underutilized space; the posteriormost chamber was vacant in all 49 sharks examined and 91.8% of sharks had at least 2 vacant chambers. Linear regression revealed no relationship between shark total length and either total number of worms or total number of individuals of each of the 4 species of cestodes. The chi-square test revealed no evidence that the 4 species do not occur independently among host individuals. The number of species and number of individuals in M. canis were low when compared to the marine fish Sebastes nebulosus. These values for M. canis more closely resemble values for freshwater fishes. The comparatively much greater host specificity of these tapeworms may at least partially account for this difference. We propose that site specificity may have a phylogenetic component, in a manner similar to that of host specificity. PMID:8277382

Cislo, P R; Caira, J N

1993-12-01

339

Multimodular Penicillin-Binding Proteins: An Enigmatic Family of Orthologs and Paralogs  

PubMed Central

The monofunctional penicillin-binding dd-peptidases and penicillin-hydrolyzing serine ?-lactamases diverged from a common ancestor by the acquisition of structural changes in the polypeptide chain while retaining the same folding, three-motif amino acid sequence signature, serine-assisted catalytic mechanism, and active-site topology. Fusion events gave rise to multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The acyl serine transferase penicillin-binding (PB) module possesses the three active-site defining motifs of the superfamily; it is linked to the carboxy end of a non-penicillin-binding (n-PB) module through a conserved fusion site; the two modules form a single polypeptide chain which folds on the exterior of the plasma membrane and is anchored by a transmembrane spanner; and the full-size PBPs cluster into two classes, A and B. In the class A PBPs, the n-PB modules are a continuum of diverging sequences; they possess a five-motif amino acid sequence signature, and conserved dicarboxylic amino acid residues are probably elements of the glycosyl transferase catalytic center. The PB modules fall into five subclasses: A1 and A2 in gram-negative bacteria and A3, A4, and A5 in gram-positive bacteria. The full-size class A PBPs combine the required enzymatic activities for peptidoglycan assembly from lipid-transported disaccharide-peptide units and almost certainly prescribe different, PB-module specific traits in peptidoglycan cross-linking. In the class B PBPs, the PB and n-PB modules cluster in a concerted manner. A PB module of subclass B2 or B3 is linked to an n-PB module of subclass B2 or B3 in gram-negative bacteria, and a PB module of subclass B1, B4, or B5 is linked to an n-PB module of subclass B1, B4, or B5 in gram-positive bacteria. Class B PBPs are involved in cell morphogenesis. The three motifs borne by the n-PB modules are probably sites for module-module interaction and the polypeptide stretches which extend between motifs 1 and 2 are sites for protein-protein interaction. The full-size class B PBPs are an assortment of orthologs and paralogs, which prescribe traits as complex as wall expansion and septum formation. PBPs of subclass B1 are unique to gram-positive bacteria. They are not essential, but they represent an important mechanism of resistance to penicillin among the enterococci and staphylococci. Natural evolution and PBP- and ?-lactamase-mediated resistance show that the ability of the catalytic centers to adapt their properties to new situations is limitless. Studies of the reaction pathways by using the methods of quantum chemistry suggest that resistance to penicillin is a road of no return. PMID:9841666

Goffin, Colette; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie

1998-01-01

340

Overlapping genes of Aedes aegypti: evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects  

PubMed Central

Background Although gene overlapping is a common feature of prokaryote and mitochondria genomes, such genes have also been identified in many eukaryotes. The overlapping genes in eukaryotes are extensively rearranged even between closely related species. In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). The overlapping gene pairs of A. aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. Results The results show that as much as ~10% of the predicted genes of A. aegypti and A. gambiae are localized in positional overlapping manner. Furthermore, the study shows that differential abundance of introns and simple sequence repeats have significant association with positional rearrangement of overlapping genes between the two species. Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. Conclusion Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects. PMID:23777277

2013-01-01

341

ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes  

SciTech Connect

The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

2009-07-23

342

Orthologs of Human Disease Associated Genes and RNAi Analysis of Silencing Insulin Receptor Gene in Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

343

The Pea Photoperiod Response Gene STERILE NODES Is an Ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The STERILE NODES (SN) locus in pea (Pisum sativum) was one of the first photoperiod response genes to be described and provided early evidence for the genetic control of long-distance signaling in flowering-time regulation. Lines homozygous for recessive sn mutations are early flowering and photoperiod insensitive, with an increased ability to promote flowering across a graft union in short-day conditions. Here, we show that SN controls developmental regulation of genes in the FT family and rhythmic regulation of genes related to circadian clock function. Using a positional and functional candidate approach, we identify SN as the pea ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO, a GARP transcription factor from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with an important role in circadian clock function. In addition to induced mutants, sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of at least three other independent, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations among known sn cultivars. Examination of genetic and regulatory interactions between SN and two other circadian clock genes, HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR) and DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), suggests a complex relationship in which HR regulates expression of SN and the role of DNE and HR in control of flowering is dependent on SN. These results extend previous work to show that pea orthologs of all three Arabidopsis evening complex genes regulate clock function and photoperiod-responsive flowering and suggest that the function of these genes may be widely conserved. PMID:24706549

Liew, Lim Chee; Hecht, Valérie; Sussmilch, Frances C.; Weller, James L.

2014-01-01

344

Orthologs of human disease associated genes and RNAi analysis of silencing insulin receptor gene in Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

345

Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (?13C, ?15N, and ?34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

346

Fulminant eosinophilic myocarditis associated with visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis infection.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old man was transferred to hospital because of myocarditis with cardiogenic shock. Echocardiography showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 23.8% and an intermediate amount of pericardial effusion. The patient immediately received an intra-aortic balloon pump and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy was performed in the acute phase and showed extensive eosinophilic inflammatory cell infiltration, severe interstitial edema and moderate myocardial necrosis. High-dose corticosteroids were administered. Because the patient's antibody titer against Toxocara canis was high and his symptoms had appeared after eating raw deer meat, the diagnosis was fulminant eosinophilic myocarditis caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to visceral larval migrans. After starting high-dose corticosteroids, the ejection fraction dramatically improved, the eosinophilia decreased and the patient made a full recovery. PMID:19122304

Enko, Kenki; Tada, Takeshi; Ohgo, Keiko O; Nagase, Satoshi; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ohta, Kei; Ichiba, Shingo; Ujike, Yoshihito; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Ohe, Tohru; Kusano, Kengo F

2009-07-01

347

Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis refractory to ivermectin treatment in two dogs.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu presented with severe generalized pruritus. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. A Yorkshire terrier in the same household simultaneously developed pruritus due to scabies. Both dogs were treated with 300 ?g/kg ivermectin, at first orally and then subcutaneously at 14 day intervals. However, live mites were still found on day 35, and the skin condition deteriorated in both dogs. These findings suggested that the S. scabiei in these dogs was clinically refractory to ivermectin. The pruritus in both dogs rapidly and completely disappeared following topical fipronil administration. This appears to be the first report of canine scabies refractory to ivermectin treatment. PMID:20880016

Terada, Yuri; Murayama, Nobuo; Ikemura, Hiroshi; Morita, Tatsushi; Nagata, Masahiko

2010-12-01

348

Seroprevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis antibodies among aborigines in peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The Aborigines or Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia who are still seminomadic are known to have a close association with dogs. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect anti-Sarcoptes scabiei var canis antibodies in this community as a measure of exposure to the mite. Out of 312 Orang Asli tested, 24.7% were positive for polyvalent anti-Sarcoptes antibodies. No significant difference was found between the positive rates in males (26.1%) and females (23.6%). Only 1.9% were positive for IgA and none was positive for IgE anti-Sarcoptes antibodies. Since there were very few patients with clinical manifestation of scabies, there is a possibility that continuous exposure to the dogs mite confers cross-protective immunity in the community against human scabies. PMID:9031401

Normaznah, Y; Saniah, K; Nazma, M; Mak, J W; Krishnasamy, M; Hakim, S L

1996-03-01

349

Analysis of UBV Photometry of the Near-Contact Binary AK Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of our study of eccentric eclipsing binary candidates, we have obtained complete UBV photoelectric light curves of the neglected system AK Canis Minoris. The observations were taken at Lowell Observatory in 1994 February. Two new epochs of minimum light were determined from these observations. A period study, spanning 33 years, was undertaken, and both improved linear and quadratic ephemerides were obtained. The robust period decrease determined in the quadratic ephemeris may imply magnetic braking arising from the solar-type secondary component. UBV light curves formed from our precision observations are presented. The first synthetic light-curve solution of AK CMi is presented. Our analysis reveals that AK CMi is in a near-contact, semidetached configuration with an A3 spectral type primary component and a K2 secondary filling its Roche lobe. Contrary to earlier reports that AK CMi has a displaced secondary eclipse, our secondary eclipse occurs at phase 0.5.

Samec, Ronald G.; Carrigan, Brian J.; Gray, Jamison D.; French, Julie A.; McDermith, Richard J.; Padgen, Erik E.

1998-08-01

350

Adaptive Optics Imaging of VY Canis Majoris at 2 - 5 micron with LBT/LMIRCam  

E-print Network

We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the Ks, L' and M bands (2.15 to 4.8 micron) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The peculiar "Southwest Clump" previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 micron appears prominently in all three filters. We rule out thermal emission as a source of its brightness, which we attribute to scattering alone. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass of approximately 5E-03 Msun in this single feature. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high mass loss events.

Shenoy, Dinesh P; Humphreys, Roberta M; Marengo, Massimo; Leisenring, Jarron M; Nelson, Matthew J; Wilson, John C; Skrutskie, Michael F; Hinz, Philip M; Hoffmann, William F; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

2013-01-01

351

The breakfast effect: dogs (Canis familiaris) search more accurately when they are less hungry.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the consumption of a morning meal (breakfast) by dogs (Canis familiaris) would affect search accuracy on a working memory task following the exertion of self-control. Dogs were tested either 30 or 90 min after consuming half of their daily resting energy requirements (RER). During testing dogs were initially required to sit still for 10 min before searching for hidden food in a visible displacement task. We found that 30 min following the consumption of breakfast, and 10 min after the behavioral inhibition task, dogs searched more accurately than they did in a fasted state. Similar differences were not observed when dogs were tested 90 min after meal consumption. This pattern of behavior suggests that breakfast enhanced search accuracy following a behavioral inhibition task by providing energy for cognitive processes, and that search accuracy decreased as a function of energy depletion. PMID:23032958

Miller, Holly C; Bender, Charlotte

2012-11-01

352

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio-tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and March. We observed no other deer or deer sign, but regularly observed deer, deer sign and wolf-killed deer in adjacent wolf-pack territories. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

353

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America. PMID:16456176

Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

2005-10-01

354

A survey of the parasites of coyotes (Canis latrans) in New York based on fecal analysis.  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colonized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coyotes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite component community diversity was higher (n = 16 species) in southern New York than in middle and northern sites (nine species each) and infracommunity species richness was greater in southern New York than at the other sites. These differences may reflect the variable diets of coyotes, as well as recent colonization of the region and the mixing of component communities from expanding coyote populations. PMID:14567236

Gompper, Matthew E; Goodman, Rachel M; Kays, Roland W; Ray, Justina C; Fiorello, Christine V; Wade, Susan E

2003-07-01

355

Faint early-type stars and emission-line stars in the Canis Majoris complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of OB stars in the Canis Majoris complex, a survey and classification have been done for stars in the area. The study is based on spectral observations at the Kiso Schmidt tlescope. In the present field about 1800 OBA stars were classified, where the majority is dominated by B late and A early type stars. A survey for emission-line stars was also carried out in the same region. In total, 128 emission-line stars were detected, ranging from V = 6 to 15. A comparison shows that some emission-line stars of this region contained in the existing catalogs are common with the authors', and some exhibit no detectable emission line on the plates. This can probably be considered as the result of variation in emission-line strength.

Wiramihardja, S. D.; Kogure, T.

356

Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents. PMID:25121408

Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

2014-10-01

357

Osteological and genetic analysis of the extinct Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan.  

PubMed

The Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931 ) is an extinct subspecies that inhabited Hokkaido in Japan until the middle of the Meiji Period. Because there are very few preserved skeletons, no osteological and/or genetic analyses of the Ezo wolf have been conducted. In this study, 20 cranial and eight mandibular characters were measured on Ezo wolf skeletons, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was analyzed to assess genetic relationships between the Ezo wolf and other wolf lineages, including the Japanese wolf on Honshu. The morphological study showed that the Ezo wolf is larger than the Japanese wolf and similar in size to the grey wolf of the Asian and American Continents. MtDNA control sequences (751 bp) from two Ezo wolves were identical to those from the Canadian grey wolf. The morphological and genetic characters indicate that the ancestor of the Ezo wolf was genetically related to that of the grey wolf in Canada. PMID:20377350

Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Shigehara, Nobuo; Ichikawa, Hideo; Kato, Masaru

2010-04-01

358

Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole derivatives against Toxocara canis second-stage larvae and Hymenolepis nana adults.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic activity of 11 benzimidazole derivatives (A1-A11) and 2 thioureides N,N'-disubstituted (B1-B2) was determined. Each compound and albendazole was tested in vitro against Toxocara canis larvae and in vivo against Hymenolepis nana adult. Compounds A1-A6 and B1-B2 were designed as albendazole prodrugs. Compounds A8-A11 were designed as direct analogues of A7, which had previously proved to be an effective agent against Fasciola hepatica. Results of the in vitro screening showed that A6 was more active than albendazole at 0.18 microM (relative mobility 40% and 80%, respectively). Whereas that the in vivo evaluation against H. nana, compounds A7-A11 demonstrated significant activity in terms of removing cestode adults in the range of 88-97%, displaying better efficacy than albendazole (83%). PMID:19073130

Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Castillo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Luis, Francisco

2009-03-01

359

A genomewide survey of bHLH transcription factors in the coral Acropora digitifera identifies three novel orthologous families, pearl, amber, and peridot.  

PubMed

Decoding the genome of the coral, Acropora digitifera, enabled us to characterize a nearly full set of 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in this organism. This number is comparable to 68 bHLH genes in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and larger than those in most other invertebrate metazoans. The 70 bHLH genes were assigned to 29 orthologous families previously reported. In addition, we identified three novel HLH orthologous families, which we designated pearl, amber, and peridot, increasing the number of orthologous families to 32. Pearl and amber orthologues were found in genomes and expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) of Mollusca and Annelida in addition to Cnidaria. Peridot orthologues were found in genomes and ESTs of Cephalochordata and Hemichordata in addition to Cnidaria. These three genes were likely lost in the clades of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens during animal evolution. PMID:22419240

Gyoja, Fuki; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satoh, Nori

2012-04-01

360

Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

2012-01-01

361

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.  

PubMed

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n?=?6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P?

Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

2011-09-01

362

Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry  

PubMed Central

Background Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. Methodology/ Principal Findings We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves. PMID:18841199

Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

363

Electron microscopic investigations on stages of dog piroplasms cultured in vitro: Asian isolates of Babesia gibsoni and strains of B. canis from France and Hungary.  

PubMed

Stages obtained from two Asian Babesia gibsoni-isolates cultured in vitro were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and compared to strains of B. canis cultured in vitro. While the developmental stages of the latter preserved their shape in culture, many of the initially small stages of the B. gibsoni strains grew considerably and often looked rather similar to B. canis. PMID:11822735

Walter, Susanne; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Zweygarth, Erich; Schein, Eberhard

2002-01-01

364

The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Methods Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick to attach and start feeding before being killed by the acaricide. PMID:24957215

2014-01-01

365

Efficacy of Emodepside plus Toltrazuril Suspension (Procox ® Oral Suspension for Dogs) against Prepatent and Patent Infection with Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis Complex in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of emodepside\\u000a plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox® suspension for dogs) against Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex. Unweaned puppies were experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of I. canis and\\/or I. ohioensis-complex. In each study, one group was treated during prepatency (2 or 4 days post infection) while dogs in the

Gertraut Altreuther; Nadine Gasda; Iris Schroeder; Anja Joachim; Terry Settje; Annette Schimmel; Douglas Hutchens; Klemens J. Krieger

2011-01-01

366

Development of a Highly Specific Recombinant Toxocara canis Second-Stage Larva Excretory-Secretory Antigen for Immunodiagnosis of Human Toxocariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity of the recombinant Toxocara canis antigen developed for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis was compared with that of the excretory-secretory antigen from T. canis second-stage larvae (TES) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 153 human serum samples from patients infected with 20 different helminths, including 11 cases of toxocariasis, were examined. No false-negative reactions were observed for

HIROSHI YAMASAKI; KUNIOKI ARAKI; PATRICIA KIM; CHOOI LIM; NGAH ZASMY; JOON WAH MAK; TAKASHI AOKI

2000-01-01

367

Effect of various doses of infective Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs on the humoral response and distribution of larvae in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 5–2,500 infectiveToxocara canis and 5–1,000T. cati eggs on the humoral immune response and on the distribution of larvae in the organism was studied in paratenic hosts — inbred C57BL6\\/J mice. With each dose ofT. canis eggs the maximal antibody level was recorded on day 56 post infection and was followed by a moderate decline that lasted until

K. Havasiová-Reiterová; O. Tomašovicová; P. Dubinský

1995-01-01

368

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

369

‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Proteins Orthologous with pSymA-Encoded Proteins of Sinorhizobium meliloti: Hypothetical Roles in Plant Host Interaction  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021, a nitrogen-fixing, root-nodulating bacterial microsymbiont of alfalfa, has a 3.5 Mbp circular chromosome and two megaplasmids including 1.3 Mbp pSymA carrying nonessential ‘accessory’ genes for nitrogen fixation (nif), nodulation and host specificity (nod). A related bacterium, psyllid-vectored ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ is an obligate phytopathogen with a reduced genome that was previously analyzed for genes orthologous to genes on the S. meliloti circular chromosome. In general, proteins encoded by pSymA genes are more similar in sequence alignment to those encoded by S. meliloti chromosomal orthologs than to orthologous proteins encoded by genes carried on the ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome. Only two ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ proteins were identified as having orthologous proteins encoded on pSymA but not also encoded on the chromosome of S. meliloti. These two orthologous gene pairs encode a Na+/K+ antiporter (shared with intracellular pathogens of the family Bartonellacea) and a Co++, Zn++ and Cd++ cation efflux protein that is shared with the phytopathogen Agrobacterium. Another shared protein, a redox-regulated K+ efflux pump may regulate cytoplasmic pH and homeostasis. The pSymA and ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ orthologs of the latter protein are more highly similar in amino acid alignment compared with the alignment of the pSymA-encoded protein with its S. meliloti chromosomal homolog. About 182 pSymA encoded proteins have sequence similarity (?E-10) with ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ proteins, often present as multiple orthologs of single ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ proteins. These proteins are involved with amino acid uptake, cell surface structure, chaperonins, electron transport, export of bioactive molecules, cellular homeostasis, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and synthesis of amino acids and metabolic cofactors. The presence of multiple orthologs defies mutational analysis and is consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins may be of particular importance in host/microbe interaction and their duplication likely facilitates their ongoing evolution. PMID:22761700

Kuykendall, L. David; Shao, Jonathan Y.; Hartung, John S.

2012-01-01

370

CDK12 is a transcription elongation-associated CTD kinase, the metazoan ortholog of yeast Ctk1  

PubMed Central

Drosophila contains one (dCDK12) and humans contain two (hCDK12 and hCDK13) proteins that are the closest evolutionary relatives of yeast Ctk1, the catalytic subunit of the major elongation-phase C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CTDK-I. However, until now, neither CDK12 nor CDK13 has been demonstrated to be a bona fide CTD kinase. Using Drosophila, we demonstrate that dCDK12 (CG7597) is a transcription-associated CTD kinase, the ortholog of yCtk1. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the distribution of dCDK12 on formaldehyde-fixed polytene chromosomes is virtually identical to that of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), but is distinct from that of P-TEFb (dCDK9 + dCyclin T). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirm that dCDK12 is present on the transcribed regions of active Drosophila genes. Compared with P-TEFb, dCDK12 amounts are lower at the 5? end and higher in the middle and at the 3? end of genes (both normalized to RNAPII). Appropriately, Drosophila dCDK12 purified from nuclear extracts manifests CTD kinase activity in vitro. Intriguingly, we find that cyclin K is associated with purified dCDK12, implicating it as the cyclin subunit of this CTD kinase. Most importantly, we demonstrate that RNAi knockdown of dCDK12 in S2 cells alters the phosphorylation state of the CTD, reducing its Ser2 phosphorylation levels. Similarly, in human HeLa cells, we show that hCDK13 purified from nuclear extracts displays CTD kinase activity in vitro, as anticipated. Also, we find that chimeric (yeast/human) versions of Ctk1 containing the kinase homology domains of hCDK12/13 (or hCDK9) are functional in yeast cells (and also in vitro); using this system, we show that a bur1ts mutant is rescued more efficiently by a hCDK9 chimera than by a hCDK13 chimera, suggesting the following orthology relationships: Bur1 ? CDK9 and Ctk1 ? CDK12/13. Finally, we show that siRNA knockdown of hCDK12 in HeLa cells results in alterations in the CTD phosphorylation state. Our findings demonstrate that metazoan CDK12 and CDK13 are CTD kinases, and that CDK12 is orthologous to yeast Ctk1. PMID:20952539

Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Liu, Pengda; Phatnani, Hemali P.; Fuda, Nicholas J.; Cooper, Jeffrey J.; Price, David H.; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T.; Greenleaf, Arno L.

2010-01-01

371

CDK12 is a transcription elongation-associated CTD kinase, the metazoan ortholog of yeast Ctk1.  

PubMed

Drosophila contains one (dCDK12) and humans contain two (hCDK12 and hCDK13) proteins that are the closest evolutionary relatives of yeast Ctk1, the catalytic subunit of the major elongation-phase C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CTDK-I. However, until now, neither CDK12 nor CDK13 has been demonstrated to be a bona fide CTD kinase. Using Drosophila, we demonstrate that dCDK12 (CG7597) is a transcription-associated CTD kinase, the ortholog of yCtk1. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the distribution of dCDK12 on formaldehyde-fixed polytene chromosomes is virtually identical to that of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), but is distinct from that of P-TEFb (dCDK9 + dCyclin T). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirm that dCDK12 is present on the transcribed regions of active Drosophila genes. Compared with P-TEFb, dCDK12 amounts are lower at the 5' end and higher in the middle and at the 3' end of genes (both normalized to RNAPII). Appropriately, Drosophila dCDK12 purified from nuclear extracts manifests CTD kinase activity in vitro. Intriguingly, we find that cyclin K is associated with purified dCDK12, implicating it as the cyclin subunit of this CTD kinase. Most importantly, we demonstrate that RNAi knockdown of dCDK12 in S2 cells alters the phosphorylation state of the CTD, reducing its Ser2 phosphorylation levels. Similarly, in human HeLa cells, we show that hCDK13 purified from nuclear extracts displays CTD kinase activity in vitro, as anticipated. Also, we find that chimeric (yeast/human) versions of Ctk1 containing the kinase homology domains of hCDK12/13 (or hCDK9) are functional in yeast cells (and also in vitro); using this system, we show that a bur1(ts) mutant is rescued more efficiently by a hCDK9 chimera than by a hCDK13 chimera, suggesting the following orthology relationships: Bur1 ? CDK9 and Ctk1 ? CDK12/13. Finally, we show that siRNA knockdown of hCDK12 in HeLa cells results in alterations in the CTD phosphorylation state. Our findings demonstrate that metazoan CDK12 and CDK13 are CTD kinases, and that CDK12 is orthologous to yeast Ctk1. PMID:20952539

Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Liu, Pengda; Phatnani, Hemali P; Fuda, Nicholas J; Cooper, Jeffrey J; Price, David H; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T; Greenleaf, Arno L

2010-10-15

372

Functional Evolution of a Multigene Family: Orthologous and Paralogous Pheromone Receptor Genes in the Turnip Moth, Agrotis segetum  

PubMed Central

Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs), for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z)-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and relaxed evolutionary constraints or positive selection among paralogues allow functional divergence to occur in spite of purifying selection being the norm. PMID:24130875

Zhang, Dan-Dan; Löfstedt, Christer

2013-01-01

373

Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.  

PubMed

Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs), for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z)-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and relaxed evolutionary constraints or positive selection among paralogues allow functional divergence to occur in spite of purifying selection being the norm. PMID:24130875

Zhang, Dan-Dan; Löfstedt, Christer

2013-01-01

374

Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): construction, expression and biochemical properties of the G119S orthologous mutant.  

PubMed

Background Phlebotomus papatasi vectors zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Previous expression of recombinant P. papatasi acetylcholinesterase (PpAChE1) revealed 85% amino acid sequence identity to mosquito AChE and identified synthetic carbamates that effectively inhibited PpAChE1 with improved specificity for arthropod AChEs compared to mammalian AChEs. We hypothesized that the G119S mutation causing high level resistance to organophosphate insecticides in mosquitoes may occur in PpAChE1 and may reduce sensitivity to inhibition. We report construction, expression, and biochemical properties of rPpAChE1 containing the G119S orthologous mutation.MethodsTargeted mutagenesis introduced the G119S orthologous substitution in PpAChE1 cDNA. Recombinant PpAChE1 enzymes containing or lacking the G119S mutation were expressed in the baculoviral system. Biochemical assays were conducted to determine altered catalytic properties and inhibitor sensitivity resulting from the G119S substitution. A molecular homology model was constructed to examine the modeled structural interference with docking of inhibitors of different classes. Genetic tests were conducted to determine if the G119S orthologous codon existed in polymorphic form in a laboratory colony of P. papatasi.ResultsRecombinant PpAChE1 containing the G119 substitution exhibited altered biochemical properties, and reduced inhibition by compounds that bind to the acylation site on the enzyme (with the exception of eserine). Less resistance was directed against bivalent or peripheral site inhibitors, in good agreement with modeled inhibitor docking. Eserine appeared to be a special case capable of inhibition in the absence of covalent binding at the acylation site. Genetic tests did not detect the G119S mutation in a laboratory colony of P. papatasi but did reveal that the G119S codon existed in polymorphic form (GGA + GGC).ConclusionsThe finding of G119S codon polymorphism in a laboratory colony of P. papatasi suggests that a single nucleotide transversion (GGC ¿ AGC) may readily occur, causing rapid development of resistance to organophosphate and phenyl-substituted carbamate insecticides under strong selection. Careful management of pesticide use in IPM programs is important to prevent or mitigate development and fixation of the G119S mutation in susceptible pest populations. Availability of recombinant AChEs enables identification of novel inhibitory ligands with improved efficacy and specificity for AChEs of arthropod pests. PMID:25491113

Temeyer, Kevin B; Tong, Fan; Totrov, Maxim M; Tuckow, Alexander P; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Carlier, Paul R; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2014-12-10

375

Transmission of Toxocara canis via Ingestion of Raw Cow Liver: A Cross-Sectional Study in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to ascertain the relationship between ingestion of raw cow liver and Toxocara canis infection. A total of 150 apparently healthy adults were divided into 2 groups; 1 group consisted of 86 adults with positive results of Toxocara ELISA, and the other group of 64 adults with negative results. One researcher collected the history of ingestion of raw cow liver within 1 year and recent history of keeping dogs. Among 86 seropositive adults for T. canis, 68 (79.1%) had a recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that a recent ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs were related to an increased risk of toxocariasis (odds ratios, 4.4 and 3.7; and 95% confidence intervals, 1.9-10.2 and 1.2-11.6, respectively). A recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs was significantly associated with toxocariasis. PMID:22451730

Choi, Dongil; Choi, Dong-Chull; Lee, Kyung Soo; Paik, Seung Woon; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Huh, Sun

2012-01-01

376

[Synergy between ajoene and ketoconazole in isolates of Microsporum canis. A preliminary study using fractional inhibitory concentration technique (FIC)].  

PubMed

Fungal infections are probably the most frequent infectious diseases affecting human being. Resistance to different anti-fungal drugs, and their bioavailability in the infection site, represent a problem for treatment. Looking for effective solutions, combination of two or more antifungal drugs to obtain an additive effect or synergic effect that potent antifungal activity has been investigated. In this study, the effect (additive, antagonist or synergistic) of ajoene and ketoconazole combination was evaluated in the growth and proliferation of filamentous fungi. Interactions in vitro were investigated in three isolates of Microsporum canis through a preliminary study using micro dilution, according to recommendations of NCCLS M-38A, with several modifications. Results obtained for CIF of each isolates studied (CIF = 0.18 0.36 microM), demonstrate that exists a very potent synergistic effect, when they are combined, and it represents a hope for future clinic trials to treat resilient fungal infections caused by M. canis. PMID:18785785

Ledezma, Eliades; Maniscalchi, Maria Teresa; Espinoza, Druvic Lemus

2008-09-30

377

An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

2014-12-01

378

Genetic analysis of historic western Great Lakes region wolf samples reveals early Canis lupus/lycaon hybridization.  

PubMed

The genetic status of wolves in the western Great Lakes region has received increased attention following the decision to remove them from protection under the US Endangered Species Act. A recent study of mitochondrial DNA has suggested that the recovered wolf population is not genetically representative of the historic population. We present microsatellite genotype data on three historic samples and compare them with extant populations, and interpret published genetic data to show that the pre-recovery population was admixed over a century ago by eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) and grey wolf (Canis lupus) hybridization. The DNA profiles of the historic samples are similar to those of extant animals in the region, suggesting that the current Great Lakes wolves are representative of the historic population. PMID:18940770

Wheeldon, Tyler; White, Bradley N

2009-02-23

379

The gene Sr33, an ortholog of barley Mla genes, encodes resistance to wheat stem rust race Ug99.  

PubMed

Wheat stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, afflicts bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). New virulent races collectively referred to as "Ug99" have emerged, which threaten global wheat production. The wheat gene Sr33, introgressed from the wild relative Aegilops tauschii into bread wheat, confers resistance to diverse stem rust races, including the Ug99 race group. We cloned Sr33, which encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat protein. Sr33 is orthologous to the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mla mildew resistance genes that confer resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The wheat Sr33 gene functions independently of RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 chaperones. Haplotype analysis from diverse collections of Ae. tauschii placed the origin of Sr33 resistance near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. PMID:23811228

Periyannan, Sambasivam; Moore, John; Ayliffe, Michael; Bansal, Urmil; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Deal, Karin; Luo, Mingcheng; Kong, Xiuying; Bariana, Harbans; Mago, Rohit; McIntosh, Robert; Dodds, Peter; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans

2013-08-16

380

RNAi screening of human glycogene orthologs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the construction of the C. elegans glycogene database.  

PubMed

In this study, we selected 181 nematode glycogenes that are orthologous to human glycogenes and examined their RNAi phenotypes. The results are deposited in the Caenorhabditis elegans Glycogene Database (CGGDB) at AIST, Tsukuba, Japan. The most prominent RNAi phenotypes observed are disruptions of cell cycle progression in germline mitosis/meiosis and in early embryonic cell mitosis. Along with the previously reported roles of chondroitin proteoglycans, glycosphingolipids and GPI-anchored proteins in cell cycle progression, we show for the first time that the inhibition of the functions of N-glycan synthesis genes (cytoplasmic alg genes) resulted in abnormal germline formation, ER stress and small body size phenotypes. The results provide additional information on the roles of glycoconjugates in the cell cycle progression mechanisms of germline and embryonic cells. PMID:25091817

Akiyoshi, Sayaka; Nomura, Kazuko H; Dejima, Katsufumi; Murata, Daisuke; Matsuda, Ayako; Kanaki, Nanako; Takaki, Tetsuro; Mihara, Hiroyuki; Nagaishi, Takayuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Ando, Keiko-Gengyo; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Togayachi, Akira; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Shikanai, Toshihide; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Nomura, Kazuya

2015-01-01

381

Impairment of Drosophila orthologs of the human orphan protein C19orf12 induces bang sensitivity and neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Mutations in the orphan gene C19orf12 were identified as a genetic cause in a subgroup of patients with NBIA, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of iron in the basal ganglia. C19orf12 was shown to be localized in mitochondria, however, nothing is known about its activity and no functional link exists to the clinical phenotype of the patients. This situation led us to investigate the effects of C19orf12 down-regulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Two genes are present in D. melanogaster, which are orthologs of C19orf12, CG3740 and CG11671. Here we provide evidence that transgenic flies with impaired C19orf12 homologs reflect the neurodegenerative phenotype and represent a valid tool to further analyze the pathomechanism in C19orf12-associated NBIA. PMID:24586779

Iuso, Arcangela; Sibon, Ody C M; Gorza, Matteo; Heim, Katharina; Organisti, Cristina; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger

2014-01-01

382

NODULE ROOT and COCHLEATA maintain nodule development and are legume orthologs of Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes.  

PubMed

During their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, legume plants develop symbiosis-specific organs on their roots, called nodules, that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of these organs are unknown. Using Medicago truncatula nodule root (noot) mutants and pea (Pisum sativum) cochleata (coch) mutants, which are characterized by the abnormal development of roots from the nodule, we identified the NOOT and COCH genes as being necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis thaliana BLADE-ON-PETIOLE orthologs, and we have shown that their functions in leaf and flower development are conserved in M. truncatula and pea. The identification of these two genes defines a clade in the BTB/POZ-ankyrin domain proteins that shares conserved functions in eudicot organ development and suggests that NOOT and COCH were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. PMID:23136374

Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Zhukov, Vladimir; Mondy, Samuel; Abu el Heba, Ghada; Cosson, Viviane; Ellis, T H Noel; Ambrose, Mike; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Tikhonovich, Igor; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Putterill, Joanna; Hofer, Julie; Borisov, Alexei Y; Ratet, Pascal

2012-11-01

383

Monitoring wolves ( Canis lupus ) by non-invasive genetics and camera trapping: a small-scale pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring populations of elusive large carnivores like wolves (Canis lupus), which are often distributed at low density in widespread forested areas, is difficult or exceedingly expensive. Aiming\\u000a to assess the power of two indirect monitoring methods, non-invasive genetic sampling and camera trapping, we designed a small-scale\\u000a pilot study that was carried out from 2006 to 2008 in and around the

Marco Galaverni; Davide Palumbo; Elena Fabbri; Romolo Caniglia; Claudia Greco; Ettore Randi

384

An Abundantly Expressed Mucin-Like Protein from Toxocara canis Infective Larvae: The Precursor of the Larval Surface Coat Glycoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evasion of host immunity by Toxocara canis infective larvae is mediated by the nematode surface coat, which is shed in response to binding by host antibody molecules or effector cells. The major constituent of the coat is the TES-120 glycoprotein series. We have isolated a 730-bp cDNA from the gene encoding the apoprotein precursor of TES-120. The mRNA is absent

David Gems; Rick M. Maizels

1996-01-01

385

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew Valley, Utah, 1977-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey abundances with prey consumption rates. Previous studies reported a cyclic trend in black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus Gray, 1837) density with a period of 10 years and >150-fold amplitude, as well as short-term fluctuations among some rodent species that exceeded an 8-fold

Rebecca A. Bartel; Frederick F. Knowlton

2005-01-01

386

Effects of canine heartworm ( Dirofilaria immitis ) on body condition and activity of free-ranging coyotes ( Canis latrans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used radiotelemetry to study relationships among canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection, body condition, and activity of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans). Average body mass at death was lower for 17 coyotes in a high-intensity infected group (x = 33.6 heartworms) than for 18 coyotes in a control group (x = 3.6 heartworms; p < 0.01). Coyotes in the infected group

Benjamin N. Sacks; Karen M. Blejwas

2000-01-01

387

Winter–spring food habits of an island population of Coyote Canis Latrans in Baja California, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of the coyote (Canis latrans) on San Luis Gonzaga Island of Baja California, Mexico were investigated. We collected 239 scat samples for analysis on 14 May 1997. Samples ranged from fresh to approximately 2 months old. Frequency of diet components was 48.9% birds, 21.9% fish, 14.8% plants, 3.6% mammals, 4.0% insects, 0.7% reptiles, 0.5% arachnids, and 5% crustaceans.

S. T. Álvarez-Castañeda; P. González-Quintero

2005-01-01

388

Efficacy of Emodepside plus Toltrazuril (Procox ® Oral Suspension for Dogs) against Toxocara canis , Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma caninum in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Pro-and between 4 and 655 worms for hookworms. The cox® oral suspension for dogs) against different studies demonstrated 100 % efficacy of emodepside\\/ species of gastrointestinal\\u000a nematodes (Toxocara toltrazuril suspension against mature adult, ?94.7% canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria steno-efficacy against immature adult and 99.3 % efficacy cephala) was evaluated in nine randomised, against the

Annette Schimmel; Iris Schroeder; Gertraut Altreuther; Terry Settje; Samuel Charles; Sonja Wolken; Dawid J. Kok; Jennifer Ketzis; David Young; Douglas Hutchens; Klemens J. Krieger

2011-01-01

389

Dirofilaria immitis in the dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) in a tropical region of the Northern Territory, Australia.  

PubMed

The heart and lungs from 32 adult dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) were examined for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection. Eighteen of 32 (56%) samples were infected, with intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 31 worms per animal. Seven of 18 (39%) infections were single sex infections. Large numbers of circulating microfilariae were present in blood from all dingoes infected with both sexes of worms. PMID:3352087

Starr, T W; Mulley, R C

1988-01-01

390

Interleukin5 Transgenic Mice Show Enhanced Resistance to Primary Infections with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis but Not Primary Infections with Toxocara canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, interleukin-5 (IL-5) transgenic mice with lifelong eosinophilia were assessed for resistance to primary infections with two tissue-invading nematodes, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Toxocara canis. Relative to nontransgenic littermates, three lines of IL-5 transgenic mice with varying degrees of eosinophilia all dis- played enhanced resistance to N. brasiliensis. Although the timing of final worm expulsion was similar in trans-

LINDSAY A. DENT; CHRISTINE M. DALY; GRAHAM MAYRHOFER; TRUDY ZIMMERMAN; ANN HALLETT; LEON P. BIGNOLD; JENETTE CREANEY; JIM C. PARSONS

1999-01-01

391

Selection of rendezvous sites and reuse of pup raising areas among wolves Canis lupus of north-eastern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coarse scale analysis was carried out of factors affecting rendezvous site selection and fidelity to pup raising areas in\\u000a wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 packs inhabiting the north eastern Apennines, Italy. From 1993 to 2004, 44 rendezvous sites were identified,\\u000a and compared with random sites for variables related to topography, habitat, and human presence. Rendezvous sites were significantly\\u000a more frequent

Claudia Capitani; Luca Mattioli; Elisa Avanzinelli; Andrea Gazzola; Paolo Lamberti; Lorenza Mauri; Massimo Scandura; Alessia Viviani; Marco Apollonio

2006-01-01

392

The Caenorhabditis elegans HEN1 Ortholog, HENN-1, Methylates and Stabilizes Select Subclasses of Germline Small RNAs  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs regulate diverse biological processes by directing effector proteins called Argonautes to silence complementary mRNAs. Maturation of some classes of small RNAs involves terminal 2?-O-methylation to prevent degradation. This modification is catalyzed by members of the conserved HEN1 RNA methyltransferase family. In animals, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and some endogenous and exogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are methylated, whereas microRNAs are not. However, the mechanisms that determine animal HEN1 substrate specificity have yet to be fully resolved. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a HEN1 ortholog has not been studied, but there is evidence for methylation of piRNAs and some endogenous siRNAs. Here, we report that the worm HEN1 ortholog, HENN-1 (HEN of Nematode), is required for methylation of C. elegans small RNAs. Our results indicate that piRNAs are universally methylated by HENN-1. In contrast, 26G RNAs, a class of primary endogenous siRNAs, are methylated in female germline and embryo, but not in male germline. Intriguingly, the methylation pattern of 26G RNAs correlates with the expression of distinct male and female germline Argonautes. Moreover, loss of the female germline Argonaute results in loss of 26G RNA methylation altogether. These findings support a model wherein methylation status of a metazoan small RNA is dictated by the Argonaute to which it binds. Loss of henn-1 results in phenotypes that reflect destabilization of substrate small RNAs: dysregulation of target mRNAs, impaired fertility, and enhanced somatic RNAi. Additionally, the henn-1 mutant shows a weakened response to RNAi knockdown of germline genes, suggesting that HENN-1 may also function in canonical RNAi. Together, our results indicate a broad role for HENN-1 in both endogenous and exogenous gene silencing pathways and provide further insight into the mechanisms of HEN1 substrate discrimination and the diversity within the Argonaute family. PMID:22548001

Billi, Allison C.; Alessi, Amelia F.; Khivansara, Vishal; Han, Ting; Freeberg, Mallory; Mitani, Shohei; Kim, John K.

2012-01-01

393

Characterization of paralogous and orthologous members of the superoxide dismutase gene family from genera of the halophilic archaebacteria.  

PubMed Central

Four species representing three genera of halophilic archaebacteria were examined for the presence of genomic sequences that encode proteins of the superoxide dismutase family. Three species, Halobacterium cutirubrum, Halobacterium sp. strain GRB, and Haloferax volcanii, contain duplicated (paralogous) genes of the sod family; a fourth species, Haloarcula marismortui, contains only a single gene. These seven genes were cloned and sequenced, and their transcripts were characterized by Northern (RNA) hybridization, S1 nuclease protection, and primer extension. The expression of one of the two genes in H. cutirubrum, Halobacterium sp. strain GRB, and Haloferax volcanii was shown to be elevated in the presence of paraquat, a generator of superoxide radicals. The other genes, including the single gene from Haloarcula marismortui, exhibited no elevated expression in the presence of paraquat. The 5' and 3' flanking regions of all the genes contain recognizable promoter and terminator elements that are appropriately positioned relative to the 5' and 3' transcript end sites. Between genera, the orthologous paraquat-responsive genes exhibit no sequence similarity in either their 5' or 3' flanking regions, whereas the orthologous nonresponsive genes exhibit limited sequence similarity but only in the 5' flanking region. Within the coding region, the two paralogous genes of Haloferax volcanii are virtually identical (99.5%) despite the absence of similarity in the flanking regions. In contrast, the paralogous genes of H. cutirubrum and Halobacterium sp. strain GRB are only about 87% identical. In the alignment of all seven sequences, there are nine codon positions where both the TCN and AGY serine codons are utilized; some or all of these may well be examples of convergent evolution. Images PMID:8449865

Joshi, P; Dennis, P P

1993-01-01

394

Dynamics of the evolution of orthologous and paralogous portions of a complex locus region in two genomes of allopolyploid wheat.  

PubMed

Two overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the B genome of the tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum were identified, each of which contains one of the two high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes, comprising the complex Glu-B1 locus. The complete sequence (285 506 bp of DNA) of this chromosomal region was determined. The two paralogous x-type ( Glu-1-1 ) and y-type ( Glu-1-2 ) HMW-glutenin genes of the complex Glu-B1 locus were found to be separated by ca. 168 000 bp instead of the 51 000 bp separation previously reported for the orthologous Glu-D1 locus of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat. This difference in intergene spacing is due almost entirely to be the insertion of clusters of nested retrotransposons. Otherwise, the orientation and order of the HMW glutenins and adjacent genes were identical in the two genomes. A comparison of these orthologous regions indicates modes and patterns of sequence divergence, with implications for the overall Triticeae genome structure and evolution. A duplicate globulin gene, found 5' of each HMW-glutenin gene, assists to tentatively define the original duplication event leading to the paralogous x- and y-type HMW-glutenin genes. The intergenic regions of the two loci are composed of different patterns and classes of retrotransposons, indicating that insertion times of these retroelements were after the divergence of the two wheat genomes. In addition, a putative receptor kinase gene near the y-type HMW-glutenin gene at the Glu-B1 locus is likely active as it matches recently reported ESTs from germinating barley endosperm. The presence of four genes represented only in the Triticeae endosperm ESTs suggests an endosperm-specific chromosome domain. PMID:15159634

Kong, Xiu-Ying; Gu, Yong Qiang; You, Frank M; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Anderson, Olin D

2004-01-01

395

Host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, Ehrlichia canis  

PubMed Central

The ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. Ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Historically, advances in tick-borne disease control strategies have typically followed explication of tick-pathogen-vertebrate interactions, thus it is reasonable to expect novel, more sustainable approaches to control of these diseases as the transmission of their associated infections are investigated at the molecular through ecological levels. Better understanding of the interactions between E. canis and its canine and tick hosts would also elucidate similar interactions for other Ehrlichia species as well as the potential roles of canine sentinels, reservoirs and models of tick-borne zoonoses. This article summarizes natural exposure studies and experimental investigations of E. canis in the context of what is understood about biological vectors of tick-borne Anaplasmataceae. PMID:18963493

Stich, R. W.; Schaefer, John J.; Bremer, William G.; Needham, Glen R.; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2008-01-01

396

Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis.  

PubMed

Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia. PMID:25517530

Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Santos, Luciana Ladislau Dos; Ribeiro, Laura Raquel Rios; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho de; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

2014-12-01

397

Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland.  

PubMed

The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in W??e 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from W??e 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in W??e 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals. PMID:24969730

Ivanoff, Dmitry V; Wolsan, Mieczys?aw; Marciszak, Adrian

2014-08-01

398

Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in W??e 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from W??e 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in W??e 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals.

Ivanoff, Dmitry V.; Wolsan, Mieczys?aw; Marciszak, Adrian

2014-08-01

399

Deletion of smn-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the spinal muscular atrophy gene, results in locomotor dysfunction and reduced lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal muscular atrophy is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality and is characterized by degener- ation of lower motor neurons leading to muscle wasting. The causative gene has been identified as survival motor neuron (SMN). The invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains smn-1, the ortholog of human SMN. Caenorhabditis elegans smn-1 is expressed in various tissues including the

Michael Briese; Behrooz Esmaeili; Sandrine Fraboulet; Emma C. Burt; Stefanos Christodoulou; Paula R. Towers; Kay E. Davies; David B. Sattelle

2008-01-01

400

The Murine Ortholog of Notchless, a Direct Regulator of the Notch Pathway in Drosophila melanogaster, Is Essential for Survival of Inner Cell Mass Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in intercellular communication and is essential for proper cell fate choices. Numerous genes participate in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway activity. Among them, Notchless (Nle) is a direct regulator of the Notch activity identified in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we characterized the murine ortholog of Nle and demonstrated that it has

Sarah Cormier; Stephanie Le Bras; Celine Souilhol; Sandrine Vandormael-Pournin; Beatrice Durand; Charles Babinet; Patricia Baldacci; Michel Cohen-Tannoudji

2006-01-01

401

Using OrthoMCL to assign proteins to OrthoMCL-DB groups or to cluster proteomes into new ortholog groups  

PubMed Central

OrthoMCL is an algorithm for grouping proteins into ortholog groups based on their sequence similarity. OrthoMCL-DB is a public database that allows users to browse and view ortholog groups that were pre-computed using the OrthoMCL algorithm. Version 4 of this database contained 116,536 ortholog groups clustered from 1,270,853 proteins obtained from 88 eukaryotic genomes, 16 archaeal genomes and 34 bacterial genomes. Future versions of OrthoMCL-DB will include more proteomes as more genomes are sequenced. Here, we describe how you can group your proteins of interest into ortholog clusters using two different means provided by the OrthoMCL system. The OrthoMCL-DB website has a tool for uploading and grouping a set of protein sequences, typically representing a proteome. This method maps the uploaded proteins to existing groups in OrthoMCL-DB. Alternatively, if you have proteins from a set of genomes that need to be grouped, you can download, install and run the standalone OrthoMCL software. PMID:21901743

Fischer, Steve; Brunk, Brian P.; Chen, Feng; Gao, Xin; Harb, Omar S.; Iodice, John B.; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Roos, David S.; Stoeckert, Christian J.

2011-01-01

402

Prevention of transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs treated with a combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT®).  

PubMed

The ability of CERTIFECT(®) (a combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of eight dogs. One group was treated with CERTIFECT while the other group remained untreated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and again on day 28 post-treatment by releasing ticks into the kennels of the dogs to simulate the natural way of infestation. Animals were examined in situ for ticks on Days 9, 16 and 23 and any ticks present were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of CERTIFECT against R. sanguineus was 100%, since no ticks were found on the treated dogs at any time. Clinical examinations (including monitoring body temperature and blood collections for PCR analysis and serology) were performed at intervals throughout the study until Day 56. Five out of 8 untreated control dogs (62.5%) became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by detection of specific E. canis antibodies and the presence of E. canis DNA in blood samples by PCR. These dogs displayed fever and thrombocytopenia and were rescue-treated with doxycline. None of the 8 dogs treated with CERTIFECT became infected with E. canis, in comparison to the 5/8 control dogs, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of any ehrlichial DNA in blood samples by PCR. CERTIFECT prevented transmission of E. canis and effectively provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiose for at least 4 weeks post treatment. PMID:23298566

Fourie, Josephus J; Ollagnier, Catherine; Beugnet, Frederic; Luus, Herman G; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-31

403

Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

2013-01-01

404

Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia canis) in dogs from Romania.  

PubMed

Tick-borne diseases are of great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania there is only limited information regarding the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs. In all, 1146 serum samples were tested by SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen. The correlation between positive cases and their geographic distribution, as well as potential risk factors (age, sex, breed, type of dog, habitat, and prophylactic treatments) were evaluated. Overall, 129 dogs (11.3%) were serologically-positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. The seroprevalence for the four infectious agents were: A. phagocytophilum 5.5% (63/1146), D. immitis 3.3% (38/1146), E. canis 2.1% (24/1146), and B. burgdorferi 0.5% (6/1146). Co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was registered in 2 dogs (0.2%). The geographical distribution of the seropositive cases suggests clustered foci in southern regions and in the western part of the country for D. immitis, and in the southeastern region (Constan?a County) for E. canis. A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi showed a homogenous distribution, with a tendency for Lyme-positive samples to concentrate in central Romania. For D. immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and E. canis, administering prophylactic treatments was a risk factor associated with infection. Another associated risk factor was the type of dog (stray dogs were at risk being positive for D. immitis, shelter dogs for E. canis, and hunting dogs for B. burgdorferi). The prevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher in males and in dogs older than 2 years. This survey represents the first data detailing A. phagocytophilum and E. canis seroprevalence in Romanian dogs, and the most comprehensive epidemiological study on vector-borne infections in dogs from this country. PMID:22607068

Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Györke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Jodies, Robert; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Cozma, Vasile

2012-07-01

405

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

2003-01-01

406

Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  

PubMed

From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against CPV. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was associated with the age of the coyote, with 88%, 54%, 23%, and 0% prevalence among adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Prevalence of CDV antibodies declined over time from 100% in 1989 to 33% in 1992. The prevalence of canine infectious hepatitis (ICH) virus antibodies was 97%, 82%, 54%, and 33%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. The percentage of coyotes with ICH virus antibodies also declined over time from a high of 100% in 1989 to 31% in 1992, and 42% in 1993. Prevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 86%, 33%, 80%, and 7%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively, and changed over time from 57% in 1991 to 0% in 1993. The prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis was 21%, 17%, 10%, and 20%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. No coyotes had serologic evidence of exposure to brucellosis, either Brucella abortus or Brucella canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months of life; eight of 21 transmitted pups died of CPV infection in 1992. The potential impact of these canine pathogens on wolves (C. lupus) reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park remains to be documented. PMID:9027690

Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

1997-01-01

407

Helper effects on pup lifetime fitness in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus)  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary maintenance of cooperative breeding systems is thought to be a function of relative costs and benefits to breeders, helpers and juveniles. Beneficial effects of helpers on early-life survivorship and performance have been established in several species, but lifetime fitness benefits and/or costs of being helped remain unclear, particularly for long-lived species. We tested for effects of helpers on early- and late-life traits in a population of reintroduced red wolves (Canis rufus), while controlling for ecological variables such as home-range size and population density. We found that the presence of helpers in family groups was positively correlated with pup mass and survival at low population density, but negatively correlated with mass/size at high density, with no relation to survival. Interestingly, mass/size differences persisted into adulthood for both sexes. While the presence of helpers did not advance age at first reproduction for pups of either sex, females appeared to garner long-term fitness benefits from helpers through later age at last reproduction, longer reproductive lifespan and a greater number of lifetime reproductive events, which translated to higher lifetime reproductive success. In contrast, males with helpers exhibited diminished lifetime reproductive performance. Our findings suggest that while helper presence may have beneficial short-term effects in some ecological contexts, it may also incur long-term sex-dependent costs with critical ramifications for lifetime fitness. PMID:20961897

Sparkman, Amanda M.; Adams, Jennifer; Beyer, Arthur; Steury, Todd D.; Waits, Lisette; Murray, Dennis L.

2011-01-01

408

Cranial and dental abnormalities of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three skulls of captive-raised female endangered red wolves (Canis rufus) exhibited severe malocclusion of the jaws. Cranial and dental abnormalities (including crowding of upper toothrows, and an extra tooth behind the lower left M3 in one of the three mandibles) were also evident. Ratios of alveolar length of maxillary toothrow to maximum width across the outer sides of crowns of P4 were significantly different (p=0.008) compared to unaffected skulls. Significant differences were also evident when ratios of maximum width across inner edges of alveoli of P1 to alveolar length of maxillary toothrow and maximum width across outer sides of crowns of P4 were compared between the two groups. Although the three skulls all exhibited malocclusion, the abnormality expressed itself differently in relation to the effects to each skull. Captive inbreeding may increase the probability and frequency of expressing these anomalies, although inbreeding coefficients calculated for the wolves expressing malocclusion were not considered high (0.0313-0.0508). A wild female red wolf specimen captured in 1921 in Arkansas also exhibited the malocclusion, although not as severely as in the captive females. This demonstrates that this trait was present in wild populations prior to, and not a result of, the captive breeding program.

Federoff, N.E.

1998-01-01

409

Tonal vocalizations in the red wolf (Canis rufus): potential functions of nonlinear sound production.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to further understanding of the function of nonlinear vocalizations in red wolves (Canis rufus) by examining the acoustic, structural, and contextual characteristics of nonlinear sounds as compared to linear sounds. Video recordings of captive wolves from a breeding facility were analyzed. The acoustic nature of sound units was consistent with that of other social canids. The sound units included high-frequency squeaks (2600-9500 Hz) and low-frequency wuhs (160-1600 Hz) occurring either as separate units or in combination as nonlinear units (squeak-wuh frequency jumps, biphonations, squeaks with sidebands) and frequency jumps within squeaks. These low-amplitude sounds occurred in trains of 1-30 units that were classified as squeak vocalizations (49%), wuh vocalizations (19%), and nonlinear vocalizations (any combination including one or more nonlinear units, 32%). Nonlinear vocalizations transitioned directionally from high-frequency units to mixed-frequency units which has implications for the study of sound production and function. Wolves squeaked most often when oriented toward others, implying a solicitation function, while wuh vocalizations were more common during social interactions. Nonlinear vocalizations occurred most often during penmate-play or when oriented toward neighbors, indicating that nonlinear sound production may signal an increase in arousal. PMID:21973383

Schneider, Jennifer N; Anderson, Rita E

2011-10-01

410

Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.  

PubMed

To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23439290

Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-01

411

Survival of adults and development stages of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis when off the host.  

PubMed

All life-stages of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis survive in the hosts' environment for several days to several weeks depending on r.h. and temperature. Survival of larvae was comparable to males; survival of nymphs was comparable to females. Females and nymphs generally survived longer than larvae and males. Low temperature (10-15 degrees) and high r.h. prolonged survival of all life stages. At 10-15 degrees C, females and nymphs survived 1-3 weeks at 97% r.h., 1-2 weeks at 75% r.h. and 5-8 days at 45% r.h. At 20-25 degrees C, survival was significantly reduced but all life-stages survived at least 2 days at 25% r.h. and 5-6 days at 75-100% r.h. Long survival off the host coupled with host-seeking behavior of these mites make it likely that environmental contamination is a source of scabies in domestic and wild mammals, and in humans. PMID:2496958

Arlian, L G; Vyszenski-Moher, D L; Pole, M J

1989-04-01

412

[Clinical effects of ivermectin in the treatment of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis in farm foxes].  

PubMed

The efficacy of ivermectin against natural infection of the mange mite Sarcoptes scabiei var canis in foxes was evaluated. The investigations consisted of two field studies and one controlled study. In experiment 1, ivermectin was given as a single subcutaneous dose at 200 micrograms/kg in six foxes. In experiment 2, was one group, consisting of five animals, administered 200 micrograms ivermectin/kg s.c. twice with an interval of 35 days. Group two, consisting of four animals, was given one subcutaneous injection of 400 micrograms ivermectin/kg. In experiment 3, ten foxes were given 1 ml 0.2% Eqvalen s.c. (i.e. 340-440 micrograms ivermectin/kg). A control group of ten animals was not medicated. Before and after treatment a clinical evaluation and skin scraping for microscopic examination was carried out in all three experiments. The results indicated that ivermectin was a good alternative in the therapy of the Sarcoptes mange in foxes by moderate mite infection. A progressive clinical improvement of the mange lesions was evident in the treated foxes. Mites were not detected in skinscraping, except in one animal in experiment 3. It was concluded that ivermectin should be administered, in an initial dose of 400 micrograms/kg and a repeated dose of 200 micrograms/kg 2-3 weeks after the first treatment. PMID:6431396

Berge, G N; Smeds, E

1984-01-01

413

NO EXCESS OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE CANIS MAJOR OVERDENSITY  

SciTech Connect

Our multi-epoch survey of {approx}20 deg{sup 2} of the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity has detected only 10 RR Lyrae stars (RRLS). We show that this number is consistent with the number expected from the Galactic halo and thick disk populations alone, leaving no excess that can be attributed to the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy that some authors have proposed as the origin of the CMa overdensity. If this galaxy resembles the dSph satellites of the Milky Way (MW) and of M31 and has the putative M{sub V} {approx} -14.5, our survey should have detected several tens of RRLS. Even if M{sub V} {approx}< -12, the expected excess is {approx}>10, which is not observed. Either the old stellar population of this galaxy has unique properties or, as others have argued before, the CMa overdensity is produced by the thin and thick disk and spiral arm populations of the MW and not by a collision with a dSph satellite galaxy.

Mateu, Cecilia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Abad, Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones de AstronomIa (CIDA), Apartado Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)], E-mail: cmateu@cida.ve, E-mail: vivas@cida.ve, E-mail: abad@cida.ve, E-mail: robert.zinn@yale.edu, E-mail: miller@astro.yale.edu

2009-05-15

414

Adaptive Optics Imaging of VY Canis Majoris at 2-5 ?m with LBT/LMIRCam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the Ks , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 ?m) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar "Southwest Clump" previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 ?m appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10-3 M ? to 2.5 × 10-2 M ? depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

2013-10-01

415

A Hepatozoon species genetically distinct from H. canis infecting spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Health monitoring of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, revealed Hepatozoon infection in all of 11 immature individuals examined following death from natural causes. Hepatozoon infection was probably an important factor contributing to mortality in two cases that exhibited clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy, ocular discharge, retching, and labored breathing before death. Whether Hepatozoon infection contributed to six deaths from fire, probable lion predation and unknown causes could not be determined. Four deaths from infanticide and starvation were unlikely to be associated with Hepatozoon infection. Histologic examination revealed lung tissue infected with cyst-like structures containing protozoan stages in all eight cases examined and interstitial pneumonia in most cases. Systemic spread of infection to several organs was found in three cases. Alignment of a 426 bp sequence from the parasite's 18s rRNA gene revealed a Hepatozoon species identical to that recently described from two domestic cats in Spain and only 7 bp substitutions when a 853 bp sequence was aligned to this cat Hepatozoon species. Previous reports of infection of wild carnivores in eastern and southern Africa with an unspecified Hepatozoon species similar in appearance to H. canis may have involved the species described in this study. PMID:18263820

East, Marion L; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Goller, Katja; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Schares, Gereon; Thierer, Dagmar; Hofer, Heribert

2008-01-01

416

Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1969-1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the dispersal patterns of radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) from 21 packs in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1969 to 1989. A total of 316 wolves (542 wolf-years) were captured, radio-collared, and followed during 21 years of radio-tracking; 75 were identified as dispersers. Both sexes dispersed equally. Of the adults, yearlings, and pups, 8, 75, and 16%, respectively, dispersed. Most dispersers left when they were 11-12 months old, only a few wolves dispersing as adults. Dispersal occurred mainly in February-April and October-November. Adults dispersed short distances into nearby territories, but yearlings and pups dispersed both short and long distances. Yearling and pup dispersal rates were highest when the wolf population was increasing or decreasing and low when the population was stable. Adults had the highest pairing and denning success, yearlings had moderate pairing and low denning success, and pups had low pairing and denning success. Yearlings and pups that dispersed a short distance had a higher success of settling in a new territory, likely reflecting available vacancies in nearby territories. Thirty-five percent of the known-age wolves remained in their natal territory for >2 years; two wolves were known to have remained for >7 years. The relative weight of pups at capture apparently did not affect their age or success of dispersal or the tendency to disperse.

Gese, E.M.; Mech, L.D.

1991-01-01

417

Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

2002-01-01

418

Effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition in 9 captive adult gray wolves, Canis lupus (6 males, 3 females), during May-June 1995. Body composition was estimated by the technique of tritiated water dilution. Wolves were immobilized and weighed, baseline blood samples were taken, tritiated water was injected, and additional blood samples were taken before fasting, after 10 d of fasting, and again after 2 d of refeeding. Male wolves lost 8% (P = 0.0001) and females lost 7% body mass (P = 0.01) during the 10 d. Males lost 54% of this mass in water, 28% in fat, and 18% in protein/ash; females lost 58% in water, 20% in fat, and 22% in protein/ash. Upon refeeding, male wolves consumed an average of 6.8 kg (15.3% body mass) of deer meat per day and females consumed 6.4 kg (18.7% body mass). All wolves regained their initial mass. Males regained 24% of this mass in water, 70% in fat, and 6% in protein/ash; females regained 35% in water, 51% in fat, and 14% in protein/ash. This study provided evidence that after prolonged fasting, captive wolves could quickly and efficiently regain lost body mass after refeeding.

Kreeger, T.J.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.

1997-01-01

419

Coyote (Canis latrans) mammalian prey diet shifts in response to seasonal vegetation change.  

PubMed

Drylands typically have strong seasonal variation in rainfall and primary productivity. This study examines the effects of seasonal change in grass-derived resource availability on the base of the food chain of a mammalian predator. Seasonal changes in live grass cover were measured in two vegetation types at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, USA. Non-invasive genetic sampling of scat was used to identify individuals in the local coyote (Canis latrans) population. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of hair removed from scats of 45 different coyotes was used to assess seasonal variation in the diet of mammalian coyote prey that came from C4 grasses. Live grass cover increased from the spring to the summer and fall; contribution of C4 grasses to the diet of mammalian coyote prey increased from the summer to the fall and was higher in grassland areas. There were significant differences in the seasonal patterns in the prey diet between grassland and shrubland areas. PMID:24999056

Seamster, Virginia A; Waits, Lisette P; Macko, Stephen A; Shugart, Herman H

2014-01-01

420

The spectroscopic orbit of the K-giant binary ? Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined an improved orbit for the bright, evolved, double lined binary ? Canis Minoris. The system has an orbital period of 389.31 days and an eccentricity of 0.2586. We have revised the secondary to primary mass ratio to 0.987. The spectral types of the primary and secondary are K4 III and K1: III, respectively, and the components have a V magnitude difference of 2.2. Orbital fits to the Hipparcos astrometry are not definitive, but they suggest an orbital inclination of ˜ 66o, which produces masses of 1.88 and 1.85 M? for the components. A comparison with evolutionary tracks results in an age of 1.3 Gyr. STELLA very low amplitude radial velocity residuals of the secondary indicate a period of 278 days. We interpret this as the rotation period of the secondary, detectable because of star spots rotating in and out of view. This period is nearly identical to the pseudosynchronous rotation period of the star. The primary is rotating more slowly than its pseudosynchronous rate. Based partly on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated with IAC.

Fekel, F. C.; Williamson, M. H.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Pourbaix, D.

2013-03-01

421

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are similar. However, research has demonstrated that the hormone relaxin can be detected in maternal blood after embryonic implantation, but remains negligible in non-pregnant females. We investigated the use of relaxin as a diagnostic marker of pregnancy in the coyote (C. latrans). A commercially available canine relaxin enzyme immunoassay (ReproCHEK) was used to test plasma collected from 124 female coyotes over four consecutive breeding seasons. Mating activities of the captive females were observed; then peripheral blood samples were collected at intervals throughout pregnancy, as well as after parturition. Results demonstrated that relaxin could be detected in the plasma of pregnant coyotes after 28 days of gestation, and in some cases as early as 23 days, while non-pregnant females and male coyotes consistently tested negative. Relaxin also remained detectable in the plasma of the majority of females tested 10-12 weeks after parturition. This qualitative assay for relaxin proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote. In addition, blood sampling was relatively easy, could be accomplished with minimal handling, and did not require sedation or anesthesia. PMID:17069998

Carlson, Debra A; Gese, Eric M

2007-10-01

422

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

423

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

2009-07-01

424

Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology. PMID:19617502

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-07-01

425

Arcsecond Resolution Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Emission in the Circumstellar Envelope of VY Canis Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO2 emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ?1''. SO2 emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO2 is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO2 column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO2 are found to be ~1016 cm-2 in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO2 distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO} is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 × 1016 cm. SO2 is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO}>1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO2 in the CSE.

Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.

2012-02-01

426

Evolution in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the megafaunal extinctions.  

PubMed

Living coyotes modify their behavior in the presence of larger carnivores, such as wolves. However, little is known about the effects of competitor presence or absence on morphological change in coyotes or wolves over long periods of time. We examined the evolution of coyotes and wolves through time from the late Pleistocene, during which many large carnivorous species coexisted as predators and competitors, to the Recent; this allowed us to investigate evolutionary changes in these species in response to climate change and megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. We measured postcranial skeletal morphologies of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) from Pleistocene-aged tar deposits, as well as early, mid, and recent Holocene populations of both. We found few morphological differences between Pleistocene and Holocene wolf populations. Conversely, we found many differences in coyotes: Pleistocene coyotes were larger and more robust than Holocene populations. However, within 1,000 y of the megafaunal extinctions, coyotes are morphologically indistinguishable from modern populations. We cannot attribute these differences directly to climate change because modern coyotes do not follow Bergmann's rule, which states body size increases with decreasing temperature. Instead, we suggest that Pleistocene coyotes may have been larger and more robust in response to larger competitors and a larger-bodied prey base. Although we cannot separate competition from predator-prey interactions, this study indicates that the effects of biotic interactions can be detected in the fossil record. PMID:22371581

Meachen, Julie A; Samuels, Joshua X

2012-03-13

427

First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes ( Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species. PMID:25075291

Monzón, Javier

2014-01-01

428

Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf canis lupus  

PubMed

The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data fro