Sample records for canis p140 orthologs

  1. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ) when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV), with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts. PMID:23231731

  2. Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis Infection with Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jere W.; Corstvet, Richard E.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Walker, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis causes a potentially fatal rickettsial disease of dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. We recently reported the cloning of two immunoreactive E. canis proteins, P28 and P140, that were applicable for serodiagnosis of the disease. In the present study we cloned a new immunoreactive E. canis surface protein gene of 1,170 bp, which encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 42.6 kDa (P43). The P43 gene was not detected in E. chaffeensis DNA by Southern blot, and antisera against recombinant P43 (rP43) did not react with E. chaffeensis as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Forty-two dogs exhibiting signs and/or hematologic abnormalities associated with canine ehrlichiosis were tested by IFA assay and by recombinant Western immunoblot. Among the 22 samples that were IFA positive for E. canis, 100% reacted with rP43, 96% reacted with rP28, and 96% reacted with rP140. The specificity of the recombinant proteins compared to the IFAs was 96% for rP28, 88% for P43 and 63% for P140. The results of this study demonstrate that the rP43 and rP28 are sensitive and reliable serodiagnostic antigens for E. canis infections. PMID:11136790

  3. Canis Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Dog; abbrev. CMi, gen. Canis Minoris; area 183 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Gemini and Monoceros, and culminates at midnight in mid-January. It represents one of the two dogs of Orion (the Hunter), which dominates the sky to the west (the other dog being represented by Canis Major). Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  4. B S P Course Course Name Cross Listed P 140 Energy and Environment (F, 4 units)

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    B S P Course Course Name Cross Listed P 140 Energy and Environment (F, 4 units) P 149 Special Topics in Energy and Environment (F/SP, 1-4 units) B S P Course Course Name Cross Listed P 140 Intro. to Chemical Process Analysis (F, 4 units) P 141 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics (SP, 3 units) P 142

  5. 2013, 2013, XXVI, 366 p. 140 illus., 135 in Printed book

    E-print Network

    Ličge, Université de

    , automatic parsing of medical 3D scans, and detection of tumors. The book concludes with a detailed2013, 2013, XXVI, 366 p. 140 illus., 135 in color. Printed book Hardcover 94,95 | Ł79.95 | $129 of decision forests, organizing the vast existing literature on the field within a new, general-purpose forest

  6. Orthology confers intron position conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the wealth of genomic data available it has become increasingly important to assign putative protein function through functional transfer between orthologs. Therefore, correct elucidation of the evolutionary relationships among genes is a critical task, and attempts should be made to further improve the phylogenetic inference by adding relevant discriminating features. It has been shown that introns can maintain their position over long evolutionary timescales. For this reason, it could be possible to use conservation of intron positions as a discriminating factor when assigning orthology. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether orthologs have a higher degree of intron position conservation (IPC) compared to non-orthologous sequences that are equally similar in sequence. Results To this end, we developed a new score for IPC and applied it to ortholog groups between human and six other species. For comparison, we also gathered the closest non-orthologs, meaning sequences close in sequence space, yet falling just outside the ortholog cluster. We found that ortholog-ortholog gene pairs on average have a significantly higher degree of IPC compared to ortholog-closest non-ortholog pairs. Also pairs of inparalogs were found to have a higher IPC score than inparalog-closest non-inparalog pairs. We verified that these differences can not simply be attributed to the generally higher sequence identity of the ortholog-ortholog and the inparalog-inparalog pairs. Furthermore, we analyzed the agreement between IPC score and the ortholog score assigned by the InParanoid algorithm, and found that it was consistently high for all species comparisons. In a minority of cases, the IPC and InParanoid score ranked inparalogs differently. These represent cases where sequence and intron position divergence are discordant. We further analyzed the discordant clusters to identify any possible preference for protein functions by looking for enriched GO terms and Pfam protein domains. They were enriched for functions important for multicellularity, which implies a connection between shifts in intronic structure and the origin of multicellularity. Conclusions We conclude that orthologous genes tend to have more conserved intron positions compared to non-orthologous genes. As a consequence, our IPC score is useful as an additional discriminating factor when assigning orthology. PMID:20598118

  7. Inferring hierarchical orthologous groups from orthologous gene pairs.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Gil, Manuel; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical orthologous groups are defined as sets of genes that have descended from a single common ancestor within a taxonomic range of interest. Identifying such groups is useful in a wide range of contexts, including inference of gene function, study of gene evolution dynamics and comparative genomics. Hierarchical orthologous groups can be derived from reconciled gene/species trees but, this being a computationally costly procedure, many phylogenomic databases work on the basis of pairwise gene comparisons instead ("graph-based" approach). To our knowledge, there is only one published algorithm for graph-based hierarchical group inference, but both its theoretical justification and performance in practice are as of yet largely uncharacterised. We establish a formal correspondence between the orthology graph and hierarchical orthologous groups. Based on that, we devise GETHOGs ("Graph-based Efficient Technique for Hierarchical Orthologous Groups"), a novel algorithm to infer hierarchical groups directly from the orthology graph, thus without needing gene tree inference nor gene/species tree reconciliation. GETHOGs is shown to correctly reconstruct hierarchical orthologous groups when applied to perfect input, and several extensions with stringency parameters are provided to deal with imperfect input data. We demonstrate its competitiveness using both simulated and empirical data. GETHOGs is implemented as a part of the freely-available OMA standalone package (http://omabrowser.org/standalone). Furthermore, hierarchical groups inferred by GETHOGs ("OMA HOGs") on >1,000 genomes can be interactively queried via the OMA browser (http://omabrowser.org). PMID:23342000

  8. Orthologic Tetrahedra with Intersecting Edges

    E-print Network

    Schroecker, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two tetrahedra are called orthologic if the lines through vertices of one and perpendicular to corresponding faces of the other are intersecting. This is equivalent to the orthogonality of non-corresponding edges. We prove that the additional assumption of intersecting non-corresponding edges (``orthosecting tetrahedra'') implies that the six intersection points lie on a sphere. To a given tetrahedron there exists generally a one-parametric family of orthosecting tetrahedra. The orthographic projection of the locus of one vertex onto the corresponding face plane of the given tetrahedron is a curve which remains fixed under isogonal conjugation. This allows the construction of pairs of conjugate orthosecting tetrahedra to a given tetrahedron.

  9. p140mDia, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous,is a target protein for Rho small GTPase and is a ligand for profilin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Watanabe; Pascal Madaule; Tim Reid; Toshimasa Ishizaki; Go Watanabe; Akira Kakizuka; Yuji Saito; Kazuwa Nakao; Brigitte M. Jockusch; Shuh Narumiya

    1997-01-01

    Rho small GTPase regulates cell morphology, adhesion and cytokinesis through the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a protein, p140mDia, as a downstream effector of Rho. It is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, a protein required for cytokinesis, and belongs to a family of formin-related proteins containing repetitive polyproline stretches. p140mDia binds selectively to the GTP-bound form of Rho and

  10. The Spliceosomal Phosphopeptide P140 Controls the Lupus Disease by Interacting with the HSC70 Protein and via a Mechanism Mediated by ?? T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4+ T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4?CD8?B220+ T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on ?? T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4+ T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity. PMID:19390596

  11. The Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Michael J. Irwin; Nicolas F. Martin; Michele Bellazzini; Blair Conn

    2004-01-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy represents the only major ongoing accretion event in the Galactic halo, accounting for the majority of stellar debris identified there. This paper summarises the recent discovery of another potential Milky Way accretion event, the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This dwarf satellite galaxy is found to lie just below the Galactic plane

  12. The Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Michael J. Irwin; Nicolas F. Martin; Michele Bellazzini; Blair Conn

    2004-01-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy\\u000arepresents the only major ongoing accretion event in the Galactic halo,\\u000aaccounting for the majority of stellar debris identified there. This paper\\u000asummarizes the recent discovery of another potential Milky Way accretion event,\\u000athe Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This dwarf satellite galaxy is found to lie just\\u000abelow the Galactic plane

  13. Reciprocal Relationship between O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase P140K Expression Level and Chemoprotection of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Milsom, Michael D.; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Harris, Chad E.; Schambach, Axel; Broun, Emily; Bailey, Jeff; Jansen, Michael; Schleimer, David; Nattamai, Kalpana; Wilhelm, Jamie; Watson, Amanda; Geiger, Hartmut; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Moritz, Thomas; Baum, Christopher; Thomale, Jürgen; Williams, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Retroviral-mediated delivery of the P140K mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMTP140K) into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has been proposed as a means to protect against dose-limiting myelosuppressive toxicity ensuing from chemotherapy combining O6-alkylating agents (e.g., temozolomide) with pseudosubstrate inhibitors (such as O6-benzylguanine) of endogenous MGMT. Because detoxification of O6-alkylguanine adducts by MGMT is stoichiometric, it has been suggested that higher levels of MGMT will afford better protection to gene-modified HSC. However, accomplishing this goal would potentially be in conflict with current efforts in the gene therapy field, which aim to incorporate weaker enhancer elements to avoid insertional mutagenesis. Using a panel of self-inactivating gamma-retroviral vectors that express a range of MGMTP140K activity, we show that MGMTP140K expression by weaker cellular promoter/enhancers is sufficient for in vivo protection/selection following treatment with O6-benzylguanine/temozolomide. Conversely, the highest level of MGMTP140K activity did not promote efficient in vivo protection despite mediating detoxification of O6-alkylguanine adducts. Moreover, very high expression of MGMTP140K was associated with a competitive repopulation defect in HSC. Mechanistically, we show a defect in cellular proliferation associated with elevated expression of MGMTP140K, but not wild-type MGMT. This proliferation defect correlated with increased localization of MGMTP140K to the nucleus/chromatin. These data show that very high expression of MGMTP140K has a deleterious effect on cellular proliferation, engraftment, and chemoprotection. These studies have direct translational relevance to ongoing clinical gene therapy studies using MGMTP140K, whereas the novel mechanistic findings are relevant to the basic understanding of DNA repair by MGMT. PMID:18676840

  14. Phylogenetic trees & orthology Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    3/6/2013 1 Phylogenetic trees & orthology #12;Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010 ·Med11 vs kinases: orthology ·Trees are useful beyond that: HGT, timing of duplication, study of all kinds of evolutionary processes #12;Gene Trees, Gene Duplications, and Orthology · How to make trees · Bootstrap · Interpreting

  15. Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis. PMID:16275954

  16. West-to-east differences of Babesia canis canis prevalence in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Kubelová; Emil Tkadlec; Marek Bedná?; Eva Roubalová; Pavel Široký

    2011-01-01

    Babesia canis canis is the most frequent causative agent of canine babesiosis in Central Europe, frequently causing severe disease. Recently, many new endemic foci of this disease have been reported from European countries. Growing incidence of canine babesiosis was recorded also in Slovakia during the last decade, from first cases in eastern Slovakia ten years ago to recent cases all

  17. Horizontal Branch Stars in the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Westfall; R. Wilhelm; W. L. Powell

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the Canis Major Dwarf was discovered and found to be the closest satellite galaxy to our Milky Way. The object of this investigation is to explore the chemical and kinematic properties of the Canis Major Dwarf. To accomplish this we selected a a candidate population of horizontal branch stars in the direction of Canis Major, and analyzed their

  18. West-to-east differences of Babesia canis canis prevalence in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kubelová, Michaela; Tkadlec, Emil; Bedná?, Marek; Roubalová, Eva; Siroký, Pavel

    2011-08-25

    Babesia canis canis is the most frequent causative agent of canine babesiosis in Central Europe, frequently causing severe disease. Recently, many new endemic foci of this disease have been reported from European countries. Growing incidence of canine babesiosis was recorded also in Slovakia during the last decade, from first cases in eastern Slovakia ten years ago to recent cases all over the south of the country. We have used nested PCR-RFLP method to study prevalence of B. c. canis in its natural tick vector Dermacentor reticulatus, collected at three geographically isolated lowland areas of southern Slovakia situated in the southeast, southwest, and west of Slovakia, respectively. The highest prevalence of B. c. canis was observed in D. reticulatus from eastern Slovakia (14.7%; n=327), whereas the prevalence in southwest was significantly lower (2.3%; n=1205). Notably, all 874 D. reticulatus ticks collected at Záhorská nížina lowland (W Slovakia) were B. c. canis-negative. Recorded differences in Babesia prevalence concurs well with the shift in incidence of clinical cases of canine babesiosis as observed by vet practitioners. Presented results revealed that eastern Slovakia represents an area of high risk of B. c. canis infection, whereas western areas of the country still remain Babesia canis-free. PMID:21514057

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of Orthologous Protein Domains Using the HOPS Database

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Christian E.V.; Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most reliable methods for protein function annotation is to transfer experimentally known functions from orthologous proteins in other organisms. Most methods for identifying orthologs operate on a subset of organisms with a completely sequenced genome, and treat proteins as single-domain units. However, it is well known that proteins are often made up of several independent domains, and there is a wealth of protein sequences from genomes that are not completely sequenced. A comprehensive set of protein domain families is found in the Pfam database. We wanted to apply orthology detection to Pfam families, but first some issues needed to be addressed. First, orthology detection becomes impractical and unreliable when too many species are included. Second, shorter domains contain less information. It is therefore important to assess the quality of the orthology assignment and avoid very short domains altogether. We present a database of orthologous protein domains in Pfam called HOPS: Hierarchical grouping of Orthologous and Paralogous Sequences. Orthology is inferred in a hierarchic system of phylogenetic subgroups using ortholog bootstrapping. To avoid the frequent errors stemming from horizontally transferred genes in bacteria, the analysis is presently limited to eukaryotic genes. The results are accessible in the graphical browser NIFAS, a Java tool originally developed for analyzing phylogenetic relations within Pfam families. The method was tested on a set of curated orthologs with experimentally verified function. In comparison to tree reconciliation with a complete species tree, our approach finds significantly more orthologs in the test set. Examples for investigating gene fusions and domain recombination using HOPS are given. PMID:14525933

  20. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  1. Defining orthologs and pangenome size metrics.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Emanuele; Fani, Renato; Fondi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of ultra-massive sequencing techniques, the consequent drop-off in both price and time required made feasible the sequencing of increasingly more genomes from microbes belonging to the same taxonomic unit. Eventually, this led to the concept of pangenome, that is, the entire set of genes present in a group of representatives of the same genus/species, which, in turn, can be divided into core genome, defined as the set of those genes present in all the genomes under study, and a dispensable genome, the set of genes possessed only by one or a subset of organism. When analyzing a pangenome, an interesting point is to measure its size, thus estimating the gene repertoire of a given taxonomic group. This is usually performed counting the novel genes added to the overall pangenome when new genomes are sequenced and annotated. A pangenome can be also classified as open or close: in an open pangenome its size increases indefinitely when adding new genomes; thus sequencing additional strains will likely yield novel genes. Conversely, in a close pangenome, adding new genomes will not lead to the discovery of new coding capabilities. A central point in pangenomics is the definition of homology relationships between genes belonging to different genomes. This may turn into the search of those genes with similar sequences between different organisms (and including both paralogous and orthologous genes). In this chapter, methods for finding groups of orthologs between genomes and for estimating the pangenome size are discussed. Also, working codes to address these tasks are provided. PMID:25343867

  2. Further Evidence for the Canis Major Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Drake

    2004-01-01

    We analyze deep widefield V and R photometry from candidate open clusters in the direction of the recently discovered Monoceros ring and the proposed Canis Major dwarf galaxy remnant. For two fields we find significant evidence for a new stellar population which is not explained by known Galactic components such as the warp, flare and spiral arms. One field exhibits

  3. Clonal inventory screens uncover monoclonality following serial transplantation of MGMT P140K-transduced stem cells and dose-intense chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Frank A; Sorg, Ursula R; Appelt, Jens-Uwe; Lachmann, Nico; Bleier, Stephanie; Roeder, Ingo; Kleff, Veronika; Flasshove, Michael; Zeller, W Jens; Allgayer, Heike; von Kalle, Christof; Fruehauf, Stefan; Moritz, Thomas; Laufs, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Gene transfer of mutant O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K)) into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) protects hematopoiesis from alkylating agents and allows efficient in vivo selection of transduced HSCs. However, insertional mutagenesis, high regenerative stress associated with selection, and the genotoxic potential of alkylating drugs represent considerable risk factors for clinical applications of this approach. Therefore, we investigated the long-term effect of MGMT(P140K) gene transfer followed by repetitive, dose-intensive treatment with alkylating agents in a murine serial bone marrow transplant model and assessed clonality of hematopoiesis up to tertiary recipients. The substantial selection pressure resulted in almost completely transduced hematopoiesis in all cohorts. Ligation-mediated PCR and next-generation sequencing identified several repopulating clones carrying vector insertions in distinct genomic regions that were ? 9 kb of size (common integration sites). Beside polyclonal reconstitution in the majority of the mice, we also detected monoclonal or oligoclonal repopulation patterns with HSC clones showing vector insertions in the Usp10 or Tubb3 gene. Interestingly, neither Usp10, Tubb3, nor any of the genes located in common integration sites have been linked to clonal expansion in previous preclinical or clinical gene therapy trials. However, a considerable number of these genes are involved in DNA damage response and cell fate decision pathways following cytostatic drug application. Thus, in summary, our study advocates ligation-mediated PCR and next generation sequencing as an effective and reliable method to identify gene products associated with clonal survival in specific experimental settings such as chemoselection using alkylating agents. PMID:21319998

  4. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation Assessment AGENCY...conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New Mexico as...component of the Service's gray wolf (Canis lupus) recovery efforts. Not required by...

  5. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  6. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  7. Comparative genomics on HHIP family orthologs.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-02-01

    Hedgehog, FGF, VEGF, and Notch signaling pathways network together for vascular remodeling during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. HHIP1 (HHIP) is an endogenous antagonist for SHH, IHH, and DHH. Here, comparative integromics analyses on HHIP family members were performed by using bioinformatics and human intelligence. HHIP1, HHIP2 (HHIPL1 or KIAA1822) and HHIP3 (HHIPL2 or KIAA1822L) constitute human HHIP gene family. Rat Hhip1, Hhip2, and Hhip3 genes were identified within AC107504.4, AC094820.6, and AC134264.2 genome sequences, respectively. HHIP-homologous (HIPH) domain with conserved 18 Cys residues was identified as the novel domain conserved among mammalian HHIP1, HHIP2, and HHIP3 orthologs. HHIP1 mRNA was expressed in coronary artery endothelial cells, prostate, and rhabdomyosarcoma. HHIP2 mRNA was expressed in trabecular bone cells. HHIP3 mRNA was expressed in testis, thyroid gland, osteoarthritic cartilarge, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer. Promoters of HHIP family genes were not well conserved between human and rodents. Although GLI-, CSL-, and HES/HEY-binding sites were not identified, eleven bHLH-binding sites were identified within human HHIP1 promoter. Expression of HES/HEY family members, including HES1, HES2, HES3, HES4, HES5, HES6, HES7, HEY1, HEY2 and HEYL, in coronary artery endothelial cells was not detected in silico. Up-regulation of HHIP1 due to down-regulation of Notch-CSL-HES/HEY signaling cascade repressing bHLH transcription factors results in down-regulation of the Hedgehog-VEGF-Notch signaling cascade. On the other hand, down-regulation of HHIP1 due to up-regulation of Notch signaling in vascular endothelial cells during angiogenesis results in up-regulation of the Hedgehog-VEGF-Notch signaling cascade. Because HHIP1 is the key molecule for vascular remodeling, HHIP1 is the pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and vascular medicine. PMID:16391842

  8. Phylogenetic and Functional Assessment of Orthologs Inference Projects and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Accurate genome-wide identification of orthologs is a central problem in comparative genomics, a fact reflected by the numerous orthology identification projects developed in recent years. However, only a few reports have compared their accuracy, and indeed, several recent efforts have not yet been systematically evaluated. Furthermore, orthology is typically only assessed in terms of function conservation, despite the phylogeny-based original definition of Fitch. We collected and mapped the results of nine leading orthology projects and methods (COG, KOG, Inparanoid, OrthoMCL, Ensembl Compara, Homologene, RoundUp, EggNOG, and OMA) and two standard methods (bidirectional best-hit and reciprocal smallest distance). We systematically compared their predictions with respect to both phylogeny and function, using six different tests. This required the mapping of millions of sequences, the handling of hundreds of millions of predicted pairs of orthologs, and the computation of tens of thousands of trees. In phylogenetic analysis or in functional analysis where high specificity is required, we find that OMA and Homologene perform best. At lower functional specificity but higher coverage level, OrthoMCL outperforms Ensembl Compara, and to a lesser extent Inparanoid. Lastly, the large coverage of the recent EggNOG can be of interest to build broad functional grouping, but the method is not specific enough for phylogenetic or detailed function analyses. In terms of general methodology, we observe that the more sophisticated tree reconstruction/reconciliation approach of Ensembl Compara was at times outperformed by pairwise comparison approaches, even in phylogenetic tests. Furthermore, we show that standard bidirectional best-hit often outperforms projects with more complex algorithms. First, the present study provides guidance for the broad community of orthology data users as to which database best suits their needs. Second, it introduces new methodology to verify orthology. And third, it sets performance standards for current and future approaches. PMID:19148271

  9. The Globular Cluster System of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan A. Forbes; Jay Strader; Jean P. Brodie

    2004-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery of the accreted Canis Major dwarf galaxy and its associated globular cluster (GC) system, we investigate the contribution of accreted GCs to the Galactic system. The Canis Major GCs, and those associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, exhibit a range of Galactocentric radii, prograde and retrograde motions, and horizontal-branch morphologies, indicating that such properties are of

  10. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  11. Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

  12. Orthology detection combining clustering and synteny for very large datasets.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K; Prohaska, Sonja J; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance) was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets. PMID:25137074

  13. Orthology Detection Combining Clustering and Synteny for Very Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K.; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Stadler, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance) was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets. PMID:25137074

  14. Serosurvey of dogs for Brucella canis infection in Memphis, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, G S; Carver, H D; Moseley, I K; Hicks, M

    1976-02-01

    Following occurrence of a rare case of human Brucella canis in Memphis, Tennessee, the free roaming and confined dog populations of that community and a similar geographical location were surveyed for B canis positivity to identify the foci of infection and to compare positivity rates. Three hundred and two dogs were sampled. Positivity was found only in free roaming dogs in both communities. It is concluded that presence of B canis positivity in free roaming dogs may pose an additional medical threat to communities, thus providing one more sound reason for controlling strays and confining dogs. PMID:1251954

  15. Quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wyder, Stefan; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Schröder, Reinhard; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

    2007-01-01

    Background The increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits. Results To consistently quantify losses of orthologous groups of genes, we compared the gene repertoires of five vertebrates and five insects, including honeybee and Tribolium beetle, that represent insect orders outside the previously sequenced Diptera. We found hundreds of lost Urbilateria genes in each of the lineages and assessed their phylogenetic origin. The rate of losses correlates well with the species' rates of molecular evolution and radiation times, without distinction between insects and vertebrates, indicating their stochastic nature. Remarkably, this extends to the universal single-copy orthologs, losses of dozens of which have been tolerated in each species. Nevertheless, the propensity for loss differs substantially among genes, where roughly 20% of the orthologs have an 8-fold higher chance of becoming extinct. Extrapolation of our data also suggests that the Urbilateria genome contained more than 7,000 genes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the seemingly higher number of observed gene losses in insects can be explained by their two- to three-fold higher evolutionary rate. Despite the profound effect of many losses on cellular machinery, overall, they seem to be guided by neutral evolution. PMID:18021399

  16. The plant Apolipoprotein D ortholog protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Benoit F Charron; Francois Ouellet; Mario Houde; Fathey Sarhan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipocalins are a large and diverse family of small, mostly extracellular proteins implicated in many important functions. This family has been studied in bacteria, invertebrate and vertebrate animals but little is known about these proteins in plants. We recently reported the identification and molecular characterization of the first true lipocalins from plants, including the Apolipoprotein D ortholog AtTIL identified

  17. An Investigation of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Lee Powell Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Martin et al. (2004) uncovered evidence for a remnant dwarf galaxy in Canis Major. Martin et al. discovered an overdensity of M-giant stars using 2MASS colors. The spatial distribution of the M-giants indicate that Canis Major is an extended, and likely disrupted, group of stars that that are centered at a distance moduli of (m-M) = 15.8 and extending over

  18. The Globular Cluster System of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan A. Forbes; Jay Strader; Jean P. Brodie

    2004-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery of the accreted Canis Major dwarf galaxy and its\\u000aassociated globular cluster (GC) system (Martin etal.), we investigate the\\u000acontribution of accreted GCs to the Galactic system. The Canis Major GCs, and\\u000athose associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, exhibit a range of\\u000agalactocentric radii, prograde and retrograde motions, and horizontal branch\\u000amorphologies, indicating that such

  19. The Jackson Laboratory: Mouse Genome Informatics - Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the Jackson Laboratory as part of Mouse Genome Informatics, this website features Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps. At this site, searches can be made in the area of Mammalian Orthology by species, gene symbol, name, or map position. Site visitors can also build comparative maps, retrieve an Oxford Grid to display a two-species orthology comparison, and view orthologies between mouse and human or mouse and rat at the whole genome level. The site links to Gene Family Information, MGI Mammalian Orthology Criteria, and MGI Database Reports as well.

  20. A meta-approach for improving the prediction and the functional annotation of ortholog groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In comparative genomics, orthologs are used to transfer annotation from genes already characterized to newly sequenced genomes. Many methods have been developed for finding orthologs in sets of genomes. However, the application of different methods on the same proteome set can lead to distinct orthology predictions. Methods We developed a method based on a meta-approach that is able to combine the results of several methods for orthologous group prediction. The purpose of this method is to produce better quality results by using the overlapping results obtained from several individual orthologous gene prediction procedures. Our method proceeds in two steps. The first aims to construct seeds for groups of orthologous genes; these seeds correspond to the exact overlaps between the results of all or several methods. In the second step, these seed groups are expanded by using HMM profiles. Results We evaluated our method on two standard reference benchmarks, OrthoBench and Orthology Benchmark Service. Our method presents a higher level of accurately predicted groups than the individual input methods of orthologous group prediction. Moreover, our method increases the number of annotated orthologous pairs without decreasing the annotation quality compared to twelve state-of-the-art methods. Conclusions The meta-approach based method appears to be a reliable procedure for predicting orthologous groups. Since a large number of methods for predicting groups of orthologous genes exist, it is quite conceivable to apply this meta-approach to several combinations of different methods. PMID:25573073

  1. Evolution, Structure, and Expression of GNPI\\/Oscillin Orthologous Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Nakamura; Katsuyuki Miura; Yuji Fujino; Hiroshi Iwao; Sachio Ogita; Shinya Yamanaka

    2000-01-01

    Oscillin was identified from hamster sperm as a factor responsible for oocyte calcium oscillations. However, its high level of homology with the bacterial glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase suggests that it may play more fundamental roles. In the current study, we identified Oscillin orthologs from Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mouse, and human. Their amino acid identities with hamster oscillin were 67.0, 72.3, 97.6,

  2. Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis. PMID:24484486

  3. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  4. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus) Astrid wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across) North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS ONE 8

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of the CaNi system D. Uremovich, F. Islam, M. Medraj *

    E-print Network

    Medraj, Mamoun

    phase diagram and thermodynamic data of Ca­Ni from different sources, an optimized thermodynamic model Ca­Ni binary alloys show promising utilization as materials for hydrogen storage applications in fuel of the Ca­Ni binary alloy system is needed to test the feasibility of its inclusion in a ternary or higher

  6. [Orthologs of arabidopsis CLAVATA 1 gene in cultivated Brassicaceae plants].

    PubMed

    Martynov, V V; Tsvetkov, I L; Khavkin, E E

    2004-01-01

    In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica napus), and also three CLV1 fragments from rape (B. rapa), canola (B. napus), and false flax (Camelina sativa), which corresponded to the transmembrane domain and a part of the kinase domain of the CLAVATA1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the full-size CLV1 ortholog from B. napus were similar by 81 and 87% to the prototype gene from arabidopsis; in the case of shorter gene fragments, the similarity was as high as 91-93 and 98%, respectively. By their primary structure, the CLV1 genes in the Brassicaceae considerably differ from its putative structural homologs beyond this family. PMID:15027212

  7. Identification of serum biomarkers in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis using a proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. There are limited data on serum proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the serum proteome. The aim of this study was to identify the potential serum biomarkers of babesiosis using proteomic techniques in order to increase our understanding about disease pathogenesis. Results Serum samples were collected from 25 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis caused by B. canis canis. Blood was collected on the day of admission (day 0), and subsequently on the 1st and 6th day of treatment. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum samples of dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis (day 0, day 1 and day 6) and healthy dogs were run in triplicate. 2DE image analysis showed 64 differentially expressed spots with p???0.05 and 49 spots with fold change ?2. Six selected spots were excised manually and subjected to trypsin digest prior to identification by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry on an Amazon ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass spectrometry data was processed using Data Analysis software and the automated Matrix Science Mascot Daemon server. Protein identifications were assigned using the Mascot search engine to interrogate protein sequences in the NCBI Genbank database. A number of differentially expressed serum proteins involved in inflammation mediated acute phase response, complement and coagulation cascades, apolipoproteins and vitamin D metabolism pathway were identified in dogs with babesiosis. Conclusions Our findings confirmed two dominant pathogenic mechanisms of babesiosis, haemolysis and acute phase response. These results may provide possible serum biomarker candidates for clinical monitoring of babesiosis and this study could serve as the basis for further proteomic investigations in canine babesiosis. PMID:24885808

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Factors influencing wolf Canis lupus roadkills

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Factors influencing wolf Canis lupus roadkills in Northwest Spain Victor Javier of difficulties in obtaining sufficient sample sizes. We collected data from locations of 82 wolf roadkill sites fences. Wolf­vehicle collisions were more common in agricultural areas, although wolf densities were

  9. Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

    E-print Network

    Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Jonathan J. Cooper* , Clare and Welfare Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lincoln, Riseholme Park, Riseholme, Lincoln LN2 2LG, UK Abstract This paper reviews the reasons why domestic dogs make good models

  10. An Example of Endurance in an Old Wolf, Canis lupus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mech, L. David.

    In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "An Example of Endurance in an Old Wolf, Canis lupus" describes an eleven- to thirteen-year-old male Arctic wolf chasing hares. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

  11. Dogs' ( Canis familaris ) responsiveness to human pointing gestures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krisztina Soproni; Ádám Miklósi; József Topál; Vilmos Csányi

    2002-01-01

    In a series of 3 experiments, dogs (Canis familiaris) were presented with variations of the human pointing gesture: gestures with reversed direction of movement, cross-pointing, and different arm extensions. Dogs performed at above chance level if they could see the hand (and index finger) protruding from the human body contour. If these minimum requirements were not accessible, dogs still could

  12. Life cycle of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Baneth, Gad; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

    2007-04-01

    The life cycle of the apicomplexan protozoon Hepatozoon canis in its natural hosts Rhipicephalus sanguineus (tick) and Canis familiaris (domestic dog) was studied in an experimental infection. Tick nymphs were fed on a naturally infected dog, or they were infected by percutaneous injection of blood. Dogs were inoculated by ingestion of adult ticks containing mature oocysts. Gamonts were in syzygy 24 hr after percutaneous injection of ticks. Early oocysts were detected 96 hr after nymph repletion, and mature oocysts in adult ticks were infective to dogs 40 days postmolt. Merogony was detected in dog bone marrow from 13 days postinoculation (PI) and included meronts containing 20-30 micromerozoites, and a second type with 2-4 macromerozoites. Monozoic cysts were observed in the spleen in conjunction with merogony. Gamontogony with infection of leukocytes by micromerozoites occurred from 26 days PI, and gamont parasitemia, which completed the life cycle, was detected 28 days PI. The length of the life cycle from nymphal attachment to parasitemia in dogs was 81 days. Increased body temperatures were evident from 16 to 27 days PI and paralleled the time of intensive bone marrow merogony. Skeletal pain and recumbency were manifested in 2 dogs. This study further elucidates the life cycle of H. canis and provides a sequential morphologic description of H. canis merogony, gamontogony, and sporogony. PMID:17539411

  13. Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kira S Makarova; Alexander V Sorokin; Pavel S Novichkov; Yuri I Wolf; Eugene V Koonin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for

  14. Split-alignment of genomes finds orthologies more accurately.

    PubMed

    Frith, Martin C; Kawaguchi, Risa

    2015-01-01

    We present a new pair-wise genome alignment method, based on a simple concept of finding an optimal set of local alignments. It gains accuracy by not masking repeats, and by using a statistical model to quantify the (un)ambiguity of each alignment part. Compared to previous animal genome alignments, it aligns thousands of locations differently and with much higher similarity, strongly suggesting that the previous alignments are non-orthologous. The previous methods suffer from an overly-strong assumption of long un-rearranged blocks. The new alignments should help find interesting and unusual features, such as fast-evolving elements and micro-rearrangements, which are confounded by alignment errors. PMID:25994148

  15. Orthologous mammalian APOBEC3A cytidine deaminases hypermutate nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Caval, Vincent; Suspčne, Rodolphe; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2014-02-01

    The human APOBEC3 gene cluster locus encodes polynucleotide cytidine deaminases. Although many act as viral restriction factors through mutation of single-stranded DNA, recent reports have shown that human APOBEC3A was capable of efficiently hypermutating nuclear DNA and inducing DNA breaks in genomic DNA. In addition, the enzyme was unique in efficiently deaminating 5-methylcytidine in single-stranded DNA. To appreciate the evolutionary relevance of these activities, we analyzed A3A-related enzymes from the rhesus and tamarin monkey, horse, sheep, dog, and panda. All proved to be orthologous to the human enzyme in all these activities revealing strong conservation more than 148 My. Hence, their singular role in DNA catabolism is a well-established mechanism probably outweighing any deleterious or pathological roles such as genomic instability and cancer formation. PMID:24162735

  16. Western immunoblot analysis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. canis, or E. ewingii infections in dogs and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Ewing, S A; Fox, J C

    1994-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. ewingii are genetically closely related, as determined by 16S rRNA gene base sequence comparison, but they exhibit biologic differences. E. chaffeensis is the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis. E. canis and E. ewingii cause two distinctly different forms of canine ehrlichiosis and infect different types of leukocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, respectively. E. chaffeensis can also infect dogs. In the study, Western immunoblot analysis of sera from dogs inoculated with E. chaffeensis, E. canis, or E. ewingii was performed to determine antigenic specificity and the intensities of the reactions to purified E. chaffeensis and E. canis antigens. At 2 to 3 weeks postexposure, antisera from four dogs inoculated with E. chaffeensis reacted with 64-, 47-, 31-, and 29-kDa proteins of E. chaffeensis but reacted poorly with E. canis antigen. In contrast, at 2 to 3 weeks postexposure, antisera from four E. canis-inoculated dogs reacted strongly with the 30-kDa major antigen of E. canis but reacted poorly with proteins from E. chaffeensis. At 4 weeks postexposure, the sera from three E. ewingii-inoculated dogs showed weak binding to 64- and 47-kDa proteins of both E. chaffeensis and E. canis. Convalescent-phase sera from human ehrlichiosis patients and sera from dogs chronically infected with E. ewingii strongly reacted with similar sets of proteins of E. chaffeensis and E. canis with similar intensities. However, sera from dogs chronically infected with E. canis reacted more strongly with a greater number of E. canis proteins than with E. chaffeensis proteins. The protein specificity described in the report suggests that dogs with E. canis infections can be distinguished from E. chaffeensis-infected animals by Western immunoblot analysis with both E. canis and E. chaffeensis antigens. Images PMID:7814533

  17. Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.

    PubMed

    Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

    2015-07-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis. PMID:24725503

  18. An orthology-based analysis of pathogenic protozoa impacting global health: an improved comparative genomics approach with prokaryotes and model eukaryote orthologs.

    PubMed

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M; Mattoso, Marta; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2014-08-01

    A key focus in 21(st) century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

  19. An Orthology-Based Analysis of Pathogenic Protozoa Impacting Global Health: An Improved Comparative Genomics Approach with Prokaryotes and Model Eukaryote Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Mattoso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A key focus in 21st century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

  20. Automatic clustering of orthologs and in-paralogs from pairwise species comparisons 1 1 Edited by F. Cohen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maido Remm; Christian E. V. Storm; Erik L. L. Sonnhammer

    2001-01-01

    Orthologs are genes in different species that originate from a single gene in the last common ancestor of these species. Such genes have often retained identical biological roles in the present-day organisms. It is hence important to identify orthologs for transferring functional information between genes in different organisms with a high degree of reliability. For example, orthologs of human proteins

  1. The other side of comparative genomics: genes with no orthologs between the cow and other mammalian species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Mazza; Francesco Strozzi; Andrea Caprera; Paolo Ajmone-Marsan; John L Williams

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the rapid growth in the availability of genome sequence data, the automated identification of orthologous genes between species (orthologs) is of fundamental importance to facilitate functional annotation and studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics. Genes with no apparent orthologs between the bovine and human genome may be responsible for major differences between the species, however, such genes are

  2. Berkeley PHOG: PhyloFacts Orthology Group Prediction Web Server Supplement 1: Description of the PHOG Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    of "ortholog", in other words, to apply a few different methods for predicting orthologs using this definition and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley We describe here the algorithm used to predict. Definition 1: A protein P in species S is a nearest-neighbor ortholog of Q in S, if the distance between P

  3. Absolute Proper Motion of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy Candidate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana I. Dinescu; David Martínez-Delgado; Terrence M. Girard; Jorge Peńarrubia; Hans-Walter Rix; David Butler; William F. van Altena

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the candidate Canis Major dwarf galaxy (CMa), at (l,b)=(240°,-8°). Likely main-sequence stars in CMa have been selected from a region in the color-magnitude diagram that has very little contamination from known Milky Way components. We obtain mulcosb=-1.47+\\/-0.37 and mub=-1.07+\\/-0.38 mas yr-1, on the International Celestial Reference System by means of Hipparcos stars.

  4. The radial velocity signature of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Martin; R. A. Ibata; B. C. Conn; G. F. Lewis; M. Bellazzini; M. J. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    We present a radial velocity survey of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy recently discovered at the edge of the Galactic disk. Using the AAT\\/2dF multi-fiber spectrograph, we obtained radial velocities for over 1500 red giant branch (RGB) and red clump (RC) stars belonging to this stellar structure. The less contaminated RGB sample reveals a kinematically cold population with a radial

  5. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D.; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R.; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S.; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W.; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317?Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite’s gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host–parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites. PMID:25649139

  6. Nucleotide substitution and recombination at orthologous loci in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L; Friedman, Robert

    2005-04-01

    The pattern of nucleotide substitution was examined at 2,129 orthologous loci among five genomes of Staphylococcus aureus, which included two sister pairs of closely related genomes (MW2/MSSA476 and Mu50/N315) and the more distantly related MRSA252. A total of 108 loci were unusual in lacking any synonymous differences among the five genomes; most of these were short genes encoding proteins highly conserved at the amino acid sequence level (including many ribosomal proteins) or unknown predicted genes. In contrast, 45 genes were identified that showed anomalously high divergence at synonymous sites. The latter genes were evidently introduced by homologous recombination from distantly related genomes, and in many cases, the pattern of nucleotide substitution made it possible to reconstruct the most probable recombination event involved. These recombination events introduced genes encoding proteins that differed in amino acid sequence and thus potentially in function. Several of the proteins are known or likely to be involved in pathogenesis (e.g., staphylocoagulase, exotoxin, Ser-Asp fibrinogen-binding bone sialoprotein-binding protein, fibrinogen and keratin-10 binding surface-anchored protein, fibrinogen-binding protein ClfA, and enterotoxin P). Therefore, the results support the hypothesis that exchange of homologous genes among S. aureus genomes can play a role in the evolution of pathogenesis in this species. PMID:15805516

  7. Transcriptional analysis of p30 major outer membrane protein genes of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected ticks and sequence analysis of p30-10 of E canis from diverse geographic regions.

    PubMed

    Felek, Suleyman; Greene, Russell; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2003-02-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks transmit Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis. In experimentally infected ticks, only p30-10 transcript was detected among 22 p30 paralogs encoding immunodominant major outer membrane P30 proteins of E. canis. The present study revealed transcription of p30-10 by E. canis in naturally infected ticks and sequence conservation of p30-10 genes for E. canis from diverse geographic regions. PMID:12574308

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of p30 Major Outer Membrane Protein Genes of Ehrlichia canis in Naturally Infected Ticks and Sequence Analysis of p30-10 of E. canis from Diverse Geographic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Felek, Suleyman; Greene, Russell; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2003-01-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks transmit Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis. In experimentally infected ticks, only p30-10 transcript was detected among 22 p30 paralogs encoding immunodominant major outer membrane P30 proteins of E. canis. The present study revealed transcription of p30-10 by E. canis in naturally infected ticks and sequence conservation of p30-10 genes for E. canis from diverse geographic regions. PMID:12574308

  9. The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus

    E-print Network

    Royale wolves Canis lupus John A. Vucetich and Rolf O. Peterson Vucetich, J. A. and Peterson, R. O. 2004, Canis lupus. Á/ Oikos 107: 309Á/320. The relationship between the rates of prey capture and predator

  10. Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest BYRON V. WECKWORTH,* SANDRA L. TALBOT, AND JOSEPH A. COOK

    E-print Network

    Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest BYRON V. WECKWORTH,* SANDRA L into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction

  11. QuartetS: a fast and accurate algorithm for large-scale orthology detection

    E-print Network

    . The sequences of more than 1000 prokaryotes are available in public data- bases and hundreds of bacterial in unstudied species. This is achieved by first identifying orthologs between the unstudied and studied species

  12. SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-10-15

    At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

  13. Identification and expression of a mouse ortholog of A2BP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim-Rasmus Kiehl; Hiroki Shibata; Tramy Vo; Duong P. Huynh; Stefan-M. Pulst

    2001-01-01

    .   Human ataxin-2 contains a polyglutamine repeat that is expanded in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Ataxin-2\\u000a is highly conserved in evolution with orthologs in mouse, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. It interacts at its C-terminus with ataxin-2 binding protein 1, A2BP1. This study presents a highly conserved mouse ortholog\\u000a of A2BP1, designated A2bp1. The amino acid sequence

  14. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes; Final rule...Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes AGENCY: Fish...Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and...

  15. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened...Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY...wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced the...

  16. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened...Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY...wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi). On September 5, 2013,...

  17. The efficacy of Advantix® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Josephus Johannes; Luus, Herman Gerhardus; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix®) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix® prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment. PMID:24135158

  18. The core of the Canis Major galaxy as traced by red clump stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bellazzini; R. Ibata; N. Martin; G. F. Lewis; B. Conn

    2006-01-01

    The recently discovered stellar system in Canis Major is analysed using He-burning red clump stars as tracers. Canis Major turns out to be the strongest and the most spatially confined overdensity of the whole Galactic disc, in terms of both number density and statistical significance. When projected on to the Galactic plane, it appears as an elongated and compact overdensity

  19. CLINICAL SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA, SARCOCYSTIS CANIS, TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN DOGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-cani...

  20. Incentive Contrast in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Mariana Bentosela, Adriana Jakovcevic,

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    Incentive Contrast in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Mariana Bentosela, Adriana Jakovcevic, Angel Christian University Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food

  1. Amplification of Ehrlichial DNA from Dogs 34 Months after Infection with Ehrlichia canis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHIMON HARRUS; TREVOR WANER; ITZHAK AIZENBERG; JANET E. FOLEY; AMY M. POLAND; HYLTON BARK

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine whether dogs in the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) are carriers of Ehrlichia canis and to determine the significance of persistent indirect immunofluorescent anti-E. canis antibody titers during this phase, PCR was performed with blood, bone marrow, and splenic aspirates collected 34 months postinoculation from six clinically healthy beagle dogs experimentally infected with E.

  2. OrthoMCL-DB: querying a comprehensive multi-species collection of ortholog groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Mackey, Aaron J.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Roos, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The OrthoMCL database () houses ortholog group predictions for 55 species, including 16 bacterial and 4 archaeal genomes representing phylogenetically diverse lineages, and most currently available complete eukaryotic genomes: 24 unikonts (12 animals, 9 fungi, microsporidium, Dictyostelium, Entamoeba), 4 plants/algae and 7 apicomplexan parasites. OrthoMCL software was used to cluster proteins based on sequence similarity, using an all-against-all BLAST search of each species' proteome, followed by normalization of inter-species differences, and Markov clustering. A total of 511?797 proteins (81.6% of the total dataset) were clustered into 70?388 ortholog groups. The ortholog database may be queried based on protein or group accession numbers, keyword descriptions or BLAST similarity. Ortholog groups exhibiting specific phyletic patterns may also be identified, using either a graphical interface or a text-based Phyletic Pattern Expression grammar. Information for ortholog groups includes the phyletic profile, the list of member proteins and a multiple sequence alignment, a statistical summary and graphical view of similarities, and a graphical representation of domain architecture. OrthoMCL software, the entire FASTA dataset employed and clustering results are available for download. OrthoMCL-DB provides a centralized warehouse for orthology prediction among multiple species, and will be updated and expanded as additional genome sequence data become available. PMID:16381887

  3. An experimental approach to the study of intraocular Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Luxenberg, M N

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study of nematode endophthalmitis due to T canis and review of the literature has been presented. Six owl monkeys were infected either by nasogastric tube using embryonated T canis eggs or by carotid or intravitreal injection of second stage larvae. The clinical manifestations, especially ocular, were observed and various diagnostic tests performed. Only minimal or no intraocular changes were seen after systemic infection but significant abnormalities such as retinal hemorrhages and venous dilation were noted after intravitreal infection. Motile larvae were observed in the lenses of three eyes and in the vitreous of five eyes and, probably a sixth, after intravitreal injection. The intensity and timing of the intraocular reaction seemed to correlate with the infecting dose and apparent disappearance of larvae from the eye. Pathologic confirmation of larvae in the lens was obtained in one eye. A marked inflammatory reaction occurred in eyes receiving intraocular infection but none was seen in eyes with only systemic infectin. Various laboratory and serologic studies were performed, including the ELISA test, which were used to evaluate systemic as well as intraocular responses to infection with T canis. The two monkeys infected by nasogastric tube gave a positive ELISA response in the serum but intraocular fluids gave a negative response in all monkeys including those infected syst:mically and/or intraocularly. Problems in the understanding of clinical aspects of the disease, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are discussed. The need for future experimental studies is emphasized. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 2 D FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 PMID:120993

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Birkenheuer; Michael G. Levy; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

    2003-01-01

    Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an 340-bp fragment

  5. [Effects of household chemicals on infested Toxocara canis eggs].

    PubMed

    Shchuchinova, L D; Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S

    2013-01-01

    Six household chemicals were tested for effects on cultured Toxocara canis eggs in the mobile larval stage. The cleansing gel Comet (Double Effect) and its 10%, 25%, and 50% aqueous solutions have the most pronounced ovicidal and larvicidal effects under laboratory conditions (+19-22 degrees C). Domestos and Belizna (Bleach) are also effective. These agents are recommended for the disinvasion and washing of premises for canids: aviaries of dog-breeding centers; farms for silver and polar foxes; shelters for stray dogs; rooms in veterinary clinics; and apartments where domestic animals (dogs) are present. PMID:24640129

  6. A new Brucella canis species-specific PCR assay for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Il; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Kichan; Kim, Jong-Wan; Lee, Hyang-Keun; Sung, So-Ra; Heo, Young-Ran; Jung, Suk Chan; Her, Moon

    2014-09-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, and the development of a rapid, accurate, and widely available identification method is essential for diagnosing this disease. In this study, we developed a new Brucella canis species-specific (BcSS) PCR assay and evaluated its specificity and sensitivity. A specific PCR primer set was designed based on the BCAN_B0548-0549 region in chromosome II of B. canis. The PCR detection for B. canis included amplification of a 300-bp product that is, not found on other Brucella species or, genetically or serologically related bacteria. The detection limit of BcSS-PCR assay was 6pg/?l by DNA dilution, or 3×10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) in the buffy coats separated from whole blood experimentally inoculated with B. canis. Using the buffy coat in this PCR assay resulted in approximately 100-times higher sensitivity for B. canis as compared to detect directly from whole blood. This is the first report of a species-specific PCR assay to detect B. canis, and the new assay will provide a valuable tool for the diagnosis of B. canis infection. PMID:25128932

  7. Identification and Expression Analysis of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Co-orthologs in Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Paul, Puneet; Keller, Mario; Einloft, Jens; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:25698879

  8. First reported human case of native mitral infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis.

    PubMed

    Amsallem, Myriam; Iung, Bernard; Bouleti, Claire; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence; Eme, Anne-Line; Touati, Aziza; Kirsch, Matthias; Duval, Xavier; Vahanian, Alec

    2014-11-01

    A 65 year-old woman was admitted for acute heart failure and severe sepsis revealing definite mitral infective endocarditis with severe regurgitation, complicated by multiple embolisms. Three blood cultures yielded a group G Streptococcus canis strain. Urgent surgery was performed with bioprosthetic valve replacement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the valve found S canis DNA. Amoxicillin and gentamicin were given for 2 weeks followed by 4 weeks of amoxicillin alone. She reported contact with a dog without bite. S canis has been reported to cause zoonotic septicemia but to our knowledge, this is the first human case of native valve infective endocarditis. PMID:25442453

  9. Antagonists of GPR35 Display High Species Ortholog Selectivity and Varying Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Laura; Harries, Nicholas; Lappin, Jennifer E.; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Neetoo-Isseljee, Zaynab; Southern, Craig; McIver, Edward G.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Taylor, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in pharmacology and function of ligands at species orthologs can be a confounding feature in understanding the biology and role of poorly characterized receptors. Substantial selectivity in potency of a number of GPR35 agonists has previously been demonstrated between human and rat orthologs of this G protein-coupled receptor. Via a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay of induced interactions between GPR35 and ?-arrestin-2, addition of the mouse ortholog to such studies indicated that, as for the rat ortholog, murine GPR35 displayed very low potency for pamoate, whereas potency for the reference GPR35 agonist zaprinast was intermediate between the rat and human orthologs. This pattern was replicated in receptor internalization and G protein activation assays. The effectiveness and mode of action of two recently reported GPR35 antagonists, methyl-5-[(tert-butylcarbamothioylhydrazinylidene)methyl]-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyrazole-4-carboxylate (CID-2745687) and 2-hydroxy-4-[4-(5Z)-5-[(E)-2-methyl-3-phenylprop-2-enylidene]-4-oxo-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]butanoylamino)benzoic acid (ML-145), were investigated. Both CID-2745687 and ML-145 competitively inhibited the effects at human GPR35 of cromolyn disodium and zaprinast, two agonists that share an overlapping binding site. By contrast, although ML-145 also competitively antagonized the effects of pamoate, CID-2745687 acted in a noncompetitive fashion. Neither ML-145 nor CID-2745687 was able to effectively antagonize the agonist effects of either zaprinast or cromolyn disodium at either rodent ortholog of GPR35. These studies demonstrate that marked species selectivity of ligands at GPR35 is not restricted to agonists and considerable care is required to select appropriate ligands to explore the function of GPR35 in nonhuman cells and tissues. PMID:22967846

  10. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    PubMed

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of the classification of 35 B. canis strains in genotypes A and B using a previously described 18SrDNA-derived PCR-RFLP test revealed a partial but no direct correlation with the classification based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene described here. PMID:26092188

  11. Decontamination by anaerobic stabilisation of the environment contaminated with enteronematode eggs Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Papajová, I; Juris, P; Szabová, E; Venglovský, J; Sasáková, N; Sefcíková, H; Martinez, J; Gábon, T

    2008-07-01

    Investigations were carried out under operating conditions of Field Composting Factory in Brezno (Slovak Republic) to determine the effect of anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes from public areas on the survival of model helminth Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs. Due to anaerobic conditions, low temperature, low C:N ratio and changes in physical and chemical properties of organic waste, less than 64% of A. suum eggs remained viable after 150 days of stabilisation. The anaerobic stabilisation had a greater effect on the viability of T. canis eggs than on A. suum eggs. The infectivity of T. canis eggs was confirmed by a follow-up experiment in laboratory mice. A small number of T. canis larvae were found in their brain and muscles on day 28 after infection. The results refer to the risks of dissemination, survival and potential spread of endoparasitic developmental stages in the environment through organic wastes subjected to low temperature stabilisation. PMID:17976979

  12. Seismic analysis of the massive ? Cephei star 15 Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Przemys?aw; Handler, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    15 Canis Majoris is a quite massive (M ~ 14 M?) main sequence pulsator of the ? Cephei type. Recent photometric (Handler 2014) and spectroscopic (Saesen & Briquet, priv. comm.) observations confirm four pulsational frequencies and indicate possible additional modes. We calculated models fitting two frequencies identified as radial and dipole modes. Our analysis indicates rather effective overshooting from the convective core as well as a strong dependence of the minimal required overshooting parameter (?ov,min) on the metallicity, Z (?ov,min ~ -2.5 Z). When incorporating the non-adiabatic f-parameter (Daszyn?ka-Daszkiewicz & Walczak 2009), defined as the ratio of the bolometric flux changes to the radial displacement, significant differences between the opacity tables were obtained. The comparison of the models derived with different codes is also interesting. We used two evolutionary codes: Warsaw-New Jersey (Pamyatnykh et al. 1998) and MESA (Paxton et al. 2011) and some systematic differences were found.

  13. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. PMID:26065623

  14. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

  15. Semen collection, evaluation and freezing in the captive Canadian timber wolf (Canis lupus canadensis) 

    E-print Network

    Mitsuzuka, Munehiro

    1980-01-01

    SEMEN COLLECTION, EVALUATION AND FREEZING IN THE CAPTIVE CANADIAN TIMBER WOLF (CANIS LUPUS CANADENSIS) A Thesis by MUNEHIRO MITSUZUKA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology SEMEN COLLECTION, EVALUATION AND FREEZING IN THE CAPTIVE CANADIAN TIMBER WOLF (CANIS LUPUS CANADENSIS) A Thesis by MUNEHI RO MI TSUZUKA Approved...

  16. Semen collection, evaluation and freezing in the captive Canadian timber wolf (Canis lupus canadensis)

    E-print Network

    Mitsuzuka, Munehiro

    1980-01-01

    SEMEN COLLECTION, EVALUATION AND FREEZING IN THE CAPTIVE CANADIAN TIMBER WOLF (CANIS LUPUS CANADENSIS) A Thesis by MUNEHIRO MITSUZUKA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology SEMEN COLLECTION, EVALUATION AND FREEZING IN THE CAPTIVE CANADIAN TIMBER WOLF (CANIS LUPUS CANADENSIS) A Thesis by MUNEHI RO MI TSUZUKA Approved...

  17. Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Unver, Ahmet; Perez, Miriam; Orellana, Nelson; Huang, Haibin; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of the 55 dog blood samples (31%) and all three pools of four Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks each were positive. An ehrlichial agent (Venezuelan dog Ehrlichia [VDE]) was isolated and propagated in cell culture from one dog sample and was further analyzed to determine its molecular and antigenic characteristics. The 16S rRNA 1,408-bp sequence of the new VDE isolate was identical to that of the previously reported Venezuelan human Ehrlichia isolate (VHE) and was closely related (99.9%) to that of E. canis Oklahoma. The 5? (333-bp) and 3? (653-bp) sequences of the variable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from six additional E. canis-positive dog blood specimens and from three pooled-tick specimens were also identical to those of VHE. Western blot analysis of serum samples from three dogs infected with VDE by using several ehrlichial antigens revealed that the antigenic profile of the VDE was similar to the profiles of VHE and E. canis Oklahoma. Identical 16S rRNA gene sequences among ehrlichial organisms from dogs, ticks, and a human in the same geographic region in Venezuela and similar antigenic profiles between the dog and human isolates suggest that dogs serve as a reservoir of human E. canis infection and that R. sanguineus, which occasionally bites humans residing or traveling in this region, serves as a vector. This is the first report of culture isolation and antigenic characterization of an ehrlichial agent from a dog in South America, as well as the first molecular characterization of E. canis directly from naturally infected ticks. PMID:11473993

  18. Letter to the editor: SeqXML and OrthoXML: standards for sequence and orthology information.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Thomas; Messina, David N; Schreiber, Fabian; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2011-09-01

    There is a great need for standards in the orthology field. Users must contend with different ortholog data representations from each provider, and the providers themselves must independently gather and parse the input sequence data. These burdensome and redundant procedures make data comparison and integration difficult. We have designed two XML-based formats, SeqXML and OrthoXML, to solve these problems. SeqXML is a lightweight format for sequence records-the input for orthology prediction. It stores the same sequence and metadata as typical FASTA format records, but overcomes common problems such as unstructured metadata in the header and erroneous sequence content. XML provides validation to prevent data integrity problems that are frequent in FASTA files. The range of applications for SeqXML is broad and not limited to ortholog prediction. We provide read/write functions for BioJava, BioPerl, and Biopython. OrthoXML was designed to represent ortholog assignments from any source in a consistent and structured way, yet cater to specific needs such as scoring schemes or meta-information. A unified format is particularly valuable for ortholog consumers that want to integrate data from numerous resources, e.g. for gene annotation projects. Reference proteomes for 61 organisms are already available in SeqXML, and 10 orthology databases have signed on to OrthoXML. Adoption by the entire field would substantially facilitate exchange and quality control of sequence and orthology information. PMID:21666252

  19. Evolutionary aspects of variability in bHLH orthologous families: insights from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Gyoja, Fuki; Satoh, Nori

    2013-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play significant roles in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. In recent work, we showed that three orthologous HLH families, pearl, amber, and peridot, have apparently been lost in the Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens lineages. To further address the gain and loss of bHLH proteins during bilaterian evolution, we examined the genome of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, which has recently been sequenced. We characterized the putative full set 65 bHLH genes and showed that genes previously categorized into the orthologous family PTFb, actually fall into two distinct orthologous families, 48-related-1 and 48-related-2. We also identified a novel orthologous family, clockwork orange. Based on these newly identified orthologous family members and on orphan bHLH factors, we propose that genes encoding bHLH factors in bilaterians are not as evolutionarily stable as previously thought. PMID:24125650

  20. OrthoSelect: a web server for selecting orthologous gene alignments from EST sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Fabian; Wörheide, Gert; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of whole genome sequences for many organisms, the use of expressed sequence tags (EST) offers an affordable approach for researchers conducting phylogenetic analyses to gain insight about the evolutionary history of organisms. Reliable alignments for phylogenomic analyses are based on orthologous gene sequences from different taxa. So far, researchers have not sufficiently tackled the problem of the completely automated construction of such datasets. Existing software tools are either semi-automated, covering only part of the necessary data processing, or implemented as a pipeline, requiring the installation and configuration of a cascade of external tools, which may be time-consuming and hard to manage. To simplify data set construction for phylogenomic studies, we set up a web server that uses our recently developed OrthoSelect approach. To the best of our knowledge, our web server is the first web-based EST analysis pipeline that allows the detection of orthologous gene sequences in EST libraries and outputs orthologous gene alignments. Additionally, OrthoSelect provides the user with an extensive results section that lists and visualizes all important results, such as annotations, data matrices for each gene/taxon and orthologous gene alignments. The web server is available at http://orthoselect.gobics.de. PMID:19491309

  1. OrthoParaMap: Distinguishing orthologs from paralogs by integrating comparative genome data and gene phylogenies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Cannon; Nevin D. Young

    2003-01-01

    Background: In eukaryotic genomes, most genes are members of gene families. When comparing genes from two species, therefore, most genes in one species will be homologous to multiple genes in the second. This often makes it difficult to distinguish orthologs (separated through speciation) from paralogs (separated by other types of gene duplication). Combining phylogenetic relationships and genomic position in both

  2. Proteinortho: Detection of (Co-)orthologs in large-scale analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Orthology analysis is an important part of data analysis in many areas of bioinformatics such as comparative genomics and molecular phylogenetics. The ever-increasing flood of sequence data, and hence the rapidly increasing number of genomes that can be compared simultaneously, calls for efficient software tools as brute-force approaches with quadratic memory requirements become infeasible in practise. The rapid pace at which new data become available, furthermore, makes it desirable to compute genome-wide orthology relations for a given dataset rather than relying on relations listed in databases. Results The program Proteinortho described here is a stand-alone tool that is geared towards large datasets and makes use of distributed computing techniques when run on multi-core hardware. It implements an extended version of the reciprocal best alignment heuristic. We apply Proteinortho to compute orthologous proteins in the complete set of all 717 eubacterial genomes available at NCBI at the beginning of 2009. We identified thirty proteins present in 99% of all bacterial proteomes. Conclusions Proteinortho significantly reduces the required amount of memory for orthology analysis compared to existing tools, allowing such computations to be performed on off-the-shelf hardware. PMID:21526987

  3. Analysis of Orthologous Retrovirus-Like Elements in the White-Footed Mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Sawby; Holly A. Wichman

    1997-01-01

    .   Three loci in the genome of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, were examined for the presence or absence of orthologous copies of the retrovirus-like element mys using polymerase chain reaction. We examined these loci in 28 mice collected throughout the P. leucopus species range. Mys insertions were present in only one of the individuals examined at the mys-1 and

  4. Assessing the Roles of Striatin Orthologs in Fungal Morphogenesis, Sexual Development and Pathogenicity 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chih-Li

    2012-10-19

    -utilizing mutants demonstrates that Str1 is required for hyphal fusion. In pathogenicity, ?str1 is less virulent in maize anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot. The phenotypes of ?str1 are complemented by the Fusarium verticillioides striatin ortholog (fsr1...

  5. Assessing the Roles of Striatin Orthologs in Fungal Morphogenesis, Sexual Development and Pathogenicity

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chih-Li

    2012-10-19

    -utilizing mutants demonstrates that Str1 is required for hyphal fusion. In pathogenicity, ?str1 is less virulent in maize anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot. The phenotypes of ?str1 are complemented by the Fusarium verticillioides striatin ortholog (fsr1...

  6. Deletion of smn-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the spinal muscular atrophy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Deletion of smn-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the spinal muscular atrophy gene, results Received August 15, 2008; Revised and Accepted September 29, 2008 Spinal muscular atrophy is the most elegans smn-1 is expressed in various tissues including the nervous system and body wall muscle

  7. Improvement of domain-level ortholog clustering by optimizing domain-specific sum-of-pairs score

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of ortholog groups is a crucial step in comparative analysis of multiple genomes. Although several computational methods have been developed to create ortholog groups, most of those methods do not evaluate orthology at the sub-gene level. In our method for domain-level ortholog clustering, DomClust, proteins are split into domains on the basis of alignment boundaries identified by all-against-all pairwise comparison, but it often fails to determine appropriate boundaries. Results We developed a method to improve domain-level ortholog classification using multiple alignment information. This method is based on a scoring scheme, the domain-specific sum-of-pairs (DSP) score, which evaluates ortholog clustering results at the domain level as the sum total of domain-level alignment scores. We developed a refinement pipeline to improve domain-level clustering, DomRefine, by optimizing the DSP score. We applied DomRefine to domain-level ortholog groups created by DomClust using a dataset obtained from the Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD), and evaluated the results using COG clusters and TIGRFAMs models as the reference data. Thus, we observed that the agreement between the resulting classification and the classifications in the reference databases is improved at almost every step in the refinement pipeline. Moreover, the refined classification showed better agreement than the classifications in the eggNOG databases when TIGRFAMs was used as the reference database. Conclusions DomRefine is a useful tool for improving the quality of domain-level ortholog classification among microbial genomes. Combining with a rapid domain-level ortholog clustering method, such as DomClust, it can be used to create a high-quality ortholog database that can serve as a solid basis for various comparative genome analyses. PMID:24885064

  8. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2015-04-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  9. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  10. First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

  11. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  12. C-reactive protein and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein levels in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kwak, I; Iqbal, Z; Kociba, G; Mott, J; Chichanasiriwithaya, W

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate whether acute-phase protein responses occur in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were serially measured in the plasma of five dogs experimentally inoculated with E. canis and 10 sham-inoculated or noninoculated control dogs. The CRP concentration was measured by a canine-specific capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the AAG concentration was measured by a canine-specific radial immunodiffusion method. In all E. canis-inoculated dogs, a 3.3- to 6.5-fold increase in the plasma CRP concentration and a 1.9- to 8.6-fold increase in the plasma AAG concentration over the preinoculation level occurred at days 4 to 6 postexposure. Despite the persistence of E. canis and high antibody titers, both CRP and AAG concentrations gradually declined to preexposure levels by day 34 postexposure. E. canis-infected dogs had mild and transient clinical signs which resolved without treatment by day 14 postexposure. The CRP and AAG concentrations in control inoculated or nontreated dogs remained within the normal range throughout the experimental period. Of 12 dogs naturally infected with E. canis, 75% had greater than 50 micrograms of CRP per ml and 83% had greater than 500 micrograms of AAG per ml. All of these 12 dogs had chronic and severe clinical signs of canine ehrlichiosis. Thus, elevations in the levels of acute-phase proteins occur in both acute and chronic canine ehrlichiosis. Determination of CRP and AAG concentrations may help in assessing the severity of inflammatory damage in dogs with E. canis infections. PMID:8027343

  13. MBGD update 2015: microbial genome database for flexible ortholog analysis utilizing a diverse set of genomic data.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Ikuo; Mihara, Motohiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Chiba, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    The microbial genome database for comparative analysis (MBGD) (available at http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/) is a comprehensive ortholog database for flexible comparative analysis of microbial genomes, where the users are allowed to create an ortholog table among any specified set of organisms. Because of the rapid increase in microbial genome data owing to the next-generation sequencing technology, it becomes increasingly challenging to maintain high-quality orthology relationships while allowing the users to incorporate the latest genomic data available into an analysis. Because many of the recently accumulating genomic data are draft genome sequences for which some complete genome sequences of the same or closely related species are available, MBGD now stores draft genome data and allows the users to incorporate them into a user-specific ortholog database using the MyMBGD functionality. In this function, draft genome data are incorporated into an existing ortholog table created only from the complete genome data in an incremental manner to prevent low-quality draft data from affecting clustering results. In addition, to provide high-quality orthology relationships, the standard ortholog table containing all the representative genomes, which is first created by the rapid classification program DomClust, is now refined using DomRefine, a recently developed program for improving domain-level clustering using multiple sequence alignment information. PMID:25398900

  14. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n?=?81 scats) and prey remains (n?=?31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains. PMID:22448046

  15. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 and 1?:?100), enilconazole (1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite "dry bleach." Disinfectants were tested at a 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10?min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1?:?100), sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 or 1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. PMID:25763290

  16. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    PubMed

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. Zoo Biol. 34:217-222, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25773058

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of arginine kinase gene of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Shivani; Samanta, S; Harish, D R; Sudhakar, N R; Raina, O K; Shantaveer, S B; Madhu, D N; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis is an important gastrointestinal nematode of dogs and also a causative agent of visceral larva migrans in humans. Arginine kinase (AK) gene is one of the important biomolecule of phosphagen kinase of T. canis which is emerging as an exciting novel diagnostic target in toxocarosis. The present study was carried out to clone and characterize AK gene of T. canis for future utilization as a diagnostic molecule. Total RNA was extracted from intact adult worms and reverse transcription was done with oligo dT primers to obtain complementary DNA (cDNA). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using cDNA as template with specific primers which amplified a product of 1,202 bp. The amplicon was cloned into pDrive cloning vector and clone was confirmed by colony PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis. Sequence analysis of the gene showed 99.8 and 77.9 % homology with the published AK gene of T. canis (EF015466.1) and Ascaris suum respectively. Structural analysis shown that the mature AK protein consist of 400 amino acids with a molecular wt of 45360.73 Da. Further expression studies are required for producing the recombinant protein for its evaluation in the diagnosis of T. canis infection in humans as well as in adult dogs. PMID:26064002

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children.

    PubMed

    Romero Núńez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yańez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

  19. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012.

    PubMed

    Dentinger, C M; Jacob, K; Lee, L V; Mendez, H A; Chotikanatis, K; McDonough, P L; Chico, D M; De, B K; Tiller, R V; Traxler, R M; Campagnolo, E R; Schmitt, D; Guerra, M A; Slavinski, S A

    2015-08-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Laboratory-acquired infections can occur following contact with Brucella spp. We identified a paediatric B. canis case, the source and other exposed persons. A 3-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnoea was hospitalized for 48 h for bronchiolitis. After her admission, blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed anti-microbials and recovered. B. canis was also isolated from blood of the child's pet dog; these isolates were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the dog's infection. Additionally, 31 laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first report strongly suggesting B. canis zoonotic transmission to a child in the United States, and highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  20. Subtilisin Sub3 is involved in adherence of Microsporum canis to human and animal epidermis.

    PubMed

    B?gu?, Elena Tatiana; Baldo, Aline; Mathy, Anne; Cambier, Ludivine; Antoine, Nadine; Cozma, Vasile; Mignon, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the secreted keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease Sub3 in adherence of Microsporum canis to epidermis from various susceptible species, in addition to cat for which this role was recently demonstrated. Firstly, we showed by immunostaining that Sub3 is not expressed in arthroconidia from an M. canis SUB3 RNA-silenced strain but is present on the surface of arthroconidia from a SUB3 non-silenced parental strain. Secondly, comparative adherence assays using arthroconidia from both M. canis strains and skin explants from humans, dogs, horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and cats revealed that only 8-16% of arthroconidia from the SUB3 silenced strain adhered to different types of epidermis when compared to the control strain. Attempts to restore fungal adherence by the addition of recombinant Sub3 failed in the tested conditions. Overall results show for the first time that Sub3 is necessary for the adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to epidermis from humans and other animal species than cat, supporting the idea that Sub3 plays a central role in colonization of keratinized host structures by M. canis, whatever the host. PMID:22770520

  1. Annotation of hypothetical proteins orthologous in Pongo abelii and Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Jitendra, Singh; Narula, Ranjana; Agnihotri, Shefali; Singh, Maneet

    2011-01-01

    A hypothetical protein is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame without known experimental evidence of translation. They constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes. Domain extraction from these hypothetical sequences helps to search for protein coding genes for protein structural and functional annotation. We describe the analysis of prediction data in a sequence dataset of hypothetical protein orthologs of Pongo abelii (orangutan) and Sus scrofa (pig). It should be noted that these orangutan-pig orthologs are also non-homologous to human proteins. These predicted data find application in the genome wide annotation of proteins in poorly understood genomes. Abbreviations PDB - Protein Data Bank, DEG - Database of Essential Genes, CDD - Conserved Domain Database, IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature. PMID:21769189

  2. BOG: R-package for Bacterium and virus analysis of Orthologous Groups

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jincheol; Taslim, Cenny; Lin, Shili

    2015-01-01

    BOG (Bacterium and virus analysis of Orthologous Groups) is a package for identifying groups of differentially regulated genes in the light of gene functions for various virus and bacteria genomes. It is designed to identify Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) that are enriched among genes that have gone through significant changes under different conditions. This would contribute to the detection of pathogens, an important scientific research area of relevance in uncovering bioterrorism, among others. Particular statistical analyses include hypergeometric, Mann–Whitney rank sum, and gene set enrichment. Results from the analyses are organized and presented in tabular and graphical forms for ease of understanding and dissemination of results. BOG is implemented as an R-package, which is available from CRAN or can be downloaded from http://www.stat.osu.edu/~statgen/SOFTWARE/BOG/.

  3. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-02-18

    A group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with Babesia canis. The ability of the collar to prevent transmission of B. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. All 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with B. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. All control dogs developed clinical signs of babesiosis and were rescue-treated with imidocarb dipropionate. These dogs also developed specific B. canis antibodies as identified by serology (IFA test) and were confirmed PCR/RLB positive. None of the 8 dogs treated with the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar became infected with B. canis, which was confirmed by the absence of specific B. canis antibodies and babesial DNA as confirmed by PCR/RLB. The collar caused 96.02% of the ticks to die within 48h post challenge and this increased to 100% within 4 days. Although a high percentage of 44% of the Dermacentor ticks were infected with B. canis, they were unable to transmit the infection to the treated group. Hence, the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar effectively prevented transmission of B. canis 1 month after application onto the dogs. PMID:23158840

  4. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures - II. The Monoceros Ring behind the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair C. Conn; Nicolas F. Martin; Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Michele Bellazzini; Mike J. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    An AAT\\/2dF Spectrograph Survey of low Galactic latitudes targeting the putative Canis Major dwarf galaxy and the (possibly) associated tidal debris of stars known as the Monoceros Ring, covering Galactic coordinates and , has revealed the presence of the Monoceros Ring in the background of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This detection resides at a Galactocentric distance of ~18.9 +\\/-

  5. Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Understand Invisible Displacement? Emma Collier-Baker, Joanne M. Davis, and Thomas Suddendorf

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Understand Invisible Displacement? Emma Collier-Baker, Joanne M. Davis, and Thomas Suddendorf University of Queensland Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) perform above chance abilities. Four experiments investigated how dogs find an object that has been hidden in 1 of 3 opaque boxes

  6. The vertebrate Hef ortholog is a component of the Fanconi anemia tumor-suppressor pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgina Mosedale; Wojciech Niedzwiedz; Arno Alpi; Franco Perrina; Jose B Pereira-Leal; Mark Johnson; Frederic Langevin; Paul Pace; Ketan J Patel

    2005-01-01

    The helicase-associated endonuclease for fork-structured DNA (Hef) is an archaeabacterial protein that processes blocked replication forks. Here we have isolated the vertebrate Hef ortholog and investigated its molecular function. Disruption of this gene in chicken DT40 cells results in genomic instability and sensitivity to DNA cross-links. The similarity of this phenotype to that of cells lacking the Fanconi anemia–related (FA)

  7. Molecular characterization of cold adaptation based on ortholog protein sequences from Vibrionaceae species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steinar Thorvaldsen; Erik Hjerde; Chris Fenton; Nils P. Willassen

    2007-01-01

    A set of 298 protein families from psychrophilic Vibrio salmonicida was compiled to identify genotypic characteristics that discern it from orthologous sequences from the mesophilic Vibrio\\/Photobacterium\\u000a branch of the gamma-Proteobacteria (Vibrionaceae family). In our comparative exploration we employed alignment based bioinformatical and statistical methods. Interesting\\u000a information was found in the substitution matrices, and the pattern of asymmetries in the amino

  8. Identification of a TFL1 ortholog in Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoya Esumi; Yuto Kitamura; Chiya Hagihara; Hisayo Yamane; Ryutaro Tao

    2010-01-01

    PmTFL1, Prunus mume ortholog of TFL1 (TERMINAL FLOWER 1), was isolated and characterized to investigate the relationship to floral bud formation in Japanese apricot (P. mume). PmTFL1 consists of a 1251-bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes 172 amino acid residues, consisting of three introns and four exons. The PmTFL1 sequence shows high identity to Arabidopsis thaliana TFL1 and TFL1

  9. Transcript catalogs of human chromosome 21 and orthologous chimpanzee and mouse regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolu Sturgeon; Katheleen J. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive representation of the gene content of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21q) remains of interest for\\u000a the study of Down syndrome, its associated phenotypic features, and mouse models. Here we compare transcript catalogs for\\u000a Hsa21q, chimpanzee chromosome 21 (Ptr21q), and orthologous regions of mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10 for open reading frame\\u000a (ORF) characteristics and

  10. Cosuppression and RNAi induced by Arabidopsis ortholog gene sequences in tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichiro Oka; Kaoru Midorikawa; Hiroaki Kodama

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis ?-3 fatty acid desaturase (AtFAD7) catalyzes the synthesis of trienoic fatty acids (TA). A transgenic tobacco line, T15,\\u000a was produced by a sense AtFAD7 construct and showed a cosuppression-like phenotype, namely extremely low TA levels. The sequence similarity between AtFAD7 and a tobacco ortholog gene, NtFAD7, was moderate (about 69%) in the coding sequences. AtFAD7 siRNAs accumulated at

  11. Orthologs of the Arabidopsis CLAVATA1 Gene in the Cultivated Brassicaceae Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Martynov; I. L. Tsvetkov; E. E. Khavkin

    2004-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica

  12. Rock, Paper, Scissors: Harnessing Complementarity in Ortholog Detection Methods Improves Comparative Genomic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Maher, M. Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Ortholog detection (OD) is a lynchpin of most statistical methods in comparative genomics. This task involves accurately identifying genes across species that descend from a common ancestral sequence. OD methods comprise a wide variety of approaches, each with their own benefits and costs under a variety of evolutionary and practical scenarios. In this article, we examine the proteomes of ten mammals by using four methodologically distinct, rigorously filtered OD methods. In head-to-head comparisons, we find that these algorithms significantly outperform one another for 38–45% of the genes analyzed. We leverage this high complementarity through the development MOSAIC, or Multiple Orthologous Sequence Analysis and Integration by Cluster optimization, the first tool for integrating methodologically diverse OD methods. Relative to the four methods examined, MOSAIC more than quintuples the number of alignments for which all species are present while simultaneously maintaining or improving functional-, phylogenetic-, and sequence identity-based measures of ortholog quality. Further, this improvement in alignment quality yields more confidently aligned sites and higher levels of overall conservation, while simultaneously detecting of up to 180% more positively selected sites. We close by highlighting a MOSAIC-specific positively selected sites near the active site of TPSAB1, an enzyme linked to asthma, heart disease, and irritable bowel disease. MOSAIC alignments, source code, and full documentation are available at http://pythonhosted.org/bio-MOSAIC. PMID:25711833

  13. Molecular dissection of the genetic mechanisms that underlie expression conservation in orthologous yeast ribosomal promoters

    PubMed Central

    Zeevi, Danny; Lubliner, Shai; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Hodis, Eran; Vesterman, Rita; Weinberger, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a surprising phenomenon, whereby orthologous regulatory regions from different species drive similar expression levels despite being highly diverged in sequence. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by genomically integrating hundreds of ribosomal protein (RP) promoters from nine different yeast species into S. cerevisiae and accurately measuring their activity. We found that orthologous RP promoters have extreme expression conservation even across evolutionarily distinct yeast species. Notably, our measurements reveal two distinct mechanisms that underlie this conservation and which act in different regions of the promoter. In the core promoter region, we found compensatory changes, whereby effects of sequence variations in one part of the core promoter were reversed by variations in another part. In contrast, we observed robustness in Rap1 transcription factor binding sites, whereby significant sequence variations had little effect on promoter activity. Finally, cases in which orthologous promoter activities were not conserved could largely be explained by the sequence variation within the core promoter. Together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which expression is conserved throughout evolution across diverged promoter sequences. PMID:25294245

  14. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Pe?ko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. PMID:24953751

  15. PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/. PMID:24250218

  16. OrthoDB v8: update of the hierarchical catalog of orthologs and the underlying free software

    PubMed Central

    Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Petty, Tom J.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Simăo, Felipe A.; Pozdnyakov, Igor A.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.

    2015-01-01

    Orthology, refining the concept of homology, is the cornerstone of evolutionary comparative studies. With the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, inference of orthology has become instrumental for generating hypotheses about gene functions crucial to many studies. This update of the OrthoDB hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org) covers 3027 complete genomes, including the most comprehensive set of 87 arthropods, 61 vertebrates, 227 fungi and 2627 bacteria (sampling the most complete and representative genomes from over 11,000 available). In addition to the most extensive integration of functional annotations from UniProt, InterPro, GO, OMIM, model organism phenotypes and COG functional categories, OrthoDB uniquely provides evolutionary annotations including rates of ortholog sequence divergence, copy-number profiles, sibling groups and gene architectures. We re-designed the entirety of the OrthoDB website from the underlying technology to the user interface, enabling the user to specify species of interest and to select the relevant orthology level by the NCBI taxonomy. The text searches allow use of complex logic with various identifiers of genes, proteins, domains, ontologies or annotation keywords and phrases. Gene copy-number profiles can also be queried. This release comes with the freely available underlying ortholog clustering pipeline (http://www.orthodb.org/software). PMID:25428351

  17. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

    PubMed Central

    Telmo, Paula de Lima; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; dos Santos, Cristina Araújo; de Aguiar, Patrícia de Souza; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts. PMID:25651332

  18. Comparative Manipulation-Test Performance in Ten-Week-Old Wolves (Canis lupus) and Alaskan Malamutes (Canis familiaris ): A Piagetian Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Frank; Martha Gialdini Frank

    1985-01-01

    Four 10-week-old Eastern timber wolves (Canis lupus lycaon) and four 10-week-old malamutes (C. familiaris) were presented a series of puzzle boxes that required them to perform increasingly complex manipulations in order to extract a food dish. Wolves averaged 5.8 successes in eight trials, and malamutes averaged 1.5 successes. This difference was significant at the .05 level, which supports Frank's (1980)

  19. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaďa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections. PMID:25583345

  20. Persistent airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Persistent airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in Toxocara canis- infected BALB/c mice E-responsiveness (AHR) that persisted up to 30 days p.i. Pulmonary inflammation as well as increased levels of Ig the persistent pulmonary inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity, eosinophilia and increased IgE production

  1. Killing of a muskox, Ovibus moschatus, by two wolves, Canis lupis, and subsequent caching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed

  2. The Canis Major dwarf galaxy as the progenitor of the Monoceros tidal stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Martínez-Delgado; J. Peńarrubia; D. I. Dinescu; D. J. Butler; H. W. Rix

    2005-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has recently discovered a coherent ring of stars at low galactic latitude that is believed to be the tidal stream of a merging dwarf galaxy in the Galactic plane (named the Monoceros tidal stream). The existence and location of the core of its progenitor galaxy is still controversial. The best candidate is the Canis Major

  3. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Corręa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A. Zevallos; dos Santos, Sergio Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

  4. The increasing role of Microsporum canis in the variety of dermatophytic manifestations reported from Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Alteras; E. J. Feuerman; M. David; Rina Segal

    1986-01-01

    During a period of 8 years 300 cases of dermatophytoses involving both hairy areas and the glabrous skin were found to be caused by M. canis. There was scalp involvement in 60%, including 8 infants and 27 adults; most of the adults presented Kerion-like lesions and presented various clinical aspects such as seborrhea capitis, folliculitis and discois lupus erythematosus. In

  5. Tinea corporis caused by Microsporum canis : Report of a Nosocomial outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Shah; S. Krajden; J. Kane; R. C. Summerbell

    1988-01-01

    In an unusual nosocomial outbreak, 13 staff and 11 patients in an acute and chronic health care facility were infected with the zoophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum canis. The dermatophyte was apparently introduced into the facility by a single infected patient. Likely modes of subsequent disease transmission include person-to-person contact, handling of contaminated laundry, and use of a shared razor. Infection control

  6. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis and of Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichia Infection in Dogs in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Pusterla, Jeannine Berger; Deplazes, Peter; Wolfensberger, Celestine; Müller, Werner; Hörauf, Angelika; Reusch, Claudia; Lutz, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Serum samples from 996 dogs in Switzerland were examined for antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and to the agent causing canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE). Ehrlichiosis, borreliosis, and systemic illness not associated with ticks were suspected in 75, 122, and 157 of these dogs, respectively. The remainder of the serum samples were obtained from clinically healthy dogs which resided north (n = 235) or south (n = 407) of the Alps. The serum samples were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence technique for antibodies to the two agents incriminated, E. canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila, a surrogate marker of the agent of CGE. Twenty-two of 996 (2.2%) serum samples had antibodies to E. canis and were distributed as follows: 20 of 75 (26.7%) samples from dogs suspected of having ehrlichiosis, 1 of 122 (0.8%) from dogs suspected of having borreliosis, and 1 of 407 (0.2%) from healthy dogs which resided south of the Alps. Of the 75 (7.5%) serum samples that had antibodies to E. phagocytophila, significantly more samples were from ill dogs than from healthy dogs. Among the sera from healthy dogs, antibodies to E. phagocytophila were significantly more prevalent in the north. Because seropositive dogs had a history of travel outside Switzerland and because Rhipicephalus sanguineus is found exclusively south of the Alps, it was presumed that, in contrast to the agent of CGE, E. canis is not indigenous to Switzerland. PMID:9817854

  7. Human Listeners Are Able to Classify Dog (Canis familiaris) Barks Recorded in Different Situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Péter Pongrácz; Csaba Molnár; Ádám Miklósi; Vilmos Csányi

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether human listeners could categorize played-back dog (Canis familiaris) barks recorded in various situations and associate them with emotional ratings. Prerecorded barks of a Hungarian herding dog breed (Mudi) provided the sample. Human listeners were asked to rate emotionality of the vocalization and to categorize the situations on the basis of alternative situations provided on a questionnaire.

  8. Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Use Human and Conspecific Social Cues to Locate Hidden Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Hare; Michael Tomasello

    1999-01-01

    Ten domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different breeds and ages were exposed to 2 different social cues indicating the location of hidden food, each provided by both a human informant and a conspecific informant (for a total of 4 different social cues). For the local enhancement cue, the informant approached the location where food was hidden and then stayed beside

  9. Effect of Sociality and Season on Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Foraging Behavior: Implications for Estimating Summer

    E-print Network

    Effect of Sociality and Season on Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Foraging Behavior: Implications University, Houghton, Michigan, United States of America, 2 Yellowstone Wolf Project, Yellowstone Center/Principal Findings: For several wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park, we used pairs of collared wolves living

  10. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  11. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  12. An updated description of the New Guinea singing dog (Canis hallstromi, Troughton 1957)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Koler-Matznick; I. Lehr Brisbin; Mark Feinstein; Susan Bulmer

    2003-01-01

    In 1957, Troughton described the wild dog of New Guinea, naming it Canis hallstromi .H ere the description given by Troughton is expanded by the addition of morphological, molecular and behavioural information collected from both captive and wild New Guinea singing dogs subsequent to the original description. The data support Troughton's identification of this canid as a unique taxon, although

  13. Interrelationships of dogs ( Canis familiaris) and cats ( Felis catus L.) living under the same roof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Feuerstein; Joseph Terkel

    2008-01-01

    In the process of domestication, dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) have undergone thousands of years of genetic changes that have adapted them to the human environment. Both species have acquired a global distribution and it has become quite common to find homes with the two living side by side. Nevertheless, there is widespread belief that interspecific communication between

  14. Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

    E-print Network

    Josephs, Robert

    Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Amanda C not been examined. In a study of a dog agility competition among human/dog teams, men's pre-competition basal testosterone (T) levels were positively related to changes in dogs' cortisol levels from pre

  15. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I toward Sirius A. We show that if such a high value exists, it cannot result from the EUV stellar radiation field and, therefore, must be due to a strong diffuse source of EUV radiation.

  16. Increasing the precision of orthology-based complex prediction through network alignment

    PubMed Central

    Aloy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular assemblies play an important role in almost all cellular processes. However, despite several large-scale studies, our current knowledge about protein complexes is still quite limited, thus advocating the use of in silico predictions to gather information on complex composition in model organisms. Since protein–protein interactions present certain constraints on the functional divergence of macromolecular assemblies during evolution, it is possible to predict complexes based on orthology data. Here, we show that incorporating interaction information through network alignment significantly increases the precision of orthology-based complex prediction. Moreover, we performed a large-scale in silico screen for protein complexes in human, yeast and fly, through the alignment of hundreds of known complexes to whole organism interactomes. Systematic comparison of the resulting network alignments to all complexes currently known in those species revealed many conserved complexes, as well as several novel complex components. In addition to validating our predictions using orthogonal data, we were able to assign specific functional roles to the predicted complexes. In several cases, the incorporation of interaction data through network alignment allowed to distinguish real complex components from other orthologous proteins. Our analyses indicate that current knowledge of yeast protein complexes exceeds that in other organisms and that predicting complexes in fly based on human and yeast data is complementary rather than redundant. Lastly, assessing the conservation of protein complexes of the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we discovered that its complexes repertoire is different from that of eukaryotes, suggesting new points of therapeutic intervention, whereas targeting the pathogen’s Restriction enzyme complex might lead to adverse effects due to its similarity to ATP-dependent metalloproteases in the human host. PMID:24918034

  17. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs. PMID:24655375

  18. Cloning of a FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog in Wasabia japonica (Matsum).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nozue, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog (WjFT) was identified in Wasabia japonica. Heterologous expression of WjFT remarkably promoted the flowering of Arabidopsis. The expression of WjFT was examined in field-grown wasabi in October and November of 2009, and February of 2010 because the differentiation of flower buds occurs in autumn in field-grown wasabi. No expression of WjFT was detected in October, it was slightly increased in November, and highly increased in February. WjFT might be useful for examining the flowering response of wasabi. PMID:21897023

  19. GeConT 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Guerrero, C. E.; Ciria, R.; Abreu-Goodger, C.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Merino, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Context Tool (GeConT) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5? or 3? regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. GeConT 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont. PMID:18511460

  20. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P?canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks. PMID:23812601

  1. OrthoVenn: a web server for genome wide comparison and annotation of orthologous clusters across multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Chen, Guoping; Gu, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide analysis of orthologous clusters is an important component of comparative genomics studies. Identifying the overlap among orthologous clusters can enable us to elucidate the function and evolution of proteins across multiple species. Here, we report a web platform named OrthoVenn that is useful for genome wide comparisons and visualization of orthologous clusters. OrthoVenn provides coverage of vertebrates, metazoa, protists, fungi, plants and bacteria for the comparison of orthologous clusters and also supports uploading of customized protein sequences from user-defined species. An interactive Venn diagram, summary counts, and functional summaries of the disjunction and intersection of clusters shared between species are displayed as part of the OrthoVenn result. OrthoVenn also includes in-depth views of the clusters using various sequence analysis tools. Furthermore, OrthoVenn identifies orthologous clusters of single copy genes and allows for a customized search of clusters of specific genes through key words or BLAST. OrthoVenn is an efficient and user-friendly web server freely accessible at http://probes.pw.usda.gov/OrthoVenn or http://aegilops.wheat.ucdavis.edu/OrthoVenn. PMID:25964301

  2. OrthoVenn: a web server for genome wide comparison and annotation of orthologous clusters across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Chen, Guoping; Gu, Yong Q

    2015-07-01

    Genome wide analysis of orthologous clusters is an important component of comparative genomics studies. Identifying the overlap among orthologous clusters can enable us to elucidate the function and evolution of proteins across multiple species. Here, we report a web platform named OrthoVenn that is useful for genome wide comparisons and visualization of orthologous clusters. OrthoVenn provides coverage of vertebrates, metazoa, protists, fungi, plants and bacteria for the comparison of orthologous clusters and also supports uploading of customized protein sequences from user-defined species. An interactive Venn diagram, summary counts, and functional summaries of the disjunction and intersection of clusters shared between species are displayed as part of the OrthoVenn result. OrthoVenn also includes in-depth views of the clusters using various sequence analysis tools. Furthermore, OrthoVenn identifies orthologous clusters of single copy genes and allows for a customized search of clusters of specific genes through key words or BLAST. OrthoVenn is an efficient and user-friendly web server freely accessible at http://probes.pw.usda.gov/OrthoVenn or http://aegilops.wheat.ucdavis.edu/OrthoVenn. PMID:25964301

  3. The PhyloFacts FAT-CAT web server: ortholog identification and function prediction using fast approximate tree classification.

    PubMed

    Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Samad, Bushra; Dineen, David; Meacham, Christopher; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2013-07-01

    The PhyloFacts 'Fast Approximate Tree Classification' (FAT-CAT) web server provides a novel approach to ortholog identification using subtree hidden Markov model-based placement of protein sequences to phylogenomic orthology groups in the PhyloFacts database. Results on a data set of microbial, plant and animal proteins demonstrate FAT-CAT's high precision at separating orthologs and paralogs and robustness to promiscuous domains. We also present results documenting the precision of ortholog identification based on subtree hidden Markov model scoring. The FAT-CAT phylogenetic placement is used to derive a functional annotation for the query, including confidence scores and drill-down capabilities. PhyloFacts' broad taxonomic and functional coverage, with >7.3 M proteins from across the Tree of Life, enables FAT-CAT to predict orthologs and assign function for most sequence inputs. Four pipeline parameter presets are provided to handle different sequence types, including partial sequences and proteins containing promiscuous domains; users can also modify individual parameters. PhyloFacts trees matching the query can be viewed interactively online using the PhyloScope Javascript tree viewer and are hyperlinked to various external databases. The FAT-CAT web server is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/fatcat/. PMID:23685612

  4. The Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR Ortholog Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Protein with Roles during Development

    PubMed Central

    Deckstein, Jaqueline; van Appeldorn, Jennifer; Tsangarides, Marios; Yiannakou, Kyriacos; Müller, Rolf; Stumpf, Maria; Sukumaran, Salil K.; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR (Golgi pH regulator)/Gpr89 is a developmentally regulated transmembrane protein present on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Transcript levels are low during growth and vary during development, reaching high levels during the aggregation and late developmental stages. The Arabidopsis ortholog was described as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for abscisic acid present at the plasma membrane, whereas the mammalian ortholog is a Golgi apparatus-associated anion channel functioning as a Golgi apparatus pH regulator. To probe its role in D. discoideum, we generated a strain lacking GPHR. The mutant had different growth characteristics than the AX2 parent strain, exhibited changes during late development, and formed abnormally shaped small slugs and fruiting bodies. An analysis of development-specific markers revealed that their expression was disturbed. The distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered at the immunofluorescence level. Likewise, their functions did not appear to be impaired, since membrane proteins were properly processed and glycosylated. Also, changes in the external pH were sensed by the ER, as indicated by a pH-sensitive ER probe, as in the wild type. PMID:25380752

  5. Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

    2011-08-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

  6. Human and chicken TLR pathways: manual curation and computer-based orthology analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Marc; Shamovsky, Veronica; D’Eustachio, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide an evolutionarily well-conserved first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In the Reactome Knowledgebase we previously integrated annotations of human TLR molecular functions with those of over 4000 other human proteins involved in processes such as adaptive immunity, DNA replication, signaling, and intermediary metabolism, and have linked these annotations to external resources, including PubMed, UniProt, EntrezGene, Ensembl, and the Gene Ontology to generate a resource suitable for data mining, pathway analysis, and other systems biology approaches. We have now used a combination of manual expert curation and computer-based orthology analysis to generate a set of annotations for TLR molecular function in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Mammalian and avian lineages diverged approximately 300 million years ago, and the avian TLR repertoire consists of both orthologs and distinct new genes. The work described here centers on the molecular biology of TLR3, the host receptor that mediates responses to viral and other doubled-stranded polynucleotides, as a paradigm for our approach to integrated manual and computationally based annotation and data analysis. It tests the quality of computationally generated annotations projected from human onto other species and supports a systems biology approach to analysis of virus-activated signaling pathways and identification of clinically useful antiviral measures. PMID:21052677

  7. KEGG OC: a large-scale automatic construction of taxonomy-based ortholog clusters.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Katayama, Toshiaki; Itoh, Masumi; Hiranuka, Kazushi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Moriya, Yuki; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Michihiro; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Akiyasu C; Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The identification of orthologous genes in an increasing number of fully sequenced genomes is a challenging issue in recent genome science. Here we present KEGG OC (http://www.genome.jp/tools/oc/), a novel database of ortholog clusters (OCs). The current version of KEGG OC contains 1 176 030 OCs, obtained by clustering 8 357 175 genes in 2112 complete genomes (153 eukaryotes, 1830 bacteria and 129 archaea). The OCs were constructed by applying the quasi-clique-based clustering method to all possible protein coding genes in all complete genomes, based on their amino acid sequence similarities. It is computationally efficient to calculate OCs, which enables to regularly update the contents. KEGG OC has the following two features: (i) It consists of all complete genomes of a wide variety of organisms from three domains of life, and the number of organisms is the largest among the existing databases; and (ii) It is compatible with the KEGG database by sharing the same sets of genes and identifiers, which leads to seamless integration of OCs with useful components in KEGG such as biological pathways, pathway modules, functional hierarchy, diseases and drugs. The KEGG OC resources are accessible via OC Viewer that provides an interactive visualization of OCs at different taxonomic levels. PMID:23193276

  8. The Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR ortholog is an endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi protein with roles during development.

    PubMed

    Deckstein, Jaqueline; van Appeldorn, Jennifer; Tsangarides, Marios; Yiannakou, Kyriacos; Müller, Rolf; Stumpf, Maria; Sukumaran, Salil K; Eichinger, Ludwig; Noegel, Angelika A; Riyahi, Tanja Y

    2015-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR (Golgi pH regulator)/Gpr89 is a developmentally regulated transmembrane protein present on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Transcript levels are low during growth and vary during development, reaching high levels during the aggregation and late developmental stages. The Arabidopsis ortholog was described as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for abscisic acid present at the plasma membrane, whereas the mammalian ortholog is a Golgi apparatus-associated anion channel functioning as a Golgi apparatus pH regulator. To probe its role in D. discoideum, we generated a strain lacking GPHR. The mutant had different growth characteristics than the AX2 parent strain, exhibited changes during late development, and formed abnormally shaped small slugs and fruiting bodies. An analysis of development-specific markers revealed that their expression was disturbed. The distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered at the immunofluorescence level. Likewise, their functions did not appear to be impaired, since membrane proteins were properly processed and glycosylated. Also, changes in the external pH were sensed by the ER, as indicated by a pH-sensitive ER probe, as in the wild type. PMID:25380752

  9. Membrane Thickness Sensitivity of Prestin Orthologs: The Evolution of a Piezoelectric Protein

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Chisako; Bird, Jonathan E.; Iwasa, Kuni H.

    2011-01-01

    How proteins evolve new functionality is an important question in biology; prestin (SLC26A5) is a case in point. Prestin drives outer hair cell somatic motility and amplifies mechanical vibrations in the mammalian cochlea. The motility of mammalian prestin is analogous to piezoelectricity, in which charge transfer is coupled to changes in membrane area occupied by the protein. Intriguingly, nonmammalian prestin orthologs function as anion exchangers but are apparently nonmotile. We previously found that mammalian prestin is sensitive to membrane thickness, suggesting that prestin's extended conformation has a thinner hydrophobic height in the lipid bilayer. Because prestin-based motility is a mammalian specialization, we initially hypothesized that nonmotile prestin orthologs, while functioning as anion transporters, should be much less sensitive to membrane thickness. We found the exact opposite to be true. Chicken prestin was the most sensitive to thickness changes, displaying the largest shift in voltage dependence. Platypus prestin displayed an intermediate response to membrane thickness and gerbil prestin was the least sensitive. To explain these observations, we present a theory where force production, rather than displacement, was selected for the evolution of prestin as a piezoelectric membrane motor. PMID:21641306

  10. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Laura; Webel, Rike; Wagner, Sabrina; Hamilton, Stuart T.; Rawlinson, William D.; Sticht, Heinrich; Marschall, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins. PMID:24351800

  11. Orthologous Gene Clusters and Taxon Signature Genes for Viruses of Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, David M.; Waller, Alison S.; Yamada, Takuji; Bork, Peer; Mushegian, Arcady R.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and encompass a vast amount of genetic diversity. The recent rapid increase in the number of sequenced viral genomes has created unprecedented opportunities for gaining new insight into the structure and evolution of the virosphere. Here, we present an update of the phage orthologous groups (POGs), a collection of 4,542 clusters of orthologous genes from bacteriophages that now also includes viruses infecting archaea and encompasses more than 1,000 distinct virus genomes. Analysis of this expanded data set shows that the number of POGs keeps growing without saturation and that a substantial majority of the POGs remain specific to viruses, lacking homologues in prokaryotic cells, outside known proviruses. Thus, the great majority of virus genes apparently remains to be discovered. A complementary observation is that numerous viral genomes remain poorly, if at all, covered by POGs. The genome coverage by POGs is expected to increase as more genomes are sequenced. Taxon-specific, single-copy signature genes that are not observed in prokaryotic genomes outside detected proviruses were identified for two-thirds of the 57 taxa (those with genomes available from at least 3 distinct viruses), with half of these present in all members of the respective taxon. These signatures can be used to specifically identify the presence and quantify the abundance of viruses from particular taxa in metagenomic samples and thus gain new insights into the ecology and evolution of viruses in relation to their hosts. PMID:23222723

  12. miR-1322 Binding Sites in Paralogous and Orthologous Genes

    PubMed Central

    Niyazova, Raigul; Berillo, Olga; Atambayeva, Shara; Pyrkova, Anna; Alybayeva, Aigul; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We searched for 2,563 microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in 17,494 mRNA sequences of human genes. miR-1322 has more than 2,000 binding sites in 1,058 genes with ?G/?Gm ratio of 85% and more. miR-1322 has 1,889 binding sites in CDSs, 215 binding sites in 5? UTRs, and 160 binding sites in 3? UTRs. From two to 28 binding sites have arranged localization with the start position through three nucleotides of each following binding site. The nucleotide sequences of these sites in CDSs encode oligopeptides with the same and/or different amino acid sequences. We found that 33% of the target genes encoded transcription factors. miR-1322 has arranged binding sites in the CDSs of orthologous MAMLD1, MAML2, and MAML3 genes. These sites encode a polyglutamine oligopeptide ranging from six to 47 amino acids in length. The properties of miR-1322 binding sites in orthologous and paralogous target genes are discussed.

  13. First records of Trichodectes canis (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from Darwin’s fox, Pseudalopex fulvipes (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel González-Acuńa; Cristóbal Briceńo; Armando Cicchino; Stephan M. Funk; Jaime Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the dog biting louse, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778; Ischnocera: Trichodectidae), is reported for the first time in the critically endangered Pseudalopex fulvipes (Martin, 1837) in Chiloé Island, south Chile.

  14. In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates.

    PubMed

    Zweygarth, Erich; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, Antoinette I; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matjila, Paul T; Lis, Katarzyna; Broniszewska, Marzena; Schöl, Heidrun; Ferrolho, Joana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia M F

    2014-06-01

    Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is an obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative tick-borne bacterium belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. E. canis is distributed worldwide and can cause serious and fatal infections in dogs. Among strains of E. canis, the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences are highly conserved. Using this gene to genetically differentiate isolates is therefore difficult. As an alternative, the gene gp36, which encodes for a major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, has been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of this pathogen. The present study describes the isolation and continuous propagation of a Spanish and 2 South African isolates of E. canis in IDE8 tick cells. Subsequently, canine DH82 cell cultures were infected using initial bodies obtained from infected IDE8 cultures. It was possible to mimic the life cycle of E. canis in vitro by transferring infection from tick cells to canine cells and back again. To characterize these E. canis strains at the molecular level, the 16S rRNA and gp36 genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and aligned with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. All 16S rRNA sequences amplified in this study were identical to previously reported E. canis strains. Maximum likelihood analysis based on the gp36 amino acid sequences showed that the South African and Spanish strains fall into 2 well-defined phylogenetic clusters amongst other E. canis strains. The members of these 2 phylogenetic clusters shared 2 unique molecular properties in the gp36 amino acid sequences: (i) deletion of glycine 117 and (ii) the presence of an additional putative N-linked glycosylation site. We further show correlation between the putative secondary structure and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of the gp36 amino acid sequences. A putative role of gp36 as an adhesin in E. canis is discussed. Overall, we report the successful in vitro culture of 3 new E. canis strains which present different molecular properties in their gp36 sequences. PMID:24713279

  15. Comparison of Nested PCR with Immunofluorescent-Antibody Assay for Detection of Ehrlichia canis Infection in Dogs Treated with Doxycycline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BOHAI WEN; YASUKO RIKIHISA; JASON M. MOTT; RUSSELL GREENE; HYUNG-YONG KIM; NING ZHI; GUILLERMO C. COUTO; AHMET UNVER; ROBERT BARTSCH

    1997-01-01

    A partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified in Ehrlichia canis-infected cells by nested PCR. The assay was specific and did not amplify the closely related Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris, Neorickettsia helminthoeca, and SF agent 16S rRNA genes. The assay was as sensitive as Southern hybridization, detecting as little as 0.2 pg of E. canis DNA. By this method, all blood

  16. Serological evidence for Babesia canis infection of horses and an endemic focus of B. caballi in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, S; Edelhofer, Renate; Földvári, G; Joachim, Anja; Farkas, R

    2007-12-01

    In order to evaluate the seroconversion of horses to Babesia caballi and B. canis in Hungary, blood samples were collected from 371 animals on 23 different locations of the country. The presence of antibodies to B. caballi was screened with a competitive ELISA. All 29 positive samples came from one region (the Hortobágy). The prevalence of infection did not show correlation with sexes, and reached 100% in the age group of 2-5 years. Babesia canis-specific antibodies were demonstrated by IFAT in 6.74% of animals kept in 7 regions. The titres were low or medium level (1:40 to 1:160), indicating that the horses had previously been exposed to this piroplasm, but their infection must have been limited. The highest seropositivity rate was observed in the age group of 3-4 years, and males (stallions and geldings) were significantly more frequently infected than females. However, neither B. caballi nor B. canis could be identified in the peripheral blood samples of infected horses by PCR. Since most of the B. caballi-positive horses remained negative in the B. canis IFAT, whereas seroconversion solely to B. canis was detected in several regions of the country, serological cross-reaction between the two species can be discounted. This is the first serological evidence of horses being naturally infected with B. canis, supporting the view that piroplasms are less host specific than previously thought. PMID:18277708

  17. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    ?irovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  18. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n?=?21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E.?canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:25956636

  19. Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati--is it possible?

    PubMed

    Poulsen, C S; Skov, S; Yoshida, A; Skallerup, P; Maruyama, H; Thamsborg, S M; Nejsum, P

    2015-04-01

    One of the most common zoonotic helminth infections is caused by species in the genus Toxocara, particularly Toxocara canis and T. cati (Syn. T. mystax). However, their relative contribution to toxocarosis in humans remains largely unknown because causative larvae are seldom recovered and uncertainties regarding the validity of existing serological assays. In this study, we used sera from a pig model experimentally infected with T. canis and T. cati to evaluate whether a Western blot could discriminate between the two species. No proteins were observed that could be used as a diagnostic tool. In addition, a heterogenic protein pattern between individual hosts was found, which was most pronounced in the T. cati-infected pigs. There is therefore an urgent need to optimize and validate current methods or develop new species-specific serological methods in order to implement appropriate control measures. PMID:25711956

  20. Comparison of Brucella canis genomes isolated from different countries shows multiple variable regions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Isaza, Juan Pablo; Alzate, Juan F; Olivera-Angel, Martha

    2015-07-01

    Brucella canis is a pathogenic bacterium for dogs and its zoonotic potential has been increasing in recent years. In this study, we report the sequencing, annotation and analysis of the genome of Brucella canis strain Oliveri isolated from a dog in a breeding kennel in Medellín, Colombia, South America. Whole genome shotgun sequencing was carried out using the ROCHE 454 GS FLX Titanium technology at the National Center for Genomic Sequencing-CNSG in Medellin, Colombia. The assembly procedure was performed using Newbler v2.6. In the genome annotation process, each contig was analyzed independently using as reference Brucella suis ATCC 1330 chromosomes. This new genome could be useful for the development of diagnostic tools and for vaccines search as well, in order to reduce the health impact of this infection in both, dogs and humans. The sequence was deposited in EMBL-EBI with accession numbers HG803175 and HG803176 for chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. PMID:25820207

  1. SCO5745, a bifunctional RNase J ortholog, affects antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha; Jones, George H

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5' monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5' triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

  2. SCO5745, a Bifunctional RNase J Ortholog, Affects Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5?-to-3? exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5? monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5? triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

  3. [Fe\\/H] and [(alpha)\\/Fe] abundances of the Canis Major galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Carney; David Martinez-Delgado; Jennifer Simmerer; John B. Laird; David W. Latham; David Yong

    2007-01-01

    We propose to use Hydra on the Blanco telescope to observe candidate red giant members of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy, in order to explore its detailed chemical history. By comparison with a very large grid of synthetic spectra, we expect to be able to derive V_rad, [Fe\\/H], and [(alpha)\\/Fe] from high-resolution but low-S\\/N spectra provided by Hydra. We seek

  4. The Canis Major dwarf galaxy as the progenitor of the Monoceros tidal stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Martinez-Delgado; Jorge Penarrubia; D. I. Dinescu; D. J. Butler; H. W. Rix

    2005-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has recently discovered a coherent ring of stars\\u000aat low galactic latitude that is believed to be the tidal stream of a merging\\u000adwarf galaxy in the Galactic plane (named the Monoceros tidal stream). The\\u000aexistence and location of the core of its progenitor galaxy is still\\u000acontroversial. The best candidate is the Canis Major

  5. Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves ( Canis lupus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENNIFER A. L EONARD; CARLES VILŔ; ROBERT K. W AYNE

    2005-01-01

    By the mid 20th century, the grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) was exterminated from most of the conterminous United States (cUS) and Mexico. However, because wolves disperse over long distances, extant populations in Canada and Alaska might have retained a substantial proportion of the genetic diversity once found in the cUS. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 34 pre-extermination

  6. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    PubMed Central

    Woldstad, Theresa M.; Dullen, Kimberly N.; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.

    2014-01-01

    Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T.?canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T.?canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10?cm by 10?cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers. PMID:25426419

  7. Endocrine predictors of mortality in canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis rossi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan P. Schoeman; Philip Rees; Michael E. Herrtage

    2007-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was designed to determine the association between the hormones of the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-thyroid axes and outcome in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia canis rossi babesiosis. Ninety-five dogs with canine babesiosis were studied and blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein in each dog prior to treatment at admission to hospital. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic

  8. Ultraviolet photometry with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite /ANS/ Observations of Beta Canis Majoris variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.; Wesselius, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with detailed ANS observations of three Beta Canis Majoris variables: Xi-1 CMa, HD 61068 (whose discovery is reported here) and 15 CMa. Light curves at five ultraviolet wavelengths are presented, and the periods and amplitudes are discussed. The ultraviolet colors are used to derive temperatures and temperature variations, which are compared with the MK spectral types. The anomalously high luminosity found for Xi-1 CMa on the basis of certain line strengths is also discussed.

  9. Cumulative effects of forestry on habitat use by gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) in the boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélina Houle; Daniel Fortin; Christian Dussault; Réhaume Courtois; Jean-Pierre Ouellet

    2010-01-01

    Forest harvesting involves the creation of roads and cutblocks, both of which can influence animal habitat use. We evaluated\\u000a the cumulative effects of forestry on habitat selection by six packs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) widely distributed in Quebec’s boreal forest. Resource selection functions were used to evaluate cumulative effects at two\\u000a levels. First, we studied how the response of

  10. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

  11. inGeno – an integrated genome and ortholog viewer for improved genome to genome comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Background Systematic genome comparisons are an important tool to reveal gene functions, pathogenic features, metabolic pathways and genome evolution in the era of post-genomics. Furthermore, such comparisons provide important clues for vaccines and drug development. Existing genome comparison software often lacks accurate information on orthologs, the function of similar genes identified and genome-wide reports and lists on specific functions. All these features and further analyses are provided here in the context of a modular software tool "inGeno" written in Java with Biojava subroutines. Results InGeno provides a user-friendly interactive visualization platform for sequence comparisons (comprehensive reciprocal protein – protein comparisons) between complete genome sequences and all associated annotations and features. The comparison data can be acquired from several different sequence analysis programs in flexible formats. Automatic dot-plot analysis includes output reduction, filtering, ortholog testing and linear regression, followed by smart clustering (local collinear blocks; LCBs) to reveal similar genome regions. Further, the system provides genome alignment and visualization editor, collinear relationships and strain-specific islands. Specific annotations and functions are parsed, recognized, clustered, logically concatenated and visualized and summarized in reports. Conclusion As shown in this study, inGeno can be applied to study and compare in particular prokaryotic genomes against each other (gram positive and negative as well as close and more distantly related species) and has been proven to be sensitive and accurate. This modular software is user-friendly and easily accommodates new routines to meet specific user-defined requirements. PMID:17054788

  12. Molecular cloning and DNA binding characterization of DAF-16 orthologs from Ancylostoma hookworms?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Frank, Daniel; Hawdon, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Infective hookworm L3s encounter a host-specific signal during infection that re-initiates a suspended developmental pathway, resulting in development to the adult stage. This resumption of development in the host is analogous to recovery of developmentally arrested Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae in response to favorable environmental signals. Dauer recovery in C. elegans dauers and hookworm L3s is mediated by insulin-like signaling (ILS). A key output of ILS in C. elegans is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16, which controls the expression of genes required for maintenance of the dauer stage. The similarity between recovery pathways of L3s and dauers suggests that DAF-16 functions similarly in hookworm L3 activation. To test this, orthologs of Ce-DAF-16 were isolated from the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The protein sequences of hookworm DAF-16 DNA binding domains were identical, and shared 94% identity with the b and c isoforms of Ce-DAF-16. Ac-DAF-16 expressed in HEK293 kidney cells bound strongly to the conserved DAF family binding element (DBE), but not to a random DNA sequence. Ac-DAF-16 was able to drive transcription of a reporter gene located downstream of six copies of the DBE in NIH3T3 cells under starved conditions. Addition of serum caused a decrease in reporter gene expression, indicating that DAF-16 is negatively regulated by growth factor stimulation. These data confirm the presence of DAF-16 orthologs in hookworms, and demonstrate that Ac-DAF-16 binds to and drives transcription from a conserved DAF-16 family DNA binding element. PMID:18930062

  13. Membrane topology and cellular location of the Treponema pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) ortholog.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, D V; Sellati, T J; Cox, D L; Shevchenko, O V; Robinson, E J; Radolf, J D

    1999-05-01

    Recent reports that isolated Treponema pallidum outer membranes contain an ortholog for glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) (D. V. Shevchenko, D. R. Akins, E. J. Robinson, M. Li, O. V. Shevchenko, and J. D. Radolf, Infect. Immun. 65:4179-4189, 1997) and that this protein is a potential opsonic target for T. pallidum (C. E. Stebeck, J. M. Shaffer, T. W. Arroll, S. A. Lukehart, and W. C. Van Voorhis, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 154:303-310, 1997) prompted a more detailed investigation of its physicochemical properties and cellular location. [14C]palmitate radiolabeling studies of a GlpQ-alkaline phosphatase fusion expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed the prediction from DNA sequencing that the protein is lipid modified. Studies using Triton X-114 phase partitioning revealed that the protein's amphiphilicity is due to lipid modification and that a substantial portion of the polypeptide is associated with the T. pallidum peptidoglycan sacculus. Three different approaches, i.e., (i) proteinase K treatment of intact treponemes, (ii) indirect immunofluorescence analysis of treponemes encapsulated in agarose beads, and (iii) opsonophagocytosis of treponemes incubated with antiserum against recombinant GlpQ by rabbit peritoneal macrophages, confirmed that GlpQ is entirely subsurface in T. pallidum. Moreover, rabbits hyperimmunized with GlpQ were not protected against intradermal challenge with virulent treponemes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the recombinant form of the polypeptide lacked discernible evidence of denaturation. Finally, GlpQ was not radiolabeled when T. pallidum outer membranes were incubated with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)-diazarene, a photoactivatable, lipophilic probe which promiscuously labels both proteins and lipids within phospholipid bilayers. Taken as a whole, these studies indicate that the T. pallidum GlpQ ortholog is a periplasmic protein associated predominantly with the spirochete's peptidoglycan-cytoplasmic membrane complex. PMID:10225883

  14. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata Fernandes; Cerqueira, Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Ferreira, Eliane de Oliveira; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves; Barbosa, André Victor; Macieira, Daniel de Barros; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, all the clinical and hematological findings observed in these dogs were reported. PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used for diagnostic purposes, and the TRP19 and TRP36 genes were sequenced to evaluate the genetic diversity. Fifteen samples were positive for E. canis. The polymerase chain reaction for the TRP19 gene resulted in 11 amplicons (11/15), which were cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector for sequencing. The complete sequence of TRP19 gene was compared to those in the GenBank, revealing high identicalness. Phylogenetic analysis on the TRP36 gene sequences demonstrated two distinct strains from two dogs, named 56C and 70C. The 56C strain was grouped with the strain Cuiaba 16, which is a hybrid strain formed by Brazilian and US genogroups; and the 70C strain was grouped with other strains of the US genogroup, thus suggesting that there are at least two genogroups of E. canis in Rio de Janeiro (US and Brazilian). Those animals, in which the 70C and 56C strains were isolated, showed distinct clinical and hematological manifestations of the disease. The appearance of different genotypes may express new phenotypes, thus resulting in different forms of presentation of the disease and making its diagnosis more complex. PMID:25271448

  15. Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia. PMID:24039286

  16. Clinical babesiosis and molecular identification of Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Tomanovic, Snezana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2015-06-01

    Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia. PMID:26051258

  17. Immunopathological Changes in the Brain of Immunosuppressed Mice Experimentally Infected with Toxocara canis

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Mohamed M.; El-Kowrany, Samy I.; Othman, Ahmad A.; Gendy, Dina I. El; Saied, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted helminthozoonosis due to infection of humans by larvae of Toxocara canis. The disease could produce cognitive and behavioral disturbances especially in children. Meanwhile, in our modern era, the incidence of immunosuppression has been progressively increasing due to increased incidence of malignancy as well as increased use of immunosuppressive agents. The present study aimed at comparing some of the pathological and immunological alterations in the brain of normal and immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with T. canis. Therefore, 180 Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups including normal (control) group, immunocompetent T. canis-infected group, immunosuppressed group (control), and immunosuppressed infected group. Infected mice were subjected to larval counts in the brain, and the brains from all mice were assessed for histopathological changes, astrogliosis, and IL-5 mRNA expression levels in brain tissues. The results showed that under immunosuppression, there were significant increase in brain larval counts, significant enhancement of reactive gliosis, and significant reduction in IL-5 mRNA expression. All these changes were maximal in the chronic stage of infection. In conclusion, the immunopathological alterations in the brains of infected animals were progressive over time, and were exaggerated under the effect of immunosuppression as did the intensity of cerebral infection. PMID:25748709

  18. Immunopathological changes in the brain of immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mohamed M; El-Kowrany, Samy I; Othman, Ahmad A; El Gendy, Dina I; Saied, Eman M

    2015-02-01

    Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted helminthozoonosis due to infection of humans by larvae of Toxocara canis. The disease could produce cognitive and behavioral disturbances especially in children. Meanwhile, in our modern era, the incidence of immunosuppression has been progressively increasing due to increased incidence of malignancy as well as increased use of immunosuppressive agents. The present study aimed at comparing some of the pathological and immunological alterations in the brain of normal and immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with T. canis. Therefore, 180 Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups including normal (control) group, immunocompetent T. canis-infected group, immunosuppressed group (control), and immunosuppressed infected group. Infected mice were subjected to larval counts in the brain, and the brains from all mice were assessed for histopathological changes, astrogliosis, and IL-5 mRNA expression levels in brain tissues. The results showed that under immunosuppression, there were significant increase in brain larval counts, significant enhancement of reactive gliosis, and significant reduction in IL-5 mRNA expression. All these changes were maximal in the chronic stage of infection. In conclusion, the immunopathological alterations in the brains of infected animals were progressive over time, and were exaggerated under the effect of immunosuppression as did the intensity of cerebral infection. PMID:25748709

  19. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  20. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Nowak, R.M.; Weisberg, S.

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  1. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 ?g/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis. PMID:24530039

  2. Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2349964

  3. The C. elegans Zonula Occludens Ortholog ZOO-1 Cooperates with the Cadherin-Catenin Complex to Recruit Actin during

    E-print Network

    Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    The C. elegans Zonula Occludens Ortholog ZOO-1 Cooperates with the Cadherin-Catenin Complex embryo, we have characterized the sole C. elegans ZO family member, ZOO-1. ZOO-1 localizes proteins HMR- 1/E-cadherin and VAB-9/claudin, but surprisingly, not HMP-1/-catenin or HMP-2/-catenin. zoo-1

  4. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: Orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Drosophila melanogaster, three ABC transporters (white, scarlet and brown) are required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned one of the orthologous genes, Tc white (Tcw), from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translation of Tcw reveals that it is 52% identical t...

  5. Unresolved orthology and peculiar coding sequence properties of lamprey genes: the KCNA gene family as test case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In understanding the evolutionary process of vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lamprey) occupy crucial positions. Resolving molecular phylogenetic relationships of cyclostome genes with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) genes is indispensable in deciphering both the species tree and gene trees. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses, especially those including lamprey genes, have produced highly discordant results between gene families. To efficiently scrutinize this problem using partial genome assemblies of early vertebrates, we focused on the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related (KCNA) family, whose members are mostly single-exon. Results Seven sea lamprey KCNA genes as well as six elephant shark genes were identified, and their orthologies to bony vertebrate subgroups were assessed. In contrast to robustly supported orthology of the elephant shark genes to gnathostome subgroups, clear orthology of any sea lamprey gene could not be established. Notably, sea lamprey KCNA sequences displayed unique codon usage pattern and amino acid composition, probably associated with exceptionally high GC-content in their coding regions. This lamprey-specific property of coding sequences was also observed generally for genes outside this gene family. Conclusions Our results suggest that secondary modifications of sequence properties unique to the lamprey lineage may be one of the factors preventing robust orthology assessments of lamprey genes, which deserves further genome-wide validation. The lamprey lineage-specific alteration of protein-coding sequence properties needs to be taken into consideration in tackling the key questions about early vertebrate evolution. PMID:21699680

  6. Evolutionary Distance of Amino Acid Sequence Orthologs across Macaque Subspecies: Identifying Candidate Genes for SIV Resistance in Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Cody T.; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We use the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD) algorithm to identify amino acid sequence orthologs in the Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque draft sequences and estimate the evolutionary distance between such orthologs. We then use GOanna to map gene function annotations and human gene identifiers to the rhesus macaque amino acid sequences. We conclude methodologically by cross-tabulating a list of amino acid orthologs with large divergence scores with a list of genes known to be involved in SIV or HIV pathogenesis. We find that many of the amino acid sequences with large evolutionary divergence scores, as calculated by the RSD algorithm, have been shown to be related to HIV pathogenesis in previous laboratory studies. Four of the strongest candidate genes for SIVmac resistance in Chinese rhesus macaques identified in this study are CDK9, CXCL12, TRIM21, and TRIM32. Additionally, ANKRD30A, CTSZ, GORASP2, GTF2H1, IL13RA1, MUC16, NMDAR1, Notch1, NT5M, PDCD5, RAD50, and TM9SF2 were identified as possible candidates, among others. We failed to find many laboratory experiments contrasting the effects of Indian and Chinese orthologs at these sites on SIVmac pathogenesis, but future comparative studies might hold fertile ground for research into the biological mechanisms underlying innate resistance to SIVmac in Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:25884674

  7. THE retinoid-X receptor ORTHOLOG, ULTRASPIRACLE, BINDS WITH HIGH nanomolar AFFINITY TO AN ENDOGENOUS MORPHOGENETIC LIGAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vivo ligand binding function and ligand-binding activity of the Drosophila melanogaster RXR ortholog, ultraspiracle, toward natural farnesoid products of the ring gland were assessed. Using an equilibrium fluorescence binding assay, farnesoid products in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis ...

  8. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

  9. An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Habluetzel; G. Traldi; S. Ruggieri; A. R. Attili; P. Scuppa; R. Marchetti; G. Menghini; F. Esposito

    2003-01-01

    The human risk of infection with larvae of Toxocara canis was estimated in people from the Marche region of Italy. This region includes both urban and rural areas and its inhabitants frequently keep dogs for company, hunting, as guardians or shepherds. T. canis infection was diagnosed in 33.6% out of 295 dogs examined. Nearly half of the dogs (48.4%) living

  10. High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar) are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12) between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41). Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary. Estimated silent substitution rates were 1.28 × 10-9 and 1.68 × 10-9 per site and year, which are close to rates found in other perennials but much lower than rates in annuals. PMID:20178595

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PROBIOTIC Saccharomyces boulardii IN Toxocara canis INFECTION IS NOT DUE TO DIRECT ACTION ON THE LARVAE

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Glaeser, Thaís Aimeé; Conceiçăo, Fabricio Rochedo; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Scaini, Carlos James

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05). We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii. PMID:24037293

  12. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  13. LACK, a RACK1 ortholog, facilitates cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression to promote Leishmania major fitness.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Daviel; Carter, Pamela M; Nation, Catherine S; Pizarro, Juan C; Guidry, Jessie; Aiyar, Ashok; Kelly, Ben L

    2015-04-01

    Leishmania are kinetoplastid parasites that cause the sandfly-transmitted disease leishmaniasis. To maintain fitness throughout their infectious life cycle, Leishmania must undergo rapid metabolic adaptations to the dramatically distinct environments encountered during transition between sandfly and vertebrate hosts. We performed proteomic and immunoblot analyses of attenuated L.?major strains deficient for LACK, the Leishmania ortholog of the mammalian receptor for activated c kinase (RACK1), that is important for parasite thermotolerance and virulence. This approach identified cytochrome c oxidase (LmCOX) subunit IV as a LACK-dependent fitness protein. Consistent with decreased levels of LmCOX subunit IV at mammalian temperature, and in amastigotes, LmCOX activity and mitochondrial function were also impaired in LACK-deficient L.?major under these conditions. Importantly, overexpression of LmCOX subunit IV in LACK-deficient L.?major restored thermotolerance and macrophage infectivity. Interestingly, overexpression of LmCOX subunit IV enhanced LmCOX subunit VI expression at mammalian temperature. Collectively, our data suggest LACK promotes Leishmania adaptation to the mammalian host environment by sustaining LmCOX subunit IV expression and hence energy metabolism in response to stress stimuli such as heat. These findings extend the repertoire of RACK1 protein utility to include a role in mitochondrial function. PMID:25582232

  14. Genetical and comparative genomics of Brassica under altered Ca supply identifies Arabidopsis Ca-transporter orthologs.

    PubMed

    Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; Lysenko, Artem; Mayes, Sean; O Lochlainn, Seosamh; Blasco, Bego; Bowen, Helen C; Rawlings, Chris J; Rios, Juan J; Welham, Susan; Carion, Pierre W C; Dupuy, Lionel X; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-07-01

    Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization. PMID:25082855

  15. HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bollman, Krista M; Aukerman, Milo J; Park, Mee-Yeon; Hunter, Christine; Berardini, Tanya Z; Poethig, R Scott

    2003-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of HASTY (HST) affect many different processes in Arabidopsis development. In addition to reducing the size of both roots and lateral organs of the shoot, hst mutations affect the size of the shoot apical meristem, accelerate vegetative phase change, delay floral induction under short days, adaxialize leaves and carpels, disrupt the phyllotaxis of the inflorescence, and reduce fertility. Double mutant analysis suggests that HST acts in parallel to SQUINT in the regulation of phase change and in parallel to KANADI in the regulation of leaf polarity. Positional cloning demonstrated that HST is the Arabidopsis ortholog of the importin beta-like nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors exportin 5 in mammals and MSN5 in yeast. Consistent with a potential role in nucleocytoplasmic transport, we found that HST interacts with RAN1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and that a HST-GUS fusion protein is located at the periphery of the nucleus. HST is one of at least 17 members of the importin-beta family in Arabidopsis and is the first member of this family shown to have an essential function in plants. The hst loss-of-function phenotype suggests that this protein regulates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of molecules involved in several different morphogenetic pathways, as well as molecules generally required for root and shoot growth. PMID:12620976

  16. Localized expression of a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog in a coral embryo

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, David C.; Samuel, Gabrielle; Pontynen, Patricia C.; Catmull, Julian; Saint, Robert; Miller, David J.; Ball, Eldon E.

    2002-01-01

    As the closest outgroup to the Bilateria, the Phylum Cnidaria is likely to be critical to understanding the origins and evolution of body axes. Proteins of the decapentaplegic (DPP)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2/4 subfamily are central to the specification of the dorsoventral (D/V) axis in bilateral animals, albeit with an axis inversion between arthropods and chordates. We show that a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog (bmp2/4-Am) is present in the reef-building scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa) and that it is capable of causing phenotypic effects in Drosophila that mimic those of the endogenous dpp gene. We also show that, during coral embryonic development, bmp2/4-Am expression is localized in an ectodermal region adjacent to the blastopore. Thus, a representative of the DPP/BMP2/4 subfamily of ligands was present in the common ancestor of diploblastic and triploblastic animals where it was probably expressed in a localized fashion during development. A localized source of DPP/BMP2/4 may have already been used in axis formation in this ancestor, or it may have provided a means by which an axis could evolve in triploblastic animals. PMID:12048233

  17. Insights into the function of Mycoplasma pneumoniae protein P30 from orthologous gene replacement.

    PubMed

    Relich, Ryan F; Balish, Mitchell F

    2011-10-01

    The attachment organelles of bacterial species belonging to the Mycoplasma pneumoniae phylogenetic cluster are required for host cytadherence, gliding motility and virulence. Despite being closely related, these bacteria possess distinct cellular morphologies and gliding characteristics. The molecular mechanisms for most attachment organelle phenotypes, including shape and ability to power motility, are obscure. The attachment organelle-associated P30 protein of M. pneumoniae is implicated in both adherence and motility, with mutations negatively impacting cell morphology, adherence, gliding and virulence. To test whether the P30 alleles of different mycoplasma species confer species-specific attachment organelle properties, we created an M. pneumoniae strain in which the Mycoplasma genitalium P30 orthologue, P32, was substituted for the native P30. Selected clones were visualized by scanning electron microscopy to assess morphology and by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to localize P32. Cytadherence ability and gliding motility were assessed by haemadsorption assay and phase-contrast microcinematography, respectively. Cell and attachment organelle morphologies were indistinguishable from wild-type M. pneumoniae as well as M. pneumoniae II-3 expressing a C-terminally 6×His-tagged P30 construct. P32 was localized to the tip of the attachment organelle of transformant cells. Although a specific role for P30 in species-specific phenotypes was not identified, this first test of orthologous gene replacement in different mycoplasma species demonstrates that the differences in the M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium proteins contribute little if anything to the different attachment organelle phenotypes between these species. PMID:21778204

  18. Insights into the function of Mycoplasma pneumoniae protein P30 from orthologous gene replacement

    PubMed Central

    Relich, Ryan F.

    2011-01-01

    The attachment organelles of bacterial species belonging to the Mycoplasma pneumoniae phylogenetic cluster are required for host cytadherence, gliding motility and virulence. Despite being closely related, these bacteria possess distinct cellular morphologies and gliding characteristics. The molecular mechanisms for most attachment organelle phenotypes, including shape and ability to power motility, are obscure. The attachment organelle-associated P30 protein of M. pneumoniae is implicated in both adherence and motility, with mutations negatively impacting cell morphology, adherence, gliding and virulence. To test whether the P30 alleles of different mycoplasma species confer species-specific attachment organelle properties, we created an M. pneumoniae strain in which the Mycoplasma genitalium P30 orthologue, P32, was substituted for the native P30. Selected clones were visualized by scanning electron microscopy to assess morphology and by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to localize P32. Cytadherence ability and gliding motility were assessed by haemadsorption assay and phase-contrast microcinematography, respectively. Cell and attachment organelle morphologies were indistinguishable from wild-type M. pneumoniae as well as M. pneumoniae II-3 expressing a C-terminally 6×His-tagged P30 construct. P32 was localized to the tip of the attachment organelle of transformant cells. Although a specific role for P30 in species-specific phenotypes was not identified, this first test of orthologous gene replacement in different mycoplasma species demonstrates that the differences in the M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium proteins contribute little if anything to the different attachment organelle phenotypes between these species. PMID:21778204

  19. CT406 Encodes a Chlamydial Ortholog of NrdR, a Repressor of Ribonucleotide Reductase ?

    PubMed Central

    Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Akers, Johnny C.; Tan, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatisis an obligate intracellular bacterium that is dependent on its host cell for nucleotides. Chlamydiaimports ribonucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) but not deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and instead uses ribonucleotide reductase to convert imported ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. The genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase have been recently shown to be negatively controlled by a conserved regulator called NrdR. In this study, we provide direct evidence that Escherichia coliNrdR is a transcriptional repressor and that C. trachomatisCT406 encodes its chlamydial ortholog. We showed that CT406 binds specifically to two NrdR boxes upstream of the nrdABoperon in C. trachomatis. Using an in vitrotranscription assay, we confirmed that these NrdR boxes function as an operator since they were necessary and sufficient for CT406-mediated repression. We validated our in vitrofindings with reporter studies in E. colishowing that both E. coliNrdR and CT406 repressed transcription from the E. colinrdHand C. trachomatisnrdABpromoters in vivo. This in vivorepression was reversed by hydroxyurea treatment. Since hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and reduces intracellular deoxyribonucleotide levels, these results suggest that NrdR activity is modulated by a deoxyribonucleotide corepressor. PMID:21725017

  20. Geptop: A Gene Essentiality Prediction Tool for Sequenced Bacterial Genomes Based on Orthology and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen; Ning, Lu-Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2013-01-01

    Integrative genomics predictors, which score highly in predicting bacterial essential genes, would be unfeasible in most species because the data sources are limited. We developed a universal approach and tool designated Geptop, based on orthology and phylogeny, to offer gene essentiality annotations. In a series of tests, our Geptop method yielded higher area under curve (AUC) scores in the receiver operating curves than the integrative approaches. In the ten-fold cross-validations among randomly upset samples, Geptop yielded an AUC of 0.918, and in the cross-organism predictions for 19 organisms Geptop yielded AUC scores between 0.569 and 0.959. A test applied to the very recently determined essential gene dataset from the Porphyromonas gingivalis, which belongs to a phylum different with all of the above 19 bacterial genomes, gave an AUC of 0.77. Therefore, Geptop can be applied to any bacterial species whose genome has been sequenced. Compared with the essential genes uniquely identified by the lethal screening, the essential genes predicted only by Gepop are associated with more protein-protein interactions, especially in the three bacteria with lower AUC scores (<0.7). This may further illustrate the reliability and feasibility of our method in some sense. The web server and standalone version of Geptop are available at http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/geptop/ free of charge. The tool has been run on 968 bacterial genomes and the results are accessible at the website. PMID:23977285

  1. Inference of Gene-Phenotype Associations via Protein-Protein Interaction and Orthology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Panwen; Lai, Wing-Fu; Li, Mulin Jun; Xu, Feng; Yalamanchili, Hari Krishna; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Wang, Junwen

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental goals of genetics is to understand gene functions and their associated phenotypes. To achieve this goal, in this study we developed a computational algorithm that uses orthology and protein-protein interaction information to infer gene-phenotype associations for multiple species. Furthermore, we developed a web server that provides genome-wide phenotype inference for six species: fly, human, mouse, worm, yeast, and zebrafish. We evaluated our inference method by comparing the inferred results with known gene-phenotype associations. The high Area Under the Curve values suggest a significant performance of our method. By applying our method to two human representative diseases, Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer, we demonstrated that our method is able to identify related Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The web server can be used to infer functions and putative phenotypes of a gene along with the candidate genes of a phenotype, and thus aids in disease candidate gene discovery. Our web server is available at http://jjwanglab.org/PhenoPPIOrth. PMID:24194887

  2. Hcfc1b, a zebrafish ortholog of HCFC1, regulates craniofacial development by modulating mmachc expression.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Anita M; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Achilly, Nate; Rosenblatt, David S; Maclean, Kenneth N; Stabler, Sally P; Artinger, Kristin B; Appel, Bruce; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in HCFC1 (MIM300019), have been recently associated with cblX (MIM309541), an X-linked, recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial abnormalities. HCFC1 is a transcriptional co-regulator that modulates the expression of numerous downstream target genes including MMACHC, but it is not clear how these HCFC1 targets play a role in the clinical manifestations of cblX. To begin to elucidate the mechanism by which HCFC1 modulates disease phenotypes, we have carried out loss of function analyses in the developing zebrafish. Of the two HCFC1 orthologs in zebrafish, hcfc1a and hcfc1b, the loss of hcfc1b specifically results in defects in craniofacial development. Subsequent analysis revealed that hcfc1b regulates cranial neural crest cell differentiation and proliferation within the posterior pharyngeal arches. Further, the hcfc1b-mediated craniofacial abnormalities were rescued by expression of human MMACHC, a downstream target of HCFC1 that is aberrantly expressed in cblX. Furthermore, we tested distinct human HCFC1 mutations for their role in craniofacial development and demonstrated variable effects on MMACHC expression in humans and craniofacial development in zebrafish. Notably, several individuals with mutations in either HCFC1 or MMACHC have been reported to have mild to moderate facial dysmorphia. Thus, our data demonstrates that HCFC1 plays a role in craniofacial development, which is in part mediated through the regulation of MMACHC expression. PMID:25281006

  3. A Leishmania Ortholog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Modulates Host Macrophage Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kamir,D.; Zierow, S.; Leng, L.; Cho, Y.; Diaz, Y.; Griffith, J.; McDonald, C.; Merk, M.; Mitchell, R.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as revealed by a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure (1.03 A). Differences between the two proteins in the N-terminal tautomerization site are evident, and we provide evidence for the selective, species-specific inhibition of MIF by small-molecule antagonists that target this site. Lm1740MIF shows significant binding interaction with the MIF receptor, CD74 (K(d) = 2.9 x 10(-8) M). Like its mammalian counterpart, Lm1740MIF induces ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in a CD74-dependent manner and inhibits the activation-induced apoptosis of macrophages. The ability of Lm1740MIF to inhibit apoptosis may facilitate the persistence of Leishmania within the macrophage and contribute to its evasion from immune destruction.

  4. Comprehensive identification of host modulators of HIV-1 replication using multiple orthologous RNAi reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Davoli, Teresa; Perriera, Jill M; Chin, Christopher R; Gaiha, Gaurav D; John, Sinu P; Sigiollot, Frederic D; Gao, Geng; Xu, Qikai; Qu, Hongjing; Pertel, Thomas; Sims, Jennifer S; Smith, Jennifer A; Baker, Richard E; Maranda, Louise; Ng, Aylwin; Elledge, Stephen J; Brass, Abraham L

    2014-10-23

    RNAi screens have implicated hundreds of host proteins as HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs). While informative, these early studies overlap poorly due to false positives and false negatives. To ameliorate these issues, we combined information from the existing HDF screens together with new screens performed with multiple orthologous RNAi reagents (MORR). In addition to being traditionally validated, the MORR screens and the historical HDF screens were quantitatively integrated by the adaptation of an established analysis program, RIGER, for the collective interpretation of each gene's phenotypic significance. False positives were addressed by the removal of poorly expressed candidates through gene expression filtering, as well as with GESS, which identifies off-target effects. This workflow produced a quantitatively integrated network of genes that modulate HIV-1 replication. We further investigated the roles of GOLGI49, SEC13, and COG in HIV-1 replication. Collectively, the MORR-RIGER method minimized the caveats of RNAi screening and improved our understanding of HIV-1-host cell interactions. PMID:25373910

  5. Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2013-10-01

    A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-?-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

  6. Functional conservation of wheat orthologs of maize rough sheath1 and rough sheath2 genes.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Ryoko; Nishioka, Emi; Murai, Koji; Takumi, Shigeo

    2009-02-01

    Maize rough sheath2 (RS2) and Arabidopsis ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) both encode a Myb transcription factor and repress Knotted1-type homeobox (KNOX) genes. The RS2/AS1-KNOX relationship is functionally conserved between maize and Arabidopsis. Here, we cloned wheat orthologs of RS2/AS1 and of a maize rough sheath1 (rs1) KNOX gene and named them WRS2 and WRS1, respectively. WRS1 mRNA was detected at leaf insertion points of the vegetative shoot meristem but was missing in differentiating floral organs. Conversely, WRS2 transcripts accumulated in initiating and developing floral organs. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing WRS1 showed morphological alterations typically observed due to expression of other KNOX genes. WRS2 with a deletion of the Myb domain could interact with NtPHAN to form a heterodimer, and expression of the truncated WRS2 gene conferred a dominant-negative phenotype similar to that expected and induced ectopic expression of an endogenous KNOX gene. Moreover, WRS2 expression alleviated morphological alterations in tobacco plants expressing the wheat KNOX gene. Therefore, the WRS2 gene product represses KNOX expression. These results indicate that the WRS2-KNOX relationship plays a fundamentally important role in lateral organ initiation and differentiation of meristems in wheat development. The antagonistic relationship between WRS2 and KNOX around meristematic tissues has been functionally conserved during wheat evolution. PMID:18974935

  7. Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2008-08-25

    Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

  8. Comparative analysis of function and interaction of transcription factors in nematodes: Extensive conservation of orthology coupled to rapid sequence evolution

    PubMed Central

    Haerty, Wilfried; Artieri, Carlo; Khezri, Navid; Singh, Rama S; Gupta, Bhagwati P

    2008-01-01

    Background Much of the morphological diversity in eukaryotes results from differential regulation of gene expression in which transcription factors (TFs) play a central role. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model organism for the study of the roles of TFs in controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. Using the fully sequenced genomes of three Caenorhabditid nematode species as well as genome information from additional more distantly related organisms (fruit fly, mouse, and human) we sought to identify orthologous TFs and characterized their patterns of evolution. Results We identified 988 TF genes in C. elegans, and inferred corresponding sets in C. briggsae and C. remanei, containing 995 and 1093 TF genes, respectively. Analysis of the three gene sets revealed 652 3-way reciprocal 'best hit' orthologs (nematode TF set), approximately half of which are zinc finger (ZF-C2H2 and ZF-C4/NHR types) and HOX family members. Examination of the TF genes in C. elegans and C. briggsae identified the presence of significant tandem clustering on chromosome V, the majority of which belong to ZF-C4/NHR family. We also found evidence for lineage-specific duplications and rapid evolution of many of the TF genes in the two species. A search of the TFs conserved among nematodes in Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed 150 reciprocal orthologs, many of which are associated with important biological processes and human diseases. Finally, a comparison of the sequence, gene interactions and function indicates that nematode TFs conserved across phyla exhibit significantly more interactions and are enriched in genes with annotated mutant phenotypes compared to those that lack orthologs in other species. Conclusion Our study represents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of TFs across three nematode species and other organisms. The findings indicate substantial conservation of transcription factors even across distant evolutionary lineages and form the basis for future experiments to examine TF gene function in nematodes and other divergent phyla. PMID:18752680

  9. Cloning and Characterization of Disc1, the Mouse Ortholog of DISC1 (Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Ma; Yuan Liu; Betty Ky; Paul J. Shughrue; Christopher P. Austin; Jill A. Morris

    2002-01-01

    We cloned the mouse ortholog of DISC1 (Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1), a candidate gene for schizophrenia. Disc1 is 3163 nucleotides long and has 60% identity with the human DISC1. Disc1 encodes 851 amino acids and has 56% identity with the human protein. Disc1 maps to the DISC1 syntenic region in the mouse, and genomic structure is conserved. A Disc1 splice variant deletes

  10. T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

    A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

  11. Comparative sequence analysis of the SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 orthologous region in Thellungiella halophila and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyoungju Nah; Christopher L. Pagliarulo; Peter G. Mohr; Meizhong Luo; Nick Sisneros; Yeisoo Yu; Kristi Collura; Jennifer Currie; Jose Luis Goicoechea; Rod A. Wing; Karen S. Schumaker

    2009-01-01

    To provide a framework for studies to understand the contribution of SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1) to salt tolerance in Thellungiella halophila, we sequenced and annotated a 193-kb T. halophila BAC containing a putative SOS1 locus (ThSOS1) and compared the sequence to the orthologous 146-kb region of the genome of its salt-sensitive relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall, the two sequences were colinear,

  12. The murine DSCR1-like (Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1) gene family: conserved synteny with the human orthologous genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Strippoli; Massimiliano Petrini; Luca Lenzi; Paolo Carinci; Maria Zannotti

    2000-01-01

    A recently recognized gene family, conserved from yeast to humans, includes Down syndrome candidate region 1 gene (DSCR1), Adapt78 (recognized as the hamster ortholog of the DSCR1 isoform 4), ZAKI-4 (renamed DSCR1-like 1, DSCR1L1) and DSCR1L2 (a novel gene on human chromosome 1), along with yeast and C. elegans single members (Strippoli P., Lenzi L., Petrini M., Carinci P., Zannotti

  13. ORFEUS-SPAS II EUV Spectroscopy of epsilon Canis Majoris (B2 II)

    E-print Network

    David H. Cohen; Mark Hurwitz; Joseph P. Cassinelli; Stuart Bowyer

    1998-05-20

    We report on extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopic observations of the B bright giant epsilon Canis Majoris made during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission. We assess the performance of the instrument in the EUV and find that the effective area is roughly 3 times that of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) long-wavelength spectrometer and that the spectral resolution is lambda/Delta(lambda) = 1250. We identify most of the features, qualitatively compare different models, and examine the wind-broadened O V and Si IV lines, which display blue edge velocities up to 800 km/s.

  14. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures: II. The Monoceros Ring behind the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair C. Conn; Nicolas F. Martin; Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Michele Bellazzini; Mike J. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    An AAT\\/2dF Spectrograph Survey of low Galactic latitudes targeting the\\u000aputative Canis Major dwarf galaxy, and the (possibly) associated tidal debris\\u000aof stars known as the Monoceros Ring, covering Galactic coordinates\\u000a231.5$^{\\\\circ}< ${\\\\it l} $<$ 247.5$^{\\\\circ}$ and -11.8$^{\\\\circ}<${\\\\it\\u000ab}$<-3.8^{\\\\circ}$, has revealed the presence of the Monoceros Ring in the\\u000abackground of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This detection resides at

  15. Evolutionary analysis of orthologous cDNA sequences from cultured and symbiotic dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals (Dinophyceae: Symbiodinium)

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    a , Jodi A. Schwarz b , Mary Alice Coffroth c , Dave Yellowlees d , William Leggat d , Mónica Medina a). Orthologs conserved across eukaryotes are mainly comprised of housekeeping genes, photosynthesis

  16. Characterization of the monoterpene synthase gene tps26, the ortholog of a gene induced by insect herbivory in maize.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changfa; Shen, Binzhang; Xu, Zhennan; Köllner, Tobias G; Degenhardt, Jörg; Dooner, Hugo K

    2008-03-01

    Plants damaged by insects can synthesize and release volatile chemicals that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. The maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) terpene synthase gene stc1 is part of that indirect defense response, being induced in seedling blades in response to herbivory by beet army worm. Many genes in maize are duplicated because of a past whole-genome duplication event, and several of these orthologs display different expression patterns. We report here the isolation and characterization of tps26 and confirm by homology and synteny criteria that it is the ortholog of stc1. Prior genetic analysis revealed that the stc1 function is not duplicated, raising the interesting question of how the two orthologs have become differentiated in their expression. tps26 encodes a 633-amino acid protein that is highly conserved with STC1. Like stc1, tps26 is induced by wounding, but in the roots and leaf sheath, instead of the blade, and not in response to beet army worm feeding. tps26 maps near a quantitative trait locus for Southwestern corn borer resistance, making it a plausible candidate gene for that quantitative trait locus. However, while possessing highly polymorphic tps26 alleles, the resistant and susceptible parents of the mapping population do not differ in levels of tps26 expression. Moreover, tps26 is not induced specifically by Southwestern corn borer feeding. Therefore, although they share a wounding response, the stc1 and tps26 maize orthologs differ in their tissue specificity and their induction by insect herbivores. The N termini of STC1 and TPS26 are predicted to encode plastid transit peptides; fusion proteins of green fluorescent protein to either N terminus localized to the plastid, confirming that prediction. The mature proteins, but not the respective complete proteins, were active and synthesized a blend of monoterpenes, indicating that they are monoterpene synthases. A gene closely related to stc1/tps26 is found in the sorghum (Sorghum spp.) genome at a location that is not orthologous with stc1. The possible origin of stc1-like genes is discussed. PMID:18218975

  17. Depletion of the IKBKAP ortholog in zebrafish leads to hirschsprung disease-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, William Wai-Chun; Tang, Clara Sze-Man; Gui, Hong-Sheng; So, Man-Ting; Lui, Vincent Chi-Hang; Tam, Paul Kwong-Hang; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Mercč

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of IKBKAP (inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein) in the development of enteric nervous system (ENS) and Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). METHODS: In this study, we injected a morpholino that blocked the translation of ikbkap protein to 1-cell stage zebrafish embryos. The phenotype in the ENS was analysed by antibody staining of the pan-neuronal marker HuC/D followed by enteric neuron counting. The mean numbers of enteric neurons were compared between the morphant and the control. We also studied the expressions of ret and phox2bb, which are involved in ENS development, in the ikbkap morpholino injected embryos by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and compared them with the control. RESULTS: We observed aganglionosis (?2, P < 0.01) and a reduced number of enteric neurons (38.8 ± 9.9 vs 50.2 ± 17.3, P < 0.05) in the zebrafish embryos injected with ikbkap translation-blocking morpholino (morphant) when compared with the control embryos. Specificity of the morpholino was confirmed by similar results obtained using a second non-overlapping morpholino that blocked the translation of ikbkap. We further studied the morphant by analysing the expression levels of genes involved in ENS development such as ret, phox2bb and sox10, and found that phox2bb, the ortholog of human PHOX2B, was significantly down-regulated (0.51 ± 0.15 vs 1.00 ± 0, P < 0.05). Although we also observed a reduction in the expression of ret, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: Loss of IKBKAP contributed to HSCR as demonstrated by functional analysis in zebrafish embryos. PMID:25717236

  18. Pervasive variation of transcription factor orthologs contributes to regulatory network evolution.

    PubMed

    Nadimpalli, Shilpa; Persikov, Anton V; Singh, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Differences in transcriptional regulatory networks underlie much of the phenotypic variation observed across organisms. Changes to cis-regulatory elements are widely believed to be the predominant means by which regulatory networks evolve, yet examples of regulatory network divergence due to transcription factor (TF) variation have also been observed. To systematically ascertain the extent to which TFs contribute to regulatory divergence, we analyzed the evolution of the largest class of metazoan TFs, Cys2-His2 zinc finger (C2H2-ZF) TFs, across 12 Drosophila species spanning ~45 million years of evolution. Remarkably, we uncovered that a significant fraction of all C2H2-ZF 1-to-1 orthologs in flies exhibit variations that can affect their DNA-binding specificities. In addition to loss and recruitment of C2H2-ZF domains, we found diverging DNA-contacting residues in ~44% of domains shared between D. melanogaster and the other fly species. These diverging DNA-contacting residues, found in ~70% of the D. melanogaster C2H2-ZF genes in our analysis and corresponding to ~26% of all annotated D. melanogaster TFs, show evidence of functional constraint: they tend to be conserved across phylogenetic clades and evolve slower than other diverging residues. These same variations were rarely found as polymorphisms within a population of D. melanogaster flies, indicating their rapid fixation. The predicted specificities of these dynamic domains gradually change across phylogenetic distances, suggesting stepwise evolutionary trajectories for TF divergence. Further, whereas proteins with conserved C2H2-ZF domains are enriched in developmental functions, those with varying domains exhibit no functional enrichments. Our work suggests that a subset of highly dynamic and largely unstudied TFs are a likely source of regulatory variation in Drosophila and other metazoans. PMID:25748510

  19. Structural investigation of a viral ortholog of human NEIL2/3 DNA glycosylases.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E; Averill, April M; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S; Doublié, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04? resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

  20. Structural Investigation of a Viral Ortholog of Human NEIL2/3 DNA Glycosylases

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E.; Averill, April M.; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04 Ĺ resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

  1. The Complexity of Vesicle Transport Factors in Plants Examined by Orthology Search

    PubMed Central

    Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the ‘core-set’ of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed. PMID:24844592

  2. The Zebrafish Ortholog of TRPV1 Is Required for Heat-Induced Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Philia; Poon, Jason; Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen; Snelson, Corey D.; Gordon, Sharona E.; Raible, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect hot temperatures is critical to maintaining body temperature and avoiding injury in diverse animals from insects to mammals. Zebrafish embryos, when given a choice, actively avoid hot temperatures and display an increase in locomotion similar to that seen when they are exposed to noxious compounds such as mustard oil. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the single zebrafish ortholog of TRPV1/2 may have arisen from an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian TRPV1 and TRPV2. As opposed to TRPV2, mammalian TRPV1 is essential for environmentally relevant heat sensation. In the present study, we provide evidence that the zebrafish TRPV1 ion channel is also required for the sensation of heat. Contrary to development in mammals, zebrafish TRPV1+ neurons arise during the first wave of somatosensory neuron development, suggesting a vital importance of thermal sensation in early larval survival. In vitro analysis showed that zebrafish TRPV1 acts as a molecular sensor of environmental heat (?25°C) that is distinctly lower than the sensitivity of the mammalian form (?42°C) but consistent with thresholds measured in behavioral assays. Using in vivo calcium imaging with the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP3, we show that TRPV1-expressing trigeminal neurons are activated by heat at behaviorally relevant temperatures. Using knock-down studies, we also show that TRPV1 is required for normal heat-induced locomotion. Our results demonstrate for the first time an ancient role for TRPV1 in the direct sensation of environmental heat and show that heat sensation is adapted to reflect species-dependent requirements in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:23516290

  3. Characterization of the true ortholog of the urotensin II-related peptide (URP) gene in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Quan, Feng B; Bougerol, Marion; Rigour, Fanny; Kenigfest, Natalia B; Tostivint, Hervé

    2012-05-15

    It has been recently established that the urotensin II (UII) family consists of four distinct paralogs in bony vertebrates, namely UII, and the three UII-related peptides (URPs) called URP, URP1 and URP2. These four peptides are encoded by genes which arose from the two rounds of tetraploidization (2R) which took place early during vertebrate evolution. Up to now, three of them, UII, URP1 and URP2, have been identified in teleosts, while only two, UII and URP, have been reported in tetrapods. The fact that fish URP has not been found in previous studies led to the suggestion that the corresponding gene had been lost in the teleost lineage. In the present study, we show that this view is not correct. A search of the most recent release of the Ensembl genome database led us to identify a novel UII/URP-like gene in teleosts. Using synteny analysis, we demonstrate that this gene corresponds to the true ortholog of the tetrapod URP gene. Molecular cloning of the corresponding cDNA in medaka revealed that URP gene encodes a putative peptide, with the primary structure GEPCFWKYCV. In stickleback, tilapia and takifugu, URP exhibited the same sequence while, in tetraodon, it differed by only one amino acid substitution Gly ? Ser. In zebrafish, URP appeared totally divergent at its N-terminus with the structure DDTCFWKYCV. In conclusion, the occurrence of a true URP in teleosts shows that the quartet of UII-related genes which arose from 2R has been integrally preserved in this lineage. PMID:22433941

  4. Dsc orthologs are required for hypoxia adaptation, triazole drug responses, and fungal virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Willger, Sven D; Cornish, E Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A; Lehmann, Margaret M; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Cramer, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ?dscA and ?dscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ?dscA and ?dscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ?dscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

  5. Dsc Orthologs Are Required for Hypoxia Adaptation, Triazole Drug Responses, and Fungal Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Willger, Sven D.; Cornish, E. Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A.; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ?dscA and ?dscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ?dscA and ?dscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ?dscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

  6. Functional characterisation of HvCO1, the barley (Hordeum vulgare) flowering time ortholog of CONSTANS.

    PubMed

    Campoli, Chiara; Drosse, Benedikt; Searle, Iain; Coupland, George; von Korff, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Variation in photoperiod response is a major factor determining plant development and the agronomic performance of crops. The genetic control of photoperiodic flowering has been elucidated in the model plant Arabidopsis, and many of the identified genes are structurally conserved in the grasses. In this study, HvCO1, the closest barley ortholog of the key photoperiod response gene CONSTANS in Arabidopsis, was over-expressed in the spring barley Golden Promise. Over-expression of HvCO1 accelerated time to flowering in long- and short-day conditions and caused up-regulation of HvFT1 mRNA under long-day conditions. However, the transgenic plants retained a response to photoperiod, suggesting the presence of photoperiod response factors acting downstream of HvCO1 transcription. Analysis of a population segregating for HvCO1 over-expression and natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 demonstrated that Ppd-H1 acts downstream of HvCO1 transcription on HvFT1 expression and flowering. Furthermore, variation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal expression of HvCO1 or HvCO2. Over-expression of HvCO1 increased transcription of the spring allele of Vrn-H1 in long- and short-day conditions, while genetic variation at Ppd-H1 did not affect Vrn-H1 expression. Over-expression of HvCO1 and natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 accelerated inflorescence development and stem elongation. Thus, HvCO1 probably induces flowering by activating HvFT1 whilst Ppd-H1 regulates HvFT1 independently of HvCO1 mRNA, and all three genes also appear to have a strong effect in promoting inflorescence development. PMID:22040323

  7. The evolutionary basis for the feeding behavior of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S

    2006-07-01

    The dentition, sense of taste and meal patterning of domestic dogs and cats can be interpreted in terms of their descent from members of the order Carnivora. The dog is typical of its genus, Canis, in its relatively unspecialized dentition, and a taste system that is rather insensitive to salt. The preference of many dogs for large infrequent meals reflects the competitive feeding behavior of its pack-hunting ancestor, the wolf Canis lupus. However, its long history of domestication, possibly 100,000 years, has resulted in great intraspecific diversity of conformation and behavior, including feeding. Morphologically and physiologically domestic cats are highly specialized carnivores, as indicated by their dentition, nutritional requirements, and sense of taste, which is insensitive to both salt and sugars. Their preference for several small meals each day reflects a daily pattern of multiple kills of small prey items in their ancestor, the solitary territorial predator Felis silvestris. Although in the wild much of their food selection behavior must focus on what to hunt, rather than what to eat, cats do modify their food preferences based on experience. For example, the "monotony effect" reduces the perceived palatability of foods that have recently formed a large proportion of the diet, in favor of foods with contrasting sensory characteristics, thereby tending to compensate for any incipient nutritional deficiencies. Food preferences in kittens during weaning are strongly influenced by those of their mother, but can change considerably during at least the first year of life. PMID:16772461

  8. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ? 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ? 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503

  9. Intestinal helminth parasites of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    ?irovi?, Duško; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Penezi?, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf's range during the period 2009-2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four. PMID:26051257

  10. Temperature controls seed germination and dormancy in the European woodland herbaceous perennial Erythronium dens-canis (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Mondoni, A; Rossi, G; Probert, R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the germination ecology and the temperature requirements for germination of Erythronium dens-canis, under both outdoor and laboratory conditions. E. dens-canis is a spring flowering woodland geophyte widely distributed across Europe. Germination phenology, including embryo development and radicle and cotyledon emergence, were investigated in a natural population growing in Northern Italy. Immediately after harvest, seeds of E. dens-canis were either sown on agar in the laboratory under simulated seasonal temperatures or placed in nylon mesh sachets and buried in the wild. Embryos, undifferentiated at the time of seed dispersal, grew during summer and autumn conditions in the laboratory and in the wild, culminating in radicle emergence in winter when temperatures fell to ? 5 °C. Emergence of cotyledons did not occur immediately after radicle emergence, but was delayed until the end of winter. Laboratory experiments showed that temperature is the main factor controlling dormancy and germination, with seeds becoming non-dormant only when given warmth, followed by cold stratification. Unlike seeds of E. dens-canis that germinate in winter, in other Erythronium species radicle emergence occurs in autumn, while in some it is delayed until seeds are transferred from winter to spring conditions. Our results suggest that there is genetic and environmental control of the expression of seed dormancy amongst Erythronium species, which is related to local climate. PMID:22117612

  11. The AAT\\/WFI survey of the Monoceros Ring and Canis Major Dwarf galaxy: II. from l = (280 - 025)deg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair C. Conn; Mike J. Irwin; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Nicolas F. Martin; Michele Bellazzini; Artem V. Tuntsov

    2008-01-01

    This paper concludes a systematic search for evidence of the Monoceros Ring and Canis Major dwarf galaxy around the Galactic Plane. Presented here are the results for the Galactic longitude range of l = (280 - 025)deg. Testing the claim that the Monoceros Ring encircles the entire Galaxy, this survey attempts to document the position of the Monoceros Ring with

  12. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirit Tzipory; P. Cynda Crawford; Julie K. Levy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing,

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Ehrlichia mineirensis, a Novel Organism Closely Related to Ehrlichia canis with a New Host Association.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Zweygarth, Erich; Broniszweska, Marzena; Passos, Lygia M F; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Manrique, Marina; Tobes, Raquel; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequencing of Ehrlichia mineirensis, an Ehrlichia organism that was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus microplus-engorged females. E. mineirensis is the best characterized Ehrlichia isolate from a novel cattle-related clade closely related to the monocytotropic pathogen E. canis. PMID:25614563

  14. Dogs, humans and island ecosystems: the distribution, antiquity and ecology of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) on California's Channel Islands, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben C. Rick; Phillip L. Walker; Lauren M. Willis; Anna C. Noah; Jon M. Erlandson; René L. Vellanoweth; Todd J. Braje; Douglas J. Kennett

    2008-01-01

    Archaeologists have made significant contributions to our understanding of ancient island environments, including the timing and implications of the introduction of non-native animals (pigs, chickens, rats, etc.) by humans. Here, we focus on the historical ecology and biogeography of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) on California's Channel Islands during the Holocene. Dogs are the only animal known unequivocally to have been

  15. Renal lesions in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) exposed to a natural dietary cocktail of persistent organic pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Sonne; Pall S. Leifsson; Rune Dietz; Maja Kirkegaard; Per Mřller; Asger L. Jensen; Robert J. Letcher; Soheila Shahmiri

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) are known to exert various adverse health effects in wildlife mammals. The impact from dietary intake of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber high in organohalogen and other chemical contaminants on renal morphology and function was investigated via a controlled study on West Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

  16. Cues to food location that domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different ages do and do not use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Agnetta; Brian Hare; Michael Tomasello

    2000-01-01

    The results of three experiments are reported. In the main study, a human experimenter presented domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) with a variety of social cues intended to indicate the location of hidden food. The novel findings of this study were: (1)\\u000a dogs were able to use successfully several totally novel cues in which they watched a human place a marker

  17. Cholesterol granuloma associated with otitis media and leptomeningitis in a cat due to a Streptococcus canis infection

    PubMed Central

    Van der Heyden, Sara; Butaye, Patrick; Roels, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol granuloma in the middle ear is a pathological condition often associated with otitis media in humans. Cholesterol granulomas in cats are rarely described. To our knowledge, this is the first report of middle ear cholesterol granuloma in a cat, associated with otitis media and leptomeningitis due to a Streptococcus canis septicemia. PMID:23814305

  18. Animating Lava Flows Dan Stora Pierre-Olivier Agliati Marie-Paule Cani Fabrice Neyret Jean-Dominique Gascuel

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Animating Lava Flows Dan Stora Pierre-Olivier Agliati Marie-Paule Cani Fabrice Neyret Jean¤ Abstract Animating lava flowing down the slopes of a volcano brings several challenges: modeling the mechanical fea- tures of lava and how they evolve over time depending on temperature; computing

  19. Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Schoen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

  20. Evolutionary analysis of orthologous cDNA sequences from cultured and symbiotic dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals (Dinophyceae: Symbiodinium).

    PubMed

    Voolstra, Christian R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Schwarz, Jodi A; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Yellowlees, Dave; Leggat, William; Medina, Mónica

    2009-06-01

    Dinoflagellates are ubiquitous marine and freshwater protists. The endosymbiotic relationship between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (also known as zooxanthellae) and corals forms the basis of coral reefs. We constructed and analyzed a cDNA library from a cultured Symbiodinium species clade A (CassKB8). The majority of annotated ESTs from the Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 library cover metabolic genes. Most of those belong to either carbohydrate or energy metabolism. In addition, components of extracellular signal transduction pathways and genes that play a role in cell-cell communication were identified. In a subsequent analysis, we determined all orthologous cDNA sequences between this library (1,484 unique sequences) and a library from a Symbiodinium species clade C (C3) (3,336 unique sequences) that was isolated directly from its symbiotic host. A set of 115 orthologs were identified between Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 and Symbiodinium sp. C3. These orthologs were subdivided into three groups that show different characteristics and functions: conserved across eukaryotes (CE), dinoflagellate-specific (DS) and Symbiodinium-specific (SS). Orthologs conserved across eukaryotes are mainly comprised of housekeeping genes, photosynthesis-related transcripts and metabolic proteins, whereas the function for most of the dinoflagellate-specific orthologs remains unknown. A dN/dS analysis identified the highest ratio in a Symbiodinium-specific ortholog and evidence for positive selection in a dinoflagellate-specific gene. Evolution of genes and pathways in different dinoflagellates seems to be affected by different lifestyles, and a symbiotic lifestyle may affect population structure and strength of selection. This study is the first evolutionary comparative analysis of orthologs from two coral dinoflagellate symbionts. PMID:20403741

  1. A mutation in the human CBP4 ortholog UQCC3 impairs complex III assembly, activity and cytochrome b stability.

    PubMed

    Wanschers, Bas F J; Szklarczyk, Radek; van den Brand, Mariël A M; Jonckheere, An; Suijskens, Janneke; Smeets, Roel; Rodenburg, Richard J; Stephan, Katharina; Helland, Ingrid B; Elkamil, Areej; Rootwelt, Terje; Ott, Martin; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Nijtmans, Leo G; Huynen, Martijn A

    2014-12-01

    Complex III (cytochrome bc1) is a protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c. Its assembly requires the coordinated expression of mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome b and nuclear-encoded subunits and assembly factors. Complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder caused by mutations in subunit genes or assembly factors. Sequence-profile-based orthology predicts C11orf83, hereafter named UQCC3, to be the ortholog of the fungal complex III assembly factor CBP4. We describe a homozygous c.59T>A missense mutation in UQCC3 from a consanguineous patient diagnosed with isolated complex III deficiency, displaying lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypotonia and delayed development without dysmorphic features. Patient fibroblasts have reduced complex III activity and lower levels of the holocomplex and its subunits than controls. They have no detectable UQCC3 protein and have lower levels of cytochrome b protein. Furthermore, in patient cells, cytochrome b is absent from a high-molecular-weight complex III. UQCC3 is reduced in cells depleted for the complex III assembly factors UQCC1 and UQCC2. Conversely, absence of UQCC3 in patient cells does not affect UQCC1 and UQCC2. This suggests that UQCC3 functions in the complex III assembly pathway downstream of UQCC1 and UQCC2 and is consistent with what is known about the function of Cbp4 and of the fungal orthologs of UQCC1 and UQCC2, Cbp3 and Cbp6. We conclude that UQCC3 functions in complex III assembly and that the c.59T>A mutation has a causal role in complex III deficiency. PMID:25008109

  2. Highly diverged homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial mRNA-specific translational activators have orthologous functions in other budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, M C; Bonnefoy, N; Williams, E H; Clark-Walker, G D; Fox, T D

    2000-01-01

    Translation of mitochondrially coded mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on membrane-bound mRNA-specific activator proteins, whose targets lie in the mRNA 5'-untranslated leaders (5'-UTLs). In at least some cases, the activators function to localize translation of hydrophobic proteins on the inner membrane and are rate limiting for gene expression. We searched unsuccessfully in divergent budding yeasts for orthologs of the COX2- and COX3-specific translational activator genes, PET111, PET54, PET122, and PET494, by direct complementation. However, by screening for complementation of mutations in genes adjacent to the PET genes in S. cerevisiae, we obtained chromosomal segments containing highly diverged homologs of PET111 and PET122 from Saccharomyces kluyveri and of PET111 from Kluyveromyces lactis. All three of these genes failed to function in S. cerevisiae. We also found that the 5'-UTLs of the COX2 and COX3 mRNAs of S. kluyveri and K. lactis have little similarity to each other or to those of S. cerevisiae. To determine whether the PET111 and PET122 homologs carry out orthologous functions, we deleted them from the S. kluyveri genome and deleted PET111 from the K. lactis genome. The pet111 mutations in both species prevented COX2 translation, and the S. kluyveri pet122 mutation prevented COX3 translation. Thus, while the sequences of these translational activator proteins and their 5'-UTL targets are highly diverged, their mRNA-specific functions are orthologous. PMID:10757749

  3. Loss of LIN35, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the tumor suppressor p105Rb, results in enhanced RNA interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Lehner; Andrea Calixto; Catriona Crombie; Julia Tischler; Angelo Fortunato; Martin Chalfie; Andrew G Fraser

    2006-01-01

    Background  Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening is a very powerful tool for analyzing gene function in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. The effectiveness of RNAi varies from gene to gene, however, and neuronally expressed genes are largely refractive to RNAi\\u000a in wild-type worms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We found that C. elegans strains carrying mutations in lin-35, the worm ortholog of the tumor suppressor gene p105Rb,

  4. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  5. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (?13C, ?15N, and ?34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  6. Photometry, polarimetry, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry of the enigmatic Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, Carmelle; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent; Lamontagne, Robert; Seggewiss, Wilhelm; Niemela, Virpi S.; Cerruti, Miguel A.; Barrett, Paul; Bailey, Jeremy; Garcia, Jorge

    1992-01-01

    New observations of the peculiar Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris collected since 1987 are presented, and photometric, polarimetric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric data are discussed. Linear polarization data are well fitted with an eccentric binary model where an additional free parameter is included to allow for epoch-dependent changes of the geometrical electron distribution in the W-R envelope. This yields a set of basic parameters, including an eccentricity e = 0.39 +/- 0.02 and an orbital inclination i = 114 deg +/- 3 deg. The spectroscopic data show global profile variations for all three observed strong emission lines He II 5412 A, C IV 5807 A, and He I 5876 A. Radial velocities of the lines vary with the 3.766-day period. Radially expanding inhomogeneities are superposed on the line profiles and variable polarization in the lines is observed.

  7. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

  8. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Methods Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick to attach and start feeding before being killed by the acaricide. PMID:24957215

  9. Phosphorylation mimicking mutations of ALOX5 orthologs of different vertebrates do not alter reaction specificities of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Adel, Susan; Hofheinz, Katharina; Heydeck, Dagmar; Kuhn, Hartmut; Häfner, Ann-Kathrin

    2014-10-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes whereas 15-lipoxygenases (ALOX15) have been implicated in the formation of pro-resolving eicosanoids (lipoxins, resolvins). Recently, it has been suggested that a phosphorylation mimicking mutant (Ser663Asp) of a stabilized variant of human ALOX5 exhibits dominant arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase activity (>95%). To test whether similar alterations in the reaction specificity can also be observed for ALOX5 orthologs of other species we expressed wildtype and phosphorylation mimicking mutants (Ser271Asp, Ser523Asp, Ser663Asp, Ser663Glu) of human, mouse and zebrafish ALOX5 in pro- and eukaryotic overexpression systems and characterized their reaction specificities. We found that neither of the phosphorylation mimicking mutants produced significant amounts of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and the 5-lipoxygenation/15-lipoxygenation ratio for all wildtype and mutant enzyme species was lower than 100:2. Taken together, this data suggest that phosphorylation of native ALOX5 orthologs of different vertebrates may not induce major alterations in the reaction specificity and thus may not inverse their biological activity. PMID:25025884

  10. Overlapping genes of Aedes aegypti: evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gene overlapping is a common feature of prokaryote and mitochondria genomes, such genes have also been identified in many eukaryotes. The overlapping genes in eukaryotes are extensively rearranged even between closely related species. In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). The overlapping gene pairs of A. aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. Results The results show that as much as ~10% of the predicted genes of A. aegypti and A. gambiae are localized in positional overlapping manner. Furthermore, the study shows that differential abundance of introns and simple sequence repeats have significant association with positional rearrangement of overlapping genes between the two species. Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. Conclusion Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects. PMID:23777277

  11. ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

    2009-07-23

    The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

  12. Orthologs of human disease associated genes and RNAi analysis of silencing insulin receptor gene in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

  13. PanOCT: automated clustering of orthologs using conserved gene neighborhood for pan-genomic analysis of bacterial strains and closely related species

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Derrick E.; Brinkac, Lauren; Beck, Erin; Inman, Jason; Sutton, Granger

    2012-01-01

    Pan-genome ortholog clustering tool (PanOCT) is a tool for pan-genomic analysis of closely related prokaryotic species or strains. PanOCT uses conserved gene neighborhood information to separate recently diverged paralogs into orthologous clusters where homology-only clustering methods cannot. The results from PanOCT and three commonly used graph-based ortholog-finding programs were compared using a set of four publicly available strains of the same bacterial species. All four methods agreed on ?70% of the clusters and ?86% of the proteins. The clusters that did not agree were inspected for evidence of correctness resulting in 85 high-confidence manually curated clusters that were used to compare all four methods. PMID:22904089

  14. An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

  15. The AAT\\/WFI survey of the Monoceros Ring and Canis Major dwarf galaxy - I. From l = (193-276)°

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair C. Conn; Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo Gil-Merino; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Nicolas F. Martin; Michele Bellazzini; Robert Sharp; Artem V. Tuntsov; Annette M. N. Ferguson

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of an Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) wide field camera survey of the stars in the Monoceros Ring (MRi) and purported Canis Major (CMa) overdensity in the Galactic longitudes of l = (193-276)°. Current numerical simulations suggest that both of these structures are the result of a single on-going accretion event, although an alternative solution is that the

  16. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures - I. Kinematics of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Martin; R. A. Ibata; B. C. Conn; G. F. Lewis; M. Bellazzini; M. J. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    As part of a radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures that we undertook with the 2dF spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, we present the radial velocities of more than 1500 red giant branch and red clump stars towards the centre of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. With a mean velocity of 72 +\\/- 7kms-1 at a heliocentric distance

  17. Detection of the Canis Major galaxy at (l;b) = (244° -8°) and in the background of Galactic open clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bellazzini; R. Ibata; L. Monaco; N. Martin; G. F. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    We report on the detection of main-sequence stars belonging to the recently identified Canis Major (CMa) galaxy in a field located at ~=4.°2 from the centre of the stellar system. With main-sequence fitting we obtain a distance modulus (m-M)0= 14.5 +\\/- 0.3 to the dwarf, corresponding to a distance of Dsolar~= 8.0 +\\/- 1.2 kpc, in full agreement with previous

  18. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures: I. Kinematics of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Martin; R. A. Ibata; B. C. Conn; G. F. Lewis; M. Bellazzini; M. J. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    As part of a radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures that\\u000awe undertook with the 2dF spectrograph on the AAT, we present the radial\\u000avelocities of more than 1500 Red Giant Branch and Red Clump stars towards the\\u000acentre of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. With a mean velocity of 72\\\\pm7 km\\/s at\\u000aa Heliocentric distance of 5.5

  19. Winter–spring food habits of an island population of Coyote Canis Latrans in Baja California, México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Álvarez-Castańeda; P. González-Quintero

    2005-01-01

    Food habits of the coyote (Canis latrans) on San Luis Gonzaga Island of Baja California, Mexico were investigated. We collected 239 scat samples for analysis on 14 May 1997. Samples ranged from fresh to approximately 2 months old. Frequency of diet components was 48.9% birds, 21.9% fish, 14.8% plants, 3.6% mammals, 4.0% insects, 0.7% reptiles, 0.5% arachnids, and 5% crustaceans.

  20. Monitoring wolves ( Canis lupus ) by non-invasive genetics and camera trapping: a small-scale pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Galaverni; Davide Palumbo; Elena Fabbri; Romolo Caniglia; Claudia Greco; Ettore Randi

    Monitoring populations of elusive large carnivores like wolves (Canis lupus), which are often distributed at low density in widespread forested areas, is difficult or exceedingly expensive. Aiming\\u000a to assess the power of two indirect monitoring methods, non-invasive genetic sampling and camera trapping, we designed a small-scale\\u000a pilot study that was carried out from 2006 to 2008 in and around the

  1. How do guide dogs and pet dogs ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for their toy and for playing?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Gaunet

    2010-01-01

    When apes are not fully understood by humans, they persist with attempts to communicate, elaborating their behaviours to better\\u000a convey their meaning. Such abilities have never been investigated in dogs. The present study aimed to clarify any effect of\\u000a the visual attentional state of the owner on dogs’ (Canis familiaris) social-communicative signals for interacting with humans, and to determine whether

  2. How do guide dogs of blind owners and pet dogs of sighted owners ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for food?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Gaunet

    2008-01-01

    Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during human–dog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear.\\u000a Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted\\u000a owners, respectively, is one way to tackle this problem; more

  3. The Novel Azole R126638 Is a Selective Inhibitor of Ergosterol Synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Vanden Bossche; Jannie Ausma; Hilde Bohets; Karen Vermuyten; Gustaaf Willemsens; Patrick Marichal; Lieven Meerpoel; Frank Odds; Marcel Borgers

    2004-01-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) similar to those of itraconazole. The

  4. A study of the efficacy of topical and systemic therapy for the treatment of feline Microsporum canis infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AH Sparkes; A Robinson; AD MacKay; SE Shau

    2000-01-01

    Microsporum canis infection was induced in 21 healthy SPF-derived cats. Once infection was established (4 weeks after inoculation) the cats were divided into three equal groups housed in separate rooms and monitored for 16 weeks. During this time, group A cats received oral griseofulvin at approximately 50mg\\/kg daily and were shampooed twice weekly with a product containing chlorhexidine and miconazole.

  5. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 ?L) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  6. Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Dmitry V; Wolsan, Mieczys?aw; Marciszak, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in W??e 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from W??e 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in W??e 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals. PMID:24969730

  7. Functional Evolution of a Multigene Family: Orthologous and Paralogous Pheromone Receptor Genes in the Turnip Moth, Agrotis segetum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs), for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z)-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and relaxed evolutionary constraints or positive selection among paralogues allow functional divergence to occur in spite of purifying selection being the norm. PMID:24130875

  8. Enigmatic orthology relationships between Hox clusters of the African butterfly fish and other teleosts following ancient whole-genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kyle J; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-10-01

    Numerous ancient whole-genome duplications (WGD) have occurred during eukaryote evolution. In vertebrates, duplicated developmental genes and their functional divergence have had important consequences for morphological evolution. Although two vertebrate WGD events (1R/2R) occurred over 525 Ma, we have focused on the more recent 3R or TGD (teleost genome duplication) event which occurred approximately 350 Ma in a common ancestor of over 26,000 species of teleost fishes. Through a combination of whole genome and bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequencing we characterized all Hox gene clusters of Pantodon buchholzi, a member of the early branching teleost subdivision Osteoglossomorpha. We find 45 Hox genes organized in only five clusters indicating that Pantodon has suffered more Hox cluster loss than other known species. Despite strong evidence for homology of the five Pantodon clusters to the four canonical pre-TGD vertebrate clusters (one HoxA, two HoxB, one HoxC, and one HoxD), we were unable to confidently resolve 1:1 orthology relationships between four of the Pantodon clusters and the eight post-TGD clusters of other teleosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that many Pantodon genes segregate outside the conventional "a" and "b" post-TGD orthology groups, that extensive topological incongruence exists between genes physically linked on a single cluster, and that signal divergence causes ambivalence in assigning 1:1 orthology in concatenated Hox cluster analyses. Out of several possible explanations for this phenomenon we favor a model which keeps with the prevailing view of a single TGD prior to teleost radiation, but which also considers the timing of diploidization after duplication, relative to speciation events. We suggest that although the duplicated hoxa clusters diploidized prior to divergence of osteoglossomorphs, the duplicated hoxb, hoxc, and hoxd clusters concluded diploidization independently in osteoglossomorphs and other teleosts. We use the term "tetralogy" to describe the homology relationship which exists between duplicated sequences which originate through a shared WGD, but which diploidize into distinct paralogs from a common allelic pool independently in two lineages following speciation. PMID:24974377

  9. Transcriptional analysis of p30 major outer membrane multigene family of Ehrlichia canis in dogs, ticks, and cell culture at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Unver, A; Ohashi, N; Tajima, T; Stich, R W; Grover, D; Rikihisa, Y

    2001-10-01

    Ehrlichia canis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium of monocytes and macrophages, causes canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. canis immunodominant 30-kDa major outer membrane proteins are encoded by a polymorphic multigene family consisting of more than 20 paralogs. In the present study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of 14 paralogs in experimentally infected dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks by reverse transcription-PCR using gene-specific primers followed by Southern blotting. Eleven out of 14 paralogs in E. canis were transcribed in increasing numbers and transcription levels, while the mRNA expression of the 3 remaining paralogs was not detected in blood monocytes of infected dogs during the 56-day postinoculation period. Three different groups of R. sanguineus ticks (adult males and females and nymphs) were separately infected with E. canis by feeding on the infected dogs. In these pools of acquisition-fed ticks as well as in the transmission-fed adult ticks, the transcript from only one paralog was detected, suggesting the predominant transcription of that paralog or the suppression of the remaining paralogs in ticks. Expression of the same paralog was higher whereas expression of the remaining paralogs was lower in E. canis cultivated in dog monocyte cell line DH82 at 25 degrees C than in E. canis cultivated at 37 degrees C. Analysis of differential expression of p30 multigenes in dogs, ticks, or monocyte cell cultures would help in understanding the role of these gene products in pathogenesis and E. canis transmission as well as in designing a rational vaccine candidate immunogenic against canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:11553557

  10. Transcriptional Analysis of p30 Major Outer Membrane Multigene Family of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs, Ticks, and Cell Culture at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Unver, Ahmet; Ohashi, Norio; Tajima, Tomoko; Stich, Roger W.; Grover, Debra; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium of monocytes and macrophages, causes canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. canis immunodominant 30-kDa major outer membrane proteins are encoded by a polymorphic multigene family consisting of more than 20 paralogs. In the present study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of 14 paralogs in experimentally infected dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks by reverse transcription-PCR using gene-specific primers followed by Southern blotting. Eleven out of 14 paralogs in E. canis were transcribed in increasing numbers and transcription levels, while the mRNA expression of the 3 remaining paralogs was not detected in blood monocytes of infected dogs during the 56-day postinoculation period. Three different groups of R. sanguineus ticks (adult males and females and nymphs) were separately infected with E. canis by feeding on the infected dogs. In these pools of acquisition-fed ticks as well as in the transmission-fed adult ticks, the transcript from only one paralog was detected, suggesting the predominant transcription of that paralog or the suppression of the remaining paralogs in ticks. Expression of the same paralog was higher whereas expression of the remaining paralogs was lower in E. canis cultivated in dog monocyte cell line DH82 at 25°C than in E. canis cultivated at 37°C. Analysis of differential expression of p30 multigenes in dogs, ticks, or monocyte cell cultures would help in understanding the role of these gene products in pathogenesis and E. canis transmission as well as in designing a rational vaccine candidate immunogenic against canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:11553557

  11. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

  12. Conflicting results of serological, PCR and microscopic methods clarify the various risk levels of canine babesiosis in Slovakia: a complex approach to Babesia canis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kubelová, Michaela; Sedlák, Kamil; Panev, Aleksandar; Široký, Pavel

    2013-01-31

    We have performed a survey of Babesia canis prevalence within group of dogs living in Southern and Western Slovakia. Blood samples and sera from 217 dogs, including individuals suspected of having babesiosis, were examined by nested PCR-RFLP, light microscopy and indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The detection of B. canis DNA revealed the highest number of infected dogs in the region of Nové Zámky, with 23 B. canis-positive blood samples (35.4%, n=65), followed by an area close to Komárno (both areas of Southern Slovakia), where 1 dog out of 52 collected (1.9%) had detectible B. canis DNA in the blood stream. The serological method revealed an opposing pattern, with only 3 dogs (4.8%, n=63) sampled at Nové Zámky presenting IgG antibodies against B. canis, while in Komárno region such antibodies were detected in 15 dogs (28.8%, n=52). This discrepancy may be because the majority of samples from Nové Zámky were dogs suspected of an acute phase of canine babesiosis, whereas dogs at Komárno were sampled during a vaccination campaign, and thus were without any clinical signs of the disease. The latter group contains evidently recovered carriers of IgG against B. canis. Hence, the combination of PCR-based and serological methods enabled us to discover both recently infected as well as recovered dogs, thus obtaining a more realistic view on the epidemiological situation. Remarkably, we did not find any positive samples in the vicinity of Stupava (district Malacky, Western Slovakia), either by PCR-RFLP, microscopy or IFAT (n=100). Considering the numerous falsely diagnosed cases of canine babesiosis, we suggest that light microscopy as the simplest and most accessible diagnostic test. Southern Slovakia was confirmed as an area of high risk of canine babesiosis, whereas conclusions about B. canis spreading over Western Slovakia should be considered with wariness. PMID:23040770

  13. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon), that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus) and coyotes (C. latrans) than grey wolves (C. lupus). Eastern wolf origins, however, continue to be questioned. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA from 89 wolves and coyotes across North America and Eurasia at 347 base pairs (bp) of the CR and 1067 bp that included the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes. Phylogenies and divergence estimates were used to clarify the evolutionary history of eastern wolves, and regional comparisons of nonsynonomous to synonomous substitutions (dN/dS) at the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes were used to elucidate the potential role of selection in shaping mtDNA geographic distribution. Results We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7%) and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 ± 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 ± 0.00097 SD) than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 ± 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 ± 0.00205 SD). Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results demonstrate high concordance between coding and non-coding regions of mtDNA, and provide further evidence that the eastern wolf possessed distinct mtDNA lineages prior to recent coyote introgression. Purifying selection may have influenced North American evolved Canis lineages, but detection of adaptive selection in response to climate is limited by the power of current statistical tests. Increased sampling and development of alternative analytical tools will be necessary to disentangle demographic history from processes of natural selection. PMID:20637067

  14. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  15. The gene Sr33, an ortholog of barley Mla genes, encodes resistance to wheat stem rust race Ug99.

    PubMed

    Periyannan, Sambasivam; Moore, John; Ayliffe, Michael; Bansal, Urmil; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Deal, Karin; Luo, Mingcheng; Kong, Xiuying; Bariana, Harbans; Mago, Rohit; McIntosh, Robert; Dodds, Peter; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans

    2013-08-16

    Wheat stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, afflicts bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). New virulent races collectively referred to as "Ug99" have emerged, which threaten global wheat production. The wheat gene Sr33, introgressed from the wild relative Aegilops tauschii into bread wheat, confers resistance to diverse stem rust races, including the Ug99 race group. We cloned Sr33, which encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat protein. Sr33 is orthologous to the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mla mildew resistance genes that confer resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The wheat Sr33 gene functions independently of RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 chaperones. Haplotype analysis from diverse collections of Ae. tauschii placed the origin of Sr33 resistance near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. PMID:23811228

  16. RNAi screening of human glycogene orthologs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the construction of the C. elegans glycogene database.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Sayaka; Nomura, Kazuko H; Dejima, Katsufumi; Murata, Daisuke; Matsuda, Ayako; Kanaki, Nanako; Takaki, Tetsuro; Mihara, Hiroyuki; Nagaishi, Takayuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Ando, Keiko-Gengyo; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Togayachi, Akira; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Shikanai, Toshihide; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Nomura, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we selected 181 nematode glycogenes that are orthologous to human glycogenes and examined their RNAi phenotypes. The results are deposited in the Caenorhabditis elegans Glycogene Database (CGGDB) at AIST, Tsukuba, Japan. The most prominent RNAi phenotypes observed are disruptions of cell cycle progression in germline mitosis/meiosis and in early embryonic cell mitosis. Along with the previously reported roles of chondroitin proteoglycans, glycosphingolipids and GPI-anchored proteins in cell cycle progression, we show for the first time that the inhibition of the functions of N-glycan synthesis genes (cytoplasmic alg genes) resulted in abnormal germline formation, ER stress and small body size phenotypes. The results provide additional information on the roles of glycoconjugates in the cell cycle progression mechanisms of germline and embryonic cells. PMID:25091817

  17. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Mario; Almazán, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2009-01-01

    Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results Recombinant Ba86 (Israel strain) was used to immunize cattle to test its efficacy for the control of B. annulatus (Mercedes, Texas, USA strain) and B. microplus (Susceptible, Mexico strain) infestations. Bm86 (Gavac and Mozambique strain) and adjuvant/saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vaccination with Ba86 reduced tick infestations (71% and 40%), weight (8% and 15%), oviposition (22% and 5%) and egg fertility (25% and 50%) for B. annulatus and B. microplus, respectively. The efficacy of both Ba86 and Bm86 was higher for B. annulatus than for B. microplus. The efficacy of Ba86 was higher for B. annulatus (83.0%) than for B. microplus (71.5%). The efficacy of Bm86 (Gavac; 85.2%) but not Bm86 (Mozambique strain; 70.4%) was higher than that of Ba86 (71.5%) on B. microplus. However, the efficacy of Bm86 (both Gavac and Mozambique strain; 99.6%) was higher than that of Ba86 (83.0%) on B. annulatus. Conclusion These experiments showed the efficacy of recombinant Ba86 for the control of B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations in cattle and suggested that physiological differences between B. microplus and B. annulatus and those encoded in the sequence of Bm86 orthologs may be responsible for the differences in susceptibility of these tick species to Bm86 vaccines. PMID:19335900

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase 1 (PDK1) Ortholog Is Required for Stress Tolerance and Survival in Murine Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chabrier-Roselló, Yeissa; Gerik, Kimberly J.; Koselny, Kristy; DiDone, Louis; Lodge, Jennifer K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans PKH2-01 and PKH2-02 are orthologous to mammalian PDK1 kinase genes. Although orthologs of these kinases have been extensively studied in S. cerevisiae, little is known about their function in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we show that PKH2-02 but not PKH2-01 is required for C. neoformans to tolerate cell wall, oxidative, nitrosative, and antifungal drug stress. Deletion of PKH2-02 leads to decreased basal levels of Pkc1 activity and, consequently, reduced activation of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in response to cell wall, oxidative, and nitrosative stress. PKH2-02 function also is required for tolerance of fluconazole and amphotericin B, two important drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis. Furthermore, OSU-03012, an inhibitor of human PDK1, is synergistic and fungicidal in combination with fluconazole. Using a Galleria mellonella model of low-temperature cryptococcosis, we found that PKH2-02 is also required for virulence in a temperature-independent manner. Consistent with the hypersensitivity of the pkh2-02? mutant to oxidative and nitrosative stress, this mutant shows decreased survival in murine phagocytes compared to that of wild-type (WT) cells. In addition, we show that deletion of PKH2-02 affects the interaction between C. neoformans and phagocytes by decreasing its ability to suppress production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and reactive oxygen species. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that Pkh2-02-mediated signaling in C. neoformans is crucial for stress tolerance, host-pathogen interactions, and both temperature-dependent and -independent virulence. PMID:23087368

  19. Human Orthologs of Yeast Vacuolar Protein Sorting Proteins Vps26, 29, and 35: Assembly into Multimeric Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Haft, Carol Renfrew; Sierra, Maria de la Luz; Bafford, Richard; Lesniak, Maxine A.; Barr, Valarie A.; Taylor, Simeon I.

    2000-01-01

    Sorting nexin (SNX) 1 and SNX2 are mammalian orthologs of Vps5p, a yeast protein that is a subunit of a large multimeric complex, termed the retromer complex, involved in retrograde transport of proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. We report the cloning and characterization of human orthologs of three additional components of the complex: Vps26p, Vps29p, and Vps35p. The close structural similarity between the yeast and human proteins suggests a similarity in function. We used both yeast two-hybrid assays and expression in mammalian cells to define the binding interactions among these proteins. The data suggest a model in which hVps35 serves as the core of a multimeric complex by binding directly to hVps26, hVps29, and SNX1. Deletional analyses of hVps35 demonstrate that amino acid residues 1–53 and 307–796 of hVps35 bind to the coiled coil-containing domain of SNX1. In contrast, hVps26 binds to amino acid residues 1–172 of hVps35, whereas hVps29 binds to amino acid residues 307–796 of hVps35. Furthermore, hVps35, hVps29, and hVps26 have been found in membrane-associated and cytosolic compartments. Gel filtration chromatography of COS7 cell cytosol showed that both recombinant and endogenous hVps35, hVps29, and hVps26 coelute as a large complex (?220–440 kDa). In the absence of hVps35, neither hVps26 nor hVps29 is found in the large complex. These data provide the first insights into the binding interactions among subunits of a putative mammalian retromer complex. PMID:11102511

  20. Using OrthoMCL to assign proteins to OrthoMCL-DB groups or to cluster proteomes into new ortholog groups

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Steve; Brunk, Brian P.; Chen, Feng; Gao, Xin; Harb, Omar S.; Iodice, John B.; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Roos, David S.; Stoeckert, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    OrthoMCL is an algorithm for grouping proteins into ortholog groups based on their sequence similarity. OrthoMCL-DB is a public database that allows users to browse and view ortholog groups that were pre-computed using the OrthoMCL algorithm. Version 4 of this database contained 116,536 ortholog groups clustered from 1,270,853 proteins obtained from 88 eukaryotic genomes, 16 archaeal genomes and 34 bacterial genomes. Future versions of OrthoMCL-DB will include more proteomes as more genomes are sequenced. Here, we describe how you can group your proteins of interest into ortholog clusters using two different means provided by the OrthoMCL system. The OrthoMCL-DB website has a tool for uploading and grouping a set of protein sequences, typically representing a proteome. This method maps the uploaded proteins to existing groups in OrthoMCL-DB. Alternatively, if you have proteins from a set of genomes that need to be grouped, you can download, install and run the standalone OrthoMCL software. PMID:21901743

  1. Sequence conservation at human and mouse orthologous common fragile regions, FRA3B/FHIT and Fra14A2/Fhit.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, T; Druck, T; Mimori, K; Flomenberg, J; Berk, L; Alder, H; Miller, W; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    2001-05-01

    It has been suggested that delayed DNA replication underlies fragility at common human fragile sites, but specific sequences responsible for expression of these inducible fragile sites have not been identified. One approach to identify such cis-acting sequences within the large nonexonic regions of fragile sites would be to identify conserved functional elements within orthologous fragile sites by interspecies sequence comparison. This study describes a comparison of orthologous fragile regions, the human FRA3B/FHIT and the murine Fra14A2/Fhit locus. We sequenced over 600 kbp of the mouse Fra14A2, covering the region orthologous to the fragile epicenter of FRA3B, and determined the Fhit deletion break points in a mouse kidney cancer cell line (RENCA). The murine Fra14A2 locus, like the human FRA3B, was characterized by a high AT content. Alignment of the two sequences showed that this fragile region was stable in evolution despite its susceptibility to mitotic recombination on inhibition of DNA replication. There were also several unusual highly conserved regions (HCRs). The positions of predicted matrix attachment regions (MARs), possibly related to replication origins, were not conserved. Of known fragile region landmarks, five cancer cell break points, one viral integration site, and one aphidicolin break cluster were located within or near HCRs. Thus, comparison of orthologous fragile regions has identified highly conserved sequences with possible functional roles in maintenance of fragility. PMID:11320209

  2. THICK TASSEL DWARF1 ENCODES A PUTATIVE MAIZE ORTHOLOG OF THE ARABIDOPSIS CLAVATA1 LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The td1 gene in maize regulates meristem size. td1 encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) that is a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis CLAVATA1 protein. These results complement previous work showing that fasciated ear2 encodes a CLAVATA2-like protein, and suggest that the CL...

  3. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  4. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  5. Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to information provided by human and artificial hands.

    PubMed

    Kundey, Shannon M A; Delise, Justin; De Los Reyes, Andres; Ford, Kathy; Starnes, Blair; Dennen, Weston

    2014-03-01

    Even young humans show sensitivity to the accuracy and reliability of informants' reports. Children are selective in soliciting information and in accepting claims. Recent research has also investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) sensitivity to agreement among human informants. Such research utilizing a common human pointing gesture to which dogs are sensitive in a food retrieval paradigm suggests that dogs might choose among informants according to the number of points exhibited, rather than the number of individuals indicating a particular location. Here, we further investigated dogs' use of information from human informants using a stationary pointing gesture, as well as the conditions under which dogs would utilize a stationary point. First, we explored whether the number of points or the number of individuals more strongly influenced dogs' choices. To this end, dogs encountered a choice situation in which the number of points exhibited toward a particular location and the number of individuals exhibiting those points conflicted. Results indicated that dogs chose in accordance with the number of points exhibited toward a particular location. In a second experiment, we explored the possibility that previously learned associations drove dogs' responses to the stationary pointing gesture. In this experiment, dogs encountered a choice situation in which artificial hands exhibited a stationary pointing gesture toward or away from choice locations in the absence of humans. Dogs chose the location to which the artificial hand pointed. These results are consistent with the notion that dogs may respond to a human pointing gesture due to their past-learning history. PMID:23812648

  6. Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Vilŕ, Carles; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-01-01

    By the mid 20th century, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) was exterminated from most of the conterminous United States (cUS) and Mexico. However, because wolves disperse over long distances, extant populations in Canada and Alaska might have retained a substantial proportion of the genetic diversity once found in the cUS. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 34 pre-extermination wolves and found that they had more than twice the diversity of their modern conspecifics, implying a historic population size of several hundred thousand wolves in the western cUS and Mexico. Further, two-thirds of the haplotypes found in the historic sample are unique. Sequences from Mexican grey wolves (C. l. baileyi) and some historic grey wolves defined a unique southern clade supporting a much wider geographical mandate for the reintroduction of Mexican wolves than currently planned. Our results highlight the genetic consequences of population extinction within Ice Age refugia and imply that restoration goals for grey wolves in the western cUS include far less area and target vastly lower population sizes than existed historically. PMID:15643947

  7. Evolution in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the megafaunal extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Meachen, Julie A.; Samuels, Joshua X.

    2012-01-01

    Living coyotes modify their behavior in the presence of larger carnivores, such as wolves. However, little is known about the effects of competitor presence or absence on morphological change in coyotes or wolves over long periods of time. We examined the evolution of coyotes and wolves through time from the late Pleistocene, during which many large carnivorous species coexisted as predators and competitors, to the Recent; this allowed us to investigate evolutionary changes in these species in response to climate change and megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. We measured postcranial skeletal morphologies of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) from Pleistocene-aged tar deposits, as well as early, mid, and recent Holocene populations of both. We found few morphological differences between Pleistocene and Holocene wolf populations. Conversely, we found many differences in coyotes: Pleistocene coyotes were larger and more robust than Holocene populations. However, within 1,000 y of the megafaunal extinctions, coyotes are morphologically indistinguishable from modern populations. We cannot attribute these differences directly to climate change because modern coyotes do not follow Bergmann's rule, which states body size increases with decreasing temperature. Instead, we suggest that Pleistocene coyotes may have been larger and more robust in response to larger competitors and a larger-bodied prey base. Although we cannot separate competition from predator-prey interactions, this study indicates that the effects of biotic interactions can be detected in the fossil record. PMID:22371581

  8. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

  9. Development of a non-invasive polysomnography technique for dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Szakadát, Sára; Kovács, Enik?; Gácsi, Márta; Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-05-10

    Recently dogs (Canis familiaris) have been demonstrated to be a promising model species for studying human behavior as they have adapted to the human niche and developed human-like socio-cognitive skills. Research on dog behavior, however, has so far almost exclusively focused on awake functioning. Here we present a self-developed non-invasive canine polysomnography method that can easily be applied to naive pet dogs. N=22 adult pet dogs (with their owners present) and N=12 adult humans participated in Study I. From these subjects, N=7 dogs returned on two more occasions for Study II. In Study I, we give a descriptive analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram of the dog and compare it to human data. In order to validate our canine polysomnography method in Study II, we compare the sleep macrostructure and the EEG spectrum of dogs after a behaviorally active day without sleep versus passive day with sleep. In Study I, we found that dogs' sleep EEG resembled that of human subjects and was generally in accordance with previous literature using invasive technology. In Study II, we show that similarly to previous results on humans daytime load of novel experiences and sleep deprivation affects the macrostructural and spectral aspects of subsequent sleep. Our results validate the family dog as a model species for studying the effects of pre-sleep activities on the EEG pattern under natural conditions and, thus, broaden the perspectives of the rapidly growing fields of canine cognition and sleep research. PMID:24726397

  10. HL Canis Majoris in preoutburst and SS Cygni - The interoutburst disk instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansperger, C. S.; Kaitchuck, R. H.; Garnavich, P. M.; Dinshaw, N.; Zamkoff, E.

    1994-01-01

    SS Cygni and HL Canis majoris were observed by IUE for three consecutive nights in November of 1992. During the first two nights, simultaneous photometric ground-based observations of SS Cyg were made at the Ball State University Observatory. Observations of SS Cyg and HL CMa were also obtained simultaneously with the 90-inch telescope at the Steward Observatory on the last two nights of the IUE run. These spectroscopic observations covered the wavelength range from 4100 to 5000 A, while the spectra taken with the short wavelength camera on IUE resulted in wavelength coverage from 1150 A to 1980 A. SS Cyg is a U Geminorum-type dwarf nova with an orbital period of 6.6 hr. Good simultaneous UV and optical orbital coverage was obtained for this system. HL CMa is a Z Camelopardalis-type dwarf nova with a mean outburst interval of 15 days. The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) reports that this system was in outburst 4 days after the observing run. Therefore, HL CMa may have been in a preoutburst state during these observations. Optical spectra of HL CMa indicate a warm front passed through the outer disk four days before outburst, but no changes were seen in the UV spectra. Signs of a preoutburst state were observed to develop in SS Cyg, but no outburst occurred for another 30 days.

  11. An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kami?ski, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

  12. Molecular Abundances in the Circumstellar Envelope of Oxygen-Rich Supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    A complete set of molecular abundances have been established for the Oxygen-rich circumstellar envelope (CSE) surrounding the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). These data were obtained from The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1-mm spectral line survey of this object using the ARO Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT), as well as complimentary transitions taken with the ARO 12-meter. The non-LTE radiative transfer code ESCAPADE has been used to obtain the molecular abundances and distributions in VY CMa, including modeling of the various asymmetric outflow geometries in this source. For example, SO and SO2 were determined to arise from five distinct outflows, four of which are asymmetric with respect to the central star. Abundances of these two sulfur-bearing molecules range from 3 x 10-8 - 2.5 x 10-7 for the various outflows. Similar results will be presented for molecules like CS, SiS, HCN, and SiO, as well as more exotic species like NS, PO, AlO, and AlOH. The molecular abundances between the various outflows will be compared and implications for supergiant chemistry will be discussed.

  13. NO EXCESS OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE CANIS MAJOR OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Mateu, Cecilia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Abad, Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones de AstronomIa (CIDA), Apartado Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)], E-mail: cmateu@cida.ve, E-mail: vivas@cida.ve, E-mail: abad@cida.ve, E-mail: robert.zinn@yale.edu, E-mail: miller@astro.yale.edu

    2009-05-15

    Our multi-epoch survey of {approx}20 deg{sup 2} of the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity has detected only 10 RR Lyrae stars (RRLS). We show that this number is consistent with the number expected from the Galactic halo and thick disk populations alone, leaving no excess that can be attributed to the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy that some authors have proposed as the origin of the CMa overdensity. If this galaxy resembles the dSph satellites of the Milky Way (MW) and of M31 and has the putative M{sub V} {approx} -14.5, our survey should have detected several tens of RRLS. Even if M{sub V} {approx}< -12, the expected excess is {approx}>10, which is not observed. Either the old stellar population of this galaxy has unique properties or, as others have argued before, the CMa overdensity is produced by the thin and thick disk and spiral arm populations of the MW and not by a collision with a dSph satellite galaxy.

  14. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  15. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  16. Adaptive Optics Imaging of VY Canis Majoris at 2-5 ?m with LBT/LMIRCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

    2013-10-01

    We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the Ks , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 ?m) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar "Southwest Clump" previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 ?m appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10-3 M ? to 2.5 × 10-2 M ? depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  17. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF VY CANIS MAJORIS AT 2-5 ?m WITH LBT/LMIRCam

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya, E-mail: shenoy@astro.umn.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the K{sub s} , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 ?m) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar ''Southwest Clump'' previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 ?m appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ?} to 2.5 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ?} depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events.

  18. Imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collars (Seresto®, Bayer) successfully prevent long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Fourie, Josephus J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the empirical efficacy of imidacloprid 10 %/flumethrin 4.5 % (Seresto®) collars in preventing long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs. The study was a parallel group design, single centre, randomised, non-blinded, controlled, long-term efficacy study. The treatment group of 8 dogs was fitted with Seresto® collars, the untreated control group of 8 dogs received no collars. Ehrlichia canis-infected ticks were released into the dogs sleeping quarters at 14-day intervals up to Day +378. Control group dogs infected with E. canis were continuously replaced to keep the control sample size constant, and a total of 39 control dogs were required. The final clinical examination and blood sampling occurred on Day +420. The primary assessment criterion was the number of dogs infected with E. canis, as confirmed by IFA and PCR, and the secondary criterion was the acaricidal efficacy based on tick counts. All scheduled blood samples taken were subject to analyses for both PCR and IFA, but only positive cases are discussed. Up to Day +378, none of the collar-treated dogs were infected with E. canis, whereas 34 of the 35 untreated dogs enrolled before Day +371 were infected. The acaricidal efficacy of the collar ranged from 90 % to 100 % for the duration of the assessment period. PMID:23774841

  19. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Factor 6 Signaling Contributes to Control Host Lung Pathology but Favors Susceptibility against Toxocara canis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Faz-López, Berenice; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Romero-Sánchez, Yolanda; Calleja, Elsa; Martínez-Labat, Pablo; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Using STAT6?/? BALB/c mice, we have analyzed the role of STAT6-induced Th2 response in determining the outcome of experimental toxocariasis caused by embryonated eggs of the helminth parasite Toxocara canis. Following T. canis infection wild-type BALB/c mice developed a strong Th2-like response, produced high levels of IgG1, IgE, and IL-4, recruited alternatively activated macrophages, and displayed a moderate pathology in the lungs; however, they harbored heavy parasite loads in different tissues. In contrast, similarly infected STAT6?/? BALB/c mice mounted a weak Th2-like response, did not recruit alternatively activated macrophages, displayed a severe pathology in the lungs, but efficiently controlled T. canis infection. These findings demonstrate that Th2-like response induced via STAT6-mediated signaling pathway mediates susceptibility to larval stage of T. canis. Furthermore, they also indicate that unlike most gastrointestinal helminths, immunity against larvae of T. canis is not mediated by a Th2-dominant response. PMID:23509764

  20. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionic?, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides. PMID:25899079

  1. Efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on on dogs against Phlebotomus perniciosus and Ctenocephalides canis.

    PubMed

    Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Jacquiet, P; Warin, S; Kaltsatos, V; Franc, M

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new topical ectoparasiticidal spot-on containing 4.95% dinotefuran (w/w), 36.08% permethrin (w/w) and 0.44% pyriproxyfen (w/w) (Vectra 3D, Ceva, Libourne, France) against Portuguese strain of Phlebotomus perniciosus and a French strain of Ctenocephalides canis in dogs. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed for 1 h to 100 P. perniciosus on day 6 for allocation in two groups. One group was treated on day 0, and the other group was the control group. The dogs were exposed for 1 h to 100 P. perniciosus on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. After each sandfly challenge, the same dogs were infested with 100 C. canis. Counts of living fleas were determined 48 h after infestation on days 4, 3, 9, 16, 23 and 30. For sandflies, the anti-feeding effect was 96.9, 99.7, 98.7, 83.5 and 87.0 % on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. The mortality effect was 97.8, 99.8, 73.7, 27.5 and 39.6% on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. At each challenge point, the mortality and anti-feeding effects on sandflies were significantly different between the control and treatment groups (p < 0.05). The adulticidal effect on C. canis remained above 99% throughout the study period. The results indicate that a combination with dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen may be used as an effective part of an overall flea and sandfly control strategy in dogs for monthly use. PMID:23996100

  2. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida.

    PubMed

    Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

    2010-07-15

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (P<0.04). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of E. canis (0.4-1.6%) or B. burgdorferi (0-0.8%) among the groups. There was no association of sex or age with D. immitis infection, but pit bull type dogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. PMID:20399018

  3. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures - I. Kinematics of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Conn, B. C.; Lewis, G. F.; Bellazzini, M.; Irwin, M. J.

    2005-09-01

    As part of a radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures that we undertook with the 2dF spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, we present the radial velocities of more than 1500 red giant branch and red clump stars towards the centre of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. With a mean velocity of 72 +/- 7kms-1 at a heliocentric distance of 5.5kpc and 114 +/- 2kms-1 at 8.5kpc, these stars present a peculiar distance - radial velocity relation that is unlike that expected from thin or thick disc stars. Moreover, they belong to a kinematically cold population with an intrinsic dispersion that may be as low as 11+3-1kms-1. A comparison of the velocity distribution obtained in this work with previous studies shows the importance of using our new reduction pipeline and averaging the velocities obtained from different templates. The radial velocity distribution is used to select Canis Major stars in the UCAC2.0 proper motion catalogue and derive proper motions in Galactic coordinates of (?l, ?b) = (-3.6 +/- 0.8masyr-1, 1.5 +/- 0.4masyr-1) for the dwarf galaxy, which after correcting for the reflex solar motion along this line of sight gives (?'l, ?'b) = (-6.8 +/- 0.8masyr-1, 0.8 +/- 0.4masyr-1), corresponding to a prograde orbit with a tangential velocity of ~235kms-1 at the average distance of ~7.2kpc. All these kinematic constraints can be reproduced in simulations of the accretion of a dwarf on to the Galactic disc. Such a process could also be responsible for the Monoceros Ring that has recently been shown to encompass the Galactic disc. However, without constraints on the kinematics of the tidal arms emerging from the Canis Major dwarf, it is not yet possible to definitively prove a link between the two structures.

  4. Bovipain-2, the falcipain-2 ortholog, is expressed in intraerythrocytic stages of the tick-transmitted hemoparasite Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteases have been shown to be highly relevant for Apicomplexan parasites. In the case of Babesia bovis, a tick-transmitted hemoparasite of cattle, inhibitors of these enzymes were shown to hamper intraerythrocytic replication of the parasite, underscoring their importance for survival. Results Four papain-like cysteine proteases were found to be encoded by the B. bovis genome using the MEROPS database. One of them, the ortholog of Plasmodium falciparum falcipain-2, here named bovipain-2, was further characterized. Bovipain-2 is encoded in B. bovis chromosome 4 by an ORF of 1.3 kb, has a predicted molecular weight of 42 kDa, and is hydrophilic with the exception of a transmembrane region. It has orthologs in several other apicomplexans, and its predicted amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation among several B. bovis isolates from North and South America. Synteny studies demonstrated that the bovipain-2 gene has expanded in the genomes of two related piroplasmids, Theileria parva and T. annulata, into families of 6 and 7 clustered genes respectively. The bovipain-2 gene is transcribed in in vitro cultured intra-erythrocyte forms of a virulent and an attenuated B. bovis strain from Argentina, and has no introns, as shown by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Antibodies against a recombinant form of bovipain-2 recognized two parasite protein bands of 34 and 26 kDa, which coincide with the predicted sizes of the pro-peptidase and mature peptidase, respectively. Immunofluorescence studies showed an intracellular localization of bovipain-2 in the middle-rear region of in vitro cultured merozoites, as well as diffused in the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. Anti-bovipain-2 antibodies also reacted with B. bigemina-infected erythrocytes giving a similar pattern, which suggests cross-reactivity among these species. Antibodies in sera of two out of six B. bovis-experimentally infected bovines tested, reacted specifically with recombinant bovipain-2 in immunoblots, thus demonstrating expression and immunogenicity during bovine-infecting stages. Conclusions Overall, we present the characterization of bovipain-2 and demonstrate its in vitro and in vivo expression in virulent and attenuated strains. Given the involvement of apicomplexan cysteine proteases in essential parasite functions, bovipain-2 constitutes a new vaccine candidate and potential drug target for bovine babesiosis. PMID:21092313

  5. Spin-up of the white dwarf in the intermediate polar BG Canis Minoris/3A 0729 + 103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusteijn, T.; Schwarz, H. E.; van Paradijs, J.

    1991-07-01

    Using 29 times of maximum light of the pulsational light curve of the intermediate polar BG Canis Minoris, it is found that the white dwarf rotation period decreases on a timescale of (0.566 + or - 0.033) million yr. A new orbital period that it is equal to the 1-cycle alias of the previously accepted period determined from the timing of two orbital X-ray minima. Using estimates of both the magnetic dipole moment of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate, and the disk accretion model of Lamb and Patterson (1983), a white dwarf mass of about 1.0 solar masses is obtained.

  6. A dwarf galaxy remnant in Canis Major: the fossil of an in-plane accretion onto the Milky Way

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Martin; R. A. Ibata; M. Bellazzini; M. J. Irwin; G. F. Lewis; W. Dehnen

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the asymmetries in the population of Galactic\\u000aM-giant stars present in the 2MASS All Sky catalogue. Several large-scale\\u000aasymmetries are detected, the most significant of which is a strong\\u000aelliptical-shaped stellar over-density, close to the Galactic plane at (l=240,\\u000ab=-8), in the constellation of Canis Major. A small grouping of globular\\u000aclusters (NGC 1851, NGC

  7. The variability of some motor components of social play and agonistic behaviour in infant eastern coyotes, Canis latrans var.

    PubMed

    Hill, H L; Bekoff, M

    1977-11-01

    The duration and stereotypy (in terms of duration) of three actions, stand-overs (SO), generalbites (GB), And scruff-bites (SB), were measured during social play and agonistic interactions in infant eastern coyotes (Canis latrans). The rate of biting was also calculated. We found: (1) SO's and GB's lasted a significantly shorter time during play; (2) when performed during playful interactions, all three acts showed more stereotypy; (3) there was no significant difference between the rates of occurrence of biting during the two situations. A discussion of the 'exaggerated' nature of play behaviour is presented, particularly concerning the form of motor actions that are used during this activity. PMID:564149

  8. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Coyotes (Canis latrans)

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Joseph W.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Little information exists on coyote (Canis latrans) space use and habitat selection in the southeastern United States and most studies conducted in the Southeast have been carried out within small study areas (e.g., ?1,000 km2). Therefore, studying the placement, size, and habitat composition of coyote home ranges over broad geographic areas could provide relevant insights regarding how coyote populations adjust to regionally varying ecological conditions. Despite an increasing number of studies of coyote ecology, few studies have assessed the role of transiency as a life-history strategy among coyotes. During 2009–2011, we used GPS radio-telemetry to study coyote space use and habitat selection on the Albemarle Peninsula of northeastern North Carolina. We quantified space use and 2nd- and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient coyotes to describe space use patterns in a predominantly agricultural landscape. The upper limit of coyote home-range size was approximately 47 km2 and coyotes exhibiting shifting patterns of space use of areas >65 km2 were transients. Transients exhibited localized space use patterns for short durations prior to establishing home ranges, which we defined as “biding” areas. Resident and transient coyotes demonstrated similar habitat selection, notably selection of agricultural over forested habitats. However, transients exhibited stronger selection for roads than resident coyotes. Although transient coyotes are less likely to contribute reproductively to their population, transiency may be an important life history trait that facilitates metapopulation dynamics through dispersal and the eventual replacement of breeding residents lost to mortality. PMID:26148130

  9. Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves (Canis lupus) from the Yukon Territory, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gamberg, M; Braune, B M

    1999-12-15

    Kidney, liver and bone samples were taken from 19 wolves (Canis lupus) collected from two locations in the Yukon Territory. Liver samples pooled by age and sex were analyzed for 22 organochlorine pesticides and 101 PCB congeners. Individual kidney and liver samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium and zinc. Thirteen individual bone samples were analyzed for lead. While most organochlorines were not present at detectable levels in wolf liver, some chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and sigma PCB were present at low levels. PCB congeners 149, 153, 170/190, 180 and 187/182 made up 86% of the total PCBs measured in wolf liver. The hexa- and heptachlorobiphenyls dominated the pattern in wolf liver, while congeners containing less than five chlorine atoms were not detected. The pattern of chlorobenzene and PCB homologues found in wolf liver are more similar to those found in marten (Martes americana) and other carnivores than caribou (Rangifer tarandus), perhaps reflecting similarities in food habits and metabolic capacities. With the exception of cadmium, average element concentrations in all wolf tissues are similar to those found in other arctic carnivores. Cadmium concentrations in wolf liver and kidney were somewhat higher in Yukon wolves than other arctic wolves. This may reflect high cadmium concentrations found in livers and kidneys of moose and some caribou herds in the Yukon. Renal arsenic and bone lead decreased significantly with age in wolves, while renal mercury increased with age. Because the ranges seen are relatively small, and all values are within the range normally seen in wildlife, it is difficult to determine the biological significance of these relationships. Contaminant levels in Yukon wolves are generally low and are similar to those found in other arctic terrestrial carnivores. They do not approach levels that are known to potentially cause adverse effects in animals. Contaminant concentrations found in this study should be considered baseline levels. PMID:10635602

  10. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid V; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedzia?kowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Ma?gorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  11. Management of endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in an open admission shelter: a field study.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen; Coyner, Kimberly; Trimmer, Ann; Kunder, Darcie

    2015-04-01

    Endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis was identified in a large, open admission, private, no-kill shelter that admitted >1200 cats per year. Fungal culture (FC) screening revealed that 166/210 (79%) and 38/99 (38%) cats in the non-public and public area were culture positive, respectively. However, pending screening FC results, the 99 cats in the public area were treated with once-weekly lime sulfur rinses and monitored with once-weekly FC. Cats in the non-public area were not treated. When FC results were available, cats were separated into low-risk (n = 61) and high-risk (n = 38) groups based upon the presence or absence of skin lesions. Low-risk cats continued to receive once-weekly topical lime sulfur and rapidly achieved culture-negative status. High-risk cats were divided into two groups based upon the number of colony-forming units/plate (low or high). All 38 cats were treated with twice-weekly lime sulfur and oral terbinafine and within 6-7 weeks only 5/38 cats were still FC-positive. These cats were moved to a separate room. Dermatophytosis was eradicated within 5 months; eradication was prolonged owing to reintroduction of disease into the remaining room of cats under treatment from three kittens returning from foster care. Continued admissions and adoptions were possible by the institution of intake procedures that specifically included careful Wood's lamp examination to identify high-risk cats and use of a 'clean break strategy'. PMID:25074567

  12. Antigenic profiling of Yersinia pestis infection in the Wyoming coyote (Canis latrans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vernati, G.; Edwards, W.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Little, S.F.; Andrews, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Yersinia pestis is classified as a "high-virulence" pathogen, some host species are variably susceptible to disease. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit mild, if any, symptoms during infection, but antibody production occurs postinfection. This immune response has been reported to be against the F1 capsule, although little subsequent characterization has been conducted. To further define the nature of coyote humoral immunity to plague, qualitative serology was conducted to assess the antiplague antibody repertoire. Humoral responses to six plasmid-encoded Y. pestis virulence factors were first examined. Of 20 individual immune coyotes, 90% were reactive to at least one other antigen in the panel other than F1. The frequency of reactivity to low calcium response plasmid (pLcr)-encoded Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) was significantly greater than that previously observed in a murine model for plague. Additionally, both V antigen and plasminogen activator were reactive with over half of the serum samples tested. Reactivity to F1 was markedly less frequent in coyotes (35%). Twenty previously tested antibody-negative samples were also examined. While the majority were negative across the panel, 15% were positive for 1-3 non-F1 antigens. In vivo-induced antigen technology employed to identify novel chromosomal genes of Y. pestis that are up-regulated during infection resulted in the identification of five proteins, including a flagellar component (FliP) that was uniquely reactive with the coyote serum compared with immune serum from two other host species. Collectively, these data suggest that humoral immunity to pLcr-encoded antigens and the pesticin plasmid (pPst)-encoded Pla antigen may be relevant to plague resistance in coyotes. The serologic profile of Y. pestis chromosomal antigens up-regulated in vivo specific to C. latrans may provide insight into the differences in the pathogen-host responses during Y. pestis infection.

  13. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Stronen, Astrid V.; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedzia?kowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Ma?gorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  14. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

  15. Polymorphism of alpha 1 antitrypsin in North American species of Canis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.; Kueppers, F.

    2000-01-01

    a1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) is a major protease inhibitor present in all mammalian sera that have thus far been investigated. A1AT is also highly polymorphic and is therefore a useful genetic marker. Previously reported A1AT polymorphism in domestic dogs consisted of two alleles designated as PiM and PiS which exhibited frequencies of 0.72 and 0.28, respectively, in a group of randomly collected mongrel dogs. North American species of Canis, which included gray wolves (n=29), Mexican wolves (n=20), coyotes (n=24), wolfdog crosses (n=9), and red wolves (n=27) were tested for A1AT polymorphism. A1AT phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing, followed by direct immunoblotting using a specific antiserum. A1AT concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Concentrations of A1AT were similar to those found in domestic dogs (2.26 + 0.3 mg/ml SD) and tended to be higher in females than in males, possibly indicating that A1AT may be hormonally influenced in females. Three phenotypic band patterns were observed (M, MS, S). The allele frequencies for domestic dogs and gray wolves were very similar, 0.72 and 0.69 for PiM and 0.28 and 0.31 for PiS, respectively. The Mexican wolves had a significantly lower frequency of PiS= 0.10. Coyotes and red wolves were all found to be monomorphic for the PiS allele and were indistinguishable from each other in that respect.

  16. Hypoxia Adaptations in the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eunjung; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Galaverni, Marco; Huang, Jie; Liu, Hong; Silva, Pedro; Li, Peng; Pollinger, John P.; Du, Lianming; Zhang, XiuyYue; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K.; Zhang, Zhihe

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) occupies habitats on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a high altitude (>3000 m) environment where low oxygen tension exerts unique selection pressure on individuals to adapt to hypoxic conditions. To identify genes involved in hypoxia adaptation, we generated complete genome sequences of nine Chinese wolves from high and low altitude populations at an average coverage of 25× coverage. We found that, beginning about 55,000 years ago, the highland Tibetan grey wolf suffered a more substantial population decline than lowland wolves. Positively selected hypoxia-related genes in highland wolves are enriched in the HIF signaling pathway (P?=?1.57E-6), ATP binding (P?=?5.62E-5), and response to an oxygen-containing compound (P?5.30E-4). Of these positively selected hypoxia-related genes, three genes (EPAS1, ANGPT1, and RYR2) had at least one specific fixed non-synonymous SNP in highland wolves based on the nine genome data. Our re-sequencing studies on a large panel of individuals showed a frequency difference greater than 58% between highland and lowland wolves for these specific fixed non-synonymous SNPs and a high degree of LD surrounding the three genes, which imply strong selection. Past studies have shown that EPAS1 and ANGPT1 are important in the response to hypoxic stress, and RYR2 is involved in heart function. These three genes also exhibited significant signals of natural selection in high altitude human populations, which suggest similar evolutionary constraints on natural selection in wolves and humans of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. PMID:25078401

  17. TDP-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of TDP-43, limits the accumulation of double-stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Saldi, Tassa K; Ash, Peter EA; Wilson, Gavin; Gonzales, Patrick; Garrido-Lecca, Alfonso; Roberts, Christine M; Dostal, Vishantie; Gendron, Tania F; Stein, Lincoln D; Blumenthal, Thomas; Petrucelli, Leonard; Link, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deleted for TDP-1, an ortholog of the neurodegeneration-associated RNA-binding protein TDP-43, display only mild phenotypes. Nevertheless, transcriptome sequencing revealed that many RNAs were altered in accumulation and/or processing in the mutant. Analysis of these transcriptional abnormalities demonstrates that a primary function of TDP-1 is to limit formation or stability of double-stranded RNA. Specifically, we found that deletion of tdp-1: (1) preferentially alters the accumulation of RNAs with inherent double-stranded structure (dsRNA); (2) increases the accumulation of nuclear dsRNA foci; (3) enhances the frequency of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing; and (4) dramatically increases the amount of transcripts immunoprecipitable with a dsRNA-specific antibody, including intronic sequences, RNAs with antisense overlap to another transcript, and transposons. We also show that TDP-43 knockdown in human cells results in accumulation of dsRNA, indicating that suppression of dsRNA is a conserved function of TDP-43 in mammals. Altered accumulation of structured RNA may account for some of the previously described molecular phenotypes (e.g., altered splicing) resulting from reduction of TDP-43 function. PMID:25391662

  18. The ortholog of the human proto-oncogene ROS1 is required for epithelial development in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Martin R; Rose, Ann M; Baillie, David L

    2013-01-01

    The orphan receptor ROS1 is a human proto-oncogene, mutations of which are found in an increasing number of cancers. Little is known about the role of ROS1, however in vertebrates it has been implicated in promoting differentiation programs in specialized epithelial tissues. In this study we show that the C. elegans ortholog of ROS1, the receptor tyrosine kinase ROL-3, has an essential role in orchestrating the morphogenesis and development of specialized epidermal tissues, highlighting a potentially conserved function in coordinating crosstalk between developing epithelial cells. We also provide evidence of a direct relationship between ROL-3, the mucin SRAP-1, and BCC-1, the homolog of mRNA regulating protein Bicaudal-C. This study answers a longstanding question as to the developmental function of ROL-3, identifies three new genes that are expressed and function in the developing epithelium of C. elegans, and introduces the nematode as a potentially powerful model system for investigating the increasingly important, yet poorly understood, human oncogene ROS1. genesis 51:545–561. PMID:23733356

  19. Reprogramming the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Seeds of Oilseed Rape by Suppressing the Orthologs of REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE11[W

    PubMed Central

    Mittasch, Juliane; Böttcher, Christoph; Frolov, Andrej; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the phenylpropanoid pathway, many Brassicaceae produce considerable amounts of soluble hydroxycinnamate conjugates, mainly sinapate esters. From oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we cloned two orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 (REF1) encoding a coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase. The enzyme is involved in the formation of ferulate and sinapate from the corresponding aldehydes, thereby linking lignin and hydroxycinnamate biosynthesis as a potential branch-point enzyme. We used RNA interference to silence REF1 genes in seeds of oilseed rape. Nontargeted metabolite profiling showed that BnREF1-suppressing seeds produced a novel chemotype characterized by reduced levels of sinapate esters, the appearance of conjugated monolignols, dilignols, and trilignols, altered accumulation patterns of kaempferol glycosides, and changes in minor conjugates of caffeate, ferulate, and 5-hydroxyferulate. BnREF1 suppression affected the level of minor sinapate conjugates more severely than that of the major component sinapine. Mapping of the changed metabolites onto the phenylpropanoid metabolic network revealed partial redirection of metabolic sequences as a major impact of BnREF1 suppression. PMID:23424250

  20. VFL, the Grapevine FLORICAULA/LEAFY Ortholog, Is Expressed in Meristematic Regions Independently of Their Fate1

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, María José; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2002-01-01

    The flowering process in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) takes place in buds and extends for two consecutive growing seasons. To understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we have characterized grapevine bud development, cloned the grapevine FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) ortholog, VFL, and analyzed its expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development. Flowering induction takes place during the first season. Upon induction, the shoot apical meristem begins to produce lateral meristems that will give rise to either inflorescences or tendrils. During the second season, after a winter dormancy period, buds reactivate and inflorescence meristems give rise to flower meristems. VFL is expressed in lateral meristems that give rise to inflorescence and flower meristems, consistent with a role in reproductive development. Furthermore, VFL is also detected in other meristematic regions such as the vegetative shoot apical meristem and the lateral meristems that will give rise to tendrils. VFL is also expressed in leaf primordia and in growing leaf margins until later stages of development. Accumulation of VFL transcripts in cell-proliferating regions suggests a role for VFL not only in flower meristem specification, but also in the maintenance of indeterminacy before the differentiation of derivatives of the apical meristem: flowers, leaves, or tendrils. PMID:12226487

  1. Female gametophytic cell specification and seed development require the function of the putative Arabidopsis INCENP ortholog WYRD.

    PubMed

    Kirioukhova, Olga; Johnston, Amal J; Kleen, Daniela; Kägi, Christina; Baskar, Ramamurthy; Moore, James M; Bäumlein, Helmut; Gross-Hardt, Rita; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2011-08-01

    In plants, gametes, along with accessory cells, are formed by the haploid gametophytes through a series of mitotic divisions, cell specification and differentiation events. How the cells in the female gametophyte of flowering plants differentiate into gametes (the egg and central cell) and accessory cells remains largely unknown. In a screen for mutations that affect egg cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, we identified the wyrd (wyr) mutant, which produces additional egg cells at the expense of the accessory synergids. WYR not only restricts gametic fate in the egg apparatus, but is also necessary for central cell differentiation. In addition, wyr mutants impair mitotic divisions in the male gametophyte and endosperm, and have a parental effect on embryo cytokinesis, consistent with a function of WYR in cell cycle regulation. WYR is upregulated in gametic cells and encodes a putative plant ortholog of the inner centromere protein (INCENP), which is implicated in the control of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in yeast and animals. Our data reveal a novel developmental function of the conserved cell cycle-associated INCENP protein in plant reproduction, in particular in the regulation of egg and central cell fate and differentiation. PMID:21752930

  2. Fragile site orthologs FHIT/FRA3B and Fhit/Fra14A2: Evolutionarily conserved but highly recombinogenic

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Ayumi; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Trapasso, Francesco; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Alder, Hansjuerg; Mori, Masaki; Huebner, Kay; Croce, Carlo M.

    2003-01-01

    Common fragile sites are regions that show elevated susceptibility to DNA damage, leading to alterations that can contribute to cancer development. FRA3B, located at chromosome region 3p14.2, is the most frequently expressed human common fragile site, and allelic losses at FRA3B have been observed in many types of cancer. The FHIT gene, encompassing the FRA3B region, is a tumor-suppressor gene. To identify the features of FHIT/FRA3B that might contribute to fragility, sequences of the human FHIT and the flanking PTPRG gene were compared with those of murine Fhit and Ptprg. Human and mouse orthologous genes, FHIT and Fhit, are more highly conserved through evolution than PTPRG/Ptprg and yet contain more sequence elements that are exquisitely sensitive to genomic rearrangements, such as high-flexibility regions and long interspersed nuclear element 1s, suggesting that common fragile sites serve a function. The conserved AT-rich high-flexibility regions are the most characteristic of common fragile sites. PMID:14630947

  3. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers.

    PubMed

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-04-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F(ST) > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  4. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  5. QTL Mapping in Eggplant Reveals Clusters of Yield-Related Loci and Orthology with the Tomato Genome

    PubMed Central

    Portis, Ezio; Barchi, Lorenzo; Toppino, Laura; Lanteri, Sergio; Acciarri, Nazzareno; Felicioni, Nazzareno; Fusari, Fabio; Barbierato, Valeria; Cericola, Fabio; Valč, Giampiero; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its widespread cultivation and nutritional and economic importance, the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genome has not been extensively explored. A lack of knowledge of the patterns of inheritance of key agronomic traits has hindered the exploitation of marker technologies to accelerate its genetic improvement. An already established F2 intraspecific population of eggplant bred from the cross ‘305E40’ x ‘67/3’ was phenotyped for 20 agronomically relevant traits at two sites. Up to seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) per trait were identified and the percentage of the phenotypic variance (PV) explained per QTL ranged from 4 to 93%. Not all the QTL were detectable at both sites, but for each trait at least one major QTL (PV explained ?10%) was identified. Although no detectable QTL x environment interaction was found, some QTL identified were location-specific. Many of the fruit-related QTL clustered within specific chromosomal regions, reflecting either linkage and/or pleiotropy. Evidence for putative tomato orthologous QTL/genes was obtained for several of the eggplant QTL. Information regarding the inheritance of key agronomic traits was obtained. Some of the QTL, along with their respective linked markers, may be useful in the context of marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24586828

  6. The COP1 ortholog PPS regulates the juvenile-adult and vegetative-reproductive phase changes in rice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Hironori; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2011-06-01

    Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA(3) content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots. PMID:21705640

  7. Functional characterization of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in lamprey showing orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Haitina, Tatjana; Klovins, Janis; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Löwgren, Maja; Ringholm, Aneta; Enberg, Johan; Kawauchi, Hiroshi; Larson, Earl T; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2007-01-01

    Background The melanocortin (MC) receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The purpose of this study was to identify ancestral MC receptors in agnathan, river lamprey. Results We report cloning of two MC receptors from river lamprey. The lamprey receptors, designated MCa and MCb, showed orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes, respectively. The molecular clock analysis suggested that lamprey MC receptor genes were not duplicated recently and diverged from each other more than 400 MYR ago. Expression and pharmacological characterization showed that the lamprey MCa receptor was able to bind and be activated by both lamprey and human MSH peptides. The lamprey MCa receptor had relatively high affinity for ACTH derived peptides similarly to the fish MC receptors. We found that both of the lamprey MC receptors were expressed in skin, while the MCb receptor was also found in liver, heart and skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study shows presence of MC receptors in agnathans indicating early signs of specific functions of melanocortin receptor subtypes. PMID:17603878

  8. Characterization of structural and free energy properties of promoters associated with Primary and Operon TSS in Helicobacter pylori genome and their orthologs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aditya; Bansal, Manju

    2012-07-01

    Promoter regions in the genomes of all domains of life show similar trends in several structural properties such as stability, bendability, curvature, etc. In current study we analysed the stability and bendability of various classes of promoter regions (based on the recent identification of different classes of transcription start sites) of Helicobacter pylori 26695 strain. It is found that primary TSS and operon-associated TSS promoters show significantly strong features in their promoter regions. DNA free-energy-based promoter prediction tool PromPredict was used to annotate promoters of different classes, and very high recall values (approx. 80 percent) are obtained for primary TSS. Orthologous genes from other strains of H. pylori show conservation of structural properties in promoter regions as well as coding regions. PromPredict annotates promoters of orthologous genes with very high recall and precision. PMID:22750980

  9. Biology of KAL1 and its orthologs: implications for X-linked Kallmann syndrome and the search for novel candidate genes.

    PubMed

    MacColl, Gavin S; Quinton, Richard; Bülow, Hannes E

    2010-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome is characterised by congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia, sometimes with other non-reproductive defects. Although multiple genetic pathways are now known to be involved in the development of this disorder, KAL1, the gene causing the X-linked form of Kallmann syndrome was the first to be identified. It has thus been extensively studied both in vitro and in vivo, though the absence of an identifiable murine ortholog has denied researchers the opportunity to create and study Kal-1 knock-out mice. This review looks at several studies in species with a kal-1 ortholog, revealing functional similarities with the human disorder. Further work has shown that the kal-1 domain structure is maintained across genera, that it controls similar morphological and cellular processes during development, and that data from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, in particular, may point to novel human candidate genes. PMID:20389086

  10. Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance ABC transporter: molecular analysis of homoeologous and orthologous genes in hexaploid wheat and other grass species.

    PubMed

    Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans S; Wicker, Thomas; Risk, Joanna M; Ashton, Anthony R; Selter, Liselotte L; Matsumoto, Takashi; Keller, Beat

    2011-02-01

    The Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) disease resistance gene Lr34 confers durable, race non-specific protection against three fungal pathogens, and has been a highly relevant gene for wheat breeding since the green revolution. Lr34, located on chromosome 7D, encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Both wheat cultivars with and without Lr34-based resistance encode a putatively functional protein that differ by only two amino acid polymorphisms. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of homoeologous and orthologous Lr34 genes in hexaploid wheat and other grasses. In hexaploid wheat we found an expressed and putatively functional Lr34 homoeolog located on chromosome 4A, designated Lr34-B. Another homoeologous Lr34 copy, located on chromosome 7A, was disrupted by the insertion of repetitive elements. Protein sequences of LR34-B and LR34 were 97% identical. Orthologous Lr34 genes were detected in the genomes of Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Zea mays (maize), Brachypodium distachyon and Hordeum vulgare (barley) lacked Lr34 orthologs, indicating independent deletion of this particular ABC transporter. Lr34 was part of a gene-rich island on the wheat D genome. We found gene colinearity on the homoeologous A and B genomes of hexaploid wheat, but little microcolinearity in other grasses. The homoeologous LR34-B protein and the orthologs from rice and sorghum have the susceptible haplotype for the two critical polymorphisms distinguishing the LR34 proteins from susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. We conclude that the particular Lr34-haplotype found in resistant wheat cultivars is unique. It probably resulted from functional gene diversification that occurred after the polyploidization event that was at the origin of cultivated bread wheat. PMID:21265893

  11. Human Rif1, ortholog of a yeast telomeric protein, is regulated by ATM and 53BP1 and functions in the S-phase checkpoint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Silverman; Hiroyuki Takai; Sara B. C. Buonomo; Frank Eisenhaber; Titia de Lange

    2004-01-01

    We report on the function of the human ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1). Yeast Rif1 associates with telomeres and regulates their length. In contrast, human Rif1 did not accumulate at functional telomeres, but localized to dysfunctional telomeres and to telomeric DNA clusters in ALT cells, a pattern of telomere association typical of DNA-damage-response factors. After induction of

  12. Characterization of the Tribolium Deformed ortholog and its ability to directly regulate Deformed target genes in the rescue of a Drosophila Deformed null mutant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Brown; S. Holtzman; T. Kaufman; R. Denell

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the Tribolium castaneum ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene Deformed (Dfd) and determined its expression pattern during embryogenesis in this beetle. Tc Deformed\\u000a (Tc Dfd) is expressed in the blastoderm and the condensing germ rudiment in a region that gives rise to gnathal segments. During germ\\u000a band extension Tc Dfd is expressed in the mandibular and maxillary

  13. T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Ökrész; Csaba Máthé; Éva Horváth; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz; László Szabados

    1998-01-01

    A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3?)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3–35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

  14. The Genome of the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium Ehrlichia canis Reveals Themes of Complex Membrane Structure and Immune Evasion Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Doyle, C Kuyler [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Francino, M P [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S [ORNL; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yu, X J [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Walker, D H [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; McBride, J W [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Kyripides, N C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2006-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, {alpha}-proteobacterium, is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of noncoding sequence (27%). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly(G-C) tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Genes associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified, including a small group encoding proteins (n = 12) with tandem repeats and another group encoding proteins with eukaryote-like ankyrin domains (n = 7).

  15. An abundantly expressed mucin-like protein from Toxocara canis infective larvae: the precursor of the larval surface coat glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gems, D; Maizels, R M

    1996-01-01

    Evasion of host immunity by Toxocara canis infective larvae is mediated by the nematode surface coat, which is shed in response to binding by host antibody molecules or effector cells. The major constituent of the coat is the TES-120 glycoprotein series. We have isolated a 730-bp cDNA from the gene encoding the apoprotein precursor of TES-120. The mRNA is absent from T. canis adults but hyperabundant in larvae, making up approximately 10% of total mRNA, and is trans-spliced with the nematode 5' leader sequence SL1. It encodes a 15.8-kDa protein (after signal peptide removal) containing a typical mucin domain: 86 amino acid residues, 72.1% of which are Ser or Thr, organized into an array of heptameric repeats, interspersed with proline residues. At the C-terminal end of the putative protein are two 36-amino acid repeats containing six Cys residues, in a motif that can also be identified in several genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Although TES-120 displays size and charge heterogeneity, there is a single copy gene and a homogeneous size of mRNA. The association of overexpression of some membrane-associated mucins with immunosuppression and tumor metastasis suggests a possible model for the role of the surface coat in immune evasion by parasitic nematodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8643687

  16. Orthologous comparisons of the Hd1 region across genera reveal Hd1 gene lability within diploid Oryza species and disruptions to microsynteny in Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Abhijit; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Lu, Fei; Yu, Yeisoo; Rambo, Teri; Currie, Jennifer; Kollura, Kristi; Kim, Hye-Ran; Chen, Jinfeng; Ma, Jianxin; San Miguel, Phillip; Mingsheng, Chen; Wing, Rod A; Jackson, Scott A

    2010-11-01

    Heading date is one of the most important quantitative traits responsible for the domestication of rice. We compared a 155-kb reference segment of the Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare genome surrounding Hd1, a major heading date gene in rice, with orthologous regions from nine diploid Oryza species that diverged over a relatively short time frame (?16 My) to study sequence evolution around a domestication locus. The orthologous Hd1 region from Sorghum bicolor was included to compare and contrast the evolution in a more distant relative of rice. Consistent with other observations at the adh1/adh2, monoculm1, and sh2/a1 loci in grass species, we found high gene colinearity in the Hd1 region amidst size differences that were lineage specific and long terminal repeat retrotransposon driven. Unexpectedly, the Hd1 gene was deleted in O. glaberrima, whereas the O. rufipogon and O. punctata copies had degenerative mutations, suggesting that other heading date loci might compensate for the loss or nonfunctionality of Hd1 in these species. Compared with the japonica Hd1 region, the orthologous region in sorghum exhibited micro-rearrangements including gene translocations, seven additional genes, and a gene triplication and truncation event predating the divergence from Oryza. PMID:20522726

  17. Mmp1a and Mmp1b are not functional orthologs to human MMP1 in cigarette smoke induced lung disease.

    PubMed

    Carver, Phillip I; Anguiano, Vincent; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Shiomi, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, collagenase-1) expression is implicated in a number of diseased states including emphysema and malignant tumors. The cigarette-smoke induced expression of this interstitial collegenase has been studied extensively and its inhibition proposed as a novel therapeutic treatment for tobacco related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. However, a limitation in MMP1 research is the inability to take advantage of natural in vivo studies as most research has been performed in vitro or via animal models expressing human forms of the gene due to the lack of a rodent ortholog of MMP1. The present study examines the function of two possible mouse orthologs of human MMP1 known as Mmp1a and Mmp1b. Using genomic sequence analysis and expression analysis of these enzymes, the data demonstrate that neither MMP1a nor MMP1b behave in the same manner as human MMP1 in the presence of cigarette smoke. These findings establish that the two commonly proposed orthologs of MMP1, Mmp1a and Mmp1b, provide substantial limitations for use in examining MMP1 induced lung disease in mouse models of cigarette smoke emphysema. PMID:25497407

  18. The Anglo-Australian Telescope\\/Wide Field Imager survey of the Monoceros Ring and Canis Major dwarf galaxy - II. From l = (280-025)°

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair C. Conn; Geraint F. Lewis; Mike J. Irwin; Rodrigo A. Ibata; Nicolas F. Martin; Michele Bellazzini; Artem V. Tuntsov

    2008-01-01

    This paper concludes a systematic search for evidence of the Monoceros Ring and Canis Major dwarf galaxy around the Galactic plane. Presented here are the results for the Galactic longitude range of l = (280-025)°. Testing the claim that the Monoceros Ring encircles the entire Galaxy, this survey attempts to document the position of the Monoceros Ring with increasing Galactic

  19. The first records of Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazonensis in dogs ( Canis familiaris) diagnosed clinically as having canine visceral leishmaniasis from Araçatuba County, Săo Paulo State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José E. Tolezano; Sílvia R. B. Uliana; Helena H. Taniguchi; Maria F. L. Araújo; José A. R. Barbosa; José E. R. Barbosa; Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter; Jeffrey J. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Two cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis are reported in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). These are the first records of this parasite in this species. The animals lived in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis area of Araçatuba, Săo Paulo State, Brazil and were initially diagnosed, on clinical grounds, as having visceral leishmaniasis. Attempted parasite isolation from inguinal lymph node aspirates was

  20. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Outer Membrane Protein 31 Vaccine Formulations for Protection against Brucella canis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clausse, Maria; Díaz, Alejandra G.; Ibańez, Andrés E.; Cassataro, Juliana; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2014-01-01

    Canine brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Brucella canis. Unlike conventional control programs for other species of the genus Brucella, currently there is no vaccine available against canine brucellosis, and preventive measures are simply diagnosis and isolation of infected dogs. New approaches are therefore needed to develop an effective and safe immunization strategy against this zoonotic pathogen. In this study, BALB/c mice were subcutaneously immunized with the following: (i) the recombinant Brucella Omp31 antigen formulated in different adjuvants (incomplete Freund adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide, Quil A, and Montanide IMS 3012 VGPR), (ii) plasmid pCIOmp31, or (iii) pCIOmp31 plasmid followed by boosting with recombinant Omp31 (rOmp31). The immune response and the protective efficacy against B. canis infection were characterized. The different strategies induced a strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) response. Furthermore, spleen cells from rOmp31-immunized mice produced gamma interferon and interleukin-4 (IL-4) after in vitro stimulation with rOmp31, indicating the induction of a mixed Th1-Th2 response. Recombinant Omp31 administered with different adjuvants as well as the prime-boost strategy conferred protection against B. canis. In conclusion, our results suggest that Omp31 could be a useful candidate for the development of a subcellular vaccine against B. canis infection. PMID:25339409

  1. Unique macrophage and tick cell-specific protein expression from the p28/p30-outer membrane protein multigene locus in Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Singu, Vijayakrishna; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Cheng, Chuanmin; Munderloh, Ulrike; Ganta, Roman R

    2006-09-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis are tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogens that cause human and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis respectively. We tested the hypothesis that these pathogens express unique proteins in response to their growth in vertebrate and tick host cells and that this differential expression is similar in closely related Ehrlichia species. Evaluation of nine E. chaffeensis isolates and one E. canis isolate demonstrated that protein expression was host cell-dependent. The differentially expressed proteins included those from the p28/30-Omp multigene locus. E. chaffeensis and E. canis proteins expressed in infected macrophages were primarily the products of the p28-Omp 19 and 20 genes or their orthologues. In cultured tick cells, E. canis expressed only the p30-10 protein, an orthologue of the E. chaffeensis p28-Omp 14 protein which is the only protein expressed by E. chaffeensis propagated in cultured tick cells. The expressed Omp proteins were post-translationally modified to generate multiple molecular forms. E. chaffeensis gene expression from the p28/30-Omp locus was similar in tick cell lines derived from both vector (Amblyomma americanum) and non-vector (Ixodes scapularis) ticks. Differential expression of proteins within the p28/p30-Omp locus may therefore be vital for adaptation of Ehrlichia species to their dual host life cycle. PMID:16922866

  2. Observations of scent-marking and discriminating self from others by a domestic dog ( Canis familiaris): tales of displaced yellow snow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Bekoff

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about what stimuli trigger urinating or scent-marking in domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, or their wild relatives. While it is often suggested that the urine of other animals influences urinating and scent-marking patterns in canids, this has not been verified experimentally. To investigate the role of urine in eliciting urinating and marking, in this pilot study I moved

  3. Crystal structure and dielectric properties of complex perovskite (Sr, Ba, Ca)(Ni0.5W0.5)O3

    E-print Network

    Messing, Gary L.

    Crystal structure and dielectric properties of complex perovskite (Sr, Ba, Ca)(Ni0.5W0.5)O3 Takashi + was made for the complex perovskite Sr(Ni0.5W0.5)O3 to correlate with the structure evolution temperatures were studied using high temperature X-ray powder diffractometry. A single phase of the perovskite

  4. CARBON CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR OXYGEN-RICH EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ziurys, L. M.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Pulliam, R. L.; Woolf, N. J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Milam, S. N. [SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 245-6, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States)], E-mail: lziurys@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: emilyt@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: rpulliam@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: nwoolf@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Stefanie.N.Milam@nasa.gov

    2009-04-20

    Observations of the carbon-bearing molecules CO, HCN, CS, HNC, CN, and HCO{sup +} have been conducted toward the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich red supergiant star, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). CO and HCN were also observed toward the O-rich shells of NML Cyg, TX Cam, IK Tau, and W Hya. Rotational transitions of these species at 1 mm, 0.8 mm, and 0.4 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, including the J = 6 {yields} 5 line of CO at 691 GHz toward TX Cam and W Hya. The ARO 12 m was used for 2 mm and 3 mm observations. Four transitions were observed for HCO{sup +} in VY CMa, the first definitive identification of this ion in a circumstellar envelope. Molecular line profiles from VY CMa are complex, indicating three separate outflows: a roughly spherical flow and separate red- and blueshifted winds, as suggested by earlier observations. Spectra from the other sources appear to trace a single outflow component. The line data were modeled with a radiative transfer code to establish molecular abundances relative to H{sub 2} and source distributions. Abundances for CO derived for these objects vary over an order of magnitude, f {approx} 0.4-5 x 10{sup -4}, with the lower values corresponding to the supergiants. For HCN, a similar range in abundance is found (f {approx} 0.9-9 x 10{sup -6}), with no obvious dependence on the mass-loss rate. In VY CMa, HCO{sup +} is present in all three outflows with f {approx} 0.4-1.6 x 10{sup -8} and a spatial extent similar to that of CO. HNC is found only in the red- and blueshifted components with [HCN]/[HNC] {approx} 150-190, while [CN]/[HCN] {approx} 0.01 in the spherical flow. All three velocity components are traced in CS, which has a confined spatial distribution and f {approx} 2-6 x 10{sup -7}. These observations suggest that carbon-bearing molecules in O-rich shells are produced by a combination of photospheric shocks and photochemistry. Shocks may play a more prominent role in the supergiants because of their macroturbulent velocities.

  5. Pharmacological characterization and molecular determinants of the activation of transient receptor potential V2 channel orthologs by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate.

    PubMed

    Juvin, Véronique; Penna, Aubin; Chemin, Jean; Lin, Yea-Lih; Rassendren, François-A

    2007-11-01

    Despite its expression in different cell types, transient receptor potential V2 (TRPV2) is still the most cryptic members of the TRPV channel family. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) has been shown to be a common activator of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3, but 2APB-triggered TRPV2 activation remains to be thoroughly characterized. In this study, we have developed an assay based on cell lines stably expressing mouse TRPV2 channels and intracellular calcium measurements to perform a pharmacological profiling of the channel. Phenyl borate derivatives were found to activate mouse TRPV2 with similar potencies and thus were used to screen a panel of channel blockers. Besides the classic TRP inhibitors ruthenium red (RR) and 1-(beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl) propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl)-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SKF96365), two potassium channel blockers, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine, and an inhibitor of capacitative calcium entry, 1-(2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl) imidazole (TRIM), were found to inhibit TRPV2 activation by 100 microM 2APB. Activation by 300 microM 2APB, however, could only be inhibited by RR and TRIM. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that TEA inhibition was use-dependent, suggesting that high concentrations of 2APB might induce a progressive conformational change of the channel. Comparison of TRPV2 orthologs revealed that the human channel was insensitive to 2APB. Analysis of chimeric constructs of mouse and human TRPV2 channels showed that the molecular determinants of 2APB sensitivity could be localized to the intracellular amino and carboxyl domains. Finally, using lentiviral-driven expression, we demonstrate that hTRPV2 exerts a dominant-negative effect on 2APB activation of native rodent TRPV2 channels and thus may provide an interesting tool to investigate cellular functions of TRPV2 channels. PMID:17673572

  6. Both STING and MAVS Fish Orthologs Contribute to the Induction of Interferon Mediated by RIG-I

    PubMed Central

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Mérour, Emilie; Lamoureux, Annie; Bernard, Julie; Brémont, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Viral infections are detected in most cases by the host innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptors (PRR), the sensors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which induce the production of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFN). Recent identification in mammalian and teleost fish of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors, RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and their mitochondrial adaptor: the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, also called IPS-1, highlight their important role in the induction of IFN at the early stage of a virus infection. More recently, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) adaptor: the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein, also called MITA, ERIS and MPYS, has been shown to play a pivotal role in response to both non-self-cytosolic RNA and dsDNA. In this study, we cloned STING cDNAs from zebrafish and showed that it was an ortholog to mammalian STING. We demonstrated that overexpression of this ER protein in fish cells led to a constitutive induction of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). STING-overexpressing cells were almost fully protected against RNA virus infection with a strong inhibition of both DNA and RNA virus replication. In addition, we found that together with MAVS, STING was an important player in the RIG-I IFN-inducing pathway. This report provides the demonstration that teleost fish possess a functional RLR pathway in which MAVS and STING are downstream signaling molecules of RIG-I. The Sequences presented in this article have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers: Zebrafish STING (HE856619); EPC STING (HE856620); EPC IRF3 (HE856621); EPC IFN promoter (HE856618). PMID:23091644

  7. Human ortholog of Drosophila Melted impedes SMAD2 release from TGF-? receptor I to inhibit TGF-? signaling.

    PubMed

    Shathasivam, Premalatha; Kollara, Alexandra; Ringuette, Maurice J; Virtanen, Carl; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Brown, Theodore J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila melted encodes a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing protein that enables normal tissue growth, metabolism, and photoreceptor differentiation by modulating Forkhead box O (FOXO), target of rapamycin, and Hippo signaling pathways. Ventricular zone expressed PH domain-containing 1 (VEPH1) is the mammalian ortholog of melted, and although it exhibits tissue-restricted expression during mouse development and is potentially amplified in several human cancers, little is known of its function. Here we explore the impact of VEPH1 expression in ovarian cancer cells by gene-expression profiling. In cells with elevated VEPH1 expression, transcriptional programs associated with metabolism and FOXO and Hippo signaling were affected, analogous to what has been reported for Melted. We also observed altered regulation of multiple transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) target genes. Global profiling revealed that elevated VEPH1 expression suppressed TGF-?-induced transcriptional responses. This inhibitory effect was verified on selected TGF-? target genes and by reporter gene assays in multiple cell lines. We further demonstrated that VEPH1 interacts with TGF-? receptor I (T?RI) and inhibits nuclear accumulation of activated Sma- and Mad-related protein 2 (SMAD2). We identified two T?RI-interacting regions (TIRs) with opposing effects on TGF-? signaling. TIR1, located at the N terminus, inhibits canonical TGF-? signaling and promotes SMAD2 retention at T?RI, similar to full-length VEPH1. In contrast, TIR2, located at the C-terminal region encompassing the PH domain, decreases SMAD2 retention at T?RI and enhances TGF-? signaling. Our studies indicate that VEPH1 inhibits TGF-? signaling by impeding the release of activated SMAD2 from T?RI and may modulate TGF-? signaling during development and cancer initiation or progression. PMID:26039994

  8. Obligate Insect Endosymbionts Exhibit Increased Ortholog Length Variation and Loss of Large Accessory Proteins Concurrent with Genome Shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Laura J.; Sabree, Zakee L.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme genome reduction has been observed in obligate intracellular insect mutualists and is an assumed consequence of fixed, long-term host isolation. Rapid accumulation of mutations and pseudogenization of genes no longer vital for an intracellular lifestyle, followed by deletion of many genes, are factors that lead to genome reduction. Size reductions in individual genes due to small-scale deletions have also been implicated in contributing to overall genome shrinkage. Conserved protein functional domains are expected to exhibit low tolerance for mutations and therefore remain relatively unchanged throughout protein length reduction while nondomain regions, presumably under less selective pressures, would shorten. This hypothesis was tested using orthologous protein sets from the Flavobacteriaceae (phylum: Bacteroidetes) and Enterobacteriaceae (subphylum: Gammaproteobacteria) families, each of which includes some of the smallest known genomes. Upon examination of protein, functional domain, and nondomain region lengths, we found that proteins were not uniformly shrinking with genome reduction, but instead increased length variability and variability was observed in both the functional domain and nondomain regions. Additionally, as complete gene loss also contributes to overall genome shrinkage, we found that the largest proteins in the proteomes of nonhost-restricted bacteroidetial and gammaproteobacterial species often were inferred to be involved in secondary metabolic processes, extracellular sensing, or of unknown function. These proteins were absent in the proteomes of obligate insect endosymbionts. Therefore, loss of genes encoding large proteins not required for host-restricted lifestyles in obligate endosymbiont proteomes likely contributes to extreme genome reduction to a greater degree than gene shrinkage. PMID:24671745

  9. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    PubMed

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding. PMID:24942074

  10. Biosynthesis of a central intermediate in hydrogen sulfide metabolism by a novel human sulfurtransferase and its yeast ortholog.

    PubMed

    Melideo, Scott L; Jackson, Michael R; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman

    2014-07-22

    Human sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) catalyzes the conversion of H2S to thiosulfate, the first step in mammalian H2S metabolism. SQOR's inability to produce the glutathione persulfide (GSS(-)) substrate for sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) suggested that a thiosulfate:glutathione sulfurtransferase (TST) was required to provide the missing link between the SQOR and SDO reactions. Although TST could be purified from yeast, attempts to isolate the mammalian enzyme were not successful. We used bioinformatic approaches to identify genes likely to encode human TST (TSTD1) and its yeast ortholog (RDL1). Recombinant TSTD1 and RDL1 catalyze a predicted thiosulfate-dependent conversion of glutathione to GSS(-). Both enzymes contain a rhodanese homology domain and a single catalytically essential cysteine, which is converted to cysteine persulfide upon reaction with thiosulfate. GSS(-) is a potent inhibitor of TSTD1 and RDL1, as judged by initial rate accelerations and ?25-fold lower Km values for glutathione observed in the presence of SDO. The combined action of GSS(-) and SDO is likely to regulate the biosynthesis of the reactive metabolite. SDO drives to completion p-toluenethiosulfonate:glutathione sulfurtransferase reactions catalyzed by TSTD1 and RDL1. The thermodynamic coupling of the irreversible SDO and reversible TST reactions provides a model for the physiologically relevant reaction with thiosulfate as the sulfane donor. The discovery of bacterial Rosetta Stone proteins that comprise fusions of SDO and TSTD1 provides phylogenetic evidence of the association of these enzymes. The presence of adjacent bacterial genes encoding SDO-TSTD1 fusion proteins and human-like SQORs suggests these prokaryotes and mammals exhibit strikingly similar pathways for H2S metabolism. PMID:24981631

  11. Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2013-11-01

    The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research. PMID:23982621

  12. In silico discovery of a nearly complete mitochondrial genome Numt in the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) nuclear genome.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2015-08-01

    Through bacterial cloning, a non-specific product co-amplified in a previous whole mitochondrial genome study of Canis lupus familiaris was identified as part of a Numt on chromosome 29 of the dog. Even though further analysis confirmed the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome sequencing results, it still highlighted the risk of Numt contamination. A computer-based search of the dog's nuclear genome for segments homologous to the mtDNA sequence revealed the extent of this risk. Over 150 Numts of various sizes were observed throughout all but two chromosomes, covering all positions of the mtDNA. One of the Numts on chromosome 11 even covered over 95 % of the entire dog mtDNA sequence. This comprehensive list of Numts was provided to assist researchers with the evaluation of dog mtDNA sequencing protocols for Numt co-amplification. PMID:25991039

  13. Understanding the role of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in the transmission dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Turriago, Brenda; Tapia-Calle, Gabriela; Guhl, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is the most important domestic reservoir of Chagas disease, a zoonosis that affects more than 10 million people in Latin America. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of the disease, displays remarkable genetic variability, as indicated by its six genotypes (TcI-TcVI). A pilot study was conducted to establish the prevalence of T. cruzi among the canine population by analyzing 80 dogs. We report the identification of the TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcVI genotypes as single infections. TcI/TcII and TcI/TcIV presented as mixed infections and included the presence of Trypanosoma angel. The implications of this distribution are herein discussed. Based on the molecular epidemiology findings, this study suggests a plausible role for canine synanthropism in the transmission of T. cruzi. PMID:23351975

  14. Trehalose synthesis in Aspergillus niger: characterization of six homologous genes, all with conserved orthologs in related species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The disaccharide trehalose is a major component of fungal spores and is released upon germination. Moreover, the sugar is well known for is protective functions, e.g. against thermal stress and dehydration. The properties and synthesis of trehalose have been well investigated in the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In filamentous fungi, such knowledge is limited, although several gene products have been identified. Results Using Aspergillus niger as a model fungus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of all genes involved in trehalose synthesis. This fungus has three potential trehalose-6-phosphate synthase encoding genes, tpsA-C, and three putative trehalose phosphate phosphatase encoding genes, tppA-C, of which two have not previously been identified. Expression of all six genes was confirmed using real-time PCR, and conserved orthologs could be identified in related Aspergilli. Using a two-hybrid approach, there is a strong indication that four of the proteins physically interact, as has previously been shown in S. cerevisiae. When creating null mutants of all the six genes, three of them, ?tpsA, ?tppA and ?tppB, had lower internal trehalose contents. The only mutant with a pronounced morphological difference was ?tppA, in which sporulation was severely reduced with abnormal conidiophores. This was also the only mutant with accumulated levels of trehalose-6-phosphate, indicating that the encoded protein is the main phosphatase under normal conditions. Besides ?tppA, the most studied deletion mutant in this work was ?tppB. This gene encodes a protein conserved in filamentous Ascomycota. The ?tppB mutant displayed a low, but not depleted, internal trehalose content, and conidia were more susceptible to thermal stress. Conclusion A. niger contains at least 6 genes putatively involved in trehalose synthesis. Gene expressions related to germination have been quantified and deletion mutants characterized: Mutants lacking tpsA, tppA or tppB have reduced internal trehalose contents. Furthermore, tppA, under normal conditions, encodes the functional trehalose-6-phosphate-phosphatase. PMID:24725382

  15. Functional overlap but lack of complete cross-complementation of Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli YidC orthologs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuxia; Palmer, Sara R; Hasona, Adnan; Nagamori, Shushi; Kaback, H Ronald; Dalbey, Ross E; Brady, L Jeannine

    2008-04-01

    Oxa/YidC/Alb family proteins are chaperones involved in membrane protein insertion and assembly. Streptococcus mutans has two YidC paralogs. Elimination of yidC2, but not yidC1, results in stress sensitivity with decreased membrane-associated F(1)F(o) ATPase activity and an inability to initiate growth at low pH or high salt concentrations (A. Hasona, P. J. Crowley, C. M. Levesque, R. W. Mair, D. G. Cvitkovitch, A. S. Bleiweis, and L. J. Brady, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:17466-17471, 2005). We now show that Escherichia coli YidC complements for acid tolerance, and partially for salt tolerance, in S. mutans lacking yidC2 and that S. mutans YidC1 or YidC2 complements growth in liquid medium, restores the proton motive force, and functions to assemble the F(1)F(o) ATPase in a previously engineered E. coli YidC depletion strain (J. C. Samuelson, M. Chen, F. Jiang, I. Moller, M. Wiedmann, A. Kuhn, G. J. Phillips, and R. E. Dalbey, Nature 406:637-641, 2000). Both YidC1 and YidC2 also promote membrane insertion of known YidC substrates in E. coli; however, complete membrane integrity is not fully replicated, as evidenced by induction of phage shock protein A. While both function to rescue E. coli growth in broth, a different result is observed on agar plates: growth of the YidC depletion strain is largely restored by 247YidC2, a hybrid S. mutans YidC2 fused to the YidC targeting region, but not by a similar chimera, 247YidC1, nor by YidC1 or YidC2. Simultaneous expression of YidC1 and YidC2 improves complementation on plates. This study demonstrates functional redundancy between YidC orthologs in gram-negative and gram-positive organisms but also highlights differences in their activity depending on growth conditions and species background, suggesting that the complete functional spectrum of each is optimized for the specific bacteria and environment in which they reside. PMID:18178746

  16. Co-orthology of Pax4 and Pax6 to the fly eyeless gene: molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, and embryological analyses.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Tereza; Feiner, Nathalie; Begemann, Gerrit; Meyer, Axel; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2011-01-01

    The functional equivalence of Pax6/eyeless genes across distantly related animal phyla has been one of central findings on which evo-devo studies is based. In this study, we show that Pax4, in addition to Pax6, is a vertebrate ortholog of the fly eyeless gene (and its duplicate, twin of eyeless [toy] gene, unique to Insecta). Molecular phylogenetic trees published to date placed the Pax4 gene outside the Pax6/eyeless subgroup as if the Pax4 gene originated from a gene duplication before the origin of bilaterians. However, Pax4 genes had only been reported for mammals. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis, including previously unidentified teleost fish pax4 genes, equally supported two scenarios: one with the Pax4-Pax6 duplication early in vertebrate evolution and the other with this duplication before the bilaterian radiation. We then investigated gene compositions in the genomic regions containing Pax4 and Pax6, and identified (1) conserved synteny between these two regions, suggesting that the Pax4-Pax6 split was caused by a large-scale duplication and (2) its timing within early vertebrate evolution based on the duplication timing of the members of neighboring gene families. Our results are consistent with the so-called two-round genome duplications in early vertebrates. Overall, the Pax6/eyeless ortholog is merely part of a 2:2 orthology relationship between vertebrates (with Pax4 and Pax6) and the fly (with eyeless and toy). In this context, evolution of transcriptional regulation associated with the Pax4-Pax6 split is also discussed in light of the zebrafish pax4 expression pattern that is analyzed here for the first time. PMID:23016906

  17. Representative Syllabus for P140 Prof. Sandra Shapshay P140 M/W 11:15pm-12:05pm Woodburn Hall 009

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    these theories to work in addressing some contested contemporary moral issues: questions of global justice, divisive issue of the morality of abortion, and questions in environmental ethics concerning the ethical to understand, analyze, and rationally evaluate moral claims and arguments, and construct reasonable moral

  18. An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Habluetzel, A; Traldi, G; Ruggieri, S; Attili, A R; Scuppa, P; Marchetti, R; Menghini, G; Esposito, F

    2003-05-01

    The human risk of infection with larvae of Toxocara canis was estimated in people from the Marche region of Italy. This region includes both urban and rural areas and its inhabitants frequently keep dogs for company, hunting, as guardians or shepherds. T. canis infection was diagnosed in 33.6% out of 295 dogs examined. Nearly half of the dogs (48.4%) living in rural areas were found T. canis positive, compared to about one-quarter of the dogs (26.2%) from urban areas. Analysis by provenance and role revealed the highest infection rate in rural hunting dogs (64.7%) and the lowest in urban companion dogs (22.1%). According to questionnaire data, the peridomestic environment, i.e. gardens and dog pens, is the most important defecation site in both rural and urban areas. Since over 40% of the dogs who defecate in dog pens are infected and 24% of urban and 47% of rural dogs who leave their droppings in the house surroundings harbour the parasite, it is clear that these environments may constitute sites of zoonotic risk. Our analysis of soil samples from 60 farms confirmed the high contamination level, revealing positive soil samples in more than half of the farms. Substantial egg contamination was also found in urban areas, as 3/6 parks examined were Toxocara spp. positive. Finally, our serological findings indicate that human infection actually occurs in the area: 7 out of 428 adults examined (1.6%) had very high levels of antibodies to T. canis antigen, suggesting a previous contact with the Larva migrans of the nematode. PMID:12719139

  19. Do predator and prey foraging activity patterns match? A study of coyotes ( Canis latrans), and lagomorphs ( Lepus californicus and Sylvilagus audobonii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Arias-Del Razo; L. Hernández; J. W. Laundré; O. Myers

    Many aspects of an animal’s ecology are associated with activity patterns. One important and controversial one is in the predator\\/prey relationship. We examined temporal patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans) and lagomorphs (Lepus californicus, Sylvilagus audobonii), their main prey in the Chihuahuan Desert. We test the hypothesis that a predator and prey will have non-random distribution of activity relative to each

  20. Genetic relationships deduced from emm and multilocus sequence typing of invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis recovered from isolates collected in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Yusra; Gertz, Robert E; Li, Zhongya; Sakota, Varja; Broyles, Laura N; Van Beneden, Chris; Facklam, Richard; Shewmaker, P Lynn; Reingold, Arthur; Farley, Monica M; Beall, Bernard W

    2009-07-01

    Beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci cause a considerable invasive disease burden and sometimes cause disease outbreaks. Little is known about the critical epidemiologic parameter of genetic relatedness between isolates. We determined the emm types of 334 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, and attempted emm typing of 5 Streptococcus canis isolates from a recent population-based surveillance for invasive isolates. Thirty-four emm types were observed, including one from S. canis. We formulated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) primers with six of the seven loci corresponding to the Streptococcus pyogenes MLST scheme. We performed MLST with 65 of the 334 surveillance isolates (61 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, 4 S. canis isolates) to represent each emm type identified, including 2 to 3 isolates for each of the 25 redundantly represented emm types. Forty-one MLST sequence types (STs) were observed. Isolates within 16 redundantly represented S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types shared identical or nearly identical STs, demonstrating concordance between the emm type and genetic relatedness. However, seven STs were each represented by two to four different emm types, and 7 of the 10 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis eBURST groups represented up to six different emm types. Thus, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates were similar to S. pyogenes isolates, in that strains of the same emm type were often highly related, but they differed from S. pyogenes, in that S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains with identical or closely similar STs often exhibited multiple unrelated emm types. The phylogenetic relationships between S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pyogenes alleles revealed a history of interspecies recombination, with either species often serving as genetic donors. The four S. canis isolates shared highly homologous alleles but were unrelated clones without evidence of past recombination with S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis or S. pyogenes. PMID:19386831

  1. Antibodies Raised against Bcvir15, an Extrachromosomal Double-Stranded RNA-Encoded Protein from Babesia canis, Inhibit the In Vitro Growth of the Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Drakulovski, P.; Carcy, B.; Moubri, K.; Carret, C.; Depoix, D.; Schetters, T. P. M.; Gorenflot, A.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a search for homologous members of the Plasmodium falciparum Pf60 multigene family in the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia canis, we report here the characterization of a cDNA of 1,115 bp, which was designated Bcvir for its potential viral origin. The Bcvir cDNA contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF1 from nucleotide [nt] 61 to 486 and ORF2 from nt 417 to 919), where Bcvir15, the deduced ORF1 peptide (M1 to I141), is the main expressed product. The Bcvir cDNA was derived from an extrachromosomal dsRNA element of 1.2 kbp that was always found associated with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of 2.8 kbp by hybridization, and no copy of this cDNA sequence was found in B. canis genomic DNA. Biochemical characterization of Bcvir15, by using polyclonal rabbit sera directed against recombinant proteins, indicated that it is a soluble protein which remained associated with the cytoplasm of the B. canis merozoite. Interestingly, purified immunoglobulins from the anti-glutathione S-transferase-Bcvir15 (at a concentration of 160 ?g/ml) induced 50% inhibition of the in vitro growth of B. canis, and the inhibitory effect was associated with morphological damage of the parasite. Our data suggest that the extrachromosomal dsRNA-encoded Bcvir15 protein might interfere with the intracellular growth of the parasite rather than with the process of invasion of the host cell by the merozoite. Epitope mapping of Bcvir15 identified three epitopes that might be essential for the function of the protein. PMID:12595415

  2. Antibodies Raised against Bcvir15, an Extrachromosomal Double-Stranded RNA-Encoded Protein from Babesia canis, Inhibit the In Vitro Growth of the Parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Drakulovski; B. Carcy; K. Moubri; C. Carret; D. Depoix; T. P. M. Schetters; A. Gorenflot

    2003-01-01

    As part of a search for homologous members of the Plasmodium falciparum Pf60 multigene family in the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia canis, we report here the characterization of a cDNA of 1,115 bp, which was designated Bcvir for its potential viral origin. The Bcvir cDNA contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF1 from nucleotide (nt) 61 to 486 and

  3. Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

    2003-01-01

    Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

  4. DISEASES AND MORTALITY IN FREE-RANGING BROWN BEAR (URSUS ARCTOS), GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS), AND WOLVERINE (GULO GULO) IN SWEDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Morner; Hanna Eriksson; Caroline Brojer; Kristina Nilsson; Henrik Uhlhorn

    Ninety-eight brown bears (Ursus arctos), 20 gray wolves (Canis lupus), and 27 wol- verines (Gulo gulo), all free-ranging, were submitted to the National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden, during 1987-2001 for investigation of diseases and causes of mortality. The most com- mon cause of natural death in brown bears was infanticide. Infanticide also was observed in wolverines but not in wolves.

  5. PhylomeDB v3.0: an expanding repository of genome-wide collections of trees, alignments and phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Denisov, Ivan; Kormes, Diego; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The growing availability of complete genomic sequences from diverse species has brought about the need to scale up phylogenomic analyses, including the reconstruction of large collections of phylogenetic trees. Here, we present the third version of PhylomeDB (http://phylomeDB.org), a public database for genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes). Currently, PhylomeDB is the largest phylogenetic repository and hosts 17 phylomes, comprising 416,093 trees and 165,840 alignments. It is also a major source for phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions, covering about 5 million proteins in 717 fully-sequenced genomes. For each protein-coding gene in a seed genome, the database provides original and processed alignments, phylogenetic trees derived from various methods and phylogeny-based predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships. The new version of phylomeDB has been extended with novel data access and visualization features, including the possibility of programmatic access. Available seed species include model organisms such as human, yeast, Escherichia coli or Arabidopsis thaliana, but also alternative model species such as the human pathogen Candida albicans, or the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum. Finally, PhylomeDB is currently being used by several genome sequencing projects that couple the genome annotation process with the reconstruction of the corresponding phylome, a strategy that provides relevant evolutionary insights. PMID:21075798

  6. PhylomeDB v3.0: an expanding repository of genome-wide collections of trees, alignments and phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Denisov, Ivan; Kormes, Diego; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The growing availability of complete genomic sequences from diverse species has brought about the need to scale up phylogenomic analyses, including the reconstruction of large collections of phylogenetic trees. Here, we present the third version of PhylomeDB (http://phylomeDB.org), a public database for genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes). Currently, PhylomeDB is the largest phylogenetic repository and hosts 17 phylomes, comprising 416?093 trees and 165?840 alignments. It is also a major source for phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions, covering about 5 million proteins in 717 fully-sequenced genomes. For each protein-coding gene in a seed genome, the database provides original and processed alignments, phylogenetic trees derived from various methods and phylogeny-based predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships. The new version of phylomeDB has been extended with novel data access and visualization features, including the possibility of programmatic access. Available seed species include model organisms such as human, yeast, Escherichia coli or Arabidopsis thaliana, but also alternative model species such as the human pathogen Candida albicans, or the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum. Finally, PhylomeDB is currently being used by several genome sequencing projects that couple the genome annotation process with the reconstruction of the corresponding phylome, a strategy that provides relevant evolutionary insights. PMID:21075798

  7. Characterization and allelic variation of the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) genes in the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Gojanovich, Gregory S; Ross, Peter; Holmer, Savannah G; Holmes, Jennifer C; Hess, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    The function of the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) complex is to shuttle antigenic peptides from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum to load MHC class I molecules for CD8(+) T-cell immunosurveillance. Here we report the promoter and coding regions of the canine TAP1 and TAP2 genes, which encode the homologous subunits forming the TAP heterodimer. By sampling genetically divergent breeds, polymorphisms in both genes were identified, although there were few amino acid differences between alleles. Splice variants were also found. When aligned to TAP genes of other species, functional regions appeared conserved, and upon phylogenetic analysis, canine sequences segregated appropriately with their orthologs. Transfer of the canine TAP2 gene into a murine TAP2-defective cell line rescued surface MHC class I expression, confirming exporter function. This data should prove useful in investigating the association of specific TAP defects or alleles with immunity to intracellular pathogens and cancer in dogs. PMID:23892057

  8. [Detection of Babesia canis (Piroplasmida) DNA in the blood samples and lysates of the ticks Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodidae) collected in the Tula and Moscow Regions].

    PubMed

    Shchit, I Iu; Shtannikov, A V; Sergeeva, E E; Reshetniak, T V; Repolovskaia, T V; Sha?tanov, V M; Gutova, V P; Vasil'eva, I S

    2014-01-01

    Chimeric primers, the sensitivity and specificity of which allow them to be used in both the clinical setting and the epizootological assessment of tick infection by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, have been designed against Babesia canis infection. The findings suggest that a large number of Babesia DNA copies are detectable in the blood in acute babesiosis. Some animals that had experienced babesiosis developed blood B. canis carriage--a small number oftrophozoites remained alive for a long time. When babesiosis was suspected, its diagnosis could be confirmed by RT-PCR in half of dogs with subclinical signs. The tick concentration of Babesia ranged from several hundred to a few thousand parasites. There were no significant differences in the number of Babesia parasites in the infected ticks in relation to their collection site. However, the occurrence of infected ticks was significantly higher in the places of constant contact with a canine population, which is indicative of the decisive role of dogs in the intensity of an epizootic process in the foci of B. canis infection. PMID:24738223

  9. A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhăo, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Andréa Pereira da; Costa, Francisco Borges; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Soares, Joăo Fábio; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp.) in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranhăo, northeastern Brazil, using molecular and serological methods. Overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322) were seroreactive to B. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. For E. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322) were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 to 163,840. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 18.9% of the dogs (61/322), with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 4,096. High endpoint titers were observed for Rickettsia amblyommii. Three (0.9%) and nine (2.8%) canine blood samples were PCR-positive for Babesia spp. and E. canis. The ticks collected from urban dogs were all Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, whereas the rural dogs were infested by R. sanguineus s.l, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. One A. ovale tick was found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. This study provides an epidemiological background for controlling and preventing canine tick-borne diseases in a neglected region of Brazil. PMID:25909250

  10. The comparison of spatial variation and risk factors between mosquito-borne and tick-borne diseases: Seroepidemiology of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma species, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Yumi; Hsu, Tien-Huan; Chou, Chi-Chung; Huang, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2012-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and heartworm diseases are vector-borne and zoonotic infections. To compare epidemiology of these vector-borne diseases, a community-based study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma sp. and Dirofilaria immitis infections among healthy pet dogs. Prevalence distribution patterns were geographically contrasting between tick-borne E. canis/Anaplasma sp. infections and mosquito-borne D. immitis infection. Although highly enzootic communities of ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis scattered in mountainous environment at elevations between 100m and 1000m, those of heartworm disease mainly distributed in urbanized plains. After multiple logistic regression analysis, it further showed that older age group and outdoor housing were associated with higher risk of heartworm infection; being male and having tick infestation associated with higher risk of E. canis infection whereas being male and free-roaming associated with higher risk of Anaplasma infection. These findings may reflect different vectors for disease transmission, and different kinetics of environment-pathogen-host interaction. PMID:22925931

  11. Positively Selected Disease Response Orthologous Gene Sets in the Cereals Identified Using Sorghum bicolor L. Moench Expression Profiles and Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Alejandro; Sun, Qi; Hamblin, Martha T.; Aquadro, Charles F.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Disease response genes (DRGs) diverge under recurrent positive selection as a result of a molecular arms race between hosts and pathogens. Most of these studies were conducted in animals, and few defense genes have been shown to evolve adaptively in plants. To test for adaptation in the molecules mediating disease resistance in the cereals, we first combined information from the expression pattern of Sorghum bicolor genes and from divergence to the full genome of rice to identify candidate DRGs. We then used evolutionary analyses of orthologous gene sets from several grass species, to determine whether the DRGs show signals of positive selection and the residues targeted. We found 140 divergent genes upregulated under biotic stress in S. bicolor by evaluating the relative abundance of expressed sequence tags in different libraries and comparing them with rice genes. For 10 of these genes, we found sets of orthologs including sequences from rice and three other cereals; six genes showed a pattern of substitution that was consistent with positive selection. Three of these genes, a thaumatin, a peroxidase, and a barley mlo homolog, are known antifungal proteins. The other three genes with evidence of positive selection were a MCM-1 agamous deficiens SRF- (MADS) box transcription factor, an eIF5 translation initiation factor, and a gene of unknown function but with evidence of expression during stress. Permutation analyses, using different ortholog and paralog sequences, consistently identified five positively selected codons in the peroxidase, a member of a cluster of genes and a large gene family. We mapped the positively selected residues onto the structure of the peroxidase and thaumatin and found that all sites are on the surface of these proteins and several are close to biochemically determined active sites. Identifying new positively selected plant disease resistance genes and the critical amino acid sites provides a basis for functional studies that may increase our understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Additionally, it may lead to the identification of individuals having variation at functionally important sites, as well as eventually using this information in the rational design and engineering of proteins involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:19506000

  12. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in Tibetan mastiffs (Canis lupus familiaris) and yaks (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an amphixenosis which has extensive hosts. In recent years, the prevalence of T. gondii in China has been reported, while little is known on the survey of T. gondii infection in northwest China, especially in yaks (Bos grunniens) and Tibetan mastiffs (Canis lupus familiaris). The current study survey the infection of T. gondii in Tibetan mastiffs and yaks in Qinghai Province, China. Methods The indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) was used to examine T. gondii antibodies in 1 795 serums, including 192 Tibetan mastiffs and 1603 yaks in Qinghai Province, China. Results In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 8.52%. Twenty (10.42%) of 192 serums of Tibetan mastiffs and 133 (8.30%) of 1603 serums of yaks were seropositive. The seroprevalence of T.gondii infection in Tibetan mastiffs in breeding farm (1.08%) was lower than that in the field (19.19%), and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). The seroprevalence of antibodies to T.gondii in yaks ranged from 5.45% to 13.28% among the four different areas. The seroprevalence in different age groups were determined with apparent association. Conclusions The results indicated that T.gondii infection was prevalent in Tibetan mastiffs and yaks, which have implications for public health in this region. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence survey of Tibetan mastiffs infected by T. gondii in The People’s Republic of China. PMID:22330277

  13. The Cryptic African Wolf: Canis aureus lupaster Is Not a Golden Jackal and Is Not Endemic to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli Knispel; Asmyhr, Maria Gulbrandsen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Macdonald, David W.; Bekele, Afework; Atickem, Anagaw; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptian jackal (Canis aureus lupaster) has hitherto been considered a large, rare subspecies of the golden jackal (C. aureus). It has maintained its taxonomical status to date, despite studies demonstrating morphological similarities to the grey wolf (C. lupus). We have analyzed 2055 bp of mitochondrial DNA from C. a. lupaster and investigated the similarity to C. aureus and C. lupus. Through phylogenetic comparison with all wild wolf-like canids (based on 726 bp of the Cytochrome b gene) we conclusively (100% bootstrap support) place the Egyptian jackal within the grey wolf species complex, together with the Holarctic wolf, the Indian wolf and the Himalayan wolf. Like the two latter taxa, C. a. lupaster seems to represent an ancient wolf lineage which most likely colonized Africa prior to the northern hemisphere radiation. We thus refer to C. a. lupaster as the African wolf. Furthermore, we have detected C. a. lupaster individuals at two localities in the Ethiopian highlands, extending the distribution by at least 2,500 km southeast. The only grey wolf species to inhabit the African continent is a cryptic species for which the conservation status urgently needs assessment. PMID:21298107

  14. Trans-generational and neonatal humoral immune responses in West Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) exposed to organohalogenated environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Larsen, Hans Jřrgen S; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2010-11-01

    Previous investigations in the Arctic have suggested OHC (organohalogen contaminant) induced immune toxic effects on e.g. polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We therefore studied the dietary impact from minke whale blubber (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and OHCs, on the humoral immunity of 7 captive West Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 4 pups constituting a sentinel model species for polar bears. A control group was composed of 8 bitches and their 5 pups all fed pork (Suis scrofa) fat. The study included serum IgG measurements (bitches and pups) and specific immune responses towards tetanus toxoid (bitches) and diphtheria toxoid (pups) as well as influenza virus (pups). The analyses showed that IgG concentrations were non-significantly lowest in exposed bitches and pups (t-test: all p>0.05). In addition, significant lower antibody response was detected in exposed pups immunized with influenza virus at age 3 months (t-test: both p<0.05). No clear group differences were found for tetanus toxoid in bitches and diphtheria toxoid in pups. The results suggest that the humoral immune system of sledge dogs may be suppressed by the dietary blubber composition of OHCs and polyunsaturated fatty acids while a larger follow-up study is recommended in order to investigate this relationship further. PMID:20832100

  15. High-resolution Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Z Canis Majoris System during Quiescence and Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Rice, Emily L.; Pueyo, Laurent; Vasisht, Gautam; Zimmerman, Neil; Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Brenner, Douglas; Beichman, Charles; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Parry, Ian R.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Crepp, Justin R.; Burruss, Rick; Wallace, J. Kent; Cady, Eric; Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Lockhart, Thomas; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    We present adaptive optics photometry and spectra in the JHKL bands along with high spectral resolution K-band spectroscopy for each component of the Z Canis Majoris system. Our high angular resolution photometry of this very young (lsim1 Myr) binary, comprised of an FU Ori object and a Herbig Ae/Be star, was gathered shortly after the 2008 outburst while our high-resolution spectroscopy was gathered during a quiescent phase. Our photometry conclusively determines that the outburst was due solely to the embedded Herbig Ae/Be member, supporting results from earlier works, and that the optically visible FU Ori component decreased slightly (~30%) in luminosity during the same period, consistent with previous works on the variability of FU Ori type systems. Further, our high-resolution K-band spectra definitively demonstrate that the 2.294 ?m CO absorption feature seen in composite spectra of the system is due solely to the FU Ori component, while a prominent CO emission feature at the same wavelength, long suspected to be associated with the innermost regions of a circumstellar accretion disk, can be assigned to the Herbig Ae/Be member. These findings clarify previous analyses of the origin of the CO emission in this complex system.

  16. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Di Pirro, Vincenza; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Giovannini, Armando; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Marsilio, Fulvio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy) by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3) from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe. PMID:24465373

  17. The Arizona Radio Observatory 1 mm Spectral Survey of IRC (plus)10216 and VY Canis Majoris (215-285 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    A low noise (1(sigma) rms approx. 3 mK) 1. nun spectral survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of the oxygen-rich supergiant VY Canis Majoris and the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216 has been conducted using the Arizona Radio Observatory's 10 m Submillimeter Telescope. Here the complete data set is presented. This study, carried out with a new ALMA-type receiver, marks the first continuous band scan of an O-rich circumstellar envelope, and the most sensitive survey to date of IRC +10216. In VY CMa, 130 distinct molecular lines were detected, 14 of which cannot be identified; in IRC +10216, 717 lines were observed, with 126 features remaining unidentified. In the 1 mm bands of VY CMa and IRC +10216, emission is present from 18 and 32 different chemical compounds, respectively, with 10 species common to both sources. Many narrow emission lines were observed in both circumstellar shells, arising from vibrationally excited molecules and from refractory-containing species. Line profiles in VY CMa also exhibit a variety of different shapes, caused by the complex, asymmetric outflow of this object. The survey highlights the fact that C-rich and O-rich circumstellar envelopes are chemically interesting, and both are sources of new interstellar molecules. The high number of unidentified lines and the unreliable, rest frequencies for known species such as NaCN indicate the need for additional laboratory spectroscopy studies.

  18. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY 1 mm SPECTRAL SURVEY OF IRC +10216 AND VY CANIS MAJORIS (215-285 GHz)

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Milam, S. N., E-mail: tenenbaum@strw.leidenuniv.n, E-mail: jldodd@email.arizona.ed, E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.ed, E-mail: nwoolf@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: Stefanie.N.Milam@nasa.go [NASA Goddard, Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Laboratory, Code 691, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A low noise (1{sigma} rms {approx} 3 mK) 1 mm spectral survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of the oxygen-rich supergiant VY Canis Majoris and the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216 has been conducted using the Arizona Radio Observatory's 10 m Submillimeter Telescope. Here the complete data set is presented. This study, carried out with a new ALMA-type receiver, marks the first continuous band scan of an O-rich circumstellar envelope, and the most sensitive survey to date of IRC +10216. In VY CMa, 130 distinct molecular lines were detected, 14 of which cannot be identified; in IRC +10216, 717 lines were observed, with 126 features remaining unidentified. In the 1 mm bands of VY CMa and IRC +10216, emission is present from 18 and 32 different chemical compounds, respectively, with 10 species common to both sources. Many narrow emission lines were observed in both circumstellar shells, arising from vibrationally excited molecules and from refractory-containing species. Line profiles in VY CMa also exhibit a variety of different shapes, caused by the complex, asymmetric outflow of this object. The survey highlights the fact that C-rich and O-rich circumstellar envelopes are chemically interesting, and both are sources of new interstellar molecules. The high number of unidentified lines and the unreliable rest frequencies for known species such as NaCN indicate the need for additional laboratory spectroscopy studies.

  19. Arctic Lineage-Canine Distemper Virus as a Cause of Death in Apennine Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio; Di Francesco, Cristina E.; Gentile, Leonardo; Di Pirro, Vincenza; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Giovannini, Armando; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Marsilio, Fulvio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy) by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1–S3) from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe. PMID:24465373

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Z CANIS MAJORIS SYSTEM DURING QUIESCENCE AND OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Brenner, Douglas [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Bvld, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Burruss, Rick; Wallace, J. Kent; Cady, Eric; Zhai, Chengxing [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-01-20

    We present adaptive optics photometry and spectra in the JHKL bands along with high spectral resolution K-band spectroscopy for each component of the Z Canis Majoris system. Our high angular resolution photometry of this very young ({approx}<1 Myr) binary, comprised of an FU Ori object and a Herbig Ae/Be star, was gathered shortly after the 2008 outburst while our high-resolution spectroscopy was gathered during a quiescent phase. Our photometry conclusively determines that the outburst was due solely to the embedded Herbig Ae/Be member, supporting results from earlier works, and that the optically visible FU Ori component decreased slightly ({approx}30%) in luminosity during the same period, consistent with previous works on the variability of FU Ori type systems. Further, our high-resolution K-band spectra definitively demonstrate that the 2.294 {mu}m CO absorption feature seen in composite spectra of the system is due solely to the FU Ori component, while a prominent CO emission feature at the same wavelength, long suspected to be associated with the innermost regions of a circumstellar accretion disk, can be assigned to the Herbig Ae/Be member. These findings clarify previous analyses of the origin of the CO emission in this complex system.

  1. The Dog on the Ship: The "Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy" as an Outlying Part of the Argo Star System

    E-print Network

    Helio J. Rocha-Pinto; Steven R. Majewski; Michael F. Skrutskie; Richard J. Patterson; H. Nakanishi; R. R. Munoz; Y. Sofue

    2006-05-04

    Overdensities in the distribution of low latitude, 2MASS giant stars are revealed by systematically peeling away from sky maps the bulk of the giant stars conforming to ``isotropic'' density laws generally accounting for known Milky Way components. This procedure, combined with a higher resolution treatment of the sky density of both giants and dust allows us to probe to lower Galactic latitudes than previous 2MASS giant star studies. While the results show the swath of excess giants previously associated with the Monoceros ring system in the second and third Galactic quadrants at distances of 6-20 kpc, we also find a several times larger overdensity of giants in the same distance range concentrated in the direction of the ancient constellation Argo. Isodensity contours of the large structure suggest that it is highly elongated and inclined by about 3 deg to the disk, although details of the structure -- including the actual location of highest density, overall extent, true shape -- and its origin, remain unknown because only a fraction of it lies outside highly dust-obscured, low latitude regions. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the 2MASS M giant overdensity previously claimed to represent the core of a dwarf galaxy in Canis Major (l ~ 240 deg) is an artifact of a dust extinction window opening to the overall density rise to the more significant Argo structure centered at larger longitude (l ~ 290 +- 10 deg, b ~ -4 +- 2 deg).

  2. NODULE ROOT and COCHLEATA Maintain Nodule Development and Are Legume Orthologs of Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Zhukov, Vladimir; Mondy, Samuel; Abu el Heba, Ghada; Cosson, Viviane; Ellis, T.H. Noel; Ambrose, Mike; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Tikhonovich, Igor; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Putterill, Joanna; Hofer, Julie; Borisov, Alexei Y.; Ratet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    During their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, legume plants develop symbiosis-specific organs on their roots, called nodules, that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of these organs are unknown. Using Medicago truncatula nodule root (noot) mutants and pea (Pisum sativum) cochleata (coch) mutants, which are characterized by the abnormal development of roots from the nodule, we identified the NOOT and COCH genes as being necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis thaliana BLADE-ON-PETIOLE orthologs, and we have shown that their functions in leaf and flower development are conserved in M. truncatula and pea. The identification of these two genes defines a clade in the BTB/POZ-ankyrin domain proteins that shares conserved functions in eudicot organ development and suggests that NOOT and COCH were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. PMID:23136374

  3. Linkage mapping in sheep and deer identifies a conserved pecora ruminant linkage group orthologous to two regions of HSA16 and a portion of HSA7Q

    SciTech Connect

    Broom, J.E.; Tate, M.L. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Dodds, K.G. [AgResearch, Mosgiel (New Zealand)] [AgResearch, Mosgiel (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    Two orthologous linkage groups have been mapped in sheep and deer. Seven loci have been mapped in deer, and 12 in sheep. The sheep linkage group is assigned of ovine chromosome 24. The linkage groups consist of loci from the short arm of human chromosome 16, spanning the region containing the human Batten disease locus, and from human chromosome 7. One locus from the long arm of human chromosome 16 is also present, demonstrating a previously unknown rearrangement between human and ruminant chromosomes. There is no significant difference in marker order and distances between the two linkage groups, implying that this linkage pattern was present in the genome of the common ancestor of the pecora ruminants. 35 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. RSR-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans Ortholog of Human Spliceosomal Component SRm300/SRRM2, Regulates Development by Influencing the Transcriptional Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Fontrodona, Laura; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Morán, Tomás; Niu, Wei; Díaz, Mňnica; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Villanueva, Alberto; Schwartz, Simó; Reinke, Valerie; Cerón, Julián

    2013-01-01

    Protein components of the spliceosome are highly conserved in eukaryotes and can influence several steps of the gene expression process. RSR-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the human spliceosomal protein SRm300/SRRM2, is essential for viability, in contrast to the yeast ortholog Cwc21p. We took advantage of mutants and RNA interference (RNAi) to study rsr-2 functions in C. elegans, and through genetic epistasis analysis found that rsr-2 is within the germline sex determination pathway. Intriguingly, transcriptome analyses of rsr-2(RNAi) animals did not reveal appreciable splicing defects but instead a slight global decrease in transcript levels. We further investigated this effect in transcription and observed that RSR-2 colocalizes with DNA in germline nuclei and coprecipitates with chromatin, displaying a ChIP-Seq profile similar to that obtained for the RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII). Consistent with a novel transcription function we demonstrate that the recruitment of RSR-2 to chromatin is splicing-independent and that RSR-2 interacts with RNAPII and affects RNAPII phosphorylation states. Proteomic analyses identified proteins associated with RSR-2 that are involved in different gene expression steps, including RNA metabolism and transcription with PRP-8 and PRP-19 being the strongest interacting partners. PRP-8 is a core component of the spliceosome and PRP-19 is the core component of the PRP19 complex, which interacts with RNAPII and is necessary for full transcriptional activity. Taken together, our study proposes that RSR-2 is a multifunctional protein whose role in transcription influences C. elegans development. PMID:23754964

  5. Shifts in the evolutionary rate and intensity of purifying selection between two Brassica genomes revealed by analyses of orthologous transposons and relics of a whole genome triplication.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meixia; Du, Jianchang; Lin, Feng; Tong, Chaobo; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiaowu; Liu, Shengyi; Ma, Jianxin

    2013-10-01

    Recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes revealed extremely contrasting genomic features such as the abundance and distribution of transposable elements between the two genomes. However, whether and how these structural differentiations may have influenced the evolutionary rates of the two genomes since their split from a common ancestor are unknown. Here, we investigated and compared the rates of nucleotide substitution between two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of individual orthologous LTR-retrotransposons, the rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution among triplicated genes retained in both genomes from a shared whole genome triplication event, and the rates of genetic recombination estimated/deduced by the comparison of physical and genetic distances along chromosomes and ratios of solo LTRs to intact elements. Overall, LTR sequences and genic sequences showed more rapid nucleotide substitution in B. rapa than in B. oleracea. Synonymous substitution of triplicated genes retained from a shared whole genome triplication was detected at higher rates in B. rapa than in B. oleracea. Interestingly, non-synonymous substitution was observed at lower rates in the former than in the latter, indicating shifted densities of purifying selection between the two genomes. In addition to evolutionary asymmetry, orthologous genes differentially regulated and/or disrupted by transposable elements between the two genomes were also characterized. Our analyses suggest that local genomic and epigenomic features, such as recombination rates and chromatin dynamics reshaped by independent proliferation of transposable elements and elimination between the two genomes, are perhaps partially the causes and partially the outcomes of the observed inter-specific asymmetric evolution. PMID:23869625

  6. Duplicated zebrafish co-orthologs of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, Pthlh) play different roles in craniofacial skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Lin; Bhattacharya, Poulomi; He, Xin Jun; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Marquardt, Ben; Layman, Jason; Grunloh, Melissa; Postlethwait, John H; Rubin, David A

    2012-09-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, alias PTH-like hormone (Pthlh)) acts as a paracrine hormone that regulates the patterning of cartilage, bone, teeth, pancreas, and thymus. Beyond mammals, however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms by which Pthlh regulates early development. To evaluate conserved pathways of craniofacial skeletogenesis, we isolated two Pthlh co-orthologs from the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and investigated their structural, phylogenetic, and syntenic relationships, expression, and function. Results showed that pthlh duplicates originated in the teleost genome duplication. Zebrafish pthlha and pthlhb were maternally expressed and showed overlapping and distinct zygotic expression patterns during skeletal development that mirrored mammalian expression domains. To explore the regulation of duplicated pthlh genes, we studied their expression patterns in mutants and found that both sox9a and sox9b are upstream of pthlha in arch and fin bud cartilages, but only sox9b is upstream of pthlha in the pancreas. Morpholino antisense knockdown showed that pthlha regulates both sox9a and sox9b in the pharyngeal arches but not in the brain or otic vesicles and that pthlhb does not regulate either sox9 gene, which is likely related to its highly degraded nuclear localization signal. Knockdown of pthlha but not pthlhb caused runx2b overexpression in craniofacial cartilages and premature bone mineralization. We conclude that in normal cartilage development, sox9 upregulates pthlh, which downregulates runx2, and that the duplicated nature of all three of these genes in zebrafish creates a network of regulation by different co-orthologs in different tissues. PMID:22761277

  7. A plant gene encodes a 'HSFA9-like' heat shock factor and is part of a cluster of orthologous genes including NPR1, CaMP and CK1 in Beta vulgaris, Populus trichocarpa, Solanum lycopersicum and Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very closely physically linked within about 1 Kb and 2 Kb in sugarbeet and poplar, respectively, HSF and NPR1 genes exhibit opposing directions of transcription. Predicted proteins encoded by poplar, sugarbeet, grape, and tomato NPR1-adjacent, orthologous HSF genes all share significant amino acid s...

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in canine carrier blood and in individual experimentally infected ticks with a p30-based PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Stich, Roger W; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Ewing, S A; Needham, Glen R; Grover, Debra L; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2002-02-01

    Detection of vector-borne pathogens is necessary for investigation of their association with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The ability to detect Ehrlichia spp. within individual experimentally infected ticks would be valuable for studies to evaluate the relative competence of different vector species and transmission scenarios. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive PCR assay based on oligonucleotide sequences from the unique Ehrlichia canis gene, p30, to facilitate studies that require monitoring this pathogen in canine and tick hosts during experimental transmission. Homologous sequences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis p28 were compared to sequences of primers derived from a sequence conserved among E. canis isolates. Criteria for primer selection included annealing scores, identity of the primers to homologous E. chaffeensis sequences, and the availability of similarly optimal primers that were nested within the target template sequence. The p30-based assay was at least 100-fold more sensitive than a previously reported nested 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based assay and did not amplify the 200-bp target amplicon from E. chaffeensis, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, or Ehrlichia muris DNA. The assay was used to detect E. canis in canine carrier blood and in experimentally infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Optimized procedures for preparing tissues from these hosts for PCR assay are described. Our results indicated that this p30-based PCR assay will be useful for experimental investigations, that it has potential as a routine test, and that this approach to PCR assay design may be applicable to other pathogens that occur at low levels in affected hosts. PMID:11825969

  9. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in Canine Carrier Blood and in Individual Experimentally Infected Ticks with a p30-Based PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stich, Roger W.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Ewing, S. A.; Needham, Glen R.; Grover, Debra L.; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2002-01-01

    Detection of vector-borne pathogens is necessary for investigation of their association with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The ability to detect Ehrlichia spp. within individual experimentally infected ticks would be valuable for studies to evaluate the relative competence of different vector species and transmission scenarios. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive PCR assay based on oligonucleotide sequences from the unique Ehrlichia canis gene, p30, to facilitate studies that require monitoring this pathogen in canine and tick hosts during experimental transmission. Homologous sequences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis p28 were compared to sequences of primers derived from a sequence conserved among E. canis isolates. Criteria for primer selection included annealing scores, identity of the primers to homologous E. chaffeensis sequences, and the availability of similarly optimal primers that were nested within the target template sequence. The p30-based assay was at least 100-fold more sensitive than a previously reported nested 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based assay and did not amplify the 200-bp target amplicon from E. chaffeensis, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, or Ehrlichia muris DNA. The assay was used to detect E. canis in canine carrier blood and in experimentally infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Optimized procedures for preparing tissues from these hosts for PCR assay are described. Our results indicated that this p30-based PCR assay will be useful for experimental investigations, that it has potential as a routine test, and that this approach to PCR assay design may be applicable to other pathogens that occur at low levels in affected hosts. PMID:11825969

  10. Sulfur chemistry in the envelope of VY Canis Majoris: Detailed analysis of SO and SO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Adande, G. R.; Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M., E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, 1306 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Detailed radiative transfer modeling has been carried out for SO{sub 2} and SO originating in the envelope of the O-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). A total of 27 transitions of SO{sub 2} and 7 transitions of SO lying in the energy range 3.0-138.2 cm{sup –1} were analyzed using a new non-LTE radiative transfer code that incorporates non-spherical geometries. The spectra were primarily obtained from the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1 mm spectral survey of VY CMa, conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope; additional lines were measured with the ARO 12 m antenna at 2 and 3 mm. SO{sub 2} and SO were found to arise from five distinct outflows within the envelope, four which are asymmetric with respect to the star. Three flows arise from high-velocity red-shifted material, one from a blue-shifted wind, and the final from a classic 'spherical' expansion. In the spherical component, the peak fractional abundance, relative to H{sub 2}, of both molecules is f ? 2.5 × 10{sup –7} at r ? 25 R {sub *}, and steadily decreases outward. SO{sub 2} appears to be a 'parent' molecule, formed near the stellar photosphere. In the asymmetric outflows, both SO and SO{sub 2} are more prominent at large stellar radii in dense (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}), clumpy material, achieving their maximum abundance between 200 and 600 R {sub *} with f ? 3.0 × 10{sup –8}-1.5 × 10{sup –7}. These results suggest that in the collimated outflows, both species are either produced by shock chemistry or are remnant inner shell material swept up in the high-velocity winds.

  11. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G.; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species’ current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  12. Sulfur Chemistry in the Envelope of VY Canis Majoris: Detailed Analysis of SO and SO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adande, G. R.; Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    Detailed radiative transfer modeling has been carried out for SO2 and SO originating in the envelope of the O-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). A total of 27 transitions of SO2 and 7 transitions of SO lying in the energy range 3.0-138.2 cm-1 were analyzed using a new non-LTE radiative transfer code that incorporates non-spherical geometries. The spectra were primarily obtained from the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1 mm spectral survey of VY CMa, conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope; additional lines were measured with the ARO 12 m antenna at 2 and 3 mm. SO2 and SO were found to arise from five distinct outflows within the envelope, four which are asymmetric with respect to the star. Three flows arise from high-velocity red-shifted material, one from a blue-shifted wind, and the final from a classic "spherical" expansion. In the spherical component, the peak fractional abundance, relative to H2, of both molecules is f ~ 2.5 × 10-7 at r ~ 25 R *, and steadily decreases outward. SO2 appears to be a "parent" molecule, formed near the stellar photosphere. In the asymmetric outflows, both SO and SO2 are more prominent at large stellar radii in dense (106-107 cm-3), clumpy material, achieving their maximum abundance between 200 and 600 R * with f ~ 3.0 × 10-8-1.5 × 10-7. These results suggest that in the collimated outflows, both species are either produced by shock chemistry or are remnant inner shell material swept up in the high-velocity winds.

  13. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves. PMID:20927363

  14. Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995–1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28–50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves. PMID:20927363

  15. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species' current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  16. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrřm, Oystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p < 0.001). The ATTD of CP in mink (77.8%) did not differ from AID, ACD (78.5%) and SID (79.6%) in dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p < 0.01) and for AA ranking with respect to digestibility level (p < 0.001). In dogs, ether extract digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs. PMID:24870271

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of p140 trkA and p75 LNGFR neurotrophin receptors in neuroblastoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Dominici; Maria Rita Nicotra; Stefano Alemaŕ; Cesare Bosman; Manuel A. Castello; Alberto Donfrancesco; Pietro Gallo; Pier Giorgio Natali

    1997-01-01

    In neuroblastoma, high levels of mRNA for p14htrkA and p75LNGFR neurotrophin receptors are predictive of favorable outcome. Their evaluation by Northern blot, however, requires substantial amounts of tissue and this prevents their routine evaluation as well as the possibility for multicenter studies to be easily carried out. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, the feasibility and reliability of determining

  18. Development of a sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a baculovirus recombinant antigen for detection of specific antibodies against Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    López, Lissett; Venteo, Angel; Aguirre, Enara; García, Marga; Rodríguez, Majosé; Amusátegui, Inmaculada; Tesouro, Miguel A; Vela, Carmen; Sainz, Angel; Rueda, Paloma

    2007-11-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on baculovirus recombinant P30 protein of Ehrlichia canis and the 1BH4 anticanine IgG monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated by examining a panel of 98 positive and 157 negative sera using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test as the reference technique. The P30-based ELISA appeared to be sensitive and specific (77.55% and 95.54%, respectively) when qualitative results (positive/negative) were compared with those of the IFA test; the coefficient of correlation (R) between the 2 tests was 0.833. Furthermore, it was possible to establish a mathematical formula for use in comparing the results of both techniques. These results indicate that recombinant P30 antigen-based ELISA is a suitable alternative of the IFA test for simple, consistent, and rapid serodiagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. Moreover, the use of this recombinant protein as antigen offers a great advantage for antigen preparation in comparison with other techniques in which the whole E. canis organism is used as antigen. PMID:17998551

  19. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and ?2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E.?canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  20. Inhibition of the keratinolytic subtilisin protease Sub3 from Microsporum canis by its propeptide (proSub3) and evaluation of the capacity of proSub3 to inhibit fungal adherence to feline epidermis.

    PubMed

    Baldo, A; Chevigné, A; Dumez, M-E; Mathy, A; Power, P; Tabart, J; Cambier, L; Galleni, M; Mignon, B

    2012-10-12

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis, mainly in cats, dogs and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have been postulated to be key factors involved in the invasion of the stratum corneum and keratinized epidermal structures. Among these proteases, the secreted subtilisin protease Sub3 was found to be required for adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to feline epidermis. This protease is synthetized as a preproenzyme consisting of a signal peptide followed by the propeptide and the protease domain. In order to assess whether the enzymatic activity of Sub3 could be responsible for the role of the protease in the adherence process, we expressed and characterized the propeptide of Sub3 and demonstrated that this propeptide is a strong inhibitor of its mature enzyme. This propeptide acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor with dissociation constants, K(I) and [Formula: see text] of 170 and 130 nM respectively. When tested for its capacity to inhibit adherence of M. canis to feline epidermis using an ex vivo adherence model made of feline epidermis, the propeptide does not prevent adherence of M. canis arthroconidia because it loses its capacity to inhibit rSub3 following a direct contact with living arthroconidia, presumably through inactivation by fungal membrane-bound proteases. PMID:22633172

  1. How do guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) ask their owners for their toy and for playing?

    PubMed

    Gaunet, Florence

    2010-03-01

    When apes are not fully understood by humans, they persist with attempts to communicate, elaborating their behaviours to better convey their meaning. Such abilities have never been investigated in dogs. The present study aimed to clarify any effect of the visual attentional state of the owner on dogs' (Canis familiaris) social-communicative signals for interacting with humans, and to determine whether dogs persist and elaborate their behaviour in the face of failure to communicate a request. Gaze at a hidden target or at the owner, gaze alternation between a hidden target and the owner, vocalisations and contacts in 12 guide and 12 pet dogs were analysed (i) when the dogs were asked by their owners (blind or sighted) to fetch their inaccessible toy and (ii) when the dogs were subsequently given an unfamiliar object (apparent unsuccessful communication) or their toy (apparent successful communication). No group differences were found, indicating no effect of the visual status of the owner on the dogs' socio-communicative modes (i.e. no sensitivity to human visual attention). Results, however, suggest that the dogs exhibited persistence (but not elaboration) in their "showing" behaviours in each condition, except that in which the toy was returned. Thus, their communication was about a specific item in space (the toy). The results suggest that dogs possess partially intentional non-verbal deictic abilities: (i) to get their inaccessible toy, the dogs gazed at their owners as if to trigger their attention; gaze alternation between the owner and the target direction, and two behaviours directed at the target were performed, apparently to indicate the location of the hidden toy; (ii) after the delivery of the toy, the dogs behaved as if they returned to the play routine, gazing at their owner whilst holding their toy. In conclusion, this study shows that dogs possess partially intentional non-verbal deictic abilities: they exhibit successive visual orienting between a partner and objects, apparent attention-getting behaviours, no sensitivity to the visual status of humans for communication, and persistence in (but no elaboration of) communicative behaviours when apparent attempts to "manipulate" the human partner fail. PMID:19795141

  2. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-09-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14 alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14 alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC(50)s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 microM for itraconazole and 3.1 microM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC(50) = 3.5 microM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (IC(50) > 10 microM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 microM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 microM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6 beta hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast infections. PMID:15328084

  3. A Spherical Non-LTE Line-blanketed Stellar Atmosphere Model of the Early B Giant {epsilon} Canis Majoris

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdenberg, J.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85271-1504 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85271-1504 (United States); Hauschildt, P.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2451 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2451 (United States); Shore, S.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46634-7111 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46634-7111 (United States); Baron, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-0225 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-0225 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    We use a spherical non-LTE fully line-blanketed model atmosphere to fit the full multiwavelength spectrum, including the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) continuum observed by the {ital Extreme} {ital Ultraviolet} {ital Explorer}, of the B2 II star {epsilon} Canis Majoris (CMa). The available spectrophotometry of {epsilon} CMa from 350 {Angstrom} to 25 {mu}m is best fitted with model parameters {ital T}{sub eff} = 21,750 K, log {ital g} = 3.5, and an angular diameter of 0.77 mas. Our best-fit model predicts a hydrogen ionizing flux, {ital q}{sub 0}, of 1.59 {times} 10{sup 21} photons cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at the star`s surface and 2290 photons cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at the surface of the Local Cloud. The close agreement between the model and the measured EUV flux from {epsilon} CMa is a result of the higher temperatures at the formation depths of the H i and He i Lyman continua compared with other models. The realistic model treatment of early B giants with spherical geometry and non-LTE metal line{endash}blanketing results in the prediction of significantly larger EUV fluxes compared with plane-parallel models. We find that our metal line{endash}blanketed spherical models show significantly warmer temperature structures, 1{endash}3 kK at the formation depth of the Lyman continua, and predict stronger EUV fluxes, up to a factor of 5 in the H i Lyman continuum, compared with plane-parallel atmospheres that have identical model parameters. In contrast, we find that spherical and plane-parallel models that do not include metal line blanketing are nearly identical. Our {ital T}{sub eff} = 21,000 K, log {ital g} = 3.2, spherical non-LTE model predicts more than twice as many hydrogen ionizing photons and over 200 times more neutral helium ionizing photons than a standard hydrostatic plane-parallel LTE model with the same stellar parameters. Our synthetic spectra are in reasonably good agreement with observed continuum and line fluxes from echelle spectra obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph. While we find agreement between the absolute UV flux of {epsilon} CMa as measured by GHRS and our model atmosphere, these fluxes are {approximately}30{percent} higher in the UV than those measured by {ital IUE}, {ital OAO} {ital 2}, and {ital TD}-{ital 1}, in excess of the published errors in the absolute calibration of these data. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  4. Functional Interplay between the 53BP1-Ortholog Rad9 and the Mre11 Complex Regulates Resection, End-Tethering and Repair of a Double-Strand Break

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Matteo; Dibitetto, Diego; De Gregorio, Giuseppe; Eapen, Vinay V.; Rawal, Chetan C.; Lazzaro, Federico; Tsabar, Michael; Marini, Federica; Haber, James E.; Pellicioli, Achille

    2015-01-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 nuclease complex, together with Sae2, initiates the 5?-to-3? resection of Double-Strand DNA Breaks (DSBs). Extended 3? single stranded DNA filaments can be exposed from a DSB through the redundant activities of the Exo1 nuclease and the Dna2 nuclease with the Sgs1 helicase. In the absence of Sae2, Mre11 binding to a DSB is prolonged, the two DNA ends cannot be kept tethered, and the DSB is not efficiently repaired. Here we show that deletion of the yeast 53BP1-ortholog RAD9 reduces Mre11 binding to a DSB, leading to Rad52 recruitment and efficient DSB end-tethering, through an Sgs1-dependent mechanism. As a consequence, deletion of RAD9 restores DSB repair either in absence of Sae2 or in presence of a nuclease defective MRX complex. We propose that, in cells lacking Sae2, Rad9/53BP1 contributes to keep Mre11 bound to a persistent DSB, protecting it from extensive DNA end resection, which may lead to potentially deleterious DNA deletions and genome rearrangements. PMID:25569305

  5. Orthologous gene of beetle luciferase in non-luminous click beetle, Agrypnus binodulus (Elateridae), encodes a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Iida, Koichiro; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

    2008-01-15

    A homologous gene of beetle luciferase, AbLL (Agrypnus binodulusluciferase-like gene) was isolated from a Japanese non-luminous click beetle, A. binodulus, and its gene product was characterized. The identity of amino acid sequence deduced from AbLL with the click beetle luciferase from the Jamaican luminous click beetle, Pyrophorus plagiophthalmus, is 55%, which is higher than that between click beetle luciferase and firefly luciferase (approximately 48%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AbLL places in a clade of beetle luciferases, suggesting that AbLL is an orthologous gene of beetle luciferase. The gene product of AbLL (AbLL) has medium- and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity, but not luciferase activity. The fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity was slightly inhibited in the presence of beetle luciferin, suggesting that AbLL has poor affinity for beetle luciferin. By comparing the amino acid residues of the catalytic domains in beetle luciferases with AbLL, the key substitutions for the luminescence activity in beetle luciferase will be proposed. PMID:17996401

  6. Functional and Spatial Analysis of C. elegans SYG-1 and SYG-2, Orthologs of the Neph/Nephrin Cell Adhesion Module Directing Selective Synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Nicola; Noutsou, Foteini; Baumeister, Ralf; Walz, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of specific synaptic connections represents a prime example of cellular recognition. Members of the Ig superfamily are among the most ancient proteins represented in the genomes of both mammalian and invertebrate organisms, where they constitute a trans-synaptic adhesion system. The correct connectivity patterns of the highly conserved immunoglobulin superfamily proteins nephrin and Neph1 are crucial for the assembly of functional neuronal circuits and the formation of the kidney slit diaphragm, a synapse-like structure forming the filtration barrier. Here, we utilize the nematode C. elegans model for studying the requirements of synaptic specificity mediated by nephrin-Neph proteins. In C. elegans, the nephrin/Neph1 orthologs SYG-2 and SYG-1 form intercellular contacts strictly in trans between epithelial guidepost cells and neurons specifying the localization of synapses. We demonstrate a functional conservation between mammalian nephrin and SYG-2. Expression of nephrin effectively compensated loss of syg-2 function in C. elegans and restored defective synaptic connectivity further establishing the C. elegans system as a valuable model for slit diaphragm proteins. Next, we investigated the effect of SYG-1 and SYG-2 trans homodimerization respectively. Strikingly, synapse assembly could be induced by homophilic SYG-1 but not SYG-2 binding indicating a critical role of SYG-1 intracellular signalling for morphogenetic events and pointing toward the dynamic and stochastic nature of extra- and intracellular nephrin-Neph interactions to generate reproducible patterns of synaptic connectivity. PMID:21858180

  7. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and Putative Orthologs Comprise an Ancient Family of Cutin Synthase-like (CUS) Proteins that are Conserved among Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélčne M-F.; Clausen, Mads H.; Stark, Ruth E.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids. However, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin synthases within the large GDSL super-family. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution-state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross-linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors. PMID:24372802

  8. Photosynthetic characteristics of a multicellular green alga Volvox carteri in response to external CO2 levels possibly regulated by CCM1/CIA5 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Takashi; Fujita, Akimitsu; Fukuzawa, Hideya

    2011-09-01

    When CO(2) supply is limited, aquatic photosynthetic organisms induce a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and acclimate to the CO(2)-limiting environment. Although the CCM is well studied in unicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, physiological aspects of the CCM and its associated genes in multicellular algae are poorly understood. In this study, by measuring photosynthetic affinity for CO(2), we present physiological data in support of a CCM in a multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri. The low-CO(2)-grown Volvox cells showed much higher affinity for inorganic carbon compared with high-CO(2)-grown cells. Addition of ethoxyzolamide, a membrane-permeable carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, to the culture remarkably reduced the photosynthetic affinity of low-CO(2) grown Volvox cells, indicating that an intracellular carbonic anhydrase contributed to the Volvox CCM. We also isolated a gene encoding a protein orthologous to CCM1/CIA5, a master regulator of the CCM in Chlamydomonas, from Volvox carteri. Volvox CCM1 encoded a protein with 701 amino acid residues showing 51.1% sequence identity with Chlamydomonas CCM1. Comparison of Volvox and Chlamydomonas CCM1 revealed a highly conserved N-terminal region containing zinc-binding amino acid residues, putative nuclear localization and export signals, and a C-terminal region containing a putative LXXLL protein-protein interaction motif. Based on these results, we discuss the physiological and genetic aspects of the CCM in Chlamydomonas and Volvox. PMID:21253860

  9. The human and mouse orthologous LIM-only proteins respectively encoded in chromosome 6 and 17 show a different expression pattern

    PubMed Central

    Casrouge, Armanda; Veitia, Reiner; Kirchner, Jacqueline; Bevan, Michael. J.; Kanellopoulos, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Thymocytes interact with various subpopulations of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) at different stages of their development. To identify new molecules specifically expressed in TECs and/or thymic nurse cells (TNCs), we used representational difference analysis. We identified a LIM protein located on mouse chromosome 17 (m17TLP) and belonging to the family of the LIM-only proteins (LIMo). We found a new splice variant in addition to the two describedA and B isoforms. The three alternative species of m17TLP are found strictly in the thymic stroma. This protein is expressed on a subpopulation of TECs and TNCs. Strikingly, we found that the human ortholog of m17TLP, located on chromosome 6 (h6LIMo), is expressed in most tissues, but not in skeletal muscle. We have identified four human splice variants of h6LIMo which differ in their carboxy-terminal regions. The sequence comprising the genomic structure suggests that CRP2 is the closest known relative of m17TLP. Although the human and mouse nucleotide sequences are 88–97% homologous, this homology is reduced to 47% in the promoter regions, which strongly suggests that their differential expression is related to their promoter regulatory activity. PMID:15380775

  10. The structure of YqeH: An AtNOS1/AtNOA1 ortholog that couples GTP hydrolysis to molecular recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhamsu, J.; Lee, G.I.; Klessig, D.F.; Crane, B.R. (Cornell); (Boyce)

    2009-03-27

    AtNOS1/AtNOA1 was identified as a nitric oxide-generating enzyme in plants, but that function has recently been questioned. To resolve issues surrounding AtNOA1 activity, we report the biochemical properties and a 2.36 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a bacterial AtNOA1 ortholog (YqeH). Geobacillus YqeH fused to a putative AtNOA1 leader peptide complements growth and morphological defects of Atnoa1 mutant plants. YqeH does not synthesize nitric oxide from L-arginine but rather hydrolyzes GTP. The YqeH structure reveals a circularly permuted GTPase domain and an unusual C-terminal {beta}-domain. A small N-terminal domain, disordered in the structure, binds zinc. Structural homology among the C-terminal domain, the RNA-binding regulator TRAP, and the hypoxia factor pVHL define a recognition module for peptides and nucleic acids. TRAP residues important for RNA binding are conserved by the YqeH C-terminal domain, whose positioning is coupled to GTP hydrolysis. YqeH and AtNOA1 probably act as G-proteins that regulate nucleic acid recognition and not as nitric-oxide synthases.

  11. A novel DFNA36 mutation in TMC1 orthologous to the Beethoven (Bth) mouse associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yali; Wang, Dayong; Zong, Liang; Zhao, Feifan; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Wei; Lan, Lan; Wang, Hongyang; Li, Qian; Han, Bing; Yang, Ling; Jin, Xin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) can cause both DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 hearing loss. More than thirty DFNB7/11 mutations have been reported, but only three DFNA36 mutations were reported previously. In this study, we found a large Chinese family with 222 family members showing post-lingual, progressive sensorineural hearing loss which were consistent with DFNA36 hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) test of the youngest patient showed a special result with nearly normal threshold but prolonged latency, decreased amplitude, and the abnormal waveform morphology. Exome sequencing of the proband found four candidate variants in known hearing loss genes. Sanger sequencing in all family members found a novel variant c.1253T>A (p.M418K) in TMC1 at DFNA36 that co-segregated with the phenotype. This mutation in TMC1 is orthologous to the mutation found in the hearing loss mouse model named Bth ten years ago. In another 51 Chinese autosomal dominant hearing loss families, we screened the segments containing the dominant mutations of TMC1 and no functional variants were found. TMC1 is expressed in the hair cells in inner ear. Given the already known roles of TMC1 in the mechanotransduction in the cochlea and its expression in inner ear, our results may provide an interesting perspective into its function in inner ear. PMID:24827932

  12. The sinR Ortholog PGN_0088 Encodes a Transcriptional Regulator That Inhibits Polysaccharide Synthesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Reiko; Noiri, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Mikiyo; Asahi, Yoko; Maezono, Hazuki; Kuboniwa, Masae; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-forming cells are distinct from well characterized planktonic cells and aggregate in the extracellular matrix, the so-called extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The sinR gene of Bacillus subtilis encodes a transcriptional regulator that is known to be involved in the biosynthesis of EPS in biofilms. Porphyromonas gingivalis inhabits the subgingival and extraradicular biofilm of humans and is one of the primary pathogens that cause progressive marginal and refractory apical periodontitis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis possesses PGN_0088, which encodes a putative ortholog of B. subtilis sinR. Here, we investigated the role of PGN_0088 (sinR) on biofilm formation. P. gingivalis strains formed biofilms on saliva-coated glass surfaces in phosphate buffered saline. Quantitative analysis indicated that the biofilm of the sinR null mutant consisted of dense exopolysaccharide. Microscopic observations showed that the increased levels of exopolysaccharide produced by the sinR mutant changed the morphology of the EPS to a mesh-liked structure. Furthermore, physical analyses suggested that the enrichment of exopolysaccharide in the EPS enhanced the resistance of the biofilm to hydrodynamic shear force. The results presented here demonstrate sinR plays important roles in the ability of P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 to act as a negative mediator of exopolysaccharide accumulation and is indirectly associated with the structure of the EPS and the force of its adhesion to surfaces. PMID:23405247

  13. Structural and Functional Divergence of a 1-Mb Duplicated Region in the Soybean (Glycine max) Genome and Comparison to an Orthologous Region from Phaseolus vulgaris[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jer-Young; Stupar, Robert M.; Hans, Christian; Hyten, David L.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) has undergone at least two rounds of polyploidization, resulting in a paleopolyploid genome that is a mosaic of homoeologous regions. To determine the structural and functional impact of these duplications, we sequenced two ~1-Mb homoeologous regions of soybean, Gm8 and Gm15, derived from the most recent ~13 million year duplication event and the orthologous region from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), Pv5. We observed inversions leading to major structural variation and a bias between the two chromosome segments as Gm15 experienced more gene movement (gene retention rate of 81% in Gm15 versus 91% in Gm8) and a nearly twofold increase in the deletion of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons via solo LTR formation. Functional analyses of Gm15 and Gm8 revealed decreases in gene expression and synonymous substitution rates for Gm15, for instance, a 38% increase in transcript levels from Gm8 relative to Gm15. Transcriptional divergence of homoeologs was found based on expression patterns among seven tissues and developmental stages. Our results indicate asymmetric evolution between homoeologous regions of soybean as evidenced by structural changes and expression variances of homoeologous genes. PMID:20729383

  14. Identification and Characterization of RcMADS1, an AGL24 Ortholog from the Holoparasitic Plant Rafflesia cantleyi Solms-Laubach (Rafflesiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Saw-Hoon; Tan, Hugh Tiang-Wah; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Rafflesia, a holoparasitic genus that produces the largest flower in the world is characterized by the absence of leaves, stem and other macroscopic organs. To better understand the molecular regulation of flower development in this genus we isolated and characterized a floral MADS-box gene, namely, RcMADS1 from Rafflesia cantleyi. Heterologous expression analysis in Arabidopsis was chosen because Rafflesia is not amenable to genetic manipulations. RcMADS1 shares sequence similarity with AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) of Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of RcMADS1 in Arabidopsis caused early flowering and conversion of sepals and petals into leaf-like structures, and carpels into inflorescences. In 35S::RcMADS1 plants SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), a downstream target gene of AGL24, was upregulated. 35S::RcMADS1 plants exhibit early flowering and conversion of the floral meristem into inflorescence meristem, as in 35S::AGL24 plants. Similar to AGL24, RcMADS1 could rescue the late flowering phenotypes of agl24-1 and FRIGIDA, but not the early flowering of svp-41. Based on these results, we propose that RcMADS1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis AGL24. PMID:23840638

  15. Glucosamine Found as a Substituent of Both Phosphate Groups in Bordetella Lipid A Backbones: Role of a BvgAS-Activated ArnT Ortholog?

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Nico; Tirsoaga, Alina; Blanot, Didier; Fernandez, Rachel; Caroff, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Endotoxins are amphipathic lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), major constituents of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a lipid region, covalently linked to a core oligosaccharide, to which may be linked a repetitive glycosidic chain carrying antigenic determinants. Most of the biological activities of endotoxins have been associated with the lipid moiety of the molecule: unique to gram-negative bacteria, LPS is a ligand of the mammalian TLR4-MD2-CD14 pathogen recognition receptor complex. Lipid A preparations are often heterogeneous with respect to both the numbers and the lengths of fatty acids and the natures of substituents on the phosphate groups when present. The variants can significantly affect host immune responses. Nine species in the Bordetella genus have been described, and the fine LPS structures of seven of them have been published. In this report, lipids A from Bordetella pertussis Tohama I and B. bronchiseptica strain 4650 were further characterized and revealed to have a glucosamine substituting both lipid A phosphate groups of the diglucosamine backbone. These substitutions have not been previously described for bordetellae. Moreover, a B. pertussis transposon mutation that maps within a gene encoding a Bordetella ArnT (formerly PmrK) glycosyl transferase ortholog does not carry this substitution, thus providing a genetic basis for the modification. Reverse transcriptase PCR of this locus showed that it is Bvg regulated, suggesting that the ability of Bordetella to modify lipid A via this glucosamine modification is a potential virulence trait. PMID:18424515

  16. The COP1 Ortholog PPS Regulates the Juvenile–Adult and Vegetative–Reproductive Phase Changes in Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Hironori; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA3 content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots. PMID:21705640

  17. Ahi1, whose human ortholog is mutated in Joubert syndrome, is required for Rab8a localization, ciliogenesis and vesicle trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yi-Chun; Tong, Zachary J.; Westfall, Jennifer E.; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Page-McCaw, Patrick S.; Ferland, Russell J.

    2009-01-01

    The primary non-motile cilium, a membrane-ensheathed, microtubule-bundled organelle, extends from virtually all cells and is important for development. Normal functioning of the cilium requires proper axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis and ciliary protein localization, in tight coordination with the intraflagellar transport system and vesicular trafficking. Disruptions at any level can induce severe alterations in cell function, giving rise to a myriad of human genetic diseases known as ciliopathies. Here we show that the Abelson helper integration site 1 (Ahi1) gene, whose human ortholog is mutated in Joubert syndrome, regulates cilium formation via its interaction with Rab8a, a small GTPase critical for polarized membrane trafficking. We find that the Ahi1 protein localizes to a single centriole, the mother centriole, which becomes the basal body of the primary cilium. In order to determine whether Ahi1 functions in ciliogenesis, loss of function analysis of Ahi1 was performed in cell culture models of ciliogenesis. Knockdown of Ahi1 expression by shRNAi in cells or targeted deletion of Ahi1 (Ahi1 knockout mouse) leads to impairments in ciliogenesis. In Ahi1-knockdown cells, Rab8a is destabilized and does not properly localize to the basal body. Since Rab8a is implicated in vesicular trafficking, we next examined this process in Ahi1-knockdown cells. Defects in the trafficking of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and back to the plasma membrane were observed in Ahi1-knockdown cells. Overall, our data indicate that the distribution and functioning of Rab8a is regulated by Ahi1, not only affecting cilium formation, but also vesicle transport. PMID:19625297

  18. Genetic Mapping and Functional Studies of a Natural Inhibitor of the Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase: The Mouse Ortholog of Human ?2-HS Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cintrón, Vivian J.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Chi, Kenneth D.; Gross, Jason P.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Goustin, Anton Scott

    2000-01-01

    Fetuin/?2-HS glycoprotein (?2-HSG) homologs have been identified in several species including rat, sheep, pig, rabbit, guinea pig, cattle, mouse and human. Multiple physiological roles for these homologs have been suggested, including ability to bind to hydroxyapatite crystals and to specifically inhibit the tyrosine kinase (TK) activity of the insulin receptor (IR). In this study we report the identification, cloning, and characterization of the mouse Ahsg gene and its function as an IR-TK inhibitor. Genomic clones derived from a mouse Svj 129 genomic library were sequenced in order to characterize the intron–exon organization of the mouse Ahsg gene, including an 875 bp subclone containing 154 bp upstream from the transcription start site, the first exon, and part of the first intron. A second genomic subclone harboring a 3.45 kb Bgl II fragment contained exons 2, 3 and 4 in addition to two adjacent elements within the first intron-a repetitive element of the B1 family (92 bp) and a 271 bp tract of (T,C)n * (A,G)n. We have mapped mouse Ahsg at 16 cM adjacent to the Diacylglycerol kinase 3 (Dagk3) gene on chromosome 16 by genotyping interspecific backcross panels between C57BL/6J and Mus spretus. The position is syntenic with human chromosome 3q27, where the human AHSG gene resides. Using recombinant mouse ?2-HSG expressed from a recombinant baculovirus, we demonstrate that mouse ?2-HSG inhibits insulin–stimulated IR autophosphorylation and IR-TKA in vitro. In addition, mouse ?2-HSG (25?g/ml) completely abolishes insulin-induced DNA synthesis in H-35 rat hepatoma cells. Based on the sequence data and functional analysis, we conclude that the mouse Ahsg gene is the true ortholog of the human AHSG gene. PMID:11467416

  19. Alterations in the transcriptome of soybean in response to enhanced somatic embryogenesis promoted by orthologs of Agamous-like15 and Agamous-like18.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiaolin; Perry, Sharyn E

    2014-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a poorly understood process during which competent cells respond to inducing conditions, allowing the development of somatic embryos. It is important for the regeneration of transgenic plants, including for soybean (Glycine max). We report here that constitutive expression of soybean orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MADS box genes Agamous-like15 (GmAGL15) and GmAGL18 increased embryogenic competence of explants from these transgenic soybean plants. To understand how GmAGL15 promotes SE, expression studies were performed. Particular genes of interest involved in embryogenesis (abscisic acid-insensitive3 and FUSCA3) were found to be directly up-regulated by GmAGL15 by using a combination of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation. To look more broadly at changes in gene expression in response to GmAGL15, we assessed the transcriptome using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array. Interestingly, the gene expression profile of 35Spro:GmAGL15 explants (0 d in culture) was found to resemble nontransgenic tissue that had been induced for SE by being placed on induction medium for 3 d, possibly explaining the more rapid SE development observed on 35Spro:GmAGL15 tissue. In particular, transcripts from genes related to the stress response showed increased transcript accumulation in explants from 35Spro:GmAGL15 tissue. These same genes also showed increased transcript accumulation in response to culturing nontransgenic soybean explants on the medium used to induce SE. Overexpression of GmAGL15 may enhance SE by making the tissue more competent to respond to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induction by differential regulation of genes such as those involved in the stress response, resulting in more rapid and prolific SE. PMID:24481137

  20. Characterization of the pilin ortholog of the Helicobacter pylori type IV cag pathogenicity apparatus, a surface-associated protein expressed during infection.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Joanna; Lee, Sae Kyung; Olbermann, Patrick; Lotzing, Nina; Katzowitsch, Elena; Linz, Bodo; Achtman, Mark; Kado, Clarence I; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Josenhans, Christine

    2006-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) encodes components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS) involved in host interaction and pathogenicity. Previously, seven cag PAI proteins were identified as homologs of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Vir proteins, which form a paradigm T4SS. The T pilus composed of the processed VirB2 pilin is an external structural part of the A. tumefaciens T4SS. In H. pylori, cag-dependent assembly of pili has not been observed so far, nor has a pilin (VirB2) ortholog been characterized. We have here identified, using a motif-based search, an H. pylori cag island protein (HP0546) that possesses sequence and predicted structural similarities to VirB2-like pilins of other T4SSs. The HP0546 protein displays interstrain variability in its terminal domains. HP0546 was expressed as a FLAG-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli, A. tumefaciens, and H. pylori and was detected as either two or three bands of different molecular masses in the insoluble fraction, indicating protein processing. As reported previously, isogenic H. pylori mutants in the putative cag pilin gene had reduced abilities to induce cag PAI-dependent interleukin-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells. Fractionation analysis of H. pylori, using a specific antiserum raised against an N-terminal HP0546 peptide, showed that the protein is partially surface exposed and that its surface localization depended upon an intact cag system. By immunoelectron microscopy, HP0546 was localized in surface appendages, with surface exposure of an N-terminal epitope. Pronounced strain-to-strain variability of this predicted surface-exposed part of HP0546 indicates a strong selective pressure for variation in vivo. PMID:16885455

  1. KEGG orthology-based annotation of the predicted proteome of Acropora digitifera: ZoophyteBase - an open access and searchable database of a coral genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contemporary coral reef research has firmly established that a genomic approach is urgently needed to better understand the effects of anthropogenic environmental stress and global climate change on coral holobiont interactions. Here we present KEGG orthology-based annotation of the complete genome sequence of the scleractinian coral Acropora digitifera and provide the first comprehensive view of the genome of a reef-building coral by applying advanced bioinformatics. Description Sequences from the KEGG database of protein function were used to construct hidden Markov models. These models were used to search the predicted proteome of A. digitifera to establish complete genomic annotation. The annotated dataset is published in ZoophyteBase, an open access format with different options for searching the data. A particularly useful feature is the ability to use a Google-like search engine that links query words to protein attributes. We present features of the annotation that underpin the molecular structure of key processes of coral physiology that include (1) regulatory proteins of symbiosis, (2) planula and early developmental proteins, (3) neural messengers, receptors and sensory proteins, (4) calcification and Ca2+-signalling proteins, (5) plant-derived proteins, (6) proteins of nitrogen metabolism, (7) DNA repair proteins, (8) stress response proteins, (9) antioxidant and redox-protective proteins, (10) proteins of cellular apoptosis, (11) microbial symbioses and pathogenicity proteins, (12) proteins of viral pathogenicity, (13) toxins and venom, (14) proteins of the chemical defensome and (15) coral epigenetics. Conclusions We advocate that providing annotation in an open-access searchable database available to the public domain will give an unprecedented foundation to interrogate the fundamental molecular structure and interactions of coral symbiosis and allow critical questions to be addressed at the genomic level based on combined aspects of evolutionary, developmental, metabolic, and environmental perspectives. PMID:23889801

  2. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an Ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, Is a Negative Regulator of Strawberry Fruit Development and Ripening1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:25609556

  3. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-03-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:25609556

  4. Identification of functionally important residues of the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor, an insect ortholog of the vertebrate neuromedin U receptor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takeshi; Katayama, Yukie; Guo, Linjun; Liu, Desheng; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Kou; Lee, Jae Min; Nagamine, Toshihiro; Hull, J Joe; Matsumoto, Shogo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagata, Koji

    2014-07-01

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by the interaction between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class A G-protein-coupled receptor. To identify functionally important amino acid residues in the silkmoth PBANR, a series of 27 alanine substitutions was generated using a PBANR chimera C-terminally fused with enhanced GFP. The PBANR mutants were expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and their ability to bind and be activated by a core PBAN fragment (C10PBAN(R2K)) was monitored. Among the 27 mutants, 23 localized to the cell surface of transfected Sf9 cells, whereas the other four remained intracellular. Reduced binding relative to wild type was observed with 17 mutants, and decreased Ca(2+) mobilization responses were observed with 12 mutants. Ala substitution of Glu-95, Glu-120, Asn-124, Val-195, Phe-276, Trp-280, Phe-283, Arg-287, Tyr-307, Thr-311, and Phe-319 affected both binding and Ca(2+) mobilization. The most pronounced effects were observed with the E120A mutation. A molecular model of PBANR indicated that the functionally important PBANR residues map to the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th transmembrane helices, implying that the same general region of class A G-protein-coupled receptors recognizes both peptidic and nonpeptidic ligands. Docking simulations suggest similar ligand-receptor recognition interactions for PBAN-PBANR and the orthologous vertebrate pair, neuromedin U (NMU) and NMU receptor (NMUR). The simulations highlight the importance of two glutamate residues, Glu-95 and Glu-120, in silkmoth PBANR and Glu-117 and Glu-142 in human NMUR1, in the recognition of the most functionally critical region of the ligands, the C-terminal residue and amide. PMID:24847080

  5. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-07-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  6. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-01-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  7. Coyote (Canis latrans)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2004-07-24

    Coyotes are top consumers in any food web, meaning they eat primary producers (plants) and consumers such as insects, spiders, toads, small mammals (chipmunks, skunks, and mice), and large mammals (deer). No animals eat coyotes, except maybe the occasional human.

  8. Reviving the African Wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide

    PubMed Central

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyčmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  9. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyčmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  10. Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogarten, J. P.; Olendzenski, L.

    1999-01-01

    During the past decade, ancient gene duplications were recognized as one of the main forces in the generation of diverse gene families and the creation of new functional capabilities. New tools developed to search data banks for homologous sequences, and an increased availability of reliable three-dimensional structural information led to the recognition that proteins with diverse functions can belong to the same superfamily. Analyses of the evolution of these superfamilies promises to provide insights into early evolution but are complicated by several important evolutionary processes. Horizontal transfer of genes can lead to a vertical spread of innovations among organisms, therefore finding a certain property in some descendants of an ancestor does not guarantee that it was present in that ancestor. Complete or partial gene conversion between duplicated genes can yield phylogenetic trees with several, apparently independent gene duplications, suggesting an often surprising parallelism in the evolution of independent lineages. Additionally, the breakup of domains within a protein and the fusion of domains into multifunctional proteins makes the delineation of superfamilies a task that remains difficult to automate.

  11. Identifying and Characterizing a Novel Protein Kinase STK35L1 and Deciphering Its Orthologs and Close-Homologs in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Pankaj; Behring, Antje; Kumar, Abhishek; Siess, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background The human kinome containing 478 eukaryotic protein kinases has over 100 uncharacterized kinases with unknown substrates and biological functions. The Ser/Thr kinase 35 (STK35, Clik1) is a member of the NKF 4 (New Kinase Family 4) in the kinome with unknown substrates and biological functions. Various high throughput studies indicate that STK35 could be involved in various human diseases such as colorectal cancer and malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we found that the previously published coding sequence of the STK35 gene is incomplete. The newly identified sequence of the STK35 gene codes for a protein of 534 amino acids with a N-terminal elongation of 133 amino acids. It has been designated as STK35L (STK35 long). Since it is the first of further homologous kinases we termed it as STK35L1. The STK35L1 protein (58 kDa on SDS-PAGE), but not STK35 (44 kDa), was found to be expressed in all human cells studied (endothelial cells, HeLa, and HEK cells) and was down-regulated after silencing with specific siRNA. EGFP-STK35L1 was localized in the nucleus and the nucleolus. By combining syntenic and gene structure pattern data and homology searches, two further STK35L1 homologs, STK35L2 (previously known as PDIK1L) and STK35L3, were found. All these protein kinase homologs were conserved throughout the vertebrates. The STK35L3 gene was specifically lost during placental mammalian evolution. Using comparative genomics, we have identified orthologous sets of these three protein kinases genes and their possible ancestor gene in two sea squirt genomes. Conclusions/Significance We found the full-length coding sequence of the STK35 gene and termed it as STK35L1. We identified a new third STK35-like gene, STK35L3, in vertebrates and a possible ancestor gene in sea squirt genome. This study will provide a comprehensive platform to explore the role of STK35L kinases in cell functions and human diseases. PMID:19756140

  12. Mimicry epitope from Ehrlichia canis for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein 201-216 prevents autoimmune uveoretinitis by acting as altered peptide ligand.

    PubMed

    Gangaplara, Arunakumar; Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Steffen, David; Reddy, Jay

    2013-10-15

    We report here identification of novel mimicry epitopes for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) 201-216, a candidate ocular antigen that causes experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in A/J mice. One mimicry epitope from Ehrlichia canis (EHC), designated EHC 44-59, induced cross-reactive T cells for IRBP 201-216 capable of producing T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cytokines, but failed to induce EAU in A/J mice. In addition, animals first primed with suboptimal doses of IRBP 201-216 and subsequently immunized with EHC 44-59 did not develop EAU; rather, the mimicry epitope prevented the disease induced by IRBP 201-216. However, alteration in the composition of EHC 44-59 by substituting alanine with valine at position 49, similar to the composition of IRBP 201-216, enabled the mimicry epitope to acquire uveitogenicity. The data provide new insights as to how microbes containing mimicry sequences for retinal antigens can prevent ocular inflammation by acting as naturally occurring altered peptide ligands. PMID:24029580

  13. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  14. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor Toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power lambda/delat.lambda of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of approximately 25 solar luminosity . In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the (sup 2)product(sub 1/2) (J = 5/2) left arrow (sup 2)product(sub 3/2) (J = 3/2) OH feature near 34.6 micron in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 7(sub 25)-6(sub 16) line at 29.8367 micron, the 4(sub 41)-3(sub 12) line at 31.7721 micron, and the 4(sub 32)-3(sub 03) line at 40.6909 micron. The higher spectral resolving power lambda/delta.lambda of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the "P Cygni" profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope.

  15. The ABA-1 allergen of the nematode Ascaris suum: epitope stability, mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence comparison with its homologue in Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, J F; Dunbar, B; Kennedy, M W

    1993-01-01

    ABA-1 is a major allergen of nematode parasites of the genus Ascaris which includes the large roundworms of humans and pigs, A. lumbricoides and A. suum, respectively. The allergen was purified from A. suum by immunoaffinity chromatography for immunochemical examination. The IgE antibody repertoire is under MHC control in infected rodents and the IgE-binding epitopes were robust to treatment with heat or periodate, and electroblotting on nitrocellulose. This implies that the IgE epitopes comprise primary peptide sequence or an unusually stable secondary or tertiary structure. The molecular mass of ABA-1 is controversial, but mass spectrometry analysis indicated that there were five components of similar size, with the major species being 14,643.2 +/- 1.4 D. Finally, N-terminal sequence analysis of ABA-1 and TBA-1 (the homologue in the canine nematode infective to humans, Toxocara canis) revealed a high degree of similarity, and we have previous evidence that ABA-1 homologues are widespread amongst ascaridid parasites of humans. ABA-1 and its homologues might, therefore, be important to the immunopathology of many infections with nematode parasites, upon which the genetic constitution of the hosts will also have a bearing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7682160

  16. Population genetic structure of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in a marine archipelago suggests island-mainland differentiation consistent with dietary niche

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that ecological heterogeneity across space can influence the genetic structure of populations, including that of long-distance dispersers such as large carnivores. On the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) dietary niche and parasite prevalence data indicate strong ecological divergence between marine-oriented wolves inhabiting islands and individuals on the coastal mainland that interact primarily with terrestrial prey. Local holders of traditional ecological knowledge, who distinguish between mainland and island wolf forms, also informed our hypothesis that genetic differentiation might occur between wolves from these adjacent environments. Results We used microsatellite genetic markers to examine data obtained from wolf faecal samples. Our results from 116 individuals suggest the presence of a genetic cline between mainland and island wolves. This pattern occurs despite field observations that individuals easily traverse the 30 km wide study area and swim up to 13 km among landmasses in the region. Conclusions Natal habitat-biased dispersal (i.e., the preference for dispersal into familiar ecological environments) might contribute to genetic differentiation. Accordingly, this working hypothesis presents an exciting avenue for future research where marine resources or other components of ecological heterogeneity are present. PMID:24915756

  17. Observations of scent-marking and discriminating self from others by a domestic dog (Canis familiaris): tales of displaced yellow snow.

    PubMed

    Bekoff, M

    2001-08-15

    Little is known about what stimuli trigger urinating or scent-marking in domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, or their wild relatives. While it is often suggested that the urine of other animals influences urinating and scent-marking patterns in canids, this has not been verified experimentally. To investigate the role of urine in eliciting urinating and marking, in this pilot study I moved urine-saturated snow ('yellow snow') from place-to-place during five winters to compare the responses of an adult male domestic dog, Jethro, to his own and others' urine. Jethro spent less time sniffing his own urine than that of other males or females, and that while his interest in his own urine waned with time it remained relatively constant for other individuals' urine. Jethro infrequently urinated over or sniffed and then immediately urinated over (scent-marked) his own urine. He marked over the urine of other males more frequently than he marked over females' urine. The method used here can be extended to other species for which experimental data are lacking. Though based on one dog, these novel data may further our knowledge of the role of scent-marking in territorial behavior and of sex differences in territory acquisition and maintenance. PMID:11470499

  18. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from the domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies revealed high genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tiwari, K; Chikweto, A; Deallie, C; Sharma, R; Thomas, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2013-11-01

    Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat a variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 249 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 89 (35.7%) of 249 were seropositive with titers of 25 in seven dogs, 50 in 22 dogs, 100 in 22 dogs, 200 or higher in 38 dogs. Hearts of 76 seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 12 dogs; these isolates were designated TgDogGr1 to TgDogGr12. These isolates were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from cell culture derived tachyzoites of 12 isolates was genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed six genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #1, #2, #3, #7, #13 and #224, with 1, 6, 1, 2, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively. The result supports previous findings that T. gondii population genetics is highly diverse in Grenada. PMID:24041485

  19. Identification of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) first-stage larvae in the feces of gray wolves (Canis lupus) by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Sim, Kathrin A; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wagner, Brent; Muńoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Smits, Judit E; Chilton, Neil B

    2010-01-01

    First-stage nematode larvae with a dorsal-spine (DSL) were detected in five of 1,565 fecal samples from gray wolves (Canis lupus) collected in British Columbia, Canada, between 2005 and 2008. Molecular techniques were used to identify the DSL because it was not possible to determine their species identity using morphologic characters. The DSL were identified as Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei based on the results of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses and DNA sequencing of the ribosomal DNA first and second internal transcribed spacers. Finding DSL of P. odocoilei in the feces of gray wolves was unexpected because P. odocoilei adults are parasites of cervids and bovids. The most likely explanation for the presence of DSL in wolf feces is that they were ingested along with the viscera of recently consumed prey. This was probably black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), which are known in the sampling area to be hosts of P. odocoilei. The present study demonstrates the use of SSCP and DNA sequencing for the identification, to the species level, of parasitic nematode larvae in feces. PMID:20090048

  20. Probing Hypergiant Mass Loss with Adaptive Optics Imaging & Polarimetry in the Infrared: MMT-Pol and LMIRCam observations of IRC +10420 & VY Canis Majoris

    E-print Network

    Shenoy, Dinesh P; Packham, Chris; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We present 2 - 5 micron adaptive optics (AO) imaging and polarimetry of the famous hypergiant stars IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris. The imaging polarimetry of IRC +10420 with MMT-Pol at 2.2 micron resolves nebular emission with intrinsic polarization of 30%, with a high surface brightness indicating optically thick scattering. The relatively uniform distribution of this polarized emission both radially and azimuthally around the star confirms previous studies that place the scattering dust largely in the plane of the sky. Using constraints on scattered light consistent with the polarimetry at 2.2 micron, extrapolation to wavelengths in the 3 - 5 micron band predicts a scattered light component significantly below the nebular flux that is observed in our LBT/LMIRCam 3 - 5 micron AO imaging. Under the assumption this excess emission is thermal, we find a color temperature of ~ 500 K is required, well in excess of the emissivity-modified equilibrium temperature for typical astrophysical dust. The nebular featur...

  1. Increased concentration of serum TNF alpha and its correlations with arterial blood pressure and indices of renal damage in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; B?ska, Piotr; D?ugosz, Ewa

    2014-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Babesia. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of canine babesiosis. In this study, the authors determined the concentration of serum TNF-? in 11 dogs infected with Babesia canis and calculated Spearman's rank correlations between the concentration of TNF-? and blood pressure, and between TNF-? and indices of renal damage such as: fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na(+))), urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio (UCr/SCr), renal failure index (RFI), urine specific gravity (USG) and urinary protein to urinary creatinine ratio (UPC). The results demonstrated statistically significant strong negative correlations between TNF-? and systolic arterial pressure (r = -0.7246), diastolic arterial pressure (r = -0.6642) and mean arterial pressure (r = -0.7151). Serum TNF-? concentration was also statistically significantly correlated with FE(Na(+)) (r = 0.7056), UCr/SCr (r = -0.8199), USG (r = -0.8075) and duration of the disease (r = 0.6767). The results of this study show there is an increase of serum TNF-? concentration during canine babesiosis, and the increased TNF-? concentration has an influence on the development of hypotension and renal failure in canine babesiosis. This probably results from the fact that TNF-? is involved in the production of nitric oxide and induction of vasodilation and hypotension, which may cause renal ischaemia and hypoxia, and finally acute tubular necrosis and renal failure. PMID:24553975

  2. Organohalogens in a whale-blubber-supplemented diet affects hepatic retinol and renal tocopherol concentrations in greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard, Maja; Sonne, Christian; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjřrn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma, liver, and kidney status of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) in two groups of Greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris), with a total number of 16 bitches and 8 pups. The dogs were fed either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber (exposed dogs) or uncontaminated (control group) porcine fat for up to 12 to 21 mo of age. The daily intake of 50-200 g whale blubber (mean: 112 g) constituted between 10.4 and 11.7 microg/kg body weight summation operatororganohalogen contaminants (OHC) (or between 4.6 and 6.1 microg/kg body weight summation operatorpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and alpha-tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of SigmaOHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol correlated negatively with Sigma-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (SigmaDDT) and and Sigma-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (SigmaPBDE) for all exposed animals. A negative correlation between kidney alpha-tocopherol and SigmaPCB concentrations was observed, whereas two positive significant correlations were observed between kidney retinol and Sigma-chlordane-related compounds (SigmaCHL) and dieldrin concentrations. Hepatic alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in exposed compared to controls, most likely due to a combination by OHC exposure and high dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that dietary exposure from OHC may, even at low concentrations, possibly affect retinol and alpha-tocopherol status in Arctic top predators. PMID:20391120

  3. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkćr; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals. PMID:23076724

  4. Astrometric and Light-travel Time Orbits to Detect Low-mass Companions: A Case Study of the Eclipsing System R Canis Majoris

    E-print Network

    Ignasi Ribas; Frederic Arenou; Edward F. Guinan

    2002-01-10

    We discuss a method to determine orbital properties and masses of low-mass bodies orbiting eclipsing binaries. The analysis combines long-term eclipse timing modulations (light-travel time or LTT effect) with short-term, high-accuracy astrometry. As an illustration of the method, the results of a comprehensive study of Hipparcos astrometry and over a hundred years of eclipse timings of the Algol-type eclipsing binary R Canis Majoris are presented. A simultaneous solution of the astrometry and the LTTs yields an orbital period of P_12=92.8+/-1.3 yr, an LTT semiamplitude of 2574+/-57 s, an angular semi-major axis of a_12=117+/-5 mas, and values of the orbital eccentricity and inclination of e_12=0.49+/-0.05, and i_12=91.7+/-4.7 deg, respectively. Adopting the total mass of R CMa of M_12=1.24+/-0.05 Mo, the mass of the third body is M_3=0.34+/-0.02 Mo and the semi-major axis of its orbit is a_3=18.7+/-1.7 AU. From its mass, the third body is either a dM3-4 star or, more unlikely, a white dwarf. With the upcoming microarcsecond-level astrometric missions, the technique that we discuss can be successfully applied to detect and characterize long-period planetary-size objects and brown dwarfs around eclipsing binaries. Possibilities for extending the method to pulsating variables or stars with transiting planets are briefly addressed.

  5. Probing Hypergiant Mass Loss with Adaptive Optics Imaging and Polarimetry in the Infrared: MMT-Pol and LMIRCam Observations of IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Packham, Chris; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    We present 2–5 ?m adaptive optics (AO) imaging and polarimetry of the famous hypergiant stars IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris. The imaging polarimetry of IRC +10420 with MMT-Pol at 2.2 ? {m} resolves nebular emission with intrinsic polarization of 30%, with a high surface brightness indicating optically thick scattering. The relatively uniform distribution of this polarized emission both radially and azimuthally around the star confirms previous studies that place the scattering dust largely in the plane of the sky. Using constraints on scattered light consistent with the polarimetry at 2.2 ? {m}, extrapolation to wavelengths in the 3–5 ?m band predicts a scattered light component significantly below the nebular flux that is observed in our Large Binocular Telescope/LMIRCam 3–5 ?m AO imaging. Under the assumption this excess emission is thermal, we find a color temperature of ?500 K is required, well in excess of the emissivity-modified equilibrium temperature for typical astrophysical dust. The nebular features of VY CMa are found to be highly polarized (up to 60%) at 1.3 ?m, again with optically thick scattering required to reproduce the observed surface brightness. This star’s peculiar nebular feature dubbed the “Southwest Clump” is clearly detected in the 3.1 ?m polarimetry as well, which, unlike IRC +10420, is consistent with scattered light alone. The high intrinsic polarizations of both hypergiants’ nebulae are compatible with optically thick scattering for typical dust around evolved dusty stars, where the depolarizing effect of multiple scatters is mitigated by the grains’ low albedos. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  6. Characterization of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 locus and its synteny with the omp1/p30 loci of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. canis.

    PubMed

    Löhr, Christiane V; Brayton, Kelly A; Barbet, Anthony F; Palmer, Guy H

    2004-01-21

    Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an immunodominant and antigenically variant protein in the outer membrane of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. MSP2 variation is generated by recombination into a single operon-linked genomic expression site. The complete 5.6-kb msp2 locus was identified by sequencing a 90-kb region of the St. Maries strain of A. marginale. The locus encoded, in a 5' to 3' direction, a transcriptional regulator followed by five outer membrane proteins, OMP1, OpAG3, OpAG2, OpAG1, and MSP2. The sequences of this entire locus were analyzed using six genetically and phenotypically distinct strains of A. marginale. The overall locus structure was highly conserved with 100% identity among strains in the transcriptional regulator. Synonymous and nonsynonymous exchanges were infrequent in omp1 and rare in opag1 and opag2 among the six strains without strong bias for either type of exchange (neutral mutations). In contrast, mutations in opag3 seem to underlie purifying (negative) selection reflecting pressure to retain protein structure, in marked contrast to the highly antigenically variant MSP2. Interestingly, the 5' structure of this A. marginale msp2 locus is conserved in the omp1 gene locus of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and p30 gene locus of E. canis despite marked divergence between genera in the structure of the 3' region of the loci. This supports the hypothesis that the expression sites of these important immunogenic proteins are derived from a common precursor with later divergent evolution along genus lines. PMID:14697516

  7. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas) on a bacterial species-like level

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Sebastian; Wasimuddin; Meier, Matthias; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mfune, John K. E.; Heinrich, Sonja; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a similarity threshold (e.g., 97%). This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from “abnormal” microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the “normal” microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas). Bacterial phyla with proportions >0.2% were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ?0.1%, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3% OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between microbiomes. PMID:25352837

  8. Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-Rich Versus Carbon-Rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC(plus)10216 at 215-285 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenebaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive (1sigma rms at 1 MHz resolution approx.3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO, and SiS; in IRC +10216, C4H and SiC2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO(+). Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/ unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +102.16, producing CH2NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique "inorganic" chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v2 = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  9. COMPARATIVE SPECTRA OF OXYGEN-RICH VERSUS CARBON-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS: VY CANIS MAJORIS AND IRC +10216 AT 215-285 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Milam, S. N., E-mail: tenenbaum@strw.leidenuniv.n, E-mail: jldodd@email.arizona.ed, E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.ed, E-mail: lziurys@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: nwoolf@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: Stefanie.N.Milam@nasa.go [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Laboratory, Code 691, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A sensitive (1{sigma} rms at 1 MHz resolution {approx}3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO{sub 2} and SiS; in IRC +10216, C{sub 4}H and SiC{sub 2} are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO{sup +}. Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +10216, producing CH{sub 2}NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique 'inorganic' chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v {sub 2} = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  10. EXOTIC METAL MOLECULES IN OXYGEN-RICH ENVELOPES: DETECTION OF AlOH (X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}) IN VY CANIS MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, Department of Chemistry, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: emilyt@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.edu

    2010-03-20

    A new interstellar molecule, AlOH, has been detected toward the envelope of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich red supergiant. Three rotational transitions of AlOH were observed using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The J = 9 {yields} 8 and J = 7 {yields} 6 lines at 1 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, while the J = 5 {yields} 4 transition at 2 mm was observed with the ARO 12 m antenna on Kitt Peak. The AlOH spectra exhibit quite narrow line widths of 16-23 km s{sup -1}, as found for NaCl in this source, indicating that the emission arises from within the dust acceleration zone of the central circumstellar outflow. From a radiative transfer analysis, the abundance of AlOH relative to H{sub 2} was found to be {approx}1 x 10{sup -7} for a source size of 0.26'' or 22 R{sub *} . In contrast, AlCl was not detected with f {<=} 5 x 10{sup -8}. AlOH is likely formed just beyond the photosphere via thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry and then disappears due to dust condensation. The AlOH/AlO abundance ratio found in VY CMa is {approx}17. Therefore, AlOH appears to be the dominant gas-phase molecular carrier of aluminum in this oxygen-rich shell. Local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations predict that the monohydroxides should be the major carriers of Al, Ca, and Mg in O-rich envelopes, as opposed to the oxides or halides. The apparent predominance of aluminum-bearing molecules in VY CMa may reflect proton addition processes in H-shell burning.

  11. How Many Wolves (Canis lupus) Fit into Germany? The Role of Assumptions in Predictive Rule-Based Habitat Models for Habitat Generalists

    PubMed Central

    Fechter, Dominik; Storch, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Due to legislative protection, many species, including large carnivores, are currently recolonizing Europe. To address the impending human-wildlife conflicts in advance, predictive habitat models can be used to determine potentially suitable habitat and areas likely to be recolonized. As field data are often limited, quantitative rule based models or the extrapolation of results from other studies are often the techniques of choice. Using the wolf (Canis lupus) in Germany as a model for habitat generalists, we developed a habitat model based on the location and extent of twelve existing wolf home ranges in Eastern Germany, current knowledge on wolf biology, different habitat modeling techniques and various input data to analyze ten different input parameter sets and address the following questions: (1) How do a priori assumptions and different input data or habitat modeling techniques affect the abundance and distribution of potentially suitable wolf habitat and the number of wolf packs in Germany? (2) In a synthesis across input parameter sets, what areas are predicted to be most suitable? (3) Are existing wolf pack home ranges in Eastern Germany consistent with current knowledge on wolf biology and habitat relationships? Our results indicate that depending on which assumptions on habitat relationships are applied in the model and which modeling techniques are chosen, the amount of potentially suitable habitat estimated varies greatly. Depending on a priori assumptions, Germany could accommodate between 154 and 1769 wolf packs. The locations of the existing wolf pack home ranges in Eastern Germany indicate that wolves are able to adapt to areas densely populated by humans, but are limited to areas with low road densities. Our analysis suggests that predictive habitat maps in general, should be interpreted with caution and illustrates the risk for habitat modelers to concentrate on only one selection of habitat factors or modeling technique. PMID:25029506

  12. Characterization of the expression patterns of LEAFY/FLORICAULA and NEEDLY orthologs in female and male cones of the conifer genera Picea, Podocarpus, and Taxus: implications for current evo-devo hypotheses for gymnosperms.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Pińero, Daniel; Engström, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The identity of genes causally implicated in the development and evolutionary origin of reproductive characters in gymnosperms is largely unknown. Working within the framework of plant evolutionary developmental biology, here we have cloned, sequenced, performed phylogenetic analyses upon and tested the expression patterns of LEAFY/FLORICAULA and NEEDLY orthologs in reproductive structures from selected species of the conifer genera Picea, Podocarpus, and Taxus. Contrary to expectations based on previous assessments, expression of LFY/FLO and NLY in cones of these taxa was found to occur simultaneously in a single reproductive axis, initially overlapping but later in mutually exclusive primordia and/or groups of developing cells in both female and male structures. These observations directly affect the status of the "mostly male theory" for the origin of the angiosperm flower. On the other hand, comparative spatiotemporal patterns of the expression of these genes suggest a complex genetic regulatory network of cone development, as well as a scheme of functional divergence for LFY/FLO with respect to NLY homologs in gymnosperms, both with clear heterochronic aspects. Results presented in this study contribute to the understanding of the molecular-genetic basis of morphological evolution in conifer cones, and may aid in establishing a foundation for gymnosperm-specific, testable evo-devo hypotheses. PMID:17845516

  13. Occurrence of interleukin-5 production by CD4- CD8- (double-negative) T cells in lungs of both normal and congenitally athymic nude mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Takamoto, M; Kusama, Y; Takatsu, K; Nariuchi, H; Sugane, K

    1995-01-01

    We studied cells in the lungs of BALB/c and BALB/c-nu/nu (nude) mice infected with Toxocara canis, which produced interleukin-5 (IL-5) in in vitro culture with larval excretory-secretory antigen (ESAg). The proportion of CD4+/CD8+/CD4- CD8- cells in lungs of both BALB/c and nude mice was unchanged before and after infection with T. canis. Panning and complement-mediated lysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD4 showed that CD4+ cells in the lung from both mice produced IL-5. Anti-CD4 mAb suppressed ESAg-stimulated IL-5 production in vitro. In vitro depletion or inhibition of CD8+ cells reduced IL-5 production significantly in some cases, suggesting involvement with IL-5 production. Anti-CD3 mAb enhanced IL-5 production when incubated with or without ESAg. Production of IL-5 was reduced by in vivo depletion of CD4+ cells only and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, by intraperitoneal injection with appropriate mAb; IL-5 production was stimulated by anti-CD3 mAb. In contrast, IL-5 production by lung cells of BALB/c mice decreased by more than 90% after simultaneous injection with anti-CD4, anti-CD8 and anti-CD3 mAb, and was not enhanced by anti-CD3 mAb. Similar results were obtained in nude mice. These results suggest that CD4- CD8- T cells, as well as CD4+ T cells, produce IL-5. PMID:7642218

  14. Drosophila Glycoprotein 93 Is an Ortholog of Mammalian Heat Shock Protein gp96 (grp94, HSP90b1, HSPC4) and Retains Disulfide Bond-Independent Chaperone Function for TLRs and Integrins1

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Crystal; Wu, Shuang; Yang, Yi; Hao, Bing; Li, Zihai

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian heat shock protein gp96 is an obligate chaperone for multiple integrins and TLRs, the mechanism of which is largely unknown. We have identified gp93 in Drosophila having high sequence homology to gp96. However, no functions were previously attributed to gp93. To determine whether gp93 and gp96 are functionally conserved, we have expressed gp93 in gp96-deficient mouse cells. Remarkably, the Drosophila gp93 is able to chaperone multiple murine gp96 clients including integrins ?4, ?L, and ?2 and TLR2 and TLR9. This observation has led us to examine the structural basis of the chaperone function of gp96 by a close comparison between gp96 and gp93. We report that whereas gp96 undergoes intermolecular disulfide bond formation via Cys138, gp93 is unable to do so due to the absence of a cysteine near the same region. However, abrogation of disulfide bond formation by substituting C with A (C138A) in gp96 via site-directed mutagenesis did not compromise its chaperone function. Likewise, gp93 chaperone ability could not be improved by forcing intermolecular bond formation between gp93 N termini. We conclude that gp93 is the Drosophila ortholog of gp96 and that the chaperone function of the two molecules is conserved. Moreover, gp96 N-terminal disulfide bond formation is not critical for its function, underscoring the importance of N-terminal dimerization via non-disulfide bond-mediated interactions in client protein folding by gp96. Further study of gp96 from an evolutionary angle shall be informative to uncover the detailed mechanism of its chaperone function of client proteins in the secretory pathway. PMID:19786553

  15. Orthologous Repeats and Mammalian Phylogenetic Inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali BashirChun Ye; Alkes L. Price; Vineet Bafna

    2008-01-01

    Determining phylogenetic relationships between species is a difficult problem, and many phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, even among eutherian mammals. Repetitive elements provide excellent markers for phylogenetic analysis, because their mode of evolution is predominantly homoplasy-free and unidirectional. Historically, phylogenetic studies using repetitive elements have relied on biological methods such as PCR analysis, and computational inference is limited to a few

  16. Inferring Regulatory Networks through Orthologous Gene Mapping

    E-print Network

    Gao, Lixin

    organisms such as bacteria (Escherichia coli) [1, 2], baker's yeast (Sac- charomyce cerevisea) [3, 4 crops and some are human pathogens able to cause infection on immune-compromised individuals such as HIV

  17. Identification of four families of yCCR4- and Mg2+-dependent endonuclease-related proteins in higher eukaryotes, and characterization of orthologs of yCCR4 with a conserved leucine-rich repeat essential for hCAF1/hPOP2 binding

    PubMed Central

    Dupressoir, Anne; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Barbot, Willy; Loireau, Marie-Paule; Corbo, Laura; Heidmann, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    Background The yeast yCCR4 factor belongs to the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex, in which it interacts, through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif with yPOP2. Recently, yCCR4 was shown to be a component of the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, and to contain a fold related to the Mg2+-dependent endonuclease core. Results Here, we report the identification of nineteen yCCR4-related proteins in eukaryotes (including yeast, plants and animals), which all contain the yCCR4 endonuclease-like fold, with highly conserved CCR4-specific residues. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses show that they form four distinct families, one of which contains the yCCR4 orthologs. The orthologs in animals possess a leucine-rich repeat domain. We show, using two-hybrid and far-Western assays, that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, i.e. hCAF1 and hPOP2, in a LRR-dependent manner. Conclusions We have identified the mammalian orthologs of yCCR4 and have shown that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, thus strongly suggesting conservation of the CCR4-NOT complex from yeast to human. All members of the four identified yCCR4-related protein families show stricking conservation of the endonuclease-like catalytic motifs of the yCCR4 C-terminal domain and therefore constitute a new family of potential deadenylases in mammals. PMID:11747467

  18. Purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and excretory-secretory antigen(s) of Toxocara canis expand in vitro human T cells with stable and opposite (type 1 T helper or type 2 T helper) profile of cytokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, G F; De Carli, M; Mastromauro, C; Biagiotti, R; Macchia, D; Falagiani, P; Ricci, M; Romagnani, S

    1991-01-01

    A large series of T cell clones (TCC) specific for purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (total 60) or Toxocara canis excretory/secretory (TES) antigen (total 69) were established from the peripheral blood of two healthy individuals and analyzed for their profile of cytokine production in response to stimulation with either the specific antigen or the polyclonal activator phorbol myristate acetate plus anti-CD3 antibody. Under both these experimental conditions, the great majority of PPD-specific TCC secreted IL-2 and IFN-gamma but not, or limited amounts of, IL-4 and IL-5. In contrast, most TES-specific TCC secreted IL-4 and IL-5 but not, or limited amounts of, IL-2 and IFN-gamma. PPD-specific TCC that failed to secrete IL-4 and IL-5, and TES-specific TCC that failed to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma, were found to lack transcripts for IL-4 and IL-5, or for IL-2 and IFN-gamma, respectively. During the course of the study, over a 6-mo period, the functional phenotype of both TES- and PPD-specific TCC was repeatedly assessed and remained constant. These data demonstrate that T cells with stable Th1 or Th2 functional pattern exist not only in mice but also in humans and suggest that in the course of natural immunization certain infectious agents preferentially expand T cell subsets with stable and definite profile of cytokine production. PMID:1829097

  19. Lupuzor/P140 peptide in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert; Scherbarth, Hugo R; Rillo, Oscar Luis; Gomez-Reino, Juan Jesus; Muller, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate treatment with the peptide-based agent, Lupuzor, in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Patients who met ?4 of the American College of Rheumatology criteria, had a score of ?6 on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and did not have an A score on the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG)-2004 scale were eligible. 149 intention-to-treat (ITT) patients were randomly assigned to receive Lupuzor (200??g) subcutaneously every 4?weeks (n=49; group 1) or every 2?weeks (n=51; group 2) or placebo (n=49; group 3) in addition to standard of care (SOC). A target population (136 ITT patients) consisting of patients having a clinical SLEDAI score ?6 at week 0 was considered. The clinical SLEDAI score is the SLEDAI-2K score obtained by omitting low complement and increased DNA binding components. Results In the ITT overall population, 53.1% in group 1 (p=0.048), 45.1% in group 2 (p=0.18) and 36.2% in the placebo group achieved an SLE Responder Index (SRI) response at week 12. In the target population, the results were more impressive: 61.9% in group 1 (p=0.016), 48.0% in group 2 (p=0.18) and 38.6% in the placebo group achieved an SRI response at week 12. An interim analysis including 114 patients from the target population demonstrated an even better efficacy (according to SLEDAI score) in group 1 compared with placebo (67.6% vs 41.5% (p<0.025) at week 12 and 84.2% vs 45.8% (p<0.025) at week 24). The most common adverse event was a mild injection-site erythema. Conclusions Lupuzor/200?µg given three times at 4-week intervals during 12?weeks in addition to SOC is efficacious and generally well tolerated. PMID:23172751

  20. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178

  1. Do dogs ( Canis familiaris ) show contagious yawning?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimee L. Harr; Valerie R. Gilbert; Kimberley A. Phillips

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown\\u000a video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs\\u000a showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly\\u000a after viewing yawning videos than to

  2. Diffuse ionized gas toward Canis Majoris?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Dupin; Cecile Gry

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neu- tral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from the following species: Hi ,D i ,N i ,O i ,S ii ,S iii ,S iii ,S iiii ,S iiv ,A lii ,A liii ,F eii,

  3. Diffuse ionized gas toward beta Canis Majoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Dupin; Cecile Gry

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward beta CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neutral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from the following species: H i, D i, N i, O i, S ii, S iii, Si ii, Si iii, Si iv, Al ii, Al iii, Fe

  4. Leadership in Wolf, Canis lupus, Packs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mech, L. David.

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. L. David Mech recently published this article in Canadian Field-Naturalist [114(2):259-263, 2000] describing leadership in wolf packs. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

  5. The ultraviolet spectrum of UW Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drechsel, H.; Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1981-01-01

    High resolution spectra of the eclipsing binary UW CMa have been obtained in the wavelength range 950 to 3200 A with the Copernicus (OAO-3) and IUE satellites. UW CMa is an interacting system, consisting of an 07f Ia primary and an O-B secondary. The spectra have been used to compile a list of stellar and interstellar lines. Identifications together with position and laboratory wavelengths are given. The spectra are dominated by envelope (P Cygni) lines. Numerous, but less conspicuous photospheric absorption lines from the 07f component are present. In addition, a wealth of interstellar lines appear.

  6. An infrared companion to Z Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koresko, Chris D.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Matthews, Keith; Neugebauer, Gerry

    1991-01-01

    New near-infrared speckle observations of Z CMa reveal it to be a double star with a separation 0.1 arcsec at P.A. 120 deg. The northwest component is an infrared object whose broadband spectrum is reminiscent of the infrared companions to several T Tauri stars. The southeast component has the spectral energy distribution expected for a circumstellar disk whose luminosity is dominated by gravitational accretion. The far-infrared and millimeter-wave photometric fluxes suggest the presence of a massive second disk large enough to surround both components; this may be the reservoir from which the material accreted by the first disk is drawn.

  7. Diffuse Ionized Gas Toward Beta Canis Majoris

    E-print Network

    O. Dupin; C. Gry

    1998-06-12

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward beta CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neutral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from many species. The line of sight to beta CMa (153 pc) is dominated by two ionized regions with a velocity difference of 10 km/s. Their gas-phase abundances indicate that their depletion is low, especially for the more ionized of the two clouds. Special models of photoionization by the two EUV-excess stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa would be needed for a detailed discussion of the ionizing mechanisms of the clouds ; their ionization ratios are nevertheless roughly compatible with collisional ionization at temperatures around 20 000 K, substantially higher than the kinetic temperatures derived from the line widths. Their characteristics suggest that the clouds may be in the process of cooling down and recombining after having been shocked and ionized by some violent events, possibly related to the Local Bubble formation.

  8. The Effect of Orthology and Coregulation on Detecting Regulatory Motifs

    E-print Network

    detection algorithms with evolutionary model performed as compared to MEME, a more classical motif detection algorithms and MEME is still marginal. The success rate of motif detection depends on the complex interplay

  9. Patterns of nucleotides that flank substitutions in human orthologous genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Ma; Tingting Zhang; Zhuoran Huang; Xiaoqian Jiang; Shiheng Tao

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sequence context is an important aspect of base mutagenesis, and three-base periodicity is an intrinsic property of coding sequences. However, how three-base periodicity is influenced in the vicinity of substitutions is still unclear. The effect of context on mutagenesis should be revealed in the usage of nucleotides that flank substitutions. Relative entropy (also known as Kullback-Leibler divergence) is useful

  10. Identifying Conserved Gene Clusters in the Presence of Orthologous Groups

    E-print Network

    Goldwasser, Michael

    used this approach to study two bacterial genomes, E. coli and B. subtilis and successfully identified in prokaryotic genomes and similar expression patterns of neighboring genes in some eu- karyotic genomes genome comparison. This generalizes a recent model called "gene teams." A gene team is a set

  11. Orthologous Repeats and Mammalian Phylogenetic Inference Alkes L. Price

    E-print Network

    Bafna, Vineet

    phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, even among eutherian mammals. Repetitive elements provide Bafna§ Abstract Determining phylogenetic relationships between species is a difficult problem, and many a novel computational method for inferring phylogenetic relationships from partial se- quence data using

  12. The Drosophila ortholog of vertebrate TRPA1 regulates thermotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Mark; Brennan, Karen M.; Tayler, Timothy D.; Phelps, Paul O.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Garrity, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermotaxis is important for animal survival, but the molecular identities of temperature sensors controlling this behavior have not been determined. We demonstrate dTRPA1, a heat-activated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in Drosophila. dTrpA1 knockdown eliminates avoidance of elevated temperatures along a thermal gradient. We observe dTRPA1 expression in cells without previously ascribed roles in thermosensation and implicate dTRPA1-expressing neurons in mediating thermotaxis. Our data suggest that thermotaxis relies upon neurons and molecules distinct from those required for high-temperature nociception. We propose dTRPA1 may control thermotaxis by sensing environmental temperature. PMID:15681611

  13. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  14. Targeted Enrichment: Maximizing Orthologous Gene Comparisons across Deep Evolutionary Time

    PubMed Central

    Hedtke, Shannon M.; Morgan, Matthew J.; Cannatella, David C.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated phylogenies of evolutionarily diverse taxa will be well supported and more likely to be historically accurate when the analysis contains large amounts of data–many genes sequenced across many taxa. Inferring such phylogenies for non-model organisms is challenging given limited resources for whole-genome sequencing. We take advantage of genomic data from a single species to test the limits of hybridization-based enrichment of hundreds of exons across frog species that diverged up to 250 million years ago. Enrichment success for a given species depends greatly on the divergence time between it and the reference species, and the resulting alignment contains a significant proportion of missing data. However, our alignment generates a well-supported phylogeny of frogs, suggesting that this technique is a practical solution towards resolving relationships across deep evolutionary time. PMID:23844125

  15. A photometric and spectroscopic study of BG Canis Minoris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martino, D.; Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Vio, R.; Rosen, S. R.; Mukai, K.; Augusteijn, T.; Garlick, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    The photometric and spectroscopic analysis presented here has revealed new observational features in the Intermediate Polar BG CMi. We have found a strong variability of the dominant light pulsations, rotational (913s) and orbital (3.23hr), on a timescale of years. Variations in the amplitude of the spin pulsation with epoch generally appear to be anti-correlated with that of the orbital modulation with the former decreasing while the latter increases. We do not find stable periodic signals at other frequencies as well as no indication of periodicity at the 847s X-ray period. UV and optical orbital continuum modulations reveal two components at different temperatures. The hot contribution is identified with the bulge (the heated face of the hot-spot) and the cool one with the hot-spot itself eclipsed by the secondary star. Orbital phase resolved spectroscopy reveals a rotational disturbance in the HeII emission line, indicating a partial eclipse of circulating material around the white dwarf, possibly in the form of a ring. From the orbital motion of the white dwarf, we also infer that BG CMi is a moderate inclination system (i~55^o^-75^o^).

  16. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) seek help in an emergency?

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Krista; Roberts, William A

    2006-05-01

    The question of whether dogs recognize an emergency and understand the need to seek help from a bystander was tested in two experiments. In the first experiment, dogs' owners feigned a heart attack in an open field, and in the second experiment, dogs' owners experienced an accident in which a bookcase fell on them and pinned them to the floor. In these experiments, one or two bystanders were available to which dogs could go for help. The dogs' behavior was taped for 6 min after the owner had fallen and was later scored for the frequency and time the dogs spent performing different behaviors. In no case did a dog solicit help from a bystander. It is concluded that dogs did not understand the nature of the emergency or the need to obtain help. PMID:16719589

  17. New Observations of the Near Contact Binary XZ Canis Minoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Rook; R. G. Samec; D. R. Faulkner; N. C. Hawkins; W. Van Hamme

    2005-01-01

    We present new observations of XZ CMi taken at the National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO). Our CCD observations were taken 08-12 March 2005 by DRF and NCH with the Lowell Observatory 31-inch reflector and a LN cooled CCD camera with a metachrome coated TEK 512 X 512 chip. Standard UBVRI filters were used. A preliminary light curve analysis and an

  18. Development of gaze following abilities in wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    The ability to coordinate with others' head and eye orientation to look in the same direction is considered a key step towards an understanding of others mental states like attention and intention. Here, we investigated the ontogeny and habituation patterns of gaze following into distant space and behind barriers in nine hand-raised wolves. We found that these wolves could use conspecific as well as human gaze cues even in the barrier task, which is thought to be more cognitively advanced than gazing into distant space. Moreover, while gaze following into distant space was already present at the age of 14 weeks and subjects did not habituate to repeated cues, gazing around a barrier developed considerably later and animals quickly habituated, supporting the hypothesis that different cognitive mechanisms may underlie the two gaze following modalities. More importantly, this study demonstrated that following another individuals' gaze around a barrier is not restricted to primates and corvids but is also present in canines, with remarkable between-group similarities in the ontogeny of this behaviour. This sheds new light on the evolutionary origins of and selective pressures on gaze following abilities as well as on the sensitivity of domestic dogs towards human communicative cues. PMID:21373192

  19. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  20. Helium emission in the spectrum of Kappa Canis Majoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. R. Bahng; E. Hendry

    1974-01-01

    Coude spectra of kappa CMa in the red region showed H alpha and He 1 lambda lambda 5876,6678 in emission. Each of the lines had two emission components, but the helium lines had no detectable absorption feature in between. While the H alpha emission peaks were separated by 160 km\\/sec, the helium lines were separated by 400 km\\/sec. A simple