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1

Gene Orthology Assessment with OrthologID  

Microsoft Academic Search

OrthologID (http:\\/\\/nypg.bio.nyu.edu\\/orthologid\\/) allows for the rapid and accurate identification of gene orthology within a character-based phylogenetic framework. The Web application has two functions - an orthologous group search and a query orthology classification. The former determines orthologous gene sets for complete genomes and identifies diagnostic characters that define each orthologous gene set; and the latter allows for the classification of

Mary Egan; Ernest K. Lee; Joanna C. Chiu; Gloria Coruzzi; Rob DeSalle

2

p140Cap regulates memory and synaptic plasticity through Src-mediated and citron-N-mediated actin reorganization.  

PubMed

A major challenge in the neuroscience field is the identification of molecules and pathways that control synaptic plasticity and memory. Dendritic spines play a pivotal role in these processes, as the major sites of excitatory synapses in neuronal communication. Previous studies have shown that the scaffold protein p140Cap localizes into dendritic spines and that its knockdown negatively modulates spine shape in culture. However, so far, there is no information on its in vivo relevance. By using a knock-out mouse model, we here demonstrate that p140Cap is a key element for both learning and synaptic plasticity. Indeed, p140Cap(-/-) mice are impaired in object recognition test, as well as in LTP and in LTD measurements. The in vivo effects of p140Cap loss are presumably attenuated by noncell-autonomous events, since primary neurons obtained from p140Cap(-/-) mice show a strong reduction in number of mushroom spines and abnormal organization of synapse-associated F-actin. These phenotypes are most likely caused by a local reduction of the inhibitory control of RhoA and of cortactin toward the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. These events can be controlled by p140Cap through its capability to directly inhibit the activation of Src kinase and by its binding to the scaffold protein Citron-N. Altogether, our results provide new insight into how protein associated with dynamic microtubules may regulate spine actin organization through interaction with postsynaptic density components. PMID:24453341

Repetto, Daniele; Camera, Paola; Melani, Riccardo; Morello, Noemi; Russo, Isabella; Calcagno, Eleonora; Tomasoni, Romana; Bianchi, Federico; Berto, Gaia; Giustetto, Maurizio; Berardi, Nicoletta; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Matteoli, Michela; Di Stefano, Paola; Missler, Markus; Turco, Emilia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Defilippi, Paola

2014-01-22

3

p140mDia, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous,is a target protein for Rho small GTPase and is a ligand for profilin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rho small GTPase regulates cell morphology, adhesion and cytokinesis through the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a protein, p140mDia, as a downstream effector of Rho. It is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, a protein required for cytokinesis, and belongs to a family of formin-related proteins containing repetitive polyproline stretches. p140mDia binds selectively to the GTP-bound form of Rho and

Naoki Watanabe; Pascal Madaule; Tim Reid; Toshimasa Ishizaki; Go Watanabe; Akira Kakizuka; Yuji Saito; Kazuwa Nakao; Brigitte M. Jockusch; Shuh Narumiya

1997-01-01

4

The Spliceosomal Phosphopeptide P140 Controls the Lupus Disease by Interacting with the HSC70 Protein and via a Mechanism Mediated by ?? T Cells  

PubMed Central

The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4+ T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4?CD8?B220+ T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on ?? T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4+ T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity. PMID:19390596

Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

2009-01-01

5

Orthologic Tetrahedra with Intersecting Edges  

E-print Network

Two tetrahedra are called orthologic if the lines through vertices of one and perpendicular to corresponding faces of the other are intersecting. This is equivalent to the orthogonality of non-corresponding edges. We prove that the additional assumption of intersecting non-corresponding edges (``orthosecting tetrahedra'') implies that the six intersection points lie on a sphere. To a given tetrahedron there exists generally a one-parametric family of orthosecting tetrahedra. The orthographic projection of the locus of one vertex onto the corresponding face plane of the given tetrahedron is a curve which remains fixed under isogonal conjugation. This allows the construction of pairs of conjugate orthosecting tetrahedra to a given tetrahedron.

Schroecker, Hans-Peter

2009-01-01

6

Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia canis rossi: differentiation of the three subspecies by a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes.  

PubMed

The parasites Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni (phylum Apicomplexa) are responsible for canine babesiosis throughout the world. Babesia canis was previously described as a group of three biologically different subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi. We report partial sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssu-rDNA) of each subspecies amplified in vitro with primers derived from a semi-conserved region of the ssu-rDNA genes in other Babesia species. The polymerase chain reaction combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, using HinfI and TaqI restriction enzymes, confirmed the separation of B. canis into three subspecies. These sequences were compared with previously published sequences of other Babesia species. A phylogenetic approach showed that the three subspecies of B. canis belong to the clade of Babesia species sensu stricto where B. canis canis clusters with B. canis rossi whereas B. canis vogeli might form a monophyletic group with the cluster B. divergens and B. odocoilei. Our results show that the three subspecies of B. canis can readily be differentiated at the molecular level and suggest that they might be considered as true species. PMID:10377990

Carret, C; Walas, F; Carcy, B; Grande, N; Précigout, E; Moubri, K; Schetters, T P; Gorenflot, A

1999-01-01

7

Giardia canis: ultrastructural analysis of G. canis trophozoites transfected with full length G. canis virus cDNA transcripts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Giardia canis virus (GCV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the family Totiviridae. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the G. canis virus was constructed in pPoly2/sfinot vector and RNA was transcribed in vitro. Virus-free G. canis trophozoites were transfected with in vitro transcribed ...

8

Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Results Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships. PMID:25572629

2014-01-01

9

Infection with a Proposed New Subspecies of Babesia canis, Babesia canis subsp. presentii, in Domestic Cats  

PubMed Central

Parasitemia with a large Babesia species was identified in two domestic cats from Israel. One cat, also coinfected with feline immunodeficiency virus and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum,” had profound icterus and anemia which resolved after therapy, whereas a second cat was an asymptomatic carrier. Amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses, indicated that infection was caused by Babesia canis. However, the sequences of the internal transcribed and 5.8S rRNA regions of the ribosomal operon used for subspeciation of B. canis were markedly different from the recognized subspecies of B. canis, which include B. canis vogeli, B. canis canis, and B. canis rossi. Based on phylogenetic comparisons of the 18S rRNA gene, 5.8S, and internal transcribed spacer sequences of the isolates from the cats and on the smaller sizes of the merozoite and trophozoite stages of this parasite, which distinguish it from the subspecies of B. canis present in dogs, we propose to identify the novel feline genotype of B. canis described in the present study as a new subspecies, B. canis subsp. presentii. PMID:14715738

Baneth, Gad; Kenny, Martin J.; Tasker, Séverine; Anug, Yigal; Shkap, Varda; Levy, Amos; Shaw, Susan E.

2004-01-01

10

Phylogenetic trees & orthology Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010  

E-print Network

3/6/2013 1 Phylogenetic trees & orthology #12;Fritz-Laylin et al. cell 2010 ·Med11 vs kinases: orthology ·Trees are useful beyond that: HGT, timing of duplication, study of all kinds of evolutionary processes #12;Gene Trees, Gene Duplications, and Orthology · How to make trees · Bootstrap · Interpreting

Utrecht, Universiteit

11

F2A sequence linking MGMT(P140K) and MDR1 in a bicistronic lentiviral vector enables efficient chemoprotection of haematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Chemoprotection of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by gene therapeutic transfer of drug-resistance genes represents the encouraging approach to prevent myelosuppression, which is one of the most severe side effects in tumor therapy. Thus, we cloned and evaluated six different bicistronic lentiviral SIN vectors encoding two transgenes, MGMT(P140K) (an O(6)-benzylguanine-resistant mutant of methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) and MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1), using various linker sequences (IRESEMCV, IRESFMDV and 2A-element of FMDV (F2A)). Expression of both transgenes in HL-60 and in K562 cells was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. Combination therapy with ACNU plus paclitaxel in HL-60 cells and with carmustin (BCNU) plus doxorubicin in K562 cells resulted in the most significant survival advantage of cells transduced with the lentiviral vector HR'SIN-MGMT(P140K)-F2A-MDR1 compared with untransduced cells. In human HSCs, overexpression of both transgenes by this vector also caused significantly increased survival and enrichment of transduced cells after treatment with BCNU plus doxorubicin or temozolomide plus paclitaxel. In summary, we could show significant chemoprotection by overexpression of MDR1 and MGMT(P140K) with a lentiviral vector using the F2A linker element in two different haematopoietic cell lines and in human primary HSCs with various combination regimens. Consequently, we are convinced that these in vitro investigations will help to improve combination chemotherapy regimens by reducing myelotoxic side effects and increasing the therapeutic efficiency. PMID:23037811

Maier, P; Heckmann, D; Spier, I; Laufs, S; Zucknick, M; Allgayer, H; Fruehauf, S; Zeller, W J; Wenz, F

2012-11-01

12

Assessment of primers designed for the subspecies-specific discrimination among Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi by PCR assay.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is an infectious disease caused by either Babesia gibsoni or Babesia canis protozoans. The latter is also classified under three different phylogenetic groups, referred to as subspecies B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli and B. canis rossi. The objective of the present study was to validate and standardize a PCR assay to discriminate the organisms at the subspecies level. First, the reference sequences of the 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes, including the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) of the most common species and subspecies of the genus Babesia were retrieved from the GenBank database. Subspecies-specific primers (BAB3, BAB4 and BAB5) and one genus-specific primer were designed from the alignment of the sequences. The PCR assays were evaluated in three different combinations of primer pairs in order to assure complete specificity for each reaction. The results of the tests had demonstrated effectiveness of the novel primer pairs BAB1/BAB3, BAB1/BAB4 and BAB1/BAB5 for the amplification of the subspecies-specific target fragments of 746 bp (B. c. canis), 546 bp (B. c. vogeli) and 342 bp (B. c. rossi) by PCR. The original enzymatic amplification assays with novel primers reported in this paper were confirmed to be a reliable tool for the specific discrimination among B. canis subspecies by single-step PCR assays. PMID:18242863

Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Romanowsky, Tatiana Nunes; da Silveira Neto, Osvaldo José; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira

2008-03-25

13

Detection of erythrocyte binding IgM and IgG by flow cytometry in sick dogs with Babesia canis canis or Babesia canis vogeli infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine by means of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) if sick dogs infected with Babesia canis canis (B. c. canis) or Babesia canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli) had anti-erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and\\/or IgM at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis of Babesia infection was assessed by blood smear and by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism

E. Carli; S. Tasca; M. Trotta; T. Furlanello; M. Caldin; L. Solano-Gallego

2009-01-01

14

Complete mitochondrial genome of Canis lupus campestris.  

PubMed

In this study, blood sample was obtained from a female Mongolian wolf (Canis lupus campestris) captured from Mongolia and its complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the first time. PMID:23984823

Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

2015-04-01

15

Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies  

PubMed Central

Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis. PMID:16275954

Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

2005-01-01

16

ORAL PAPILLOMATOSIS IN COYOTES (Canis latrans) AND WOLVES (Canis lupus) OF ALBERTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of oral papillomatosis were detected in wild carnivores of Alberta, ten in coyotes (Canis latrans) and two in wolves (Canis lupus). Lesions ranged from mild with a few small papillomas to severe with much of the surface of the lips, tongue and buccal cavity covered with papillomas. Three of five coyotes with severe papillomatosis were in obvious poor

W. M. SAMUEL; G. A. CHALMERS; J. R. GUNSON

1978-01-01

17

Detection of erythrocyte binding IgM and IgG by flow cytometry in sick dogs with Babesia canis canis or Babesia canis vogeli infection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine by means of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) if sick dogs infected with Babesia canis canis (B. c. canis) or Babesia canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli) had anti-erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and/or IgM at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis of Babesia infection was assessed by blood smear and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 30 sick dogs. Signalment, clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests of B. c. canis (n=24) and of B. c. vogeli (n=6) infected dogs were studied. The majority of B. c. canis infected dogs showed anemia (92%) predominantly non-regenerative (94%), while the B. c. vogeli infected dogs had a regenerative anemia (67%). Eccentrocytosis was present in 33% of the B. c. canis infections. Four of six B. c. vogeli infected dogs had erythrocytes membrane antibodies. One dog resulted uncertain and one resulted negative to FCI. In contrast, all the B. c. canis infected dogs were negative for erythrocytes membrane binding immunoglobulins detection. In addition, the mean percentages of erythrocytes binding IgG and IgM were statistically much lower in B. c. canis than in B. c. vogeli infected dogs. At the time of the diagnosis, the formation of erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and IgM by immune mechanisms appears not to be involved in B. c. canis infections while it is present in the majority of B. c. vogeli infections. PMID:19269745

Carli, E; Tasca, S; Trotta, M; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M; Solano-Gallego, L

2009-05-26

18

Defining orthologs and pangenome size metrics.  

PubMed

Since the advent of ultra-massive sequencing techniques, the consequent drop-off in both price and time required made feasible the sequencing of increasingly more genomes from microbes belonging to the same taxonomic unit. Eventually, this led to the concept of pangenome, that is, the entire set of genes present in a group of representatives of the same genus/species, which, in turn, can be divided into core genome, defined as the set of those genes present in all the genomes under study, and a dispensable genome, the set of genes possessed only by one or a subset of organism. When analyzing a pangenome, an interesting point is to measure its size, thus estimating the gene repertoire of a given taxonomic group. This is usually performed counting the novel genes added to the overall pangenome when new genomes are sequenced and annotated. A pangenome can be also classified as open or close: in an open pangenome its size increases indefinitely when adding new genomes; thus sequencing additional strains will likely yield novel genes. Conversely, in a close pangenome, adding new genomes will not lead to the discovery of new coding capabilities. A central point in pangenomics is the definition of homology relationships between genes belonging to different genomes. This may turn into the search of those genes with similar sequences between different organisms (and including both paralogous and orthologous genes). In this chapter, methods for finding groups of orthologs between genomes and for estimating the pangenome size are discussed. Also, working codes to address these tasks are provided. PMID:25343867

Bosi, Emanuele; Fani, Renato; Fondi, Marco

2015-01-01

19

Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

20

Toward community standards in the quest for orthologs  

PubMed Central

The identification of orthologs—genes pairs descended from a common ancestor through speciation, rather than duplication—has emerged as an essential component of many bioinformatics applications, ranging from the annotation of new genomes to experimental target prioritization. Yet, the development and application of orthology inference methods is hampered by the lack of consensus on source proteomes, file formats and benchmarks. The second ‘Quest for Orthologs’ meeting brought together stakeholders from various communities to address these challenges. We report on achievements and outcomes of this meeting, focusing on topics of particular relevance to the research community at large. The Quest for Orthologs consortium is an open community that welcomes contributions from all researchers interested in orthology research and applications. Contact: dessimoz@ebi.ac.uk PMID:22332236

Dessimoz, Christophe; Gabaldón, Toni; Roos, David S.; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Herrero, Javier; Altenhoff, Adrian; Apweiler, Rolf; Ashburner, Michael; Blake, Judith; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Bridge, Alan; Bruford, Elspeth; Cherry, Mike; Conte, Matthieu; Dannie, Durand; Datta, Ruchira; Dessimoz, Christophe; Domelevo Entfellner, Jean-Baka; Ebersberger, Ingo; Gabaldón, Toni; Galperin, Michael; Herrero, Javier; Joseph, Jacob; Koestler, Tina; Kriventseva, Evgenia; Lecompte, Odile; Leunissen, Jack; Lewis, Suzanna; Linard, Benjamin; Livstone, Michael S.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Martin, Maria; Mazumder, Raja; Messina, David; Miele, Vincent; Muffato, Matthieu; Perrière, Guy; Punta, Marco; Roos, David; Rouard, Mathieu; Schmitt, Thomas; Schreiber, Fabian; Silva, Alan; Sjölander, Kimmen; Škunca, Nives; Sonnhammer, Erik; Stanley, Eleanor; Szklarczyk, Radek; Thomas, Paul; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Van Bel, Michiel; Vandepoele, Klaas; Vilella, Albert J.; Yates, Andrew; Zdobnov, Evgeny

2012-01-01

21

Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys infection in a dog.  

PubMed

A 12-month-old male neutered mixed breed dog was presented with a history of diarrhea, lethargy, emaciation, polydypsia, and sniffling. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, and normal rectal temperature (38°C). Hematologic abnormalities included anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated ALP and ALT activities. A SNAP 4Dx test result was positive for Ehrlichia canis. Babesia canis vogeli organisms were found in the peripheral blood films, while morulae of E canis were not seen. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed the presence of both B c vogeli and E canis organisms, and also was positive for Anaplasma platys infection. The dog recovered following treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate, with normal hematology and biochemical profiles. PMID:24138512

Al Izzi, Salah; Martin, Donald S; Chan, Roxanne Y Y; Leutenegger, Christian M

2013-12-01

22

Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

2004-01-01

23

Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

2004-01-01

24

Coyotes ( Canis latrans) and the matching law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them

Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton; Timothy A. Shahan; John A. Shivik

2009-01-01

25

Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy. PMID:11413924

Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L

2001-05-01

26

Optimized lentiviral vectors for HIV gene therapy: multiplexed expression of small RNAs and inclusion of MGMT(P140K) drug resistance gene.  

PubMed

Gene therapy with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is a promising approach to engineering immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that may lead to a functional cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In support of this approach, we created lentiviral vectors with an engineered polycistronic platform derived from the endogenous MCM7 gene to express a diverse set of small antiviral RNAs and a drug resistance MGMT(P140K) marker. Multiple strategies for simultaneous expression of up to five RNA transgenes were tested. The placement and orientation of each transgene and its promoter were important determinants for optimal gene expression. Antiviral RNA expression from the MCM7 platform with a U1 promoter was sufficient to provide protection from R5-tropic HIV in macrophages and resulted in reduced hematopoietic toxicity compared with constructs expressing RNA from independent RNA polymerase III promoters. The addition of an HIV entry inhibitor and nucleolar TAR RNA decoy did not enhance antiviral potency over constructs that targeted only viral RNA transcripts. We also demonstrated selective enrichment of gene-modified cells in vivo using a humanized mouse model. The use of these less toxic, potent anti-HIV vectors expressing a drug selection marker is likely to enhance the in vivo efficacy of our stem cell gene therapy approach in treating HIV/AIDS. PMID:24576853

Chung, Janet; Scherer, Lisa J; Gu, Angel; Gardner, Agnes M; Torres-Coronado, Monica; Epps, Elizabeth W; Digiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

2014-05-01

27

Long-term polyclonal and multilineage engraftment of methylguanine methyltransferase P140K gene-modified dog hematopoietic cells in primary and secondary recipients  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of methylguanine methyltransferase P140K (MGMTP140K) has been successfully used for in vivo selection and chemoprotection in mouse and large animal studies, and has promise for autologous and allogeneic gene therapy. We examined the long-term safety of MGMTP140K selection in a clinically relevant dog model. Based on the association of provirus integration and proto-oncogene activation leading to leukemia in the X-linked immunodeficiency trial, we focused our analysis on the distribution of retrovirus integration sites (RIS) relative to proto-oncogene transcription start sites (TSS). We analyzed RIS near proto-oncogene TSS before (n = 157) and after (n = 129) chemotherapy in dogs that received MGMTP140K gene-modified cells and identified no overall increase of RIS near proto-oncogene TSS after chemotherapy. We also wanted to determine whether in vivo selected cells retained fundamental characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells. To that end, we performed secondary transplantation of MGMTP140K gene-modified cells after in vivo selection in dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)–matched dogs. Gene-modified cells achieved multilineage repopulation, and we identified the same gene-modified clone in both dogs more than 800 and 900 days after transplantation. These data suggest that MGMTP140K selection is well tolerated and should allow clinically for selection of gene-corrected cells in genetic or infectious diseases or chemoprotection for treatment of malignancy. PMID:19336761

Beard, Brian C.; Sud, Reeteka; Keyser, Kirsten A.; Ironside, Christina; Neff, Tobias; Gerull, Sabine; Trobridge, Grant D.

2009-01-01

28

Lentiviral MGMT(P140K)-mediated in vivo selection employing a ubiquitous chromatin opening element (A2UCOE) linked to a cellular promoter.  

PubMed

Notwithstanding recent successes, insertional mutagenesis as well as silencing and variegation of transgene expression still represent considerable obstacles to hematopoietic gene therapy. This also applies to O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-mediated myeloprotection, a concept recently proven clinically effective in the context of glioblastoma therapy. To improve on this situation we here evaluate a SIN-lentiviral vector expressing the MGMT(P140K)-cDNA from a combined A2UCOE/PGK-promoter. In a murine in vivo chemoselection model the A2UCOE.PGK.MGMT construct allowed for significant myeloprotection as well as robust and stable selection of transgenic hematopoietic cells. In contrast, only transient enrichment and severe myelotoxicity was observed for a PGK.MGMT control vector. Selection of A2UCOE.PGK.MGMT-transduced myeloid and lymphoid mature and progenitor cells was demonstrated in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus. Unlike the PGK and SFFV promoters used as controls, the A2UCOE.PGK promoter allowed for sustained vector copy number-related transgene expression throughout the experiment indicating an increased resistance to silencing, which was further confirmed by CpG methylation studies of the PGK promoter. Thus, our data support a potential role of the A2UCOE.PGK.MGMT-vector in future MGMT-based myeloprotection and chemoselection strategies, and underlines the suitability of the A2UCOE element to stabilize lentiviral transgene expression in hematopoietic gene therapy. PMID:24875758

Phaltane, Ruhi; Lachmann, Nico; Brennig, Sebastian; Ackermann, Mania; Modlich, Ute; Moritz, Thomas

2014-08-01

29

Transmission of Brucella canis by contact exposure.  

PubMed

Transmission studies demonstrated that canine brucellosis can spread from infected to susceptible males maintained in close contact after 4 to 6 months of cohabitation. Spread by males occurred after epididymitis was observed in the infected dogs. Transmission via contaminated urine was suspected, but not proved. The bladder urine of infected males, probably contaminated with seminal fluid, contained higher numbers of B. canis organisms than did that of female dogs. Highest concentrations of bacteria in urine were found between postinfection weeks 8 and 12. Infected females transmitted the infection to contact females after 5 months. Immature females or males infected with B. canis did not transmit brucellosis until after an estrus or a mating was observed--about post-contact months 10-12. PMID:3335131

Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C

1988-01-01

30

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

31

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

32

Development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood.  

PubMed

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection of canine blood parasites, Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp and Hepatozoon canis, from blood samples in a single reaction. The multiplex PCR primers were specific to E. canis VirB9, Babesia spp 16S rRNA and H. canis 16S rRNA genes. Specificity of the amplicons was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The assay was evaluated using normal canine and infected blood samples, which were detected by microscopic examination. This multiplex PCR offers scope for simultaneous detection of three important canine blood parasites and should be valuable in monitoring parasite infections in dogs and ticks. PMID:19323031

Kledmanee, Kan; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Krajangwong, Sakranmanee; Chatsiriwech, Jarin; Suksai, Parut; Suwannachat, Pongpun; Sariya, Ladawan; Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Charoonrut, Phingphol; Chaichoun, Kridsada

2009-01-01

33

Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

PubMed Central

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

2014-01-01

34

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2008-02-14

35

Comparing the FAT-CAT webserver against other orthology prediction web servers Description of benchmark dataset: We compared the FAT-CAT webserver against the top orthology  

E-print Network

Comparing the FAT-CAT webserver against other orthology prediction web servers Description of benchmark dataset: We compared the FAT-CAT webserver against the top orthology databases providing broad evaluated: We compared FAT-CAT (both High Recall and High Precision settings) against seven major orthology

Sjölander, Kimmen

36

"Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

Marmor, Michael; And Others

1987-01-01

37

Genetic Polymorphism Characteristics of Brucella canis Isolated in China  

PubMed Central

In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease typically caused by Brucella melitensis infection (biovars 1 and 3). Brucella canis infection in dogs has not traditionally recognized as a major problem. In recent years however, brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection has also been reported, suggesting that infections from this species may be increasing. Data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the diversity among Chinese Brucella canis strains for epidemiological purposes. First, we employed a 16-marker VNTR assay (Brucella MLVA-16) to assess the diversity and epidemiological relationship of 29 Brucella canis isolates from diverse locations throughout China with 38 isolates from other countries. MLVA-16 analysis separated the 67 Brucella canis isolates into 57 genotypes that grouped into five clusters with genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 67.73 to 100%. Moreover, this analysis revealed a new genotype (2-3-9-11-3-1-5-1:118), which was present in two isolates recovered from Guangxi in 1986 and 1987. Second, multiplex PCR and sequencing analysis were used to determine whether the 29 Chinese Brucella canis isolates had the characteristic BMEI1435 gene deletion. Only two isolates had this deletion. Third, amplification of the omp25 gene revealed that 26 isolates from China had a T545C mutation. Collectively, this study reveals that considerable diversity exists among Brucella canis isolates in China and provides resources for studying the genetic variation and microevolution of Brucella. PMID:24465442

Wang, Heng; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Tian, Lili; Tian, Guozhong; Kang, Jingli; Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhuo; Mao, Lingling; Yao, Wenqing; Guan, Pingyuan; Fan, Weixing; Jiang, Hai

2014-01-01

38

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF MESOCESTOIDES SPP. (CESTODA: MESOCESTOIDIDAE) FROM DOMESTIC DOGS ( CANIS FAMILIARIS ) AND COYOTES ( CANIS LATRANS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n 5 10), as well as

Paul R. Crosbie; Steven A. Nadler; Edward G. Platzer; Cynthia Kerner; J. Mariaux; Walter M. Boyce

2000-01-01

39

Orthology detection combining clustering and synteny for very large datasets.  

PubMed

The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance) was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets. PMID:25137074

Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K; Prohaska, Sonja J; Stadler, Peter F

2014-01-01

40

Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

Mech, L.D.

2000-01-01

41

ZZ Canis Minoris as a symbiotic star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The H-aplha and Na I D-line regions of the M6 giant star ZZ Canis Minoris (ZZ CMi) were observed with the Kitt Peak coude feed telescope and a CCD detector. It is shown that ZZ CMi has similar spectroscopic and photoproperties to the symbiotic star EG And. The data are used to argue for the classification of ZZ CMi as a symbiotic star despite its current listing in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) as a semi-regular variable. The infrared magnitudes of ZZ CMi and the known symbiotic stars are compared in a table.

Bopp, B. W.

1984-01-01

42

RESEARCH Open Access Mimiviridae: clusters of orthologous genes,  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Mimiviridae: clusters of orthologous genes, reconstruction of gene repertoire monophyletic group of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV; proposed order Megavirales) and encompasses, a reassessment of the relationships between the mimiviruses and other NCLDV and reconstruction of the evolution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

2002-01-01

44

Application of the SYBR Green real-time HRM PCR technique in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated in the areas of eastern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the real-time polymerised chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melting\\u000a (HRM) method in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated from dogs in the areas of eastern Poland. The studies involved 20 isolates of B. canis canis qualified depending on the analysis of the 18S RNA gene sequence to

?ukasz Adaszek; Stanis?aw Winiarczyk

2010-01-01

45

First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

1999-01-01

46

Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1993-01-01

47

Breeding season of Wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12?? and 80??N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

Mech, L.D.

2002-01-01

48

Breeding season of wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12 deg. and 80 deg. N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

Mech, L.D.

2002-01-01

49

Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. The study was conducted on two groups of dogs--healthy dogs and dogs infected with B. canis canis which demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS technique revealed the presence of a protein fraction of 51-52 kDa in the blood serum of all the animals infected with the protozoa, which was not found in the serum of healthy dogs. The proteins are suspected to be disease markers, whereas the MALDI-TOF technique itself has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis. PMID:25238794

Adaszek, ?ukasz; Banach, Tomasz; Bartnicki, Micha?; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; ?yp, Pawe?; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2014-11-01

50

Identification and analysis of cabut orthologs in invertebrates and vertebrates.  

PubMed

Cabut (cbt) is a Drosophila melanogaster gene involved in epidermal dorsal closure (DC). Its expression is dependent on the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade, and it functions downstream of Jun regulating dpp expression in the leading edge cells. The Cbt protein contains three C(2)H(2)-type zinc fingers and a serine-rich domain, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor. We have identified single cbt orthologs in other Drosophila species, as well as in other insects and invertebrate organisms like ascidians and echinoderms, but not in nematodes. Gene structure and protein sequence are highly conserved among Drosophilidae, but are more diverged in the other species of invertebrates analyzed. According to this, we demonstrate that cbt expression is detected in the embryonic lateral epidermis in several Drosophila species, as it occurs in D. melanogaster, thus suggesting that the cbt orthologs may have a conserved role in these species during DC. We have also analyzed the genomes of several vertebrate species, finding that the cbt orthologous genes in these organisms encode proteins that belong to the TIEG family of Sp1-like/Krüppel-like transcription factors. Phylogenetic analysis of the invertebrate and vertebrate proteins identified indicates that they mainly follow the expected phylogeny of the species, and that the cbt gene was duplicated during vertebrate evolution. Because we were not able to identify cbt orthologous genes neither in yeast nor in plants, our results suggest that this gene has been probably conserved throughout metazoans and that it may play a fundamental role in animal biology. PMID:17333257

Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Belacortu, Yaiza; Paricio, Nuria

2007-04-01

51

Cross-Referencing Eukaryotic Genomes: TIGR Orthologous Gene Alignments (TOGA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative genomics promises to rapidly accelerate the identification and functional classification of biologically important human genes. We developed the TIGR Orthologous Gene Alignment (TOGA; ?http:\\/\\/www.tigr.org\\/tdb\\/toga\\/toga.shtml?) database to provide a cross-reference between fully and partially sequencedeukaryotic transcribedsequences. Starting with the assembledexpressedsequence tag (EST) andgene sequences that comprise the 28 TIGR Gene Ind ices, we usedhigh-stringency pair-wise sequence searches anda reflexive, transitive

Yuandan Lee; Razvan Sultana; Geo Pertea; Jennifer Cho; Svetlana Karamycheva; Jennifer Tsai; Foo Cheung; Valentin Antonescu; Joseph White

2002-01-01

52

The Jackson Laboratory: Mouse Genome Informatics - Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Jackson Laboratory as part of Mouse Genome Informatics, this website features Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps. At this site, searches can be made in the area of Mammalian Orthology by species, gene symbol, name, or map position. Site visitors can also build comparative maps, retrieve an Oxford Grid to display a two-species orthology comparison, and view orthologies between mouse and human or mouse and rat at the whole genome level. The site links to Gene Family Information, MGI Mammalian Orthology Criteria, and MGI Database Reports as well.

53

74 FR 913 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New...Service's gray wolf (Canis lupus) recovery efforts...non-essential experimental populations (59 FR 60266, November...or time and cost estimates, the three...

2009-01-09

54

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and the matching law.  

PubMed

Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them to survive and extend their range in stochastic environments remains unknown. We tested eight wild-born, captive coyotes individually on an operant two-choice test using concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules. We held the overall rate of reinforcement constant but manipulated the ratio of reinforcement available from the two choices. We analyzed sensitivity of coyotes' tracking of resource change by fitting the generalized matching equation to the data. Results showed all coyotes efficiently tracked changes in reinforcement ratios within the first few sessions of each new condition and matched their relative rate of foraging time to relative rate of resources. We suggest the matching paradigm provides a methodology to explore coyote foraging strategies, and a potential framework to compare behavioral flexibility across species, by measuring the ability to track resource change under variable resource conditions. PMID:19555745

Gilbert-Norton, Lynne B; Shahan, Timothy A; Shivik, John A

2009-10-01

55

Fatal acute babesiosis in captive grey wolves (Canis lupus) due to Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Two adult male Eurasian grey wolves belonging to a group of 12 animals, kept in an open air 15,000-m(2) enclosure at the Bear Farm facility near Veresegyháza, Hungary, were found dead in September 2002. Another 2 wolves died during the same period, but laboratory examination of their carcasses was not possible. During necropsy both animals were found to be in a good body condition. Oral mucosa, conjunctiva, sclera, and subcutaneous tissues revealed severe jaundice. The liver, gall bladder, and spleen were enlarged. The kidneys were paler than normal, and petechial haemorrhages were also seen under their fascia. Small, round Babesia-like organisms, 1.5-2 ?m in diameter, were demonstrated in large numbers in stained impression smears made from the spleens of both animals. PCR amplification and sequencing identified Babesia canis. There are very few reports on babesiosis in the grey wolf, and our findings draw attention to the potential threat posed by B. canis that will probably have to be taken into account in future ex situ and in situ wolf conservation efforts. PMID:24507435

Erdélyi, Károly; Mez?si, László; Vladov, Sztojkov; Földvári, Gábor

2014-04-01

56

Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

2012-01-01

57

Quaternary records of the dire wolf, Canis dirus, in North and South ROBERT G. DUNDAS  

E-print Network

skeletal elements from Rancho La Brea, comparing them with Canis lupus and dire wolf specimens from otherQuaternary records of the dire wolf, Canis dirus, in North and South America ROBERT G. DUNDAS Dundas, R. G. 1999 (September): Quaternary records of the dire wolf, Canis dirus, in North and South

Wang, Zhi "Luke"

58

North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)  

E-print Network

North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus) Astrid wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across) North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS ONE 8

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

59

Hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne protozoan that infects dogs and has been reported throughout the world. Manifestation of H. canis infection varies from being sub-clinical in apparently healthy dogs to severe illness. The main vector of the infection is the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus although other species may also transmit this agent. H. canis has been reported previously in Brazil,

Lucia Helena O’Dwyer; Carlos Luiz Massard; José Carlos Pereira de Souza

2001-01-01

60

ECOLOGY OF THE COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS) AT WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY OF THE COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS) AT WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK BY JAMIE M. CHRONERT A thesis (CANIS LATRANS) AT WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK This thesis is approved as a creditable and independent to finish the grand task I had begun. Thank you... #12;v Abstract ECOLOGY OF THE COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS

61

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the  

E-print Network

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) et leurs proies dans la vallée Curlew, Utah, en comparant l

Bartel, Becky

62

Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

63

Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis. PMID:24484486

Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

2014-04-01

64

Human and mouse mitochondrial orthologs of bacterial ClpX  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have determined the cDNA sequence and exon\\/intron structure of the human CLPX gene encoding a human ortholog of the E. coli ClpX chaperone and protease subunit. The CLPX gene comprises 14 exons and encodes a 633-amino acid-long precursor polypeptide.\\u000a The polypeptide contains an N-terminal putative mitochondrial transit peptide, and expression of a full-length ClpX cDNA tagged\\u000a at its

Thomas J. Corydon; Mette Wilsbech; Cathrine Jespersgaard; Brage S. Andresen; Anders D. Børglum; Søren Pedersen; Lars Bolund; Niels Gregersen; Peter Bross

2000-01-01

65

Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317?Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite's gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host-parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites. PMID:25649139

Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

2015-01-01

66

Serological diagnosis of brucellosis caused by Brucella canis.  

PubMed

Blood serum samples from 2,328 dogs were tested to detect antibodies against Brucella canis with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and 2-mercaptoethanol slide agglutination test (ME-SAT) using Brucella ovis as the antigen. All blood serum samples were also evaluated for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis using the Rose Bengal test. Twentyfive (1.07%) of the sera evaluated were considered positive with AGID test. Only 4 (16%) of these blood serum samples were positive when evaluated with ME-SAT. The 25 AGID positive samples and 25 AGID negative serum samples were also examined by: the complement fixation test (CFT) using B. ovis hot saline extract (HSE) as the antigen, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting (IB) using B. canis and B. ovis HSE antigens. Two positive canine sera from culture positive dogs and the serum of an experimentally RM6/66 B. canis-infected rabbit were employed as positive controls and one serum from a known uninfected dog as a negative control. ELISA with B. canis antigen gave 9 (18%) positive results (6 AGID-positive and 3 AGID-negative sera). ELISA performed with B. ovis antigen detected 15 (30%) positive samples (10 AGID-positive, 5 AGID-negative and 8 B. canis ELISA positive sera). IB analysis of known positive controls sera employing B. canis antigen detected bands with molecular weights of 94-80, 64-50, 35, 32-30, 28, 23, 20-18, 15-12 kDa. The same sera tested with B. ovis antigen revealed bands of 35, 32-30, 25, 23, 20-18, 15-12 kDa. No bands were observed with the negative control serum and the 50 canine tested sera. PMID:12578313

Ebani, V V; Cerri, D; Fratini, F; Bey, R F; Andreani, E

2003-01-01

67

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 715, pp. 19, 3 figs. Canis mesomelas. By Lyle R. Walton and Damien O. Joly  

E-print Network

familiaris ( Canis lupus Linnaeus). Thos Oken, 1816:1037. Type species Thos vulgaris ( Canis au- reusMAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 715, pp. 1­9, 3 figs. Canis mesomelas. By Lyle R. Walton and Damien O. Joly Published 30 July 2003 by the American Society of Mammalogists FIG. 1. Adult Canis mesomelas from

Hayssen, Virginia

68

[Orthologs of arabidopsis CLAVATA 1 gene in cultivated Brassicaceae plants].  

PubMed

In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica napus), and also three CLV1 fragments from rape (B. rapa), canola (B. napus), and false flax (Camelina sativa), which corresponded to the transmembrane domain and a part of the kinase domain of the CLAVATA1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the full-size CLV1 ortholog from B. napus were similar by 81 and 87% to the prototype gene from arabidopsis; in the case of shorter gene fragments, the similarity was as high as 91-93 and 98%, respectively. By their primary structure, the CLV1 genes in the Brassicaceae considerably differ from its putative structural homologs beyond this family. PMID:15027212

Martynov, V V; Tsvetkov, I L; Khavkin, E E

2004-01-01

69

Characteristic genotypes discriminate between Babesia canis isolates of differing vector specificity and pathogenicity to dogs.  

PubMed

The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA gene were characterized in eight Babesia canis isolates of differing geographic origin, vector specificity, and pathogenicity to dogs. The genotypes determined by sequencing segregated into three clearly separated groups close to or near the species level and correspond to the previously proposed subspecies B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi. The three genotypes can be distinguished by Sau96I digestion of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified rDNA target. PMID:9694369

Zahler, M; Schein, E; Rinder, H; Gothe, R

1998-07-01

70

Dating the early evolution of plants: detection and molecular clock analyses of orthologs.  

PubMed

Orthologs generally are under selective pressure against loss of function, while paralogs usually accumulate mutations and finally die or deviate in terms of function or regulation. Most ortholog detection methods contaminate the resulting datasets with a substantial amount of paralogs. Therefore we aimed to implement a straightforward method that allows the detection of ortholog clusters with a reduced amount of paralogs from completely sequenced genomes. The described cross-species expansion of the reciprocal best BLAST hit method is a time-effective method for ortholog detection, which results in 68% truly orthologous clusters and the procedure specifically enriches single-copy orthologs. The detection of true orthologs can provide a phylogenetic toolkit to better understand evolutionary processes. In a study across six photosynthetic eukaryotes, nuclear genes of putative mitochondrial origin were shown to be over-represented among single copy orthologs. These orthologs are involved in fundamental biological processes like amino acid metabolism or translation. Molecular clock analyses based on this dataset yielded divergence time estimates for the red/green algae (1,142 MYA), green algae/land plant (725 MYA), mosses/seed plant (496 MYA), gymno-/angiosperm (385 MYA) and monocotyledons/core eudicotyledons (301 MYA) divergence times. PMID:17593393

Zimmer, Andreas; Lang, Daniel; Richardt, Sandra; Frank, Wolfgang; Reski, Ralf; Rensing, Stefan A

2007-10-01

71

The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe. 2. Rabies in jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas).  

PubMed

The epidemiology of rabies in Canis adustus (the side-striped jackal) and Canis mesomelas (the black-backed jackal) in Zimbabwe is described using data collected from 1950-1996. Cases in the two species made up 25.2% of all confirmed cases, second only to domestic dogs. Since the species of jackal cases was not recorded on rabies submission forms, the country was divided into areas according to species dominance and jackal cases were assigned to either C. adustus or C. mesomelas dominant zones or a sympatric zone where the relative status of the species is not known. Jackal rabies in both species is maintained in the commercial farming sector. Jackal rabies in the C. adustus zone occurs as dense epidemics, which begin at a single focus and spread centrifugally. The foci were initiated by rabid dogs, but once initiated the epidemic is maintained by C. adustus independently of other species. The extent of outbreaks in the C. adustus zone was limited by geographical (landuse type and jackal species interface) boundaries. Jackal rabies in C. adustus zones showed two seasonal peaks with the main peak occurring during late summer and the second peak during winter. In the C. mesomelas zone jackal rabies was more sparse but it occurred during most years. C. mesomelas is also able to maintain rabies independently of other species, although the epidemiology of the disease in this species is unclear. Transmission of rabies cycles between the two jackal species zones does not appear to occur as epidemics terminate when crossing the C. adustus and C. mesomelas interface boundaries. PMID:10396757

Bingham, J; Foggin, C M; Wandeler, A I; Hill, F W

1999-03-01

72

Identification of serum biomarkers in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis using a proteomic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. There are limited data on serum proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the serum proteome. The aim of this study was to identify the potential serum biomarkers of babesiosis using proteomic techniques in order to increase our understanding about disease pathogenesis. Results Serum samples were collected from 25 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis caused by B. canis canis. Blood was collected on the day of admission (day 0), and subsequently on the 1st and 6th day of treatment. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum samples of dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis (day 0, day 1 and day 6) and healthy dogs were run in triplicate. 2DE image analysis showed 64 differentially expressed spots with p???0.05 and 49 spots with fold change ?2. Six selected spots were excised manually and subjected to trypsin digest prior to identification by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry on an Amazon ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass spectrometry data was processed using Data Analysis software and the automated Matrix Science Mascot Daemon server. Protein identifications were assigned using the Mascot search engine to interrogate protein sequences in the NCBI Genbank database. A number of differentially expressed serum proteins involved in inflammation mediated acute phase response, complement and coagulation cascades, apolipoproteins and vitamin D metabolism pathway were identified in dogs with babesiosis. Conclusions Our findings confirmed two dominant pathogenic mechanisms of babesiosis, haemolysis and acute phase response. These results may provide possible serum biomarker candidates for clinical monitoring of babesiosis and this study could serve as the basis for further proteomic investigations in canine babesiosis. PMID:24885808

2014-01-01

73

RABIES AND MORTALITY IN ETHIOPIAN WOLVES (CANIS SIMENSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1991 and February 1992, 41 of 53 known adult and subadult Ethiopian wolves (Canis sinien.s'u) in five adjacent packs in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, died or disappeared. Brain smears from two carcasses were positive for rabies by the immunofluorescence test, and rabies virus was isolated from the brains by mouse inoculation. Based on monoclonal antibody tests

C. Sillero-Zubiri; A. A. King; D. W. Macdonald

1996-01-01

74

An Example of Endurance in an Old Wolf, Canis lupus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "An Example of Endurance in an Old Wolf, Canis lupus" describes an eleven- to thirteen-year-old male Arctic wolf chasing hares. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

Mech, L. David.

75

Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2009-01-01

76

Allozyme variability in the Italian wolf (Canis lupus) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilocus protein electrophoresis was used to estimate genetic variability in a sample of 38 Italian wolves (Canis lupus). Percentage of polymorphic loci was p = 10.0 per cent (four polymorphic loci out of 40 examined), and average observed heterozygosity was Ho = 0.028. Genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Electrophoretic analysis does not indicate a significant reduction of genetic variability at

E Randi; V Lucchini; F Francisci; Ettore Randi

1993-01-01

77

Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?  

PubMed

Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

2007-01-01

78

Human Infection with M- Strain of Brucella canis  

PubMed Central

The less mucoid strain of Brucella canis or M- strain is used for the serologic diagnosis of canine brucellosis. While this strain is avirulent in dogs, we report the case of clinical brucellosis that developed in a laboratory worker a few days after handling live M- cells for antigen production. PMID:15078613

Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Baldi, Pablo C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

2004-01-01

79

Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae) has previously been shown to be a potential healthy carrier of dermatophyte fungi both geophilic (Microsporum gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes). In this communication, the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a symptomatic dermatophyte infection in S. floridanus is described.

P. Tizzani; M. G. Gallo; A. Peano; A. Molinar Min; C. Martínez-Carrasco Pleite; P. G. Meneguz

2007-01-01

80

REPRODUCTION AND BODY CONDITION OF CALIFORNIA COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population dynamics and life-history evolution depend heavily on fecundity, which, in the coyote (Canis latrans), can vary substantially according to environmental conditions. Although well studied in the central part of its range, little is known about coyote reproduction in the Mediterranean climates associated with Pacific- coastal North America. I used postmortem examinations of 441 coyotes collected throughout central California to

Benjamin N. Sacks

2005-01-01

81

EXPERIMENTAL SALMON POISONING DISEASE IN JUVENILE COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon poisoning disease (SPD) was experimentally induced in juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans). The disease was lethal in 11 of 12 coyotes within 15 days after inoculation with 1,000 or 4,000 metacercariae of Nanophyetus salmincola. Clinical manifestations of the disease included lymph node enlargement, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea and death. Coccoid bodies indistinguishable from rickettsiae were observed in macrophages of spleen, liver,

WILLIAM J. FOREYT; J. R. GORHAM

82

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

83

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

84

An example of endurance in an old wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An 11 to 13-year-old Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) was observed chasing a young Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) for 6 to 7 minutes and catching it. This provides an example of the degree of endurance of which an old wolf is capable.

Mech, L.D.

1997-01-01

85

Orthologous mammalian APOBEC3A cytidine deaminases hypermutate nuclear DNA.  

PubMed

The human APOBEC3 gene cluster locus encodes polynucleotide cytidine deaminases. Although many act as viral restriction factors through mutation of single-stranded DNA, recent reports have shown that human APOBEC3A was capable of efficiently hypermutating nuclear DNA and inducing DNA breaks in genomic DNA. In addition, the enzyme was unique in efficiently deaminating 5-methylcytidine in single-stranded DNA. To appreciate the evolutionary relevance of these activities, we analyzed A3A-related enzymes from the rhesus and tamarin monkey, horse, sheep, dog, and panda. All proved to be orthologous to the human enzyme in all these activities revealing strong conservation more than 148 My. Hence, their singular role in DNA catabolism is a well-established mechanism probably outweighing any deleterious or pathological roles such as genomic instability and cancer formation. PMID:24162735

Caval, Vincent; Suspène, Rodolphe; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

2014-02-01

86

Edgetic perturbation of a C. elegans BCL2 ortholog  

PubMed Central

Genes and gene products do not function in isolation but within highly interconnected “interactome” networks, modeled as graphs of nodes and edges representing macromolecules and interactions between them, respectively. We propose to investigate genotype-phenotype associations by methodical use of alleles that lack single interactions, while retaining all others, in contrast to genetic approaches designed to eliminate gene products completely. We describe an integrated strategy based on the reverse yeast two-hybrid system to isolate and characterize such edge-specific, or “edgetic” alleles. We establish a proof-of-concept with CED-9, a C. elegans BCL2 ortholog involved in apoptosis. Using ced-9 edgetic alleles, we uncover a new potential functional link between apoptosis and a centrosomal protein, demonstrating both the interest and efficiency of our strategy. This approach is amenable to higher throughput and is particularly applicable to interactome network analysis in organisms for which transgenesis is straightforward. PMID:19855391

Dreze, Matija; Charloteaux, Benoit; Milstein, Stuart; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Yildirim, Muhammed A; Zhong, Quan; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Romero, Viviana; Laloux, Géraldine; Brasseur, Robert; Vandenhaute, Jean; Boxem, Mike; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc

2010-01-01

87

Linking the potato genome to the Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://www.sgn.cornell.edu) and many of these have been placed in the genet...

88

Signalogs: Orthology-Based Identification of Novel Signaling Pathway Components in Three Metazoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUncovering novel components of signal transduction pathways and their interactions within species is a central task in current biological research. Orthology alignment and functional genomics approaches allow the effective identification of signaling proteins by cross-species data integration. Recently, functional annotation of orthologs was transferred across organisms to predict novel roles for proteins. Despite the wide use of these methods, annotation

Tamás Korcsmáros; Máté S. Szalay; Petra Rovó; Robin Palotai; Dávid Fazekas; Katalin Lenti; Illés J. Farkas; Péter Csermely; Tibor Vellai; Vincent Laudet

2011-01-01

89

Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for

Kira S Makarova; Alexander V Sorokin; Pavel S Novichkov; Yuri I Wolf; Eugene V Koonin

2007-01-01

90

Molecular epidemiology of rabies: Focus on domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals ( Canis mesomelas) from northern South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern South Africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. A panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing

G. C. Zulu; C. T. Sabeta; L. H. Nel

2009-01-01

91

Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals ( Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect

Trevor Waner; Gad Baneth; Carmella Strenger; Avi Keysary; Roni King; Shimon Harrus

1999-01-01

92

An orthology-based analysis of pathogenic protozoa impacting global health: an improved comparative genomics approach with prokaryotes and model eukaryote orthologs.  

PubMed

A key focus in 21(st) century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

Cuadrat, Rafael R C; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M; Mattoso, Marta; Dávila, Alberto M R

2014-08-01

93

An Orthology-Based Analysis of Pathogenic Protozoa Impacting Global Health: An Improved Comparative Genomics Approach with Prokaryotes and Model Eukaryote Orthologs  

PubMed Central

Abstract A key focus in 21st century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Mattoso, Marta

2014-01-01

94

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

2014-06-16

95

Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis. PMID:24725503

Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

2014-04-11

96

[Transplanted infections with Toxocara canis as a model for the effectiveness testing of anthelmintics].  

PubMed

Patent infections of adult dogs with Toxocara canis induced by transplantation of immature, intestinal stages were examined for their suitability for testing of anthelmintics. Each of 5 dogs were infected four times by transplantation of 80 immature, intestinal stages of Toxocara canis. The dogs were treated with various anthelmintics of well established efficacy (pyrantel, nitroscanate, mebendazole, piperazine) 20 dpi. All anthelmintics tested showed the same efficacy as had been assessed earlier by treatment of dogs infected prenatally with Toxocara canis. PMID:2363327

Stoye, M; Ising, S; Reisewitz, K

1990-03-01

97

Construction of an Ortholog Database Using the Semantic Web Technology for Integrative Analysis of Genomic Data  

PubMed Central

Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

2015-01-01

98

Construction of an ortholog database using the semantic web technology for integrative analysis of genomic data.  

PubMed

Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

2015-01-01

99

Mechanisms for Defining Supercoiling Set Point of DNA Gyrase Orthologs  

PubMed Central

DNA topoisomerases manage chromosome supercoiling and organization in all cells. Gyrase, a prokaryotic type IIA topoisomerase, consumes ATP to introduce negative supercoils through a strand passage mechanism. All type IIA topoisomerases employ a similar set of catalytic domains for function; however, the activity and specificity of gyrase are augmented by a specialized DNA binding and wrapping element, termed the C-terminal domain (CTD), which is appended to its GyrA subunit. We have discovered that a nonconserved, acidic tail at the extreme C terminus of the Escherichia coli GyrA CTD has a dramatic and unexpected impact on gyrase function. Removal of the CTD tail enables GyrA to introduce writhe into DNA in the absence of GyrB, an activity exhibited by other GyrA orthologs, but not by wild-type E. coli GyrA. Strikingly, a “tail-less” gyrase holoenzyme is markedly impaired for DNA supercoiling capacity, but displays normal ATPase function. Our findings reveal that the E. coli GyrA tail regulates DNA wrapping by the CTD to increase the coupling efficiency between ATP turnover and supercoiling, demonstrating that CTD functions can be fine-tuned to control gyrase activity in a highly sophisticated manner. PMID:22457353

Tretter, Elsa M.; Berger, James M.

2012-01-01

100

Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

2006-06-01

101

[Molecular identification of Ehrlichia canis in a dog from Arica, Chile].  

PubMed

We report a molecular confirmed case of canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. A 10-year old female crossbred Siberian from the city of Arica, which was infested by ticks, presented hemorrhagic manifestations (hematomas and snout bleeding) and prostration. Blood cell count revealed thrombocytopenia (30,000 platelets/ mm³). Immunochromatographic rapid testing for E. canis IgG was positive. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gen from a blood sample showed 100% homology with E. canis from Perú. This is the first report of E. canis in Chile, an agent with known zoonotic potential. PMID:23282495

López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Mundaca, M Isabel; Caballero, Carla; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando

2012-10-01

102

Phylogenetic characterization of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs in the state of Goiás, Brazil.  

PubMed

The genus Babesia comprises protozoa that cause diseases known as babesiosis. Dogs are commonly affected by Babesia canis or Babesia gibsoni. Babesia canis is divided into the subspecies Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi. Among these, Babesia canis vogeli predominates in Brazil. The objective of this study was to conduct a phylogenetic analysis on Babesia isolates from dogs in Goiânia, Goiás. Blood samples were obtained from 890 dogs presenting clinical signs suggestive of canine babesiosis that were attended at a veterinary hospital of Goiás. Only samples presenting typical intraerythrocytic parasites were used in the study. These were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rRNA, by means of PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. Sequences were obtained from 35 samples but only 17 of these were kept after quality assessment. Similarity analysis using BLASTn demonstrated that all 17 sequences corresponded to B. canis vogeli. Analysis using the Mega4 software showed that the isolates of B. canis vogeli from dogs in Goiânia present a high degree of molecular similarity (99.2 to 100%) in comparison with other reference isolates from other regions of Brazil and worldwide, deposited in GenBank. PMID:22166380

Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho

2011-01-01

103

Food habits of wolves Canis lupus in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet of wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 in Latvia was studied from 1997 to 2001 based on 302 scats and 107 stomachs. Wild ungulates (cervids and wild\\u000a boarSus scrofa) and beaverCastor fiber were the dominant prey. Cervids were found in 50% of samples (62% biomass), wild boar in 25% (21% biomass), beavers in 14%\\u000a (12% biomass). Wolves selected for wild boar,

Žanete Andersone; Jãnis Ozoli?š

2004-01-01

104

Human dimensions of wolf ( Canis lupus ) conflicts in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the Finnish wolf (Canis lupus) population during the last years has highlighted people’s contradictory attitudes toward wolves. The supranational conservation\\u000a objectives brought on by Finland’s membership in the European Union (EU) and the regional application of the official policy\\u000a on wolves have led to conflicts. This article is based on the preparation process of the wolf management

Jukka Bisi; Sami Kurki; Marko Svensberg; Tuija Liukkonen

2007-01-01

105

Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

1996-01-01

106

Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

2010-01-01

107

The tryptic peptides of coyote ( Canis latrans ) hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tryptic peptides from a- and ß-chains of coyote (Canis latrans) hemoglobin have been isolated and their amino acid compositions determined. The compositions are identical to those previously found for dog hemoglobin in all respects except one: the aT-13 peptide of coyote has only threonine at residue 130 of the chain. This indicates only one a-chain in coyote instead of

Douglas Runkel; S. L. Dresler; B. Brimhall; R. T. Jones

1974-01-01

108

Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317?Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite’s gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host–parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites. PMID:25649139

Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D.; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R.; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S.; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W.; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

2015-01-01

109

Tinea corporis due to Microsporum canis from an asymptomatic dog.  

PubMed

The patient was a 19-year-old female student who purchased a puppy from a pet shop four weeks earlier. At the time of her first examination, an annular edematous erythema with adherent scales and vesicles surrounding its margin was seen on the left forearm. On direct examination of the vesicles, fungal elements were detected, and Microsporum canis was isolated. The puppy was a Pomeranian and was kept in the house at all times. No clinical lesions were seen on the puppy, and the Wood's lamp test was negative. However, M. canis was isolated from the animal by the hairbrush method. Symptoms disappeared after the patient was treated topically with terbinafine cream for three weeks. Although the dog received no treatment whatsoever, there was no evidence of the disease on the pet. Results of the hairbrush method performed on the pet two and three weeks later were negative, but, at five weeks, it was again positive. Human infection with M. canis from an asymptomatic dog was demonstrated in this case. Attention should be paid to preventing infections from animals without lesions. PMID:1939864

Katoh, T; Maruyama, R; Nishioka, K; Sano, T

1991-06-01

110

Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel.  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to E. canis were detected in 35.8% serum samples while 26.4% of the samples tested were positive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Twenty-six percent of the jackals tested were seropositive to E. phagocytophila, of which 5.7% were seropositive to E. phagocytophila alone without any seroreactivity to either E. canis or E. chaffeensis. Fifty-five percent of the jackals were seropositive to the SFG-rickettsiae antigens. The results suggest a high exposure rate of jackals in Israel to E. canis. Positive reactivity to E. chaffeensis was considered to be due to antigenic cross-reactions with E. canis. The study demonstrated for the first time the presence of E. phagocytophila antibodies in free-range jackals. The high incidence of antibodies to the SFG-rickettsiae and their relatively high antibody titers was suggestive of either recent or persistent infection. The possibility that jackals may play a role in the transmission of E. canis, E. phagocytophila and the SFG-rickettsiae for human and canine infections is discussed. PMID:10321583

Waner, T; Baneth, G; Strenger, C; Keysary, A; King, R; Harrus, S

1999-03-31

111

The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus  

E-print Network

Royale wolves Canis lupus John A. Vucetich and Rolf O. Peterson Vucetich, J. A. and Peterson, R. O. 2004, Canis lupus. Á/ Oikos 107: 309Á/320. The relationship between the rates of prey capture and predator

112

Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest BYRON V. WECKWORTH,* SANDRA L. TALBOT, AND JOSEPH A. COOK  

E-print Network

Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest BYRON V. WECKWORTH,* SANDRA L into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction

113

The OMA orthology database in 2015: function predictions, better plant support, synteny view and other improvements.  

PubMed

The Orthologous Matrix (OMA) project is a method and associated database inferring evolutionary relationships amongst currently 1706 complete proteomes (i.e. the protein sequence associated for every protein-coding gene in all genomes). In this update article, we present six major new developments in OMA: (i) a new web interface; (ii) Gene Ontology function predictions as part of the OMA pipeline; (iii) better support for plant genomes and in particular homeologs in the wheat genome; (iv) a new synteny viewer providing the genomic context of orthologs; (v) statically computed hierarchical orthologous groups subsets downloadable in OrthoXML format; and (vi) possibility to export parts of the all-against-all computations and to combine them with custom data for 'client-side' orthology prediction. OMA can be accessed through the OMA Browser and various programmatic interfaces at http://omabrowser.org. PMID:25399418

Altenhoff, Adrian M; Škunca, Nives; Glover, Natasha; Train, Clément-Marie; Sueki, Anna; Piližota, Ivana; Gori, Kevin; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Müller, Steven; Redestig, Henning; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

2015-01-01

114

The OMA orthology database in 2015: function predictions, better plant support, synteny view and other improvements  

PubMed Central

The Orthologous Matrix (OMA) project is a method and associated database inferring evolutionary relationships amongst currently 1706 complete proteomes (i.e. the protein sequence associated for every protein-coding gene in all genomes). In this update article, we present six major new developments in OMA: (i) a new web interface; (ii) Gene Ontology function predictions as part of the OMA pipeline; (iii) better support for plant genomes and in particular homeologs in the wheat genome; (iv) a new synteny viewer providing the genomic context of orthologs; (v) statically computed hierarchical orthologous groups subsets downloadable in OrthoXML format; and (vi) possibility to export parts of the all-against-all computations and to combine them with custom data for ‘client-side’ orthology prediction. OMA can be accessed through the OMA Browser and various programmatic interfaces at http://omabrowser.org. PMID:25399418

Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Škunca, Nives; Glover, Natasha; Train, Clément-Marie; Sueki, Anna; Piližota, Ivana; Gori, Kevin; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Müller, Steven; Redestig, Henning; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Dessimoz, Christophe

2015-01-01

115

SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes  

SciTech Connect

At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

2013-10-15

116

Identification of Novel Human Damage Response Proteins Targeted through Yeast Orthology  

E-print Network

Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for ...

Svensson, J. Peter

117

Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli clinicopathological findings and DNA detection by means of PCR-RFLP in blood from Italian dogs suspected of tick-borne disease.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Babesia spp. in blood samples from Italian dogs with clinical signs compatible with tick-borne diseases by means of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and describe the clinicopathological findings of dogs with Babesia infection. We evaluated the majority of canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological, biochemical, serum electrophoresis, urinalysis and hemostatic tests. Forty-five out of 164 canine blood samples studied were positive to Babesia PCR-RFLP with the following results: Babesia canis canis (n=34) and Babesia canis vogeli (n=11). The majority of B. c. canis infections were detected in Northern Italy (29.1%; 30/103). B. c. vogeli cases were detected mainly in Central and Southern Italy (16.3%; 10/61). Only one B. c. vogeli was detected in Northern Italy (0.9%; 1/103). Three positive samples to B. c. canis and four positive samples to B. c. vogeli were selected for sequencing of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (410bp) for further molecular characterization. The sequence obtained from all seven dogs was 99/100% homologous to sequences from B. c. canis and B. c. vogeli, respectively, present in GenBank. Sixty-two percent of dogs infected with B. c. canis had recently travelled on a hunting trip to East European countries. The main acute clinical signs were dehydration, apathy, anorexia and fever. The majority of dogs infected with B. c. canis presented at initial clinical examination mild to severe thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinogenemia, mild to moderate normocytic-normochromic non-regenerative anemia, hemolysis and neutropenia. The urinalysis showed hemoglobinuria in 13/19 dogs suggesting intravascular hemolysis. Dogs with B. c. canis infection had high levels of C-reactive protein. Hypoalbuminemia was present in 17/26 dogs. The 11 cases of B. c. vogeli infection did not present a homogenous clinicopathological pattern. B. c. vogeli infections were observed in young dogs causing hemolytic anemia and in adult/old does that frequently presented predisposing factors such as splenectomy or immunocompromised conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the presence of B. c. canis and B. c. vogeli in Italian sick dogs and differences in clinicopathological pattern in these two species of B. canis. PMID:18789581

Solano-Gallego, L; Trotta, M; Carli, E; Carcy, B; Caldin, M; Furlanello, T

2008-11-01

118

Behavioural responses of Canis familiaris to different tail lengths of a remotely-controlled life-size  

E-print Network

, Canis lupus (Goodwin et al., 1997), the position and motion of a domestic dog's tail still providesBehavioural responses of Canis familiaris to different tail lengths of a remotely-controlled life signaling in domestic dogs, Canis famil- iaris. We videotaped interactions of 492 off-leash dogs

Reimchen, Thomas E.

119

Diets of coyotes (Canis latrans) have been studied in a variety of habitats over most of their  

E-print Network

Diets of coyotes (Canis latrans) have been studied in a variety of habitats over most coyote (Canis latrans) scats (feces). Remains of 27 foods were identified with eastern cottontails. Proceedings of the North American Prairie Conference 20:255-268 Key words: Canis latrans, cattle, eastern

120

Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella canis BCB018, a Strain Isolated from a Human Patient  

PubMed Central

Brucella canis is considered a rare cause of human brucellosis because of difficulties in presumptive diagnosis and underestimation of the incidence. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a Brucella canis isolate, BCB018, isolated from a human patient, providing precious resources for comparative genomics analysis of Brucella field strains. PMID:23144429

Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Zhen, Qing; Yuan, Xitong; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Yefeng; Wang, Zhoujia; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali

2012-01-01

121

Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella canis Strain 118, a Strain Isolated from Canine  

PubMed Central

Brucella canis infects several species of animals, and canine is the preferred host. Genome sequences of strains from different hosts are valuable for comparative analysis of host adaptation and microevolution. Here, we report the genome sequence of Brucella canis strain 118, a strain isolated from canine. PMID:23144418

Gao, Guangjun; Li, Jing; Li, Tiefeng; Zhang, Zhengfang; Wang, Liping; Yuan, Xitong; Wang, Yufei; Xu, Jie; Ke, Yuehua; Huang, Liuyu; Wang, Dali

2012-01-01

122

Amplification of Ehrlichial DNA from Dogs 34 Months after Infection with Ehrlichia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether dogs in the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) are carriers of Ehrlichia canis and to determine the significance of persistent indirect immunofluorescent anti-E. canis antibody titers during this phase, PCR was performed with blood, bone marrow, and splenic aspirates collected 34 months postinoculation from six clinically healthy beagle dogs experimentally infected with E.

SHIMON HARRUS; TREVOR WANER; ITZHAK AIZENBERG; JANET E. FOLEY; AMY M. POLAND; HYLTON BARK

1998-01-01

123

Genic variation in the coyote, Canis latrans, in Tennessee, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein variation, levels of heterozygosity, and interlocality gene variation were studied in the coyote, Canis latrans, using starch gel electrophoresis. Canis latrans were obtained from 27 counties in Tennessee. Eleven of 20 loci examined were found to be polymorphic with the remaining nine loci fixed for the same gene in all populations. Mean heterozygosity (\\\\-H) varied from 0.0% to 1.9%

M. J. Hamilton; M. L. Kennedy

1986-01-01

124

Reproductive biology of the coyote (Canis latrans): integration of mating behavior, reproductive hormones, and vaginal cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of wild Canis species is often described as unique among mammals because an unusual combination of behavioral and physiological characteristics including a seasonally monestrous cycle, copulatory lock or tie, obligatory pseudopregnancy, social monogamy, and biparental care of the young. We investigated social behavior, endocrine profiles, and vaginal cytology of female coyotes (Canis latrans) during 4 breeding seasons,

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2008-01-01

125

The efficacy of Advantix® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks  

PubMed Central

The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix®) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix® prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment. PMID:24135158

Fourie, Josephus Johannes; Luus, Herman Gerhardus; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

2013-01-01

126

Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani  

E-print Network

Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani i://www-imagis.imag.fr/Membres/Marie-Paule.Cani/ Abstract How can Implicit Surfaces be used in the context of high-end Com- puter Animation ? This paper approach. Their respective advantages and limitations for the definition of animation and morphing

Boyer, Edmond

127

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competitionmam_148 265..283  

E-print Network

Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competitionmam_148 265 of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA ABSTRACT 1. Dogs Canis familiaris are the world's most common carnivore. Despite these varied roles in the community, the interaction of dogs with sympatric wild carnivore species

Gompper, Matthew E.

128

CLINICAL SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA, SARCOCYSTIS CANIS, TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN DOGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-cani...

129

Arabidopsis Orthologs of Maize Chloroplast Splicing Factors Promote Splicing of Orthologous and Species-Specific Group II Introns1[W  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast genomes in plants and green algae contain numerous group II introns, large ribozymes that splice via the same chemical steps as spliceosome-mediated splicing in the nucleus. Most chloroplast group II introns are degenerate, requiring interaction with nucleus-encoded proteins to splice in vivo. Genetic approaches in maize (Zea mays) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated distinct sets of proteins that assemble with chloroplast group II introns and facilitate splicing. Little information is available, however, concerning these processes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether the paucity of data concerning chloroplast splicing factors in Arabidopsis reflects a fundamental difference between protein-facilitated group II splicing in monocot and dicot plants, we examined the mutant phenotypes associated with T-DNA insertions in Arabidopsis genes encoding orthologs of the maize chloroplast splicing factors CRS1, CAF1, and CAF2 (AtCRS1, AtCAF1, and AtCAF2). We show that the splicing functions and intron specificities of these proteins are largely conserved between maize and Arabidopsis, indicating that these proteins were recruited to promote the splicing of plastid group II introns prior to the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. We show further that AtCAF1 promotes the splicing of two group II introns, rpoC1 and clpP-intron 1, that are found in Arabidopsis but not in maize; AtCAF1 is the first splicing factor described for these introns. Finally, we show that a strong AtCAF2 allele conditions an embryo-lethal phenotype, adding to the body of data suggesting that cell viability is more sensitive to the loss of plastid translation in Arabidopsis than in maize. PMID:17071648

Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

2006-01-01

130

Presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus type 1 in free-ranging jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A survey of free-ranging jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) in Zimbabwe was conducted to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1). Sera from 16 Canis adustus and 22 Canis mesomelas were collected from 1990 to 1993 from various regions of Zimbabwe and assayed by means of immunofluorescent techniques. Seroprevalence in C. adustus and C. mesomelas respectively were 50% and 63.6% for CDV, 12.5% and 18.2% for CPV and 37.5 and 9.1 for CAV-1. These results demonstrate that jackals are infected with these viruses and may act as reservoirs of them, although their susceptibility to the viruses is not known. PMID:10631712

Spencer, J A; Bingham, J; Heath, R; Richards, B

1999-09-01

131

A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?  

PubMed

The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

2013-02-01

132

A Phylogeny-Based Benchmarking Test for Orthology Inference Reveals the Limitations of Function-Based Validation  

PubMed Central

Accurate orthology prediction is crucial for many applications in the post-genomic era. The lack of broadly accepted benchmark tests precludes a comprehensive analysis of orthology inference. So far, functional annotation between orthologs serves as a performance proxy. However, this violates the fundamental principle of orthology as an evolutionary definition, while it is often not applicable due to limited experimental evidence for most species. Therefore, we constructed high quality "gold standard" orthologous groups that can serve as a benchmark set for orthology inference in bacterial species. Herein, we used this dataset to demonstrate 1) why a manually curated, phylogeny-based dataset is more appropriate for benchmarking orthology than other popular practices and 2) how it guides database design and parameterization through careful error quantification. More specifically, we illustrate how function-based tests often fail to identify false assignments, misjudging the true performance of orthology inference methods. We also examined how our dataset can instruct the selection of a “core” species repertoire to improve detection accuracy. We conclude that including more genomes at the proper evolutionary distances can influence the overall quality of orthology detection. The curated gene families, called Reference Orthologous Groups, are publicly available at http://eggnog.embl.de/orthobench2. PMID:25369365

Larsson, Tomas; Powell, Sean; Doerks, Tobias; von Mering, Christian

2014-01-01

133

Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of ‘excretory–secretory’ products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured larvae. However, these appear to be produced once the parasite has entered the mammalian host, as they are recognised by specific antibodies in infected patients. Elucidating the function of these genes, or analysing if micro-RNA translational silencing suppresses production of the proteins, may point towards new drug targets for tissue-phase parasites in humans. PMID:23351972

Maizels, Rick M.

2013-01-01

134

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-10-01

135

Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old spayed female coyote (Canis latrans) was evaluated for an elliptical swelling of the skin beneath its right eye and an elevated mass that involved the soft and hard palate and gingivae around the upper right carnassial tooth and molars. Histopathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma, and a postmortem examination revealed no evidence of vascular invasion or dissemination to the regional lymph nodes or viscera. This report describes the biology and progresion of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive coyote. PMID:10484152

Bernstein, K S; Schelling, S H

1999-06-01

136

eggNOG v4.0: nested orthology inference across 3686 organisms  

PubMed Central

With the increasing availability of various ‘omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete database of orthologous groups via a web interface, as well as through bulk download. PMID:24297252

Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Rattei, Thomas; Creevey, Chris; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars J.; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

2014-01-01

137

Identification and Expression Analysis of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Co-orthologs in Solanum lycopersicum  

PubMed Central

Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:25698879

Simm, Stefan; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Paul, Puneet; Keller, Mario; Einloft, Jens; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

2015-01-01

138

eggNOG v4.0: nested orthology inference across 3686 organisms.  

PubMed

With the increasing availability of various 'omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete database of orthologous groups via a web interface, as well as through bulk download. PMID:24297252

Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Rattei, Thomas; Creevey, Chris; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars J; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

2014-01-01

139

Bioinformatics analysis of plant orthologous introns: identification of an intronic tRNA-like sequence.  

PubMed

Orthologous introns have identical positions relative to the coding sequence in orthologous genes of different species. By analyzing the complete genomes of five plants we generated a database of 40,512 orthologous intron groups of dicotyledonous plants, 28,519 orthologous intron groups of angiosperms, and 15,726 of land plants (moss and angiosperms). Multiple sequence alignments of each orthologous intron group were obtained using the Mafft algorithm. The number of conserved regions in plant introns appeared to be hundreds of times fewer than that in mammals or vertebrates. Approximately three quarters of conserved intronic regions among angiosperms and dicots, in particular, correspond to alternatively-spliced exonic sequences. We registered only a handful of conserved intronic ncRNAs of flowering plants. However, the most evolutionarily conserved intronic region, which is ubiquitous for all plants examined in this study, including moss, possessed multiple structural features of tRNAs, which caused us to classify it as a putative tRNA-like ncRNA. Intronic sequences encoding tRNA-like structures are not unique to plants. Bioinformatics examination of the presence of tRNA inside introns revealed an unusually long-term association of four glycine tRNAs inside the Vac14 gene of fish, amniotes, and mammals. PMID:25014137

Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Walters, Lorraine; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Khandekar, Sushant; Crawford, Erin; Zirbel, Craig L; Leisner, Scott; Prakash, Ashwin; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

2014-09-10

140

Prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in household dogs.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in household dogs was estimated by examining feces from 1,743 dogs aged between 1 month and 15 years old. Fecal samples from 75 (4.3%) of the 1,743 dogs were positive for the eggs of T. canis. The dogs with positive fecal samples ranged from 1 month to 5 years old in age. The infection rate in dogs aged 1 to 6 months old was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that in dogs aged 7 months to 2 years old or over 3 years old. Indoor dogs aged 1 to 6 months old showed a significantly (p < 0.01) lower prevalence than outdoor dogs of the same age group. With respect to the place of origin of the dogs, those originating from individual households (5.7%) showed (p < 0.05) a higher prevalence as compared to the animals purchased from pet shops/breeding kennels (3.5%). Considering the origin and the living conditions, the prevalence in indoor dogs originating from individual households was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in indoor dogs purchased from pet shops/breeding kennels. PMID:15103902

Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

2004-02-01

141

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing on embryonation of Toxocara canis eggs.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is a zoonotic nematode parasite that can be transmitted to humans by food or water contaminated with T. canis eggs from infected dog feces. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a useful alternative to thermal treatments to eliminate pathogens from foods. Most of the research on HPP has focused on prokaryotes, but little is known about its effects on eukaryotic organisms. We evaluated the ability of HPP to affect embryonation of T. canis eggs to test the hypothesis that HPP treatment can delay development of T. canis eggs. Efficacy of HPP was determined by using an embryonation assay on T. canis eggs from naturally infected puppies. For each treatment, 2500 T. canis eggs in tap water were placed in sealable plastic bags and subjected to 138-400 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60 s in a commercial HPP unit. We found that treatment with 300 or 400 MPa for 60 s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207 MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively. Results from this study suggest that HPP may be a useful treatment to protect foods from T. canis contamination. PMID:24866420

Rosypal, Alexa C; Houk, Alice E; Flick, George J; Lindsay, David S

2014-07-01

142

InParanoid 8: orthology analysis between 273 proteomes, mostly eukaryotic  

PubMed Central

The InParanoid database (http://InParanoid.sbc.su.se) provides a user interface to orthologs inferred by the InParanoid algorithm. As there are now international efforts to curate and standardize complete proteomes, we have switched to using these resources rather than gathering and curating the proteomes ourselves. InParanoid release 8 is based on the 66 reference proteomes that the ‘Quest for Orthologs’ community has agreed on using, plus 207 additional proteomes from the UniProt complete proteomes—in total 273 species. These represent 246 eukaryotes, 20 bacteria and seven archaea. Compared to the previous release, this increases the number of species by 173% and the number of pairwise species comparisons by 650%. In turn, the number of ortholog groups has increased by 423%. We present the contents and usages of InParanoid 8, and a detailed analysis of how the proteome content has changed since the previous release. PMID:25429972

Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.; Östlund, Gabriel

2015-01-01

143

Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population.  

PubMed

The principal threat to the persistence of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) in the wild is hybridization with the coyote (Canis latrans). To facilitate idengification and removal of hybrids, assignment tests are developed which use genotype data to estimate identity as coyote, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or full red wolf. The tests use genotypes from the red wolves that founded the surviving population and the resulting pedigree, rather than a contemporary red wolf sample. The tests are evaluated by analysing both captive red wolves at 18 microsatellite loci, and data simulated under a highly parameterized, biologically reasonable model. The accuracy of assignment rates are generally high, with over 95% of known red wolves idengified correctly. There are, however, tradeoffs between ambiguous assignments and misassignments, and between misidengifying red wolves as hybrids and hybrids as red wolves. These result in a compromise between limiting introgression and avoiding demographic losses. The management priorities and level of introgression determine the combination of test and removal strategy that best balances these tradeoffs. Ultimately, we conclude that the use of the assignment tests has the capacity to arrest and reverse introgression. To our knowledge, the presented approach is novel in that it accounts for genetic drift when the genotypes under analysis are temporally separated from the reference populations to which they are being assigned. These methods may be valuable in cases where reference databases for small populations have aged substantially, pedigree information is available or data are generated from historical samples. PMID:14629346

Miller, Craig R; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

2003-12-01

144

Molecular systematics of Mesocestoides sPP (cestoda: mesocestoididae) from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n = 10), as well as proglottids from dogs (n = 3) and coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823 [n = 2]), and tetrathyridia representing laboratory isolates of M. corti (n = 3), and these data were analyzed phylogenetically. Two nuclear genetic markers, 18S ribosomal DNA and the second internal-transcribed spacer (ITS 2), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA data recovered a monophyletic group composed of all samples of Mesocestoides spp., distinct from closely related outgroup taxa (Amurotaenia Akhmerov, 1941 and Tetrabothrius Rudolphi, 1819). Initial analysis of the ITS 2 data resolved 3 clades within Mesocestoides. Two proglottids from dogs formed a basal clade, a second clade was represented by tetrathyridial isolates, and a third clade included all other samples. Interpretation of these data from an apomorphy-based perspective identified 6 evolutionary lineages. We also assessed whether metacestodes from dogs (n = 4) are capable of asexual proliferation in laboratory mice. One tetrathyridial and 2 acephalic isolates from dogs proliferated asexually. Further investigation is warranted to determine which of the lineages represent distinct species and to determine the life history strategies of Mesocestoides spp. PMID:10780557

Crosbie, P R; Nadler, S A; Platzer, E G; Kerner, C; Mariaux, J; Boyce, W M

2000-04-01

145

Application of the SYBR Green real-time HRM PCR technique in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated in the areas of eastern Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the real-time polymerised chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melting (HRM) method in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated from dogs in the areas of eastern Poland. The studies involved 20 isolates of B. canis canis qualified depending on the analysis of the 18S RNA gene sequence to group A (EU 622792) and 20 isolates qualified to group B (EU 622793). It was proven with the real-time PCR technique that the melting temperature (Tm) of the obtained products of amplification was 78 degrees C for the representatives of group A and 81 degrees C for the representatives of group B, which proves that the real-time SYBR Green HRM PCR method is a technique allowing for the differentiation of the B. canis isolates which are slightly different with respect to the genetic structure, without the necessity to carry out time-consuming studies, i.e., sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. PMID:20155367

Adaszek, Lukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2010-04-01

146

ARCSECOND RESOLUTION MAPPING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS  

E-print Network

We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO[subscript 2] emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ?1''. SO[subscript 2] emission appears in ...

Moullet, Arielle

147

Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2010-01-01

148

Preference for copying unambiguous demonstrations in dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

In an earlier study (P. Pongracz et al., 2001), it was shown that human demonstration significantly enhances the detouring ability of dogs (Canis familiaris) around a V-shaped fence. The authors investigated the effect of the direction of the demonstrated detour and the dogs' detouring experience. They found that dogs' trial-and-error experience influences strongly the direction of the dogs' detours later, even if the demonstrator showed detours along the opposite side of the fence. However, dogs' preferences based on their own experiences were changed when the dogs observed demonstrations only on 1 side of the fence. Dogs with no trial-and-error experience followed the direction of 1-sided demonstrations. The change from dogs' own directions to the demonstrated directions seems not to be due to simple facilitative effects of social experience; the similarity with the demonstrated action depends on complex interactions between individual experience and socially provided information. PMID:14498810

Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám; Timár-Geng, Katalin; Csányi, Vilmos

2003-09-01

149

Contraception has gone to the coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are predators of livestock. Current management programs, primarily lethal control, are ineffective for long-term management of predation. Controlling reproduction of coyotes may reduce depredations if territory fidelity is maintained by breeding pairs. Surgical sterilization is successful in altering predatory behaviors of coyotes but may provide a challenge for field implementation. An alternative approach is the development of a one-time non-transferable chemical contraceptive. This research is investigating the efficacy of a single high dose treatment of a sustained release gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, on coyotes as a long term contraceptive. Male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin subcutaneously. Preliminary data show full suppression of the reproductive axis for over 12 mo as indicated by complete absence of sperm. PMID:24437078

MacGregor, Marjorie J; Perkins, Elsey G; Asa, Cheryl; Skinner, Donal C

2013-12-01

150

Experimental Babesia gibsoni infection in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Four 5 mo old captive raised coyotes (Canis latrans) were experimentally inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(6) Babesia gibsoni organisms. Parasites were detected 1 wk post-inoculation in all coyotes with maximum parasitemia of 8-11% occurring at 34 wk. Parasitemias remained at or above 1% for at least 12 wk and were still detectable 20 wk post-inoculation. All experimentally infected coyotes developed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, and a positive heme reaction in urine while one coyote exhibited mild depression and inappetence. Infected coyotes also developed a regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The mild clinical signs coupled with the high level and long duration of parasitemia indicate that coyotes could serve as reservoirs for B. gibsoni. Entrance of this foreign parasite into the United States suggests the need for strict quarantines and thorough health and blood film examinations for imported animals. PMID:14733288

Evers, Holly V; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Meinkoth, James H

2003-10-01

151

Primary lymphangiectasia in a dingo (Canis familiaris dingo).  

PubMed

A 3-yr-old intact male dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) presented with a 3-mo history of diarrhea. The diarrhea did not resolve with antibiotics or intestinal protectants. Fecal examination for parasites, fecal cultures, physical examination, and radiographs were unremarkable. Enteroscopic duodenal biopsies showed dilated lacteals without inflammation. Results of serum folate, cobalamin, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were normal. Low serum total protein and albumin combined with increased fecal levels of alpha-1 protease inhibitor suggested the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum revealed dilated mucosal and submucosal lacteals without associated inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of primary lymphangiectasia. Currently, the dingo is being maintained with nutritional management. PMID:15732606

Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Ludlow, Chris; Layton, Candace; Dennis, Jeff; Miller, Margaret

2004-12-01

152

Letter to the editor: SeqXML and OrthoXML: standards for sequence and orthology information.  

PubMed

There is a great need for standards in the orthology field. Users must contend with different ortholog data representations from each provider, and the providers themselves must independently gather and parse the input sequence data. These burdensome and redundant procedures make data comparison and integration difficult. We have designed two XML-based formats, SeqXML and OrthoXML, to solve these problems. SeqXML is a lightweight format for sequence records-the input for orthology prediction. It stores the same sequence and metadata as typical FASTA format records, but overcomes common problems such as unstructured metadata in the header and erroneous sequence content. XML provides validation to prevent data integrity problems that are frequent in FASTA files. The range of applications for SeqXML is broad and not limited to ortholog prediction. We provide read/write functions for BioJava, BioPerl, and Biopython. OrthoXML was designed to represent ortholog assignments from any source in a consistent and structured way, yet cater to specific needs such as scoring schemes or meta-information. A unified format is particularly valuable for ortholog consumers that want to integrate data from numerous resources, e.g. for gene annotation projects. Reference proteomes for 61 organisms are already available in SeqXML, and 10 orthology databases have signed on to OrthoXML. Adoption by the entire field would substantially facilitate exchange and quality control of sequence and orthology information. PMID:21666252

Schmitt, Thomas; Messina, David N; Schreiber, Fabian; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

2011-09-01

153

Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of the 55 dog blood samples (31%) and all three pools of four Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks each were positive. An ehrlichial agent (Venezuelan dog Ehrlichia [VDE]) was isolated and propagated in cell culture from one dog sample and was further analyzed to determine its molecular and antigenic characteristics. The 16S rRNA 1,408-bp sequence of the new VDE isolate was identical to that of the previously reported Venezuelan human Ehrlichia isolate (VHE) and was closely related (99.9%) to that of E. canis Oklahoma. The 5? (333-bp) and 3? (653-bp) sequences of the variable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from six additional E. canis-positive dog blood specimens and from three pooled-tick specimens were also identical to those of VHE. Western blot analysis of serum samples from three dogs infected with VDE by using several ehrlichial antigens revealed that the antigenic profile of the VDE was similar to the profiles of VHE and E. canis Oklahoma. Identical 16S rRNA gene sequences among ehrlichial organisms from dogs, ticks, and a human in the same geographic region in Venezuela and similar antigenic profiles between the dog and human isolates suggest that dogs serve as a reservoir of human E. canis infection and that R. sanguineus, which occasionally bites humans residing or traveling in this region, serves as a vector. This is the first report of culture isolation and antigenic characterization of an ehrlichial agent from a dog in South America, as well as the first molecular characterization of E. canis directly from naturally infected ticks. PMID:11473993

Unver, Ahmet; Perez, Miriam; Orellana, Nelson; Huang, Haibin; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2001-01-01

154

Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed\\u000a paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the

Ivan Ravera; Laura Altet; Olga Francino; Mar Bardagí; Armand Sánchez; Lluís Ferrer

2011-01-01

155

Probing the Boundaries of Orthology: The Unanticipated Rapid Evolution of Drosophila centrosomin  

PubMed Central

The rapid evolution of essential developmental genes and their protein products is both intriguing and problematic. The rapid evolution of gene products with simple protein folds and a lack of well-characterized functional domains typically result in a low discovery rate of orthologous genes. Additionally, in the absence of orthologs it is difficult to study the processes and mechanisms underlying rapid evolution. In this study, we have investigated the rapid evolution of centrosomin (cnn), an essential gene encoding centrosomal protein isoforms required during syncytial development in Drosophila melanogaster. Until recently the rapid divergence of cnn made identification of orthologs difficult and questionable because Cnn violates many of the assumptions underlying models for protein evolution. To overcome these limitations, we have identified a group of insect orthologs and present conserved features likely to be required for the functions attributed to cnn in D. melanogaster. We also show that the rapid divergence of Cnn isoforms is apparently due to frequent coding sequence indels and an accelerated rate of intronic additions and eliminations. These changes appear to be buffered by multi-exon and multi-reading frame maximum potential ORFs, simple protein folds, and the splicing machinery. These buffering features also occur in other genes in Drosophila and may help prevent potentially deleterious mutations due to indels in genes with large coding exons and exon-dense regions separated by small introns. This work promises to be useful for future investigations of cnn and potentially other rapidly evolving genes and proteins. PMID:23749319

Eisman, Robert C.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

156

To B or Not to B a Flower: The Role of DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA Orthologs  

E-print Network

To B or Not to B a Flower: The Role of DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA Orthologs in the Evolution to date, genes in the DEF/GLO MADS-box subfamily are expressed in the petals and stamens during flower in the first and fourth whorls of flowers or in nonfloral organs, where their function is unknown

dePamphilis, Claude

157

Analyses of humanchimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging  

E-print Network

Analyses of human­chimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging Joa Abstract Compared to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the onset of aging appears to be delayed in the human acting on genes associated with aging in different model systems, which allowed us to explore

Church, George M.

158

MouseHuman Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster  

E-print Network

, orthologous to one of the OR genes in the human cluster (OR17-25), was used to isolate six PAC clones, all proteins that underlie the recognition and G- protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals (Buck. OR genes were first cloned in the rat (Buck and Axel, 1991) and were later found in the genomes of a wide

Church, George M.

159

Characterization, chromosomal location, and genomic neighborhood of a ratite ortholog of a gene with gonadal  

E-print Network

Characterization, chromosomal location, and genomic neighborhood of a ratite ortholog of a gene-scale sequencing and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library from an emu, Dromaius, has taken great strides recently (Canestro et al. 2007). For example, bacterial artificial chromosome

Edwards, Scott

160

A complex history of rearrangement in an orthologous region of the maize, sorghum, and rice genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of large insert clones containing genomic DNA that is orthologous to the maize adh1 region were obtained for sorghum, rice, and the adh1-homoeologous region of maize, a remnant of the tetraploid history of the Zea lineage. By using all four genomes, it was possible to describe the nature, timing, and lineages of most of the genic rearrangements that

Katica Ilic; Phillip J. Sanmiguel; Jeffrey L. Bennetzen

2003-01-01

161

Colinearity and Its Exceptions in Orthologous adh Regions of Maize and Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthologous adh regions of the sorghum and maize genomes were sequenced and analyzed. Nine known or candidate genes, including adh1, were found in a 225-kilobase (kb) maize sequence. In a 78-kb space of sorghum, the nine homologues of the maize genes were identified in a colinear order, plus five additional genes. The major fraction of DNA in maize, occupying 166

Alexander P. Tikhonov; Phillip J. Sanmiguel; Yuko Nakajima; Nina M. Gorenstein; Jeffrey L. Bennetzen; Zoya Avramova

1999-01-01

162

Evolutionary aspects of variability in bHLH orthologous families: insights from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.  

PubMed

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play significant roles in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. In recent work, we showed that three orthologous HLH families, pearl, amber, and peridot, have apparently been lost in the Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens lineages. To further address the gain and loss of bHLH proteins during bilaterian evolution, we examined the genome of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, which has recently been sequenced. We characterized the putative full set 65 bHLH genes and showed that genes previously categorized into the orthologous family PTFb, actually fall into two distinct orthologous families, 48-related-1 and 48-related-2. We also identified a novel orthologous family, clockwork orange. Based on these newly identified orthologous family members and on orphan bHLH factors, we propose that genes encoding bHLH factors in bilaterians are not as evolutionarily stable as previously thought. PMID:24125650

Gyoja, Fuki; Satoh, Nori

2013-10-01

163

Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the gp200 protein of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia (E.) canis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Currently, the genetic diversity of E. canis strains worldwide is poorly defined. In the present study, sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rDNA (1,620 bp) and the complete coding region (4,269 bp) of the gp200 gene, which encodes the largest major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, from 17 Taiwanese samples was conducted. The resultant 16S rDNA sequences were found to be identical to each other and have very high homology (99.4~100%) with previously reported E. canis sequences. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of gp200 demonstrated that the E. canis Taiwanese genotype was genetically distinct from other reported isolates obtained from the United States, Brazil, and Israel, and that it formed a separate clade. Remarkable variations unique to the Taiwanese genotype were found throughout the deduced amino acid sequence of gp200, including 15 substitutions occurring in two of five known species-specific epitopes. The gp200 amino acid sequences of the Taiwanese genotype bore 94.4~94.6 identities with those of the isolates from the United States and Brazil, and 93.7% homology with that of the Israeli isolate. Taken together, these results suggest that the Taiwanese genotype represents a novel strain of E. canis that has not yet been characterized. PMID:21113103

Huang, Chia-Chia; Hsieh, Yu-Chen; Tsang, Chau-Loong

2010-01-01

164

Further characteristics of Arcanobacterium canis, a novel species of genus Arcanobacterium.  

PubMed

Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations characterizing Arcanobacterium canis, a newly described species with the type strain A. canis DSM 25104 isolated from an otitis externa of a dog, four additional A. canis strains isolated from infections of three dogs and one cat could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, 23S rDNA, and the genes rpoB and gap. All four A. canis investigated in the present study were isolated from the infected animals together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. canis remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might help to identify A. canis in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs and cats. PMID:24144861

Sammra, O; Balbutskaya, A; Zhang, S; Hijazin, M; Nagib, S; Lämmler, C; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Kostrzewa, M; Timke, M

2013-12-27

165

Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

2015-04-01

166

Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.  

PubMed

A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis. PMID:23962826

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

2013-11-01

167

Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation. This study has also demonstrated that H. canis infection can spread among young dogs infested by R. sanguineus and be present in the majority of the exposed population within 6 months. PMID:21489247

2011-01-01

168

MBGD update 2015: microbial genome database for flexible ortholog analysis utilizing a diverse set of genomic data  

PubMed Central

The microbial genome database for comparative analysis (MBGD) (available at http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/) is a comprehensive ortholog database for flexible comparative analysis of microbial genomes, where the users are allowed to create an ortholog table among any specified set of organisms. Because of the rapid increase in microbial genome data owing to the next-generation sequencing technology, it becomes increasingly challenging to maintain high-quality orthology relationships while allowing the users to incorporate the latest genomic data available into an analysis. Because many of the recently accumulating genomic data are draft genome sequences for which some complete genome sequences of the same or closely related species are available, MBGD now stores draft genome data and allows the users to incorporate them into a user-specific ortholog database using the MyMBGD functionality. In this function, draft genome data are incorporated into an existing ortholog table created only from the complete genome data in an incremental manner to prevent low-quality draft data from affecting clustering results. In addition, to provide high-quality orthology relationships, the standard ortholog table containing all the representative genomes, which is first created by the rapid classification program DomClust, is now refined using DomRefine, a recently developed program for improving domain-level clustering using multiple sequence alignment information. PMID:25398900

Uchiyama, Ikuo; Mihara, Motohiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Chiba, Hirokazu

2015-01-01

169

Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids.  

PubMed

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems. We used global positioning system telemetry and probabilistic measures of spatial overlap to investigate spatial segregation between adjacent Canis packs. Our hypothesis was supported as: (1) the probability of locating wolves, coyotes, and hybrids within home ranges ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) or core areas ([Formula: see text] < 0.01) of adjacent packs was low; and (2) the amount of shared space use was negligible. Spatial segregation did not vary substantially in relation to genotypes of adjacent packs or local environmental conditions (i.e., harvest regulations or road densities). We provide the first telemetry-based demonstration of spatial segregation between wolves and coyotes, highlighting the novel relationships between Canis types in the Ontario hybrid zone relative to areas where wolves and coyotes are reproductively isolated. Territoriality among Canis may increase the likelihood of eastern wolves joining coyote and hybrid packs, facilitate hybridization, and could play a role in limiting expansion of the genetically distinct APP eastern wolf population. PMID:23864253

Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R

2013-12-01

170

Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride  

PubMed Central

Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

2015-01-01

171

Comparison of the Complete Protein Sets of Worm and Yeast: Orthology and Divergence  

PubMed Central

Comparative analysis of predicted protein sequences encoded by the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that most of the core biological functions are carried out by orthologous proteins (proteins of different species that can be traced back to a common ancestor) that occur in comparable numbers. The specialized processes of signal transduction and regulatory control that are unique to the multicellular worm appear to use novel proteins, many of which re-use conserved domains. Major expansion of the number of some of these domains seen in the worm may have contributed to the advent of multicellularity. The proteins conserved in yeast and worm are likely to have orthologs throughout eukaryotes; in contrast, the proteins unique to the worm may well define metazoans. PMID:9851918

Chervitz, Stephen A.; Aravind, L.; Sherlock, Gavin; Ball, Catherine A.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dwight, Selina S.; Harris, Midori A.; Dolinski, Kara; Mohr, Scott; Smith, Temple; Weng, Shuai; Cherry, J. Michael; Botstein, David

2011-01-01

172

The Importance of Being Cis: Evolution of Orthologous Fish and Mammalian Enhancer Activity  

PubMed Central

Conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in vertebrate genomes often act as developmental enhancers, but a critical issue is how well orthologous CNE sequences retain the same activity in their respective species, a characteristic important for generalization of model organism studies. To quantify how well CNE enhancer activity has been preserved, we compared the anatomy-specific activities of 41 zebra fish CNEs in zebra fish embryos with the activities of orthologous human CNEs in mouse embryos. We found that 13/41 (?30%) of the orthologous CNE pairs exhibit conserved positive activity in zebra fish and mouse. Conserved positive activity is only weakly associated with either sequence conservation or the absence of bases undergoing accelerated evolution. A stronger effect is that disparate activity is associated with transcription factor binding site divergence. To distinguish the contributions of cis- versus trans-regulatory changes, we analyzed 13 CNEs in a three-way experimental comparison: human CNE tested in zebra fish, human CNE tested in mouse, and orthologous zebra fish CNE tested in zebra fish. Both cis- and trans-changes affect a significant fraction of CNEs, although human and zebra fish sequences exhibit disparate activity in zebra fish (indicating cis regulatory changes) twice as often as human sequences show disparate activity when tested in mouse and zebra fish (indicating trans regulatory changes). In all four cases where the zebra fish and human CNE display a similar expression pattern in zebra fish, the human CNE also displays a similar expression pattern in mouse. This suggests that the endogenous enhancer activity of ?30% of human CNEs can be determined from experiments in zebra fish alone, and to identify these CNEs, both the zebra fish and the human sequences should be tested. PMID:20494938

Ritter, Deborah I.; Kostka, Dennis; Pollard, Katherine S.; Guo, Su; Chuang, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

173

The wheat TaGI1 , involved in photoperiodic flowering, encodesan Arabidopsis GI ortholog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop and requires long day and short night to flower. To study the molecular mechanism of photoperiodic regulation of flowering in this species, we isolated a wheat TaGI1 gene, an ortholog of GIGANTEA (GI) in Arabidopsis. RNA blot hybridization revealed that TaGI1 is expressed in leaves in a rhythmic manner under long day

Xiang Yu Zhao; Mao Sen Liu; Jia Rui Li; Chun Mei Guan; Xian Sheng Zhang

2005-01-01

174

Reduced Expression of the Caenorhabditis elegans p53 Ortholog cep-1 Results in Increased Longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperactivation of mammalian p53 has been shown to result in segmental progeria and decreased survivorship. Repression of the p53 homolog in Drosophila melanogaster has also been shown to increase survival. We show that RNA interference (RNAi) or genetic knockout of the Caenorhabditis elegans p53 ortholog, cep-1, leads to increased life span, which is dependent upon functional daf-16. Furthermore, one other

Oge Arum; Thomas E. Johnson

2007-01-01

175

Identification of a TFL1 ortholog in Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PmTFL1, Prunus mume ortholog of TFL1 (TERMINAL FLOWER 1), was isolated and characterized to investigate the relationship to floral bud formation in Japanese apricot (P. mume). PmTFL1 consists of a 1251-bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes 172 amino acid residues, consisting of three introns and four exons. The PmTFL1 sequence shows high identity to Arabidopsis thaliana TFL1 and TFL1

Tomoya Esumi; Yuto Kitamura; Chiya Hagihara; Hisayo Yamane; Ryutaro Tao

2010-01-01

176

Association of sequence variation in Brassica GLABRA1 orthologs with leaf hairiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5-bp deletion in exon 3 of a Brassica rapa ortholog of GLABRA1 (BrGL1) was previously thought to be responsible for the hairless trait of a doubled haploid line. In this study, the sequence variation\\u000a of Brassica GL1 was characterized. The DNA-binding domain of GL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was found to be highly conserved in Brassica species, while in hairless

Feng Li; Hiroyasu Kitashiba; Takeshi Nishio

177

Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.  

PubMed Central

The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 and 1?:?100), enilconazole (1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite “dry bleach.” Disinfectants were tested at a 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10?min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1?:?100), sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 or 1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. PMID:25763290

Moriello, Karen A.

2015-01-01

178

Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene played a dominant role in sculpting the evolutionary histories of many high-latitude organisms. The refugial hypothesis argues that populations retracted during glacial maxima and were isolated in separate refugia. One prediction of this hypothesis is that populations inhabiting different refugia diverged and then, during interglacial periods, rapidly expanded into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction cycles in the late Pleistocene. Our analyses of variation of mitochondrial control region sequences corroborate previous microsatellite analyses supporting independent evolutionary histories for Coastal and Continental wolves in North America. Coastal wolves represent the remnants of a formerly widespread and diverse southern clade that expanded into coastal Southeast Alaska, likely in the early Holocene. In contrast, extant northern Continental populations appear to be admixed, composed of lineages independently arising from ancestors that persisted in either southern or northern (Beringia) refugia. This pattern of diversification suggests the possibility of 3 temporally independent colonizations of North America by wolves from Asia. Coastal wolves are the last vestige of a formerly widespread phylogroup that largely was extirpated in North America by humans during the last century. The independent phylogeographic history of these Coastal wolves has yet to be characterized. Their distinctiveness among North American wolf populations may warrant a reevaluation of their conservation status and management. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Weckworth, B.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

2010-01-01

179

Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

1998-01-01

180

Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] ? 4363 Å and/or [NII] ? 5755 Å lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

Kniazev, A. Yu.

2012-11-01

181

Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.  

PubMed

Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helminth eggs using a semi-quantitative volumetric dilution method with microscopy. We found that 66 of the 94 faecal samples (70.2%) contained eggs from at least one group of helminths, including Capillaria, Toxocara, Trichuris, ancylostomatids, Hymenolepis and taeniids. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found most commonly, followed by Trichuris sp., ancylostomatid species and Toxocara species. Three samples contained Hymenolepis sp. eggs, which were likely artefacts from ingested prey species. Four samples contained taeniid eggs, one of which was copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) and sequence positive for Echinococcus granulosus, suggesting a spillover from a domestic parasite cycle into this wildlife species. Associations between presence/absence of Capillaria, Toxocara and Trichuris eggs were found; and egg burdens of Toxocara and ancylostomatids were found to be associated with geographical location and sampling season. PMID:25007150

van Kesteren, F; Piggott, K J; Bengui, T; Kubri, S B; Mastin, A; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Paris, M; Millar, R P; Macdonald, D W; Shiferaw, F; Craig, P S

2014-07-01

182

Hyperhidrosis in naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs. PMID:21640037

Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

2011-05-01

183

Hyperhidrosis in Naïve Purpose-Bred Beagle Dogs (Canis familiaris)  

PubMed Central

This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs. PMID:21640037

Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

2011-01-01

184

Secreted dipeptidyl peptidases as potential virulence factors for Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses caused by Microsporum canis are frequently encountered in cats and dogs; they are highly contagious and readily transmissible to humans. In this study, two single genes, respectively coding for dipeptidyl peptidases IV and V (DppIV and DppV), were isolated and characterized. Both proteins share homology with serine proteases of the S9 family, some of which display properties compatible with implication in pathogenic processes. Both genes are expressed in vivo in experimentally infected guinea-pigs and in naturally infected cats, and when the fungus is grown on extracellular matrix proteins as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. DppIV and V were produced as active recombinant proteases in the yeast Pichia pastoris; the apparent molecular weight of rDppV is 83 kDa, whereas rDppIV appears as a doublet of 95 and 98 kDa. Like other members of its enzymatic subfamily, rDppIV has an unusual ability to cleave Pro-X bonds. This activity does not enhance the solubilization of keratin by fungal secreted endoproteases, and the protease probably acts solely on small soluble peptides. RDppV showed no ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions in guinea-pigs, despite the known immunogenic properties of homologous proteins. PMID:19049642

Vermout, Sandy; Baldo, Aline; Tabart, Jérémy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

2008-12-01

185

Babesia canis: evidence for genetic diversity among isolates revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of B. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For this purpose, we identified a Babesia canis specific DNA probe named pS8. This 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of B. canis DNA. Results suggest that the pS8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. This probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in B. canis enzyme-digested genomic DNA. RFLP patterns obtained with the pS8 probe revealed a large genetic diversity between various isolates and led us to distinguish several clones derived from a single isolate. Results suggest that for a single isolate, the fingerprints obtained reflect those of a few quantitatively dominant clones. This technique can now be routinely applied and provides a convenient tool for the characterization and the identification of B. canis isolates, strains and clones. PMID:8533020

Citard, T; Mähl, P; Boulouis, H J; Chavigny, C; Druilhe, P

1995-09-01

186

Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).  

PubMed

Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs. PMID:25770893

Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

2015-05-15

187

Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis) in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5-21.7) were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% - 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0-26.4) compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9-18.5) but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis) other than B. canis is also recommended. PMID:24830899

Chinyoka, Simbarashe; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Marabini, Lisa; Dutlow, Keith; Matope, Gift; Pfukenyi, Davies M

2014-01-01

188

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

2013-01-01

189

wALADin Benzimidazoles Differentially Modulate the Function of Porphobilinogen Synthase Orthologs  

PubMed Central

The heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a potential drug target in several human pathogens. wALADin1 benzimidazoles have emerged as species-selective PBGS inhibitors against Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial worms. In the present study, we have systematically tested wALADins against PBGS orthologs from bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and plants to elucidate the inhibitory spectrum. However, the effect of wALADin1 on different PBGS orthologs was not limited to inhibition: several orthologs were stimulated by wALADin1; others remained unaffected. We demonstrate that wALADins allosterically modulate the PBGS homooligomeric equilibrium with inhibition mediated by favoring low-activity oligomers, while 5-aminolevulinic acid, Mg2+, or K+ stabilized high-activity oligomers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS could be inhibited or stimulated by wALADin1 depending on these factors and pH. We have defined the wALADin chemotypes responsible for either inhibition or stimulation, facilitating the design of tailored PBGS modulators for potential application as antimicrobial agents, herbicides, or drugs for porphyric disorders. PMID:24568185

2015-01-01

190

Rock, Paper, Scissors: Harnessing Complementarity in Ortholog Detection Methods Improves Comparative Genomic Inference  

PubMed Central

Ortholog detection (OD) is a lynchpin of most statistical methods in comparative genomics. This task involves accurately identifying genes across species that descend from a common ancestral sequence. OD methods comprise a wide variety of approaches, each with their own benefits and costs under a variety of evolutionary and practical scenarios. In this article, we examine the proteomes of ten mammals by using four methodologically distinct, rigorously filtered OD methods. In head-to-head comparisons, we find that these algorithms significantly outperform one another for 38–45% of the genes analyzed. We leverage this high complementarity through the development MOSAIC, or Multiple Orthologous Sequence Analysis and Integration by Cluster optimization, the first tool for integrating methodologically diverse OD methods. Relative to the four methods examined, MOSAIC more than quintuples the number of alignments for which all species are present while simultaneously maintaining or improving functional-, phylogenetic-, and sequence identity-based measures of ortholog quality. Further, this improvement in alignment quality yields more confidently aligned sites and higher levels of overall conservation, while simultaneously detecting of up to 180% more positively selected sites. We close by highlighting a MOSAIC-specific positively selected sites near the active site of TPSAB1, an enzyme linked to asthma, heart disease, and irritable bowel disease. MOSAIC alignments, source code, and full documentation are available at http://pythonhosted.org/bio-MOSAIC. PMID:25711833

Maher, M. Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D.

2015-01-01

191

Rock, paper, scissors: harnessing complementarity in ortholog detection methods improves comparative genomic inference.  

PubMed

Ortholog detection (OD) is a lynchpin of most statistical methods in comparative genomics. This task involves accurately identifying genes across species that descend from a common ancestral sequence. OD methods comprise a wide variety of approaches, each with their own benefits and costs under a variety of evolutionary and practical scenarios. In this article, we examine the proteomes of ten mammals by using four methodologically distinct, rigorously filtered OD methods. In head-to-head comparisons, we find that these algorithms significantly outperform one another for 38-45% of the genes analyzed. We leverage this high complementarity through the development MOSAIC, or Multiple Orthologous Sequence Analysis and Integration by Cluster optimization, the first tool for integrating methodologically diverse OD methods. Relative to the four methods examined, MOSAIC more than quintuples the number of alignments for which all species are present while simultaneously maintaining or improving functional-, phylogenetic-, and sequence identity-based measures of ortholog quality. Further, this improvement in alignment quality yields more confidently aligned sites and higher levels of overall conservation, while simultaneously detecting of up to 180% more positively selected sites. We close by highlighting a MOSAIC-specific positively selected sites near the active site of TPSAB1, an enzyme linked to asthma, heart disease, and irritable bowel disease. MOSAIC alignments, source code, and full documentation are available at http://pythonhosted.org/bio-MOSAIC. PMID:25711833

Maher, M Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D

2015-01-01

192

Unique Evolution of Symbiobacterium thermophilum Suggested from Gene Content and Orthologous Protein Sequence Comparisons.  

PubMed

Comparisons of gene content and orthologous protein sequence constitute a major strategy in whole-genome comparison studies. It is expected that horizontal gene transfer between phylogenetically distant organisms and lineage-specific gene loss have greater influence on gene content-based phylogenetic analysis than orthologous protein sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. To determine the evolution of the syntrophic bacterium Symbiobacterium thermophilum, we analyzed phylogenetic relationships among Clostridia on the basis of gene content and orthologous protein sequence comparisons. These comparisons revealed that these 2 phylogenetic relationships are topologically different. Our results suggest that each Clostridia has a species-specific gene content because frequent genetic exchanges or gene losses have occurred during evolution. Specifically, the phylogenetic positions of syntrophic Clostridia were different between these 2 phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that large diversity in the living environments may cause the observed species-specific gene content. S. thermophilum occupied the most distant position from the other syntrophic Clostridia in the gene content-based phylogenetic tree. We identified 32 genes (14 under relaxed selection and 18 under functional constraint) evolving under Symbiobacterium-specific selection on the basis of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution ratios. Five of the 14 genes under relaxed selection are related to transcription. In contrast, none of the 18 genes under functional constraint is related to transcription. PMID:21350630

Oshima, Kenro; Ueda, Kenji; Beppu, Teruhiko; Nishida, Hiromi

2011-01-01

193

Fungus invasion of human hair tissue in tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis : light and electron microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported a morphological change of Trichophyton violaceum in hair tissue in black dot ringworm. To investigate the morphology of Microsporum canis in human hair tissue, three cases of tinea capitis by M. canis were examined by both light and electron microscopy. The fungal elements, which were located deeply in the keratogenous zone, showed nonseptate hyphae in the outer

C. Okuda; M. Ito; Y. Sato; K. Oka

1989-01-01

194

Suppression of macrophage interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in mice infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis induces a predominantly Th2 type response with enhanced amounts of interleukin (IL)-4 and reduced amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma in infected mice. In this study, we investigated the macrophage function of T. canis-infected mice from the standpoint of cytokine production. C3H/HeN mice were infected with T. canis by oral administration of embryonated eggs. Ten days after infection, macrophages were obtained from spleen and peritoneal cavity, were cultured with lipopolysaccharide, and cytokines in the culture supernatant were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Macrophages from T. canis-infected mice produced IL-1 and IL-6 equivalent to macrophages from normal mice. The production of IL-10 and tumour growth factor (TGF)-beta was enhanced, but IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production was diminished. The addition of IFN-gamma, anti-IL-10 antibody, anti-TGF-beta antibody or indomethacin did not restore the production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha by macrophages from T. canis-infected mice. Furthermore, the stimulation of normal macrophages with T. canis antigen in vitro induced IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-beta, but not IL-12 and TNF-alpha. These results indicate that cytokine producing pattern of macrophages is altered by T. canis-infection, and this altered macrophage function may play an important role in the modification of the immune response to T. canis. PMID:11412383

Kuroda, E; Yoshida, Y; En Shan, B; Yamashita, U

2001-06-01

195

Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.  

PubMed

A group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with Babesia canis. The ability of the collar to prevent transmission of B. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. All 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with B. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. All control dogs developed clinical signs of babesiosis and were rescue-treated with imidocarb dipropionate. These dogs also developed specific B. canis antibodies as identified by serology (IFA test) and were confirmed PCR/RLB positive. None of the 8 dogs treated with the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar became infected with B. canis, which was confirmed by the absence of specific B. canis antibodies and babesial DNA as confirmed by PCR/RLB. The collar caused 96.02% of the ticks to die within 48h post challenge and this increased to 100% within 4 days. Although a high percentage of 44% of the Dermacentor ticks were infected with B. canis, they were unable to transmit the infection to the treated group. Hence, the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar effectively prevented transmission of B. canis 1 month after application onto the dogs. PMID:23158840

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

2013-02-18

196

Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

We compare differences in the reproductive strategies of "free-living" dogs with their wild relatives in the genus Canis, of which the dog is a very recently evolved member. The members of this genus display a greater range of parental motor patterns than generally seen in other species of Carnivora, including pair-bonding and extended parental care; parents regurgitate to offspring and provision them with food for months to as long as a year. But the domestic dog does not routinely display these genus-typical behaviors. While this has generally been assumed to be a result of direct human intervention, humans have little reproductive control over the vast majority of domestic dogs. We analyze the low frequency of display of genus-typical behaviors and postulate that the dog's reproductive behaviors are an adaptation to permanent human settlement and the waste resources associated with it. Adaptation to this environment has decreased seasonality, increased the fecundity of unrestrained dogs and reduced the need for prolonged parental care. The consequences of greater fecundity and reduced parental care are compared to the reproductive behavior of other species of the genus. PMID:23124015

Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond

2013-01-01

197

The mouse C9ORF72 ortholog is enriched in neurons known to degenerate in ALS and FTD  

PubMed Central

Using transgenic animals harboring a targeted LacZ insertion, we studied the expression pattern of the C9ORF72 mouse ortholog. Unlike most genes mutated in ALS, which are ubiquitously expressed, the C9ORF72-ortholog was most highly transcribed in the neuronal populations sensitive to degeneration in ALS and FTD. Thus, our study provides a potential explanation for the cell type specificity of neuronal degeneration caused by C9ORF72 mutations. PMID:24185425

Suzuki, Naoki; Maroof, Asif; Merkle, Florian T; Koszka, Kathryn; Intoh, Atsushi; Armstrong, Ian; Moccia, Rob; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Eggan, Kevin

2014-01-01

198

The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.  

PubMed

Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. PMID:24953751

Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Pe?ko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

2014-08-29

199

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

200

Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. PMID:24522164

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2014-03-17

201

OrthoDB v8: update of the hierarchical catalog of orthologs and the underlying free software  

PubMed Central

Orthology, refining the concept of homology, is the cornerstone of evolutionary comparative studies. With the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, inference of orthology has become instrumental for generating hypotheses about gene functions crucial to many studies. This update of the OrthoDB hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org) covers 3027 complete genomes, including the most comprehensive set of 87 arthropods, 61 vertebrates, 227 fungi and 2627 bacteria (sampling the most complete and representative genomes from over 11,000 available). In addition to the most extensive integration of functional annotations from UniProt, InterPro, GO, OMIM, model organism phenotypes and COG functional categories, OrthoDB uniquely provides evolutionary annotations including rates of ortholog sequence divergence, copy-number profiles, sibling groups and gene architectures. We re-designed the entirety of the OrthoDB website from the underlying technology to the user interface, enabling the user to specify species of interest and to select the relevant orthology level by the NCBI taxonomy. The text searches allow use of complex logic with various identifiers of genes, proteins, domains, ontologies or annotation keywords and phrases. Gene copy-number profiles can also be queried. This release comes with the freely available underlying ortholog clustering pipeline (http://www.orthodb.org/software). PMID:25428351

Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Petty, Tom J.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Simão, Felipe A.; Pozdnyakov, Igor A.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.

2015-01-01

202

PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/. PMID:24250218

Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

203

OrthoDB v8: update of the hierarchical catalog of orthologs and the underlying free software.  

PubMed

Orthology, refining the concept of homology, is the cornerstone of evolutionary comparative studies. With the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, inference of orthology has become instrumental for generating hypotheses about gene functions crucial to many studies. This update of the OrthoDB hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org) covers 3027 complete genomes, including the most comprehensive set of 87 arthropods, 61 vertebrates, 227 fungi and 2627 bacteria (sampling the most complete and representative genomes from over 11,000 available). In addition to the most extensive integration of functional annotations from UniProt, InterPro, GO, OMIM, model organism phenotypes and COG functional categories, OrthoDB uniquely provides evolutionary annotations including rates of ortholog sequence divergence, copy-number profiles, sibling groups and gene architectures. We re-designed the entirety of the OrthoDB website from the underlying technology to the user interface, enabling the user to specify species of interest and to select the relevant orthology level by the NCBI taxonomy. The text searches allow use of complex logic with various identifiers of genes, proteins, domains, ontologies or annotation keywords and phrases. Gene copy-number profiles can also be queried. This release comes with the freely available underlying ortholog clustering pipeline (http://www.orthodb.org/software). PMID:25428351

Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Petty, Tom J; Waterhouse, Robert M; Simão, Felipe A; Pozdnyakov, Igor A; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

2015-01-01

204

elevated trans-mammary transmission of Toxocara canis larvae in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts. PMID:25651332

Telmo, Paula de Lima; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; dos Santos, Cristina Araújo; de Aguiar, Patrícia de Souza; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

2015-01-01

205

Efficacy of SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus).  

PubMed

Eight black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (Canis adustus) were given SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine by direct oral instillation. Three different vaccine doses were used: 10(6.3), 10(6.8) and 10(7.5) median tissue culture infectious doses. Two additional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. One group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived rabies virus 1 mo after vaccination and a second group 12 mo after vaccination. All 17 vaccinated jackals developed high and persistent serum neutralizing antibody titers. All challenged jackals resisted a lethal dose of rabies virus, whereas three control jackals given the same challenge succumbed to rabies. PMID:8592368

Bingham, J; Kappeler, A; Hill, F W; King, A A; Perry, B D; Foggin, C M

1995-07-01

206

Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery area in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Predicting spatial patterns of hybridization is important for evolutionary and conservation biology yet are hampered by poor understanding of how hybridizing species can interact. This is especially pertinent in contact zones where hybridizing populations are sympatric. In this study, we examined the extent of red wolf (Canis rufus) colonization and introgression where the species contacts a coyote (C. latrans) population in North Carolina, USA. We surveyed 22,000km(2) in the winter of 2008 for scat and identified individual canids through genetic analysis. Of 614 collected scats, 250 were assigned to canids by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. Canid samples were genotyped at 6-17 microsatellite loci (nDNA) and assigned to species using three admixture criteria implemented in two Bayesian clustering programs. We genotyped 82 individuals but none were identified as red wolves. Two individuals had red wolf mtDNA but no significant red wolf nDNA ancestry. One individual possessed significant red wolf nDNA ancestry (approximately 30%) using all criteria, although seven other individuals showed evidence of red wolf ancestry (11-21%) using the relaxed criterion. Overall, seven individuals were classified as hybrids using the conservative criteria and 37 using the relaxed criterion. We found evidence of dog (C. familiaris) and gray wolf (C. lupus) introgression into the coyote population. We compared the performance of different methods and criteria by analyzing known red wolves and hybrids. These results suggest that red wolf colonization and introgression in North Carolina is minimal and provide insights into the utility of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization. PMID:21486372

Bohling, Justin H; Waits, Lisette P

2011-05-01

207

Comparative Manipulation-Test Performance in Ten-Week-Old Wolves (Canis lupus) and Alaskan Malamutes (Canis familiaris ): A Piagetian Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 10-week-old Eastern timber wolves (Canis lupus lycaon) and four 10-week-old malamutes (C. familiaris) were presented a series of puzzle boxes that required them to perform increasingly complex manipulations in order to extract a food dish. Wolves averaged 5.8 successes in eight trials, and malamutes averaged 1.5 successes. This difference was significant at the .05 level, which supports Frank's (1980)

Harry Frank; Martha Gialdini Frank

1985-01-01

208

Efficacy of SAD (Beme) Rabies Vaccine Given by the Oral Route in Two Species of Jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (Ca- nis adustus) were given SAD (Berne) rabies vac- cine by direct oral instillation. Three different vaccine doses were used: 10?, 10'? and 10? median tissue culture infectious doses. Two ad- ditional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. One group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived

J. Blngham; A. Kappeler; F. W. G. Hill; A. A. King; B. D. Perry; C. M. Foggin

209

Characterization of AtSTOP1 orthologous genes in tobacco and other plant species.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) and proton (H?) tolerances are essential traits for plants to adapt to acid soil environments. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these tolerances are mediated by a zinc-finger transcription factor, SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (AtSTOP1), which regulates the transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to both stressors. Here, the functions of orthologous proteins (STOP1-like proteins) in other plant species were characterized by reverse genetics analyses and in planta complementation assays. RNA interference of a gene for NtSTOP1 repressed Al and H? tolerances of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) roots. Tobacco roots released citrate in response to Al, concomitant with the up-regulated transcription of an ortholog of an Al tolerance gene encoding a citrate-transporting multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein. The RNA interference repression of NtSTOP1 blocked this process and also repressed the transcription of another orthologous gene for Al tolerance, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3, which encodes a prokaryote-type transporter. These results demonstrated that NtSTOP1 regulates Al tolerance in tobacco through the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The in planta complementation assays revealed that other plant species, including woody plants, a legume, and a moss (Physcomitrella patens), possess functional STOP1-like proteins that can activate several H? and Al-tolerance genes in Arabidopsis. Knocking out the gene encoding the STOP1-like protein decreased the Al tolerance of P. patens. Together, our results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation by STOP1-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved among land plants and that it confers the ability to survive in acid soils through the transcriptional regulation of Al- and H?-tolerance genes. PMID:23749850

Ohyama, Yoshinao; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Imaizumi, Ryujiro; Aoki, Toshio; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2013-08-01

210

Increasing the precision of orthology-based complex prediction through network alignment.  

PubMed

Macromolecular assemblies play an important role in almost all cellular processes. However, despite several large-scale studies, our current knowledge about protein complexes is still quite limited, thus advocating the use of in silico predictions to gather information on complex composition in model organisms. Since protein-protein interactions present certain constraints on the functional divergence of macromolecular assemblies during evolution, it is possible to predict complexes based on orthology data. Here, we show that incorporating interaction information through network alignment significantly increases the precision of orthology-based complex prediction. Moreover, we performed a large-scale in silico screen for protein complexes in human, yeast and fly, through the alignment of hundreds of known complexes to whole organism interactomes. Systematic comparison of the resulting network alignments to all complexes currently known in those species revealed many conserved complexes, as well as several novel complex components. In addition to validating our predictions using orthogonal data, we were able to assign specific functional roles to the predicted complexes. In several cases, the incorporation of interaction data through network alignment allowed to distinguish real complex components from other orthologous proteins. Our analyses indicate that current knowledge of yeast protein complexes exceeds that in other organisms and that predicting complexes in fly based on human and yeast data is complementary rather than redundant. Lastly, assessing the conservation of protein complexes of the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we discovered that its complexes repertoire is different from that of eukaryotes, suggesting new points of therapeutic intervention, whereas targeting the pathogen's Restriction enzyme complex might lead to adverse effects due to its similarity to ATP-dependent metalloproteases in the human host. PMID:24918034

Pache, Roland A; Aloy, Patrick

2014-01-01

211

Improving N-terminal protein annotation of Plasmodium species based on signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Signal peptide is one of the most important motifs involved in protein trafficking and it ultimately influences protein function. Considering the expected functional conservation among orthologs it was hypothesized that divergence in signal peptides within orthologous groups is mainly due to N-terminal protein sequence misannotation. Thus, discrepancies in signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins were used to identify misannotated proteins in five Plasmodium species. Methods Signal peptide (SignalP) and orthology (OrthoMCL) were combined in an innovative strategy to identify orthologous groups showing discrepancies in signal peptide prediction among their protein members (Mixed groups). In a comparative analysis, multiple alignments for each of these groups and gene models were visually inspected in search of misannotated proteins and, whenever possible, alternative gene models were proposed. Thresholds for signal peptide prediction parameters were also modified to reduce their impact as a possible source of discrepancy among orthologs. Validation of new gene models was based on RT-PCR (few examples) or on experimental evidence already published (ApiLoc). Results The rate of misannotated proteins was significantly higher in Mixed groups than in Positive or Negative groups, corroborating the proposed hypothesis. A total of 478 proteins were reannotated and change of signal peptide prediction from negative to positive was the most common. Reannotations triggered the conversion of almost 50% of all Mixed groups, which were further reduced by optimization of signal peptide prediction parameters. Conclusions The methodological novelty proposed here combining orthology and signal peptide prediction proved to be an effective strategy for the identification of proteins showing wrongly N-terminal annotated sequences, and it might have an important impact in the available data for genome-wide searching of potential vaccine and drug targets and proteins involved in host/parasite interactions, as demonstrated for five Plasmodium species. PMID:23153225

2012-01-01

212

Functional conservation of wheat orthologs of maize rough sheath1 and rough sheath2 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize rough\\u000a sheath2 (RS2) and Arabidopsis\\u000a ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) both encode a Myb transcription factor and repress Knotted1-type homeobox (KNOX) genes. The RS2\\/AS1-KNOX relationship is functionally conserved between maize and Arabidopsis. Here, we cloned wheat orthologs of RS2\\/AS1 and of a maize rough\\u000a sheath1 (rs1) KNOX gene and named them WRS2 and WRS1, respectively. WRS1 mRNA was detected at leaf

Ryoko Morimoto; Emi Nishioka; Koji Murai; Shigeo Takumi

2009-01-01

213

Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).  

PubMed

We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25446624

Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

2015-01-01

214

Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon), that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus) and coyotes (C. latrans) than grey wolves (C. lupus).

Linda Y Rutledge; Brent R Patterson; Bradley N White

2010-01-01

215

Forest composition around wolf ( Canis lupus ) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Den-site selection is a poorly understood aspect of wolf (Canis lupus) ecology, particularly for populations in forested ecosystems. Using a geographic information system and remote-sensing imagery, we examined patterns of habitat use around wolf dens in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Sixteen den sites were sampled for eight habitat types in their immediately vicinity, as well as at radii of

D. Ryan Norris; Mary T. Theberge; John B. Theberge

2002-01-01

216

The smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis, is a small shark species found throughout  

E-print Network

674 The smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis, is a small shark species found throughout the western). Recently, commercial harvest of smooth dogfish has increased on the east coast of the United States. Annual, and North Carolina (NMFS, 2002). Sharks are often highly susceptible to overfishing because of life history

217

The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Greenland: A Historical Review and Present Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few decades, little information on the wolf (Canis lupus) in Greenland has been published. The decline of the species and its extirpation in the late 1930s from East Greenland is well documented. Since then, there has been a tendency for wolves sighted in the North and East Greenland National Park to be classified as temporary visitors wandering

PETER R. DAWES; MAGNUS ELANDER; MATS ERICSON

1986-01-01

218

Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves ( Canis lupus) from the Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney, liver and bone samples were taken from 19 wolves (Canis lupus) collected from two locations in the Yukon Territory. Liver samples pooled by age and sex were analyzed for 22 organochlorine pesticides and 101 PCB congeners. Individual kidney and liver samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium and zinc. Thirteen individual bone samples were analyzed

Mary Gamberg; Birgit M. Braune

1999-01-01

219

Serologic Investigations of Canine Parvovirus and Canine Distemper in Relation to Wolf (Canis lupus) Pup Mortalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious ca- nine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevatences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of

Mark R. Johnson; Diane K. Boyd; Daniel H. Pletscher

1994-01-01

220

Potential impact of wolves Canis lupus on prey populations in eastern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 7000 km2 study area in eastern Poland supported c.50 wolves Canis lupus in 1989 and 40 in 1992, and high numbers of game constituting the staple food of these predators. This paper assesses the energetic requirements of the wolf population as well as potential resources of its preferred prey. On the basis of basal metabolism rate (BMR) and daily

Zbigniew G?owaci?ski; Piotr Profus

1997-01-01

221

Habitat evaluation for the Iberian wolf Canis lupus in Picos de Europa National Park, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GIS multivariate model based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic is proposed to evaluate habitat suitability for the wolf Canis lupus in northern Spain. Results derived from the model show that wolves can potentially thrive in some habitats on the southern and western side of the study area where conflicts with the human population are minimum. However, some other areas

Luis Cayuela

2004-01-01

222

Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest

Juan-Matías Segovia; Ricardo Guerrero; Jordi Torres; Jordi Miquel; Carlos Feliu

2003-01-01

223

Killing of a Muskox, Ovibos moschatus, by two Wolves, Canis lupus, and subsequent caching  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed.

David, Mech L.; Adams, L.G.

1999-01-01

224

The importance of crossroads in faecal marking behaviour of the wolves ( Canis lupus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

For wolves ( Canis lupus) scats play an important function in territorial marking behaviour. Depositing scats at strategic sites such as crossroads and on conspicuous substrates probably increases their effectiveness as visual and olfactory marks. It is therefore likely that scats will be deposited, and will accumulate, at particular crossroads where the probability of being detected by other wolves is

Isabel Barja; Francisco Javier de Miguel; Felipe Bárcena

2004-01-01

225

First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.  

PubMed

Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania. PMID:18436679

Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

2008-04-01

226

Clinical, Hematologic, and Molecular Findings in Naturally Occurring Babesia canis vogeli in Egyptian Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background. Canine babesiosis is a clinically important hemoprotozoan parasite affecting dogs. The goal of this present study was to determine the clinical symptoms and to establish its hematological and microscopic detection and compare it with the PCR findings attained from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli. Methodology/Principal Findings. 13-PCR confirmed Babesia-infected dogs were examined; seminested PCR was used to discover the precise type of Babesia and Babesia canis vogeli was the only subspecies detected. The most consistent clinical signs were elevated rectal temperature and a pale mucous membrane. Thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis, along with a significant reduction in red cell parameters, were the most commonly recorded hematologic alterations. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of typical large merozoites and trophozoites of B. canis in the ratio 76.92%. Conclusions/Significance. The presumptive diagnosis of canine babesiosis should be based on a fever and anemia, while thrombocytopenia is considered the hallmark of the disease; microscopic examination may not be very revealing in the detection at low parasitemia, but it remains the most rapid confirmatory method. Seminested PCR turned out to be a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis; during the process of differentiation between Babesia subspecies, only B. canis subsp. vogeli was detected. PMID:24693460

Salem, N. Y.; Farag, H. S.

2014-01-01

227

Clinical, Hematologic, and Molecular Findings in Naturally Occurring Babesia canis vogeli in Egyptian Dogs.  

PubMed

Background. Canine babesiosis is a clinically important hemoprotozoan parasite affecting dogs. The goal of this present study was to determine the clinical symptoms and to establish its hematological and microscopic detection and compare it with the PCR findings attained from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli. Methodology/Principal Findings. 13-PCR confirmed Babesia-infected dogs were examined; seminested PCR was used to discover the precise type of Babesia and Babesia canis vogeli was the only subspecies detected. The most consistent clinical signs were elevated rectal temperature and a pale mucous membrane. Thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis, along with a significant reduction in red cell parameters, were the most commonly recorded hematologic alterations. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of typical large merozoites and trophozoites of B. canis in the ratio 76.92%. Conclusions/Significance. The presumptive diagnosis of canine babesiosis should be based on a fever and anemia, while thrombocytopenia is considered the hallmark of the disease; microscopic examination may not be very revealing in the detection at low parasitemia, but it remains the most rapid confirmatory method. Seminested PCR turned out to be a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis; during the process of differentiation between Babesia subspecies, only B. canis subsp. vogeli was detected. PMID:24693460

Salem, N Y; Farag, H S

2014-01-01

228

Realistic Hair from a Sketch Jamie Wither1 Florence Bertails2 Marie-Paule Cani1  

E-print Network

Realistic Hair from a Sketch Jamie Wither1 Florence Bertails2 Marie-Paule Cani1 1University explores a sketch-based interface for quickly yet accurately creating visually realistic hair for virtual characters. Recently, physically-based models have proved successful for generating a wide variety of hair

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxocara canis is a widely distributed nematode parasite which reaches maturity in dogs. However, eggs voided by canid animals are infective to a very wide range of paratenic hosts including humans. In noncanid hosts, infective larvae emerge from the eggs and invade the soft tissues, often entering the brain and musculature. Such larvae may remain for many months or years

Rick M. Maizels; Kevin K. A. Tetteh; Alex Loukas

2000-01-01

230

Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

231

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2001-01-01

232

BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A. Zevallos; dos Santos, Sergio Vieira

2014-01-01

233

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils,

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; John Kilgo; Scott Ray; Karl V. Miller

2007-01-01

234

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2007-01-01

235

Daily activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest of western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the activity patterns of the coyote (Canis latrans) in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mexican Pacific coast over 3 years. Fifteen coyotes (six females, nine males) were fitted with radio-collars equipped with activity sensors to determine the influence of seasonality (dry vs. wet), gender (males vs. females) and diel intervals (dusk, night, dawn, and day) on activity

Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart; Lisette Cantú-Salazar; Samia E. Carrillo-Percastegui; Carlos A. López-González

2009-01-01

236

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella

B. R Hoar; B. B Chomel; D. L Rolfe; C. C Chang; C. L Fritz; B. N Sacks; T. E Carpenter

2003-01-01

237

BLINDNESS IN A COYOTE, Canis latrans, FROM THE ROLLING PLAINS OF TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross and histopathologiclesionsin the eyes of a blind coyote, Canis \\/atrans, collectedin King County, Texas are discussed.The animal was in good condition and its age estimated at 7 years. The left globe presented with a superficial corneal erosion, a small punctate erosion, and an apparent lenticular opacity. Histo- logically, there was a mild anterior uveitis and lenticular degeneration with thicken-

DANNY B. PENCEE; WYMAN P. MEINZEREU

238

Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara canis Eggs  

PubMed Central

Background We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its suburbs). Methods Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran) and examined for the presence of T. canis eggs. Results T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs) showed a contamination rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was varied from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger). Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05). Conclusion This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considerable number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment. PMID:23323100

Tavassoli, M; Javadi, S; Firozi, R; Rezaei, F; Khezri, AR; Hadian, M

2012-01-01

239

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. PMID:24657583

Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

2014-06-01

240

Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs. PMID:24808645

Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

2014-06-01

241

Behavioral and memory changes in Mus musculus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos

2014-01-01

242

Rapid screening and cultivation of Ehrlichia canis from refrigerated carrier blood  

PubMed Central

Improved detection and isolation of rickettsial agents from naturally infected dogs would facilitate understanding the epidemiologic roles of these hosts. In this study, current methods were refined for rapid screening of carrier blood and ticks for Ehrlichia canis, and the feasibility of blood culture after PCR screening was addressed. PMID:19438630

McClure, Jennifer C.; Crothers, Michelle L.; Schaefer, John J.; Stanley, Patrick D.; Stich, Roger W.

2008-01-01

243

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T.

J. P. Dubey; R. Zarnke; N. J. Thomas; S. K. Wong; W. Van Bonnd; M. Briggs; J. W. Davis; R. Ewing; M. Menseh; O. C. H. Kwok; S. Romand; P. Thulliez

2003-01-01

244

Playing at bullying: The postmodern ethic of Bully (Canis Canem Edit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses Bully (Canis Canem Edit), considering the game's antecedents (narratives involving young people in school settings) and the features which set it apart from other teen texts. It discusses the controversy surrounding the game and comes to the conclusion that the principal reason for unease on the part of parents and educational authorities is that Bully's postmodernist ethic

Clare Bradford

245

A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

Mech, L. David

2014-01-01

246

Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I toward Sirius A. We show that if such a high value exists, it cannot result from the EUV stellar radiation field and, therefore, must be due to a strong diffuse source of EUV radiation.

Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

1995-01-01

247

First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

2014-01-01

248

Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs. PMID:24655375

2014-01-01

249

Differential effects of a mutation on the normal and promiscuous activities of orthologs: implications for natural and directed evolution.  

PubMed

Neutral drift occurring over millions or billions of years results in substantial sequence divergence among enzymes that catalyze the same reaction. Although natural selection maintains the primary activity of orthologous enzymes, there is, by definition, no selective pressure to maintain physiologically irrelevant promiscuous activities. Thus, the levels and the evolvabilities of promiscuous activities may vary among orthologous enzymes. Consistent with this expectation, we have found that the levels of a promiscuous activity in nine gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase (ProA) orthologs vary by about 50-fold. Remarkably, a single amino acid change from Glu to Ala near the active site appeared to be critical for improvement of the promiscuous activity in every ortholog. The effects of this change varied dramatically. The improvement in the promiscuous activity varied from 50- to 770-fold, and, importantly, was not correlated with the initial level of the promiscuous activity. The decrease in the original activity varied from 190- to 2,100-fold. These results suggest that evolution of a novel enzyme may be possible in some microbes, but not in others. Further, these results underscore the importance of using multiple orthologs as starting points for directed evolution of novel enzyme activities. PMID:25246702

Khanal, Akhil; Yu McLoughlin, Sean; Kershner, Jamie P; Copley, Shelley D

2015-01-01

250

The PhyloFacts FAT-CAT web server: ortholog identification and function prediction using fast approximate tree classification.  

PubMed

The PhyloFacts 'Fast Approximate Tree Classification' (FAT-CAT) web server provides a novel approach to ortholog identification using subtree hidden Markov model-based placement of protein sequences to phylogenomic orthology groups in the PhyloFacts database. Results on a data set of microbial, plant and animal proteins demonstrate FAT-CAT's high precision at separating orthologs and paralogs and robustness to promiscuous domains. We also present results documenting the precision of ortholog identification based on subtree hidden Markov model scoring. The FAT-CAT phylogenetic placement is used to derive a functional annotation for the query, including confidence scores and drill-down capabilities. PhyloFacts' broad taxonomic and functional coverage, with >7.3 M proteins from across the Tree of Life, enables FAT-CAT to predict orthologs and assign function for most sequence inputs. Four pipeline parameter presets are provided to handle different sequence types, including partial sequences and proteins containing promiscuous domains; users can also modify individual parameters. PhyloFacts trees matching the query can be viewed interactively online using the PhyloScope Javascript tree viewer and are hyperlinked to various external databases. The FAT-CAT web server is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/fatcat/. PMID:23685612

Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Samad, Bushra; Dineen, David; Meacham, Christopher; Sjölander, Kimmen

2013-07-01

251

The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins  

PubMed Central

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins. PMID:24351800

Graf, Laura; Webel, Rike; Wagner, Sabrina; Hamilton, Stuart T.; Rawlinson, William D.; Sticht, Heinrich; Marschall, Manfred

2013-01-01

252

TreeFam v9: a new website, more species and orthology-on-the-fly.  

PubMed

TreeFam (http://www.treefam.org) is a database of phylogenetic trees inferred from animal genomes. For every TreeFam family we provide homology predictions together with the evolutionary history of the genes. Here we describe an update of the TreeFam database. The TreeFam project was resurrected in 2012 and has seen two releases since. The latest release (TreeFam 9) was made available in March 2013. It has orthology predictions and gene trees for 109 species in 15,736 families covering ?2.2 million sequences. With release 9 we made modifications to our production pipeline and redesigned our website with improved gene tree visualizations and Wikipedia integration. Furthermore, we now provide an HMM-based sequence search that places a user-provided protein sequence into a TreeFam gene tree and provides quick orthology prediction. The tool uses Mafft and RAxML for the fast insertion into a reference alignment and tree, respectively. Besides the aforementioned technical improvements, we present a new approach to visualize gene trees and alternative displays that focuses on showing homology information from a species tree point of view. From release 9 onwards, TreeFam is now hosted at the EBI. PMID:24194607

Schreiber, Fabian; Patricio, Mateus; Muffato, Matthieu; Pignatelli, Miguel; Bateman, Alex

2014-01-01

253

TFClass: a classification of human transcription factors and their rodent orthologs  

PubMed Central

TFClass aims at classifying eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) according to their DNA-binding domains (DBDs). For this, a classification schema comprising four generic levels (superclass, class, family and subfamily) was defined that could accommodate all known DNA-binding human TFs. They were assigned to their (sub-)families as instances at two different levels, the corresponding TF genes and individual gene products (protein isoforms). In the present version, all mouse and rat orthologs have been linked to the human TFs, and the mouse orthologs have been arranged in an independent ontology. Many TFs were assigned with typical DNA-binding patterns and positional weight matrices derived from high-throughput in-vitro binding studies. Predicted TF binding sites from human gene upstream sequences are now also attached to each human TF whenever a PWM was available for this factor or one of his paralogs. TFClass is freely available at http://tfclass.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/ through a web interface and for download in OBO format. PMID:25361979

Wingender, Edgar; Schoeps, Torsten; Haubrock, Martin; Dönitz, Jürgen

2015-01-01

254

PANTHER version 7: improved phylogenetic trees, orthologs and collaboration with the Gene Ontology Consortium.  

PubMed

Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations. PMID:20015972

Mi, Huaiyu; Dong, Qing; Muruganujan, Anushya; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewis, Suzanna; Thomas, Paul D

2010-01-01

255

POGO-DB--a database of pairwise-comparisons of genomes and conserved orthologous genes.  

PubMed

POGO-DB (http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/) provides an easy platform for comparative microbial genomics. POGO-DB allows users to compare genomes using pre-computed metrics that were derived from extensive computationally intensive BLAST comparisons of >2000 microbes. These metrics include (i) average protein sequence identity across all orthologs shared by two genomes, (ii) genomic fluidity (a measure of gene content dissimilarity), (iii) number of 'orthologs' shared between two genomes, (iv) pairwise identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and (v) pairwise identity of an additional 73 marker genes present in >90% prokaryotes. Users can visualize these metrics against each other in a 2D plot for exploratory analysis of genome similarity and of how different aspects of genome similarity relate to each other. The results of these comparisons are fully downloadable. In addition, users can download raw BLAST results for all or user-selected comparisons. Therefore, we provide users with full flexibility to carry out their own downstream analyses, by creating easy access to data that would normally require heavy computational resources to generate. POGO-DB should prove highly useful for researchers interested in comparative microbiology and benefit the microbiome/metagenomic communities by providing the information needed to select suitable phylogenetic marker genes within particular lineages. PMID:24198250

Lan, Yemin; Morrison, J Calvin; Hershberg, Ruth; Rosen, Gail L

2014-01-01

256

POGO-DB—a database of pairwise-comparisons of genomes and conserved orthologous genes  

PubMed Central

POGO-DB (http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/) provides an easy platform for comparative microbial genomics. POGO-DB allows users to compare genomes using pre-computed metrics that were derived from extensive computationally intensive BLAST comparisons of >2000 microbes. These metrics include (i) average protein sequence identity across all orthologs shared by two genomes, (ii) genomic fluidity (a measure of gene content dissimilarity), (iii) number of ‘orthologs’ shared between two genomes, (iv) pairwise identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and (v) pairwise identity of an additional 73 marker genes present in >90% prokaryotes. Users can visualize these metrics against each other in a 2D plot for exploratory analysis of genome similarity and of how different aspects of genome similarity relate to each other. The results of these comparisons are fully downloadable. In addition, users can download raw BLAST results for all or user-selected comparisons. Therefore, we provide users with full flexibility to carry out their own downstream analyses, by creating easy access to data that would normally require heavy computational resources to generate. POGO-DB should prove highly useful for researchers interested in comparative microbiology and benefit the microbiome/metagenomic communities by providing the information needed to select suitable phylogenetic marker genes within particular lineages. PMID:24198250

Lan, Yemin; Morrison, J. Calvin; Hershberg, Ruth; Rosen, Gail L.

2014-01-01

257

In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is an obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative tick-borne bacterium belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. E. canis is distributed worldwide and can cause serious and fatal infections in dogs. Among strains of E. canis, the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences are highly conserved. Using this gene to genetically differentiate isolates is therefore difficult. As an alternative, the gene gp36, which encodes for a major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, has been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of this pathogen. The present study describes the isolation and continuous propagation of a Spanish and 2 South African isolates of E. canis in IDE8 tick cells. Subsequently, canine DH82 cell cultures were infected using initial bodies obtained from infected IDE8 cultures. It was possible to mimic the life cycle of E. canis in vitro by transferring infection from tick cells to canine cells and back again. To characterize these E. canis strains at the molecular level, the 16S rRNA and gp36 genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and aligned with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. All 16S rRNA sequences amplified in this study were identical to previously reported E. canis strains. Maximum likelihood analysis based on the gp36 amino acid sequences showed that the South African and Spanish strains fall into 2 well-defined phylogenetic clusters amongst other E. canis strains. The members of these 2 phylogenetic clusters shared 2 unique molecular properties in the gp36 amino acid sequences: (i) deletion of glycine 117 and (ii) the presence of an additional putative N-linked glycosylation site. We further show correlation between the putative secondary structure and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of the gp36 amino acid sequences. A putative role of gp36 as an adhesin in E. canis is discussed. Overall, we report the successful in vitro culture of 3 new E. canis strains which present different molecular properties in their gp36 sequences. PMID:24713279

Zweygarth, Erich; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, Antoinette I; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matjila, Paul T; Lis, Katarzyna; Broniszewska, Marzena; Schöl, Heidrun; Ferrolho, Joana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia M F

2014-06-01

258

OrthoMaM: A database of orthologous genomic markers for placental mammal phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular sequence data have become the standard in modern day phylogenetics. In particular, several long-standing questions of mammalian evolutionary history have been recently resolved thanks to the use of molecular characters. Yet, most studies have focused on only a handful of standard markers. The availability of an ever increasing number of whole genome sequences is a golden mine for modern systematics. Genomic data now provide the opportunity to select new markers that are potentially relevant for further resolving branches of the mammalian phylogenetic tree at various taxonomic levels. Description The EnsEMBL database was used to determine a set of orthologous genes from 12 available complete mammalian genomes. As targets for possible amplification and sequencing in additional taxa, more than 3,000 exons of length > 400 bp have been selected, among which 118, 368, 608, and 674 are respectively retrieved for 12, 11, 10, and 9 species. A bioinformatic pipeline has been developed to provide evolutionary descriptors for these candidate markers in order to assess their potential phylogenetic utility. The resulting OrthoMaM (Orthologous Mammalian Markers) database can be queried and alignments can be downloaded through a dedicated web interface . Conclusion The importance of marker choice in phylogenetic studies has long been stressed. Our database centered on complete genome information now makes possible to select promising markers to a given phylogenetic question or a systematic framework by querying a number of evolutionary descriptors. The usefulness of the database is illustrated with two biological examples. First, two potentially useful markers were identified for rodent systematics based on relevant evolutionary parameters and sequenced in additional species. Second, a complete, gapless 94 kb supermatrix of 118 orthologous exons was assembled for 12 mammals. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods unambiguously supported the new placental phylogeny by retrieving the monophyly of Glires, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, and Boreoeutheria. Muroid rodents thus do not represent a basal placental lineage as it was mistakenly reasserted in some recent phylogenomic analyses based on fewer taxa. We expect the OrthoMaM database to be useful for further resolving the phylogenetic tree of placental mammals and for better understanding the evolutionary dynamics of their genomes, i.e., the forces that shaped coding sequences in terms of selective constraints. PMID:18053139

Ranwez, Vincent; Delsuc, Frédéric; Ranwez, Sylvie; Belkhir, Khalid; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel JP

2007-01-01

259

Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions. PMID:23409865

Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

2014-02-01

260

The Drosophila TNF ortholog Eiger: emerging physiological roles and evolution of the TNF system.  

PubMed

The TNF and TNFR superfamilies of proteins are conserved throughout evolution. The first invertebrate orthologs of TNF and TNFR, Eiger and Wengen, were identified in Drosophila, which enabled us to take advantage of its powerful genetics. Indeed, genetic studies on Eiger in the last decade have discovered their signaling mechanisms through activation of the JNK pathway and unveiled the role of Eiger-JNK signaling in a variety of cellular and tissue processes such as cell death, cell proliferation, tissue growth regulation, host defense, pain sensitization, and canalization. In this review, we will describe the in vivo signaling of Eiger and its physiological roles in fly development and homeostasis, and will discuss the evolution of the TNF/TNFR systems. PMID:24981286

Igaki, Tatsushi; Miura, Masayuki

2014-06-01

261

The Evolutionary Panorama of Organ-Specifically Expressed or Repressed Orthologous Genes in Nine Vertebrate Species  

PubMed Central

RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology provides the detailed transcriptomic information for a biological sample. Using the RNA-Seq data of six organs from nine vertebrate species, we identified a number of organ-specifically expressed or repressed orthologous genes whose expression patterns are mostly conserved across nine species. Our analyses show the following results: (i) About 80% of these genes have a chordate or more ancient origin and more than half of them are the legacy of one or multiple rounds of large-scale gene duplication events. (ii) Their evolutionary rates are shaped by the organ in which they are expressed or repressed, e.g. the genes specially expressed in testis and liver generally evolve more than twice as fast as the ones specially expressed in brain and cerebellum. The organ-specific transcription factors were discriminated from these genes. The ChIP-seq data from the ENCODE project also revealed the transcription-related factors that might be involved in regulating human organ-specifically expressed or repressed genes. Some of them are shared by all six human organs. The comparison of ENCODE data with mouse/chicken ChIP-seq data proposes that organ-specifically expressed or repressed orthologous genes are regulated in various combinatorial fashions in different species, although their expression features are conserved among these species. We found that the duplication events in some gene families might help explain the quick organ/tissue divergence in vertebrate lineage. The phylogenetic analysis of testis-specifically expressed genes suggests that some of them are prone to develop new functions for other organs/tissues. PMID:25679776

Shen, Libing; Liu, Gangbiao; Zou, Yangyun; Zhou, Zhan; Su, Zhixi; Gu, Xun

2015-01-01

262

Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

2013-01-01

263

inGeno – an integrated genome and ortholog viewer for improved genome to genome comparisons  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic genome comparisons are an important tool to reveal gene functions, pathogenic features, metabolic pathways and genome evolution in the era of post-genomics. Furthermore, such comparisons provide important clues for vaccines and drug development. Existing genome comparison software often lacks accurate information on orthologs, the function of similar genes identified and genome-wide reports and lists on specific functions. All these features and further analyses are provided here in the context of a modular software tool "inGeno" written in Java with Biojava subroutines. Results InGeno provides a user-friendly interactive visualization platform for sequence comparisons (comprehensive reciprocal protein – protein comparisons) between complete genome sequences and all associated annotations and features. The comparison data can be acquired from several different sequence analysis programs in flexible formats. Automatic dot-plot analysis includes output reduction, filtering, ortholog testing and linear regression, followed by smart clustering (local collinear blocks; LCBs) to reveal similar genome regions. Further, the system provides genome alignment and visualization editor, collinear relationships and strain-specific islands. Specific annotations and functions are parsed, recognized, clustered, logically concatenated and visualized and summarized in reports. Conclusion As shown in this study, inGeno can be applied to study and compare in particular prokaryotic genomes against each other (gram positive and negative as well as close and more distantly related species) and has been proven to be sensitive and accurate. This modular software is user-friendly and easily accommodates new routines to meet specific user-defined requirements. PMID:17054788

Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas

2006-01-01

264

Membrane association, electrostatic sequestration, and cytotoxicity of Gly-Leu-rich peptide orthologs with differing functions.  

PubMed

The skins of closely related frog species produce Gly-Leu-rich peptide orthologs that have very similar sequences, hydrophobicities, and amphipathicities but differ markedly in their net charge and membrane-damaging properties. Cationic Gly-Leu-rich peptides are hemolytic and very potent against microorganisms. Peptides with no net charge have only hemolytic activity. We have used ancestral protein reconstruction and peptide analogue design to examine the roles of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the biological activity and mode of action of functionally divergent Gly-Leu-rich peptides. The structure and interaction of the peptides with anionic and zwitterionic model membranes were investigated by circular dichroism with 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol vesicles and surface plasmon resonance with immobilized bilayers. The results, combined with antimicrobial assays, the kinetics of bacterial killing, and membrane permeabilization assays, reveal that Gly, Val, Thr, and Ile can all be accommodated in an amphipathic alpha helix when the helix is in a membrane environment. Binding to anionic and zwitterionic membranes fitted to a 2-stage interaction model (adsorption to the membrane followed by membrane insertion). The first step is governed by hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar surface of the peptide helix and the membranes. The strong binding of Gly-Leu-rich cationic peptides to anionic membranes is due to the second binding step and involves short-range Coulombic interactions that prolong the residence time of the membrane-inserted peptide. The data demonstrate that evolution has positively selected charge-altering nucleotide substitutions to generate an orthologous cationic variant of neutral hemolytic peptides that bind to and permeate bacterial cell membranes. PMID:15222751

Vanhoye, Damien; Bruston, Francine; El Amri, Shaharazade; Ladram, Ali; Amiche, Mohamed; Nicolas, Pierre

2004-07-01

265

Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples  

PubMed Central

Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an ?340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. canis but not mammalian DNA. Forward primers were designed that would specifically amplify a smaller fragment from each organism in a seminested PCR. The practical limit of detection was 50 organisms/ml of mock-infected EDTA anticoagulated whole blood. The primer pair also amplified an ?370-bp fragment of the B. gibsoni (USA/California genotype) 18S rRNA gene from the blood of an experimentally infected dog with a high percentage of parasitemia. Amplicons were not detected when DNA extracted from the blood of a dog that was naturally infected with Theileria annae at a low percentage of parasitemia was amplified. Due to limited sensitivity, this test is not recommended for the routine diagnosis of B. gibsoni (USA/California genotype) or T. annae. The PCR test did not amplify Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, Cryptosporidium parvum, or canine DNA under any of the conditions tested. The seminested PCR test was able to detect and discriminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in blood samples from infected dogs. PMID:12958243

Birkenheuer, Adam J.; Levy, Michael G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2003-01-01

266

Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati - is it possible?  

PubMed

One of the most common zoonotic helminth infections is caused by species in the genus Toxocara, particularly Toxocara canis and T. cati (Syn. T. mystax). However, their relative contribution to toxocarosis in humans remains largely unknown because causative larvae are seldom recovered and uncertainties regarding the validity of existing serological assays. In this study, we used sera from a pig model experimentally infected with T. canis and T. cati to evaluate whether a Western blot could discriminate between the two species. No proteins were observed that could be used as a diagnostic tool. In addition, a heterogenic protein pattern between individual hosts was found, which was most pronounced in the T. cati-infected pigs. There is therefore an urgent need to optimize and validate current methods or develop new species-specific serological methods in order to implement appropriate control measures. PMID:25711956

Poulsen, C S; Skov, S; Yoshida, A; Skallerup, P; Maruyama, H; Thamsborg, S M; Nejsum, P

2015-04-01

267

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia  

PubMed Central

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

?irovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

268

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

269

Ehrlichia canis-like agent isolated from a man in Venezuela: antigenic and genetic characterization.  

PubMed Central

We report the first isolation and molecular and antigenic characterization of a human ehrlichial species in South America. A retrospective study was performed with serum specimens from 6 children with clinical signs suggestive of human ehrlichiosis and 43 apparently healthy adults who had a close contact with dogs exhibiting clinical signs compatible with canine ehrlichiosis. The evaluation was performed by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay with Ehrlichia chaffeensis Arkansas, Ehrlichia canis Oklahoma, and Ehrlichia muris antigens. The sera from two apparently healthy humans were positive by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay for all three antigens. Of the three antigens, samples from humans 1 and 2 showed the highest antibody titers against E. chaffeensis and E. muris, respectively. The remaining serum samples were negative for all three antigens. One year later examination of a blood sample from subject 1 revealed morulae morphologically resembling either E. canis, E. chaffeensis, or E. muris in monocytes in the blood smear. The microorganism, referred to here as Venezuelan human ehrlichia (VHE), was isolated from the blood of this person at 4 days after coculturing isolated blood leukocytes with a dog macrophage cell line (DH82). The organism was also isolated from mice 10 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of blood leukocytes from subject 1. Analysis by electron microscopy showed that the human isolate was ultrastructurally similar to E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. muris. When the virulence of VHE in mice was compared with those of E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. muris, only VHE and E. muris induced clinical signs in BALB/c mice at 4 and 10 days, respectively, after intraperitoneal inoculation. VHE was reisolated from peritoneal exudate cells of the mice. Only E. chaffeensis- and E. muris-infected mice developed significant splenomegaly. Western immunoblot analysis showed that serum from subject 1 reacted with major proteins of the VHE antigen of 110, 80, 76, 58, 43, 35, and 34 kDa. Human serum against E. chaffeensis reacted strongly with 58-, 54-, 52-, and 40-kDa proteins of the VHE antigen. Anti-E. canis dog serum reacted strongly with 26- and 24-kDa proteins of VHE. In contrast, anti-E. sennetsu rabbit and anti-E. muris mouse sera did not react with the VHE antigen. Serum from subject 1 reacted with major proteins of 90, 64, or 47 kDa of the E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. muris antigens. This reaction pattern suggests that this serum sample was similar to serum samples from E. chaffeensis-infected human patients in Oklahoma. The base sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of VHE was most closely related to that of E. canis Oklahoma. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that VHE is a new strain or a subspecies of E. canis which may cause asymptomatic persistent infection in humans. PMID:8862572

Perez, M; Rikihisa, Y; Wen, B

1996-01-01

270

Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

2014-10-01

271

Hepatitis associated with a Sarcocystis canis-like protozoan in a Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi).  

PubMed

A Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) died in captivity at the National Marine Fisheries Service, Kewalo Basin Facility in Honolulu, Hawaii. The animal was icteric, and the liver was friable. Microscopic lesions were detected in the colon and liver. Colonic lesions included multifocal, necrohemorrhagic colitis associated with gram-negative bacilli. The liver lesions included random hepatic necrosis and cholestasis. Asexual stages of a Sarcocystis canis-like apicomplexan were detected in hepatocytes. The parasite divided by endopolygeny. Merozoites occasionally formed rosettes around a central residual body. Ultrastructurally, merozoites lacked rhoptries. This is the first report of S. canis infection in M. schauinslandi, which is an endangered pinniped in U.S. waters. PMID:14740925

Yantis, D; Moeller, R; Braun, R; Gardiner, C H; Aguirre, A; Dubey, J P

2003-12-01

272

[Identification and characterisation of 200 strains of Brucella canis under test from China].  

PubMed

200 cultures of Brucella canis under test were received from some provinces in our laboratory. 167 (85.59%) of them were identified as Brucella according to morphology, growth properties and serologies. And then, they were proved as Brucella canis with R-serum agglutination and lysed test of phage R/C. Some strains also were performed DNA homologous determination and observation of electron microscopic morphology. The results found out that the genetic constitution and picture of them identified with that of reference strains. Non-agglutination reaction was 4.75% of all strains in R-serum test. 72.49% of them appeared typic reaction in dye sensitivity test. 22.75% was resisted to both thionin and fuchsin, which separated difficulty with R phase strains of Brucella melitensis lysed by phage R/C. PMID:1481533

Jian, H

1992-10-01

273

Cortisol levels in cats' hair in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to perform a preliminary screening in the domestic cat to assess the concentration of cortisol in hairs by radioimmunoassay technique (RIA) in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infections. A total of 245 cats (7 with cutaneous lesions referable to dermatophytosis and 238 apparently healthy) coming from 14 shelters were examined. M. canis was isolated in 126 (51.4%) cats. The cortisol levels were significantly higher in cats with lesions or without lesions but with a high number of colonies in the plates (? 10 CFU) than in cats negative or with a lower number of colonies. The results obtained seem to highlight that chronic high levels of cortisol in cats could possibly promote the dermatophytes infections. Furthermore, in High-CFU asymptomatic cats, it could be present a state of infectious, and they, therefore, represents not a simple mechanical carrier. PMID:23962857

Galuppi, R; Leveque, J F C; Beghelli, V; Bonoli, C; Mattioli, M; Ostanello, F; Tampieri, M P; Accorsi, P A

2013-12-01

274

A novel zebrafish kelchlike gene klhl and its human ortholog KLHL display conserved expression patterns in skeletal and cardiac muscles.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel gene, kelchlike (klhl) was identified in zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization screen for important genes involved in embryogenesis. A full-length klhl cDNA was cloned and characterized. We found that klhl was a member of the kelch-repeat superfamily, containing two evolutionary conserved domains--broad-complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain, and kelch motif. Database mining revealed the presence of putative orthologs of klhl in human, mouse, rat, and pufferfish. klhl was determined to map to zebrafish linkage group (LG) 13 and was found to be syntenic with the proposed orthologs of klhl in human, mouse, and rat. In an effort to elucidate the function of klhl, klhl expression was investigated by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. klhl is specifically expressed in the fast skeletal and cardiac muscle. Northern blot analyses show that the human ortholog, KLHL, is also specifically expressed in the skeletal muscles and heart. In silico analyses of rat expressed sequence tag (EST) clones corresponding to rat Klhl ortholog also indicate that its expression is also restricted to rat muscle tissues, suggesting a conserved role of klhl in vertebrates. The expression pattern of klhl, as well as the presence of the kelch repeats indicates a possible role for Klhl in the organization of striated muscle cytoarchitecture. PMID:15302408

Wu, Yi Lian; Gong, Zhiyuan

2004-08-18

275

Genes on human chromosome 19 show extreme divergence from the mouse orthologs and a high GC content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutational rates are known to be variable along the mammalian genome but the extent of this non-random fluctuation and their causes are less well understood. Using 5509 human and mouse orthologous genes with known chromosome positions, it is shown here that there are extreme differences in synonymous evolutionary rates between different human chromo- somes when distances are measured using maximum-

Jose Castresana

2002-01-01

276

THE retinoid-X receptor ORTHOLOG, ULTRASPIRACLE, BINDS WITH HIGH nanomolar AFFINITY TO AN ENDOGENOUS MORPHOGENETIC LIGAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vivo ligand binding function and ligand-binding activity of the Drosophila melanogaster RXR ortholog, ultraspiracle, toward natural farnesoid products of the ring gland were assessed. Using an equilibrium fluorescence binding assay, farnesoid products in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis ...

277

Natural variation in maize architecture is mediated by allelic differences at the PINOID co-ortholog barren inflorescence2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We characterized allelic variation at barren inflorescence2 (bif2), a maize co-ortholog of the Arabidopsis PINOID protein kinase (PID), and tested for trait associations with bif2 in both an association mapping population of 277 diverse maize inbreds and in the inter-mated B73-Mo17 (IBM) linkage pop...

278

The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: Orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Drosophila melanogaster, three ABC transporters (white, scarlet and brown) are required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned one of the orthologous genes, Tc white (Tcw), from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translation of Tcw reveals that it is 52% identical t...

279

barren inflorescence2 Encodes a Co-Ortholog of the PINOID Serine/Threonine Kinase and Is Required for  

E-print Network

barren inflorescence2 Encodes a Co-Ortholog of the PINOID Serine/Threonine Kinase and Is Required for Organogenesis during Inflorescence and Vegetative Development in Maize1[C][W][OA] Paula McSteen*, Simon) and rice (Oryza sativa) have additional types of axillary meristems in the inflorescence compared

Malcomber, Simon

280

Roles of the duplicate FLORICAULA/LEAFY orthologs, zfl1 and zfl2, in maize development and domestication  

E-print Network

inflorescence architecture and flower patterning in maize. Chapter 3 Page 89 Quantitative effects on development and teosinte is in the structure and phyllotaxy of the grain-bearing ear, or female inflorescence. A large teosinte and maize. A maize ortholog of the FLORICAULA(FLO)/LEAFY(LFY) genes, which affect inflorescence

Doebley, John

281

Evolutionary Distance of Amino Acid Sequence Orthologs across Macaque Subspecies: Identifying Candidate Genes for SIV Resistance in Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

We use the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD) algorithm to identify amino acid sequence orthologs in the Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque draft sequences and estimate the evolutionary distance between such orthologs. We then use GOanna to map gene function annotations and human gene identifiers to the rhesus macaque amino acid sequences. We conclude methodologically by cross-tabulating a list of amino acid orthologs with large divergence scores with a list of genes known to be involved in SIV or HIV pathogenesis. We find that many of the amino acid sequences with large evolutionary divergence scores, as calculated by the RSD algorithm, have been shown to be related to HIV pathogenesis in previous laboratory studies. Four of the strongest candidate genes for SIVmac resistance in Chinese rhesus macaques identified in this study are CDK9, CXCL12, TRIM21, and TRIM32. Additionally, ANKRD30A, CTSZ, GORASP2, GTF2H1, IL13RA1, MUC16, NMDAR1, Notch1, NT5M, PDCD5, RAD50, and TM9SF2 were identified as possible candidates, among others. We failed to find many laboratory experiments contrasting the effects of Indian and Chinese orthologs at these sites on SIVmac pathogenesis, but future comparative studies might hold fertile ground for research into the biological mechanisms underlying innate resistance to SIVmac in Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:25884674

Ross, Cody T.; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn

2015-01-01

282

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES OF GRAY WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) TO IMMOBILIZATION WITH TILETAMINE AND ZOLAZEPAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a series of experiments to examine the efficacy of Telazol#{174} (TEL) for immobilization of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus). Ten wolves were immobilized with either 5 or 10 mg\\/kg TEL. There was no difference in induction time (6.5 ± 0.8 versus 5.8 ± 1.2 mm; P = 0.63) between the two doses, but the time to initial arousal

Terry J. Kreeger; Ulysses S. Seal; Margaret Callahan; Mark Beckel

283

Home ranges, movements, and activity of wolves ( Canis lupus ) in the Dalmatian part of Dinarids, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home-range sizes, movements, and daily activity of wolves (Canis lupus L. 1758) were studied in Dalmatia, Croatia in 1998–2001. The total home ranges (100% MCP) of two packs were 160 km2 and 141 km2, mean=150.5 km2. Core areas (50% kernel) were 26.2 km2 and 3.3 km2, respectively. Differences in core area sizes were influenced by human activity—hunting and sheep grazing. Compared with random

Josip Kusak; Aleksandra Maji? Skrbinšek; Djuro Huber

2005-01-01

284

Genetic diversity and relatedness within packs in an intensely hunted population of wolves Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of grey wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 inhabiting Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF) on the Polish-Belarussian border has recovered after near extermination\\u000a in the 1970s. Currently, it is intensively hunted in the Belarussian part of BPF and protected in the Polish part. We used\\u000a a combination of molecular analysis, radiotracking, and field observation to study genetic diversity of the population

W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Wojciech Branicki; Claudia Veit; Ivica Me?ugorac; Ma?gorzata Pilot; Aleksei N. Bunevich; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska; Krzysztof Schmidt; Jörn Theuerkauf; Henryk Okarma; Roman Gula; Lucyna Szymura

2005-01-01

285

Habitat selection by wolves Canis lupus in the uplands and mountains of southern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Wolf Census, carried out in Poland in 2000–2001, and GIS techniques we analysed habitat selection\\u000a by wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 in uplands and mountains of southern Poland. We compared ten habitat variables and two parameters related\\u000a to wolf abundance in 52 circular plots (154 km2 each) with recorded wolves and 97 randomly selected plots with

W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Magdalena Niedzialkowska; Robert W. Mys?ajek; Sabina Nowak; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska

2005-01-01

286

Cattle predation by the golden jackal Canis aureus in the Golan Heights, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 1·5%–1·9% of the calves born in the Golan Heights die due to predation, mainly by golden jackals Canis aureus, and the total damage during 1993 was estimated at about US$ 42,000. Most attacks occur within 2 days after delivery, and male calves are more likely to be attacked than females, probably because they are heavier and more difficult to

Omer Viner

1995-01-01

287

Remarks on the skull morphology of the endangered Ethiopian jackal, Canis simensis Rappel 1838  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a skull ofCanis simensis Rüppel 1838, an endangered species endemic to the Ethiopian highlands, belonging to the old collections of the Museo Zoologico\\u000a «La Specola» of the University of Florence, gave us the starting stimulus for this research. The results of morphological\\u000a and biomethrical analyses carried out on a sample of 13 skulls of this rare and

Lorenzo Rook; Maria Luisa; Azzaroli Puccetti; A. Azzaroli

1996-01-01

288

Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

David, Mech L.

2008-01-01

289

Interactions between cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large carnivore populations are recovering in many protected areas in North America, but the effect of increasing carnivore numbers on existing predator-prey and predator-predator interactions is poorly understood. We studied diet and spatial overlap among cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta (1993-2004) to evaluate how wolf recovery in the park influenced diet choice

Andrea D. KORTELLO; Thomas E. HURD; Dennis L. MURRAY

2007-01-01

290

Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans : the influence of social and ecological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 49 coyotes,Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456h and five transient coyotes for 51h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident

ERIC M. GESE; ROBERT L. RUFF

1997-01-01

291

Active use of coyotes ( Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a

A. R. Berentsen; M. R. Dunbar; S. R. Johnson; S. Robbe-Austerman; L. Martinez; R. L. Jones

2011-01-01

292

New light curves and analysis of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observations of the short-period Algol XZ Canis Minoris made between 25 Dec. 1992 and 1 Mar. 1993. Two new epochs of minimum light were determined and an improved ephemeris is given. Analysis of the observations with the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney program shows that the system is semidetached. Our solution does not indicate the presence of third light, whereas some previously published solutions required large amounts of third light.

Terrell, Dirk; Gunn, J. B.; Kaiser, Daniel H.

1994-02-01

293

INTERSPECIFIC TRANSMISSION OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO PARTURIENT CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four separate trials, 10 coyotes (Canis latrans) which had been individually fed mascerated bovine placental tissue experimentally inoculated with Brucella abortus strain 2308 were placed in a 1 ha isolation area with six parturient, non-B. abortus vaccinated, Brucella spp. seronegativeHereford heifers.During thesecond trial, three of the heifers became Brucella spp. seroreactive (as determined by the card, standard agglutination tube,

Donald S. Davis; Fred C. Heck; John D. Williams; T. R. Simpson; L. Garry Adams

294

Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves  

PubMed Central

Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T.?canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T.?canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10?cm by 10?cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers. PMID:25426419

Woldstad, Theresa M.; Dullen, Kimberly N.; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.

2014-01-01

295

Sex identification of wolf ( Canis lupus ) using non-invasive samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed new specific primers for sex determination from forensic samples of wolves (Canis lupus), such as hair, saliva, faecal, tooth and urine samples. In order to improve molecular sexing, we performed a multiplex semi-nested\\u000a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and several replicated amplifications per sample to avoid errors in low quantity DNA samples,\\u000a such as allelic dropout and false

Natalia Sastre; Olga Francino; Gabriel Lampreave; Vladimir V. Bologov; José María López-Martín; Armand Sánchez; Oscar Ramírez

2009-01-01

296

A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. PMID:25771934

Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kür?at; Balkaya, ?brahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; K?rbas, Ak?n; ?imsek, Sami; Dumanl?, Nazir

2015-04-30

297

Helicobacter canis isolated from a dog liver with multifocal necrotizing hepatitis.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analysis, a novel gram-negative bacterium, isolated from normal and diarrheic dogs as well as humans with gastroenteritis, has been recently named Helicobacter canis. A 2-month-old female crossbred puppy was submitted to necropsy with a history of weakness and vomiting for several hours prior to death. The liver had multiple and slightly irregular yellowish foci up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, the liver parenchyma contained randomly distributed, occasionally coalescing hepatocellular necrosis, often accompanied by large numbers of mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Sections of liver stained by the Warthin-Starry silver impregnation technique revealed spiral- to curve-shaped bacteria predominantly located in bile canaliculi and occasionally in bile ducts. Aerobic culture of liver was negative, whereas small colonies were noted on Campylobacter selective media after 5 days of microaerobic incubation. The bacteria were gram negative and oxidase positive but catalase, urease, and indoxyl acetate negative; nitrate was not reduced to nitrite, and the organism did not hydrolyze hippurate. The bacteria were also resistant to 1.5% bile. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria with bipolar sheathed flagella. By 16S rRNA analysis, the organism was determined to be H. canis. This is the first observation of H. canis in active hepatitis in a dog and correlates with recent findings of Helicobacter hepaticus- and Helicobacter bilis-related hepatic disease in mice. Further studies are clearly warranted to ascertain whether H. canis-associated hepatitis is more widespread in canines as well as a cause of previously classified idiopathic liver disease in humans. PMID:8880504

Fox, J G; Drolet, R; Higgins, R; Messier, S; Yan, L; Coleman, B E; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E

1996-01-01

298

Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves.  

PubMed

Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T.?canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T.?canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10?cm by 10?cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers. PMID:25426419

Woldstad, Theresa M; Dullen, Kimberly N; Hundertmark, Kris J; Beckmen, Kimberlee B

2014-12-01

299

Immunopathological Changes in the Brain of Immunosuppressed Mice Experimentally Infected with Toxocara canis  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted helminthozoonosis due to infection of humans by larvae of Toxocara canis. The disease could produce cognitive and behavioral disturbances especially in children. Meanwhile, in our modern era, the incidence of immunosuppression has been progressively increasing due to increased incidence of malignancy as well as increased use of immunosuppressive agents. The present study aimed at comparing some of the pathological and immunological alterations in the brain of normal and immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with T. canis. Therefore, 180 Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups including normal (control) group, immunocompetent T. canis-infected group, immunosuppressed group (control), and immunosuppressed infected group. Infected mice were subjected to larval counts in the brain, and the brains from all mice were assessed for histopathological changes, astrogliosis, and IL-5 mRNA expression levels in brain tissues. The results showed that under immunosuppression, there were significant increase in brain larval counts, significant enhancement of reactive gliosis, and significant reduction in IL-5 mRNA expression. All these changes were maximal in the chronic stage of infection. In conclusion, the immunopathological alterations in the brains of infected animals were progressive over time, and were exaggerated under the effect of immunosuppression as did the intensity of cerebral infection. PMID:25748709

Eid, Mohamed M.; El-Kowrany, Samy I.; Othman, Ahmad A.; Gendy, Dina I. El; Saied, Eman M.

2015-01-01

300

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L.D.; Nowak, R.M.; Weisberg, S.

2011-01-01

301

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

2011-01-01

302

Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission. PMID:23568921

Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan J

2013-04-01

303

Seroprevalence of Babesia canis infection in clinically healthy dogs from western Romania.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 197 clinically healthy dogs residing in the Banat Region, the western historical part of Romania, were assayed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the presence of anti-Babesia canis antibodies. Overall, the seroprevalence was 19.8% (39/197). The percent of seropositive dogs in rural areas (28.4%; 19/67) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to dogs living in urban areas (15.4%; 20/130). Seroprevalence of B. canis infection in hunting dogs was also found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to canines with other lifestyles, but no significant difference was found between companion and kennel dogs. The statistical analysis showed that no significant differences (P > 0.05) were present between the seroprevalence of infected animals associated with age, gender, or breed. The hunting lifestyle was the only factor (OR = 4.57; 95% CI = 2.1-10.2; P = 0.002) positively associated with seroprevalence in dogs and can be considered the risk factor in the acquisition of infection. Also, the results of the present survey indicate that infection with B. canis in dogs is common in the sampling area and that it is an important pathogen for the local canine population. PMID:22681255

Imre, Mirela; Farkas, Róbert; Ilie, Marius; Imre, Kálmán; Hotea, Ionela; Morariu, Sorin; Morar, Doru; D?r?bu?, Gheorghe

2013-02-01

304

Postmortem small babesia-like morphology of Babesia canis - short communication.  

PubMed

Here we report a case of canine babesiosis with unusual morphology of the causative agent. A male, seven-week-old Labrador retriever puppy, exhibiting severe anaemia and haemoglobinuria, was presented at the Clinic of Internal Medicine in February 2011. The puppy was euthanised. The most relevant pathological changes were icterus, severe splenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and haemoglobin nephrosis. Samples were collected from various organs for histology within one hour post mortem. Impression smears were also prepared from the spleen after overnight storage at 4 °C. Tissue sections and smears showed the presence of multiple, coccoid intraerythrocytic bodies that measured 1-2 ?m and resembled small babesiae. No large piroplasms were seen. DNA was extracted from the spleen, and a conventional PCR was performed for the amplification of a 450-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasms. The causative agent was identified as Babesia canis canis, with 99% sequence identity to other European isolates. Sequence identity to B. gibsoni was only 91%. This is the first account to verify that the morphology of the large canine piroplasm, B. canis, can be uniformly small babesia-like post mortem or following the storage of tissue samples. PMID:22079703

Demeter, Zoltán; Palade, Elena Alina; Balogh, Eva; Jakab, Csaba; Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Hornok, Sándor

2011-12-01

305

Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections.  

PubMed

Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results. Finally, the Microsporum PCR was positive for 10/10 guinea pig specimens from infected animals but for 0/2 of the control animal samples. The evaluation of the two PCR tests indicated excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19886764

Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

2010-05-01

306

Immunopathological Changes in the Brain of Immunosuppressed Mice Experimentally Infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted helminthozoonosis due to infection of humans by larvae of Toxocara canis. The disease could produce cognitive and behavioral disturbances especially in children. Meanwhile, in our modern era, the incidence of immunosuppression has been progressively increasing due to increased incidence of malignancy as well as increased use of immunosuppressive agents. The present study aimed at comparing some of the pathological and immunological alterations in the brain of normal and immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with T. canis. Therefore, 180 Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups including normal (control) group, immunocompetent T. canis-infected group, immunosuppressed group (control), and immunosuppressed infected group. Infected mice were subjected to larval counts in the brain, and the brains from all mice were assessed for histopathological changes, astrogliosis, and IL-5 mRNA expression levels in brain tissues. The results showed that under immunosuppression, there were significant increase in brain larval counts, significant enhancement of reactive gliosis, and significant reduction in IL-5 mRNA expression. All these changes were maximal in the chronic stage of infection. In conclusion, the immunopathological alterations in the brains of infected animals were progressive over time, and were exaggerated under the effect of immunosuppression as did the intensity of cerebral infection. PMID:25748709

Eid, Mohamed M; El-Kowrany, Samy I; Othman, Ahmad A; Gendy, Dina I El; Saied, Eman M

2015-02-01

307

New insight into the evolution of aquaporins from flowering plants and vertebrates: orthologous identification and functional transfer is possible.  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQPs) represent a family of channel proteins that transport water and/or small solutes across cell membranes in the three domains of life. In all previous phylogenetic analysis of aquaporin, trees constructed using proteins with very low amino acid identity (<15%) were incongruent with rRNA data. In this work, restricting the evolutionary study of aquaporins to proteins with high amino acid identity (>25%), we showed congruence between AQPs and organismal trees. On the basis of this analysis, we defined 19 orthologous gene clusters in flowering plant species (3 PIP-like, 7 TIP-like, 6 NIP-like and 3 SIP-like). We described specific conserved motifs for each subfamily and each cluster, which were used to develop a method for automatic classification. Analysis of amino acid identity between orthologous monocotyledon and dicotyledon AQPs from each cluster, suggested that PIPs are under high evolutionary constraint. The phylogenetic analysis allowed us the assignment of orthologous aquaporins for very distant animal lineages (tetrapods-fishes). We also demonstrated that the location of all vertebrate AQPs in the ortholog clusters could be predicted by comparing their amino acid identity with human AQPs. We defined four AQP subfamilies in animals: AQP1-like, AQP8-like, AQP3-like and AQP11-like. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four animal AQPs subfamilies are related with PIP-like, TIP-like, NIP-like and SIP-like subfamilies, respectively. Thus, this analysis would allow the prediction of individual AQPs function on the basis of orthologous genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens. PMID:22561693

Soto, Gabriela; Alleva, Karina; Amodeo, Gabriela; Muschietti, Jorge; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

2012-07-15

308

Molecular epidemiology of rabies: focus on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) from northern South Africa.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern South Africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. A panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein gene and the non-coding G-L intergenic region. Through phylogenetic analysis a viral cluster specific to black-backed jackals and spanning a 5-year period was delineated in western Limpopo. Virus strains associated with domestic dogs prevail in densely populated communal areas in north-eastern Limpopo and in south and eastern Mpumalanga. The data presented in this study indicated the likelihood that black-backed jackals are capable of sustaining rabies cycles independent of domestic dogs. It is proposed that wildlife rabies control strategies, in synergy with domestic animal vaccination should be considered for effective control of rabies in South Africa. PMID:19061924

Zulu, G C; Sabeta, C T; Nel, L H

2009-03-01

309

Orthologous genes identified by transcriptome sequencing in the spider genus Stegodyphus  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of sociality in spiders involves a transition from an outcrossing to a highly inbreeding mating system, a shift to a female biased sex ratio, and an increase in the reproductive skew among individuals. Taken together, these features are expected to result in a strong reduction in the effective population size. Such a decline in effective population size is expected to affect population genetic and molecular evolutionary processes, resulting in reduced genetic diversity and relaxed selective constraint across the genome. In the genus Stegodyphus, permanent sociality and regular inbreeding has evolved independently three times from periodic-social (outcrossing) ancestors. This genus is therefore an ideal model for comparative studies of the molecular evolutionary and population genetic consequences of the transition to a regularly inbreeding mating system. However, no genetic resources are available for this genus. Results We present the analysis of high throughput transcriptome sequencing of three Stegodyphus species. Two of these are periodic-social (Stegodyphus lineatus and S.tentoriicola) and one is permanently social (S. mimosarum). From non-normalized cDNA libraries, we obtained on average 7,000 putative uni-genes for each species. Three-way orthology, as predicted from reciprocal BLAST, identified 1,792 genes that could be used for cross-species comparison. Open reading frames (ORFs) could be deduced from 1,345 of the three-way alignments. Preliminary molecular analyses suggest a five- to ten-fold reduction in heterozygosity in the social S. mimosarum compared with the periodic-social species. Furthermore, an increased ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous polymorphisms in the social species indicated relaxed efficiency of selection. However, there was no sign of relaxed selection on the phylogenetic branch leading to S. mimosarum. Conclusions The 1,792 three-way ortholog genes identified in this study provide a unique resource for comparative studies of the eco-genomics, population genetics and molecular evolution of repeated evolution of inbreeding sociality within the Stegodyphus genus. Preliminary analyses support theoretical expectations of depleted heterozygosity and relaxed selection in the social inbreeding species. Relaxed selection could not be detected in the S. mimosarum lineage, suggesting that there has been a recent transition to sociality in this species. PMID:22333217

2012-01-01

310

Isolation, in vitro propagation, genetic analysis, and immunogenic characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from a blood sample obtained from a dog in southeastern Brazil was used to confirm a naturally acquired Ehrlichia (E.) canis infection. Following isolation and culturing of the new bacterial strain called Uberlândia, partial sequences of the dsb and p28 genes were obtained. The dsb partial sequence of the novel strain was 100% similar to dsb gene sequences of E. canis obtained from different geographic areas around the world. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for the E. canis Uberlândia strain differed at several nucleotides from other sequences available in GenBank. To confirm the antigenic profile of the Uberlândia strain, an indirect immunofluorescence assay against E. canis antigens was performed using dog sera collected from two different areas in Brazil (Uberlândia and São Paulo). The results suggest that both antigens were able to identify animals seropositive for E. canis in Brazil since these Brazilian strains appear to be highly conserved. PMID:24136211

Rieck, Susana Elisa; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio

2014-01-01

311

Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

2013-01-01

312

Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

PubMed

Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

2013-04-01

313

Antinuclear antibodies can be detected in dog sera reactive to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, or Leishmania infantum antigens.  

PubMed

The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is used to support a clinical diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in dogs. However, clinicians must interpret the detection of ANAs with caution, particularly in light of increasing evidence that dogs with known bacterial and protozoal infections can have high ANA titers. Retrospectively, medical records were reviewed for all dogs that were concurrently tested for antinuclear antigens and Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii), Ehrlichia canis, or Rickettsia rickettsii antigens between 1990 and 2000. When analyzed on the basis of reactivity to a specific infectious agent, 75% of the B vinsonii (berkhoffii) seroreactors, 16.7% of the E canis seroreactors, and 0% of the R rickettsii seroreactors had concurrent ANAs. Subsequent prospective testing did not detect ANAs in convalescent sera from dogs experimentally infected with B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or R rickettsii. However, 10-20% B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or Leishmania infantum reactive sera from naturally infected dogs contained ANAs. In addition, 45% of sera from dogs that are reactive to multiple vectorborne organisms were more likely to contain ANAs when compared to sera from dogs reactive to only 1 test antigen. When interpreting the relevance of seroreactivity to nuclear antigens, clinicians should recognize that dogs with seroreactivity to B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or L infantum antigens (especially those with seroreactivity to more than one of these pathogens) may produce ANAs. PMID:14765731

Smith, Brian E; Tompkins, Mary B; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2004-01-01

314

Risk of infection by the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with low doses of Toxocara canis eggs.  

PubMed

Experimental studies and registries of cases of human toxocariasis have shown that the consumption of raw or undercooked offal of the paratenic host of Toxocara canis may pose a risk of infection. Thus, we evaluated the risk of infection due to the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with different doses of embryonated T. canis eggs. Doses were 5-100 times smaller than the ones previously employed in this type of study. Groups of five chickens were inoculated with 5000 (control), 1000, 500, 300 or 50 eggs of T. canis, and at 72 h post-inoculation, the liver of each bird was consumed by a BALB/c receptor mouse. Forty-eight hours after consumption, we examined the organs and carcasses of the mice for larvae of T. canis. All mice were positive for larvae, except the group that consumed the chicken liver inoculated with 50 eggs. This group contained only one positive mouse, in which the larva was lodged in the brain. In mice that consumed livers of chickens inoculated with ?300 eggs, larvae concentration was primarily in the liver and lungs, characterizing the initial phase of infection. We conclude that the consumption of raw poultry liver, under the studied conditions, poses a risk of infection even with a low number of infected T. canis eggs. PMID:24746238

Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Dutra, Paula Cardoso; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Rodrigues, Lourdes Helena; Silva, Ana Maria Wolkmer Azambuja; Scaini, Carlos James

2014-06-16

315

The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida's Newest Predator1 S.F. Coates, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, J.M. Schaefer, G.W. Tanner, M.E. Sunquist, and M.D.  

E-print Network

WEC124 The Coyote (Canis latrans): Florida's Newest Predator1 S.F. Coates, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, Florida's newest fur-bearing predator. Background The coyote (Canis latrans) is becoming a common occur; decreased competition across its range from other predators--the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and red wolf

Jawitz, James W.

316

Comprehensive identification of host modulators of HIV-1 replication using multiple orthologous RNAi reagents.  

PubMed

RNAi screens have implicated hundreds of host proteins as HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs). While informative, these early studies overlap poorly due to false positives and false negatives. To ameliorate these issues, we combined information from the existing HDF screens together with new screens performed with multiple orthologous RNAi reagents (MORR). In addition to being traditionally validated, the MORR screens and the historical HDF screens were quantitatively integrated by the adaptation of an established analysis program, RIGER, for the collective interpretation of each gene's phenotypic significance. False positives were addressed by the removal of poorly expressed candidates through gene expression filtering, as well as with GESS, which identifies off-target effects. This workflow produced a quantitatively integrated network of genes that modulate HIV-1 replication. We further investigated the roles of GOLGI49, SEC13, and COG in HIV-1 replication. Collectively, the MORR-RIGER method minimized the caveats of RNAi screening and improved our understanding of HIV-1-host cell interactions. PMID:25373910

Zhu, Jian; Davoli, Teresa; Perriera, Jill M; Chin, Christopher R; Gaiha, Gaurav D; John, Sinu P; Sigiollot, Frederic D; Gao, Geng; Xu, Qikai; Qu, Hongjing; Pertel, Thomas; Sims, Jennifer S; Smith, Jennifer A; Baker, Richard E; Maranda, Louise; Ng, Aylwin; Elledge, Stephen J; Brass, Abraham L

2014-10-23

317

Otoc1: A Novel Otoconin-90 Ortholog Required For Otolith Mineralization In Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Within the vestibular system of virtually all vertebrate species, gravity and linear acceleration are detected via coupling of calcified masses to the cilia of mechanosensory hair cells. The mammalian ear contains thousands of minute biomineralized particles called otoconia, whereas the inner ear of teleost fish contains three large ear stones called otoliths that serve a similar function. Otoconia and otoliths are composed of calcium carbonate crystals condensed on a core protein lattice. Otoconin-90 (Oc90) is the major matrix protein of mammalian and avian otoconia, while otolith matrix protein (OMP) is the most abundant matrix protein found in the otoliths of teleost fish. We have identified a novel gene, otoc1, which encodes the zebrafish ortholog of Oc90. Expression of otoc1 was detected in the ear between 15 hpf and 72 hpf, and was restricted primarily to the macula and the developing epithelial pillars of the semicircular canals. Expression of otoc1 was also detected in epiphysis, optic stalk, midbrain, diencephalon, flexural organ, and spinal cord. During embryogenesis, expression of otoc1 mRNA preceded the appearance of omp-1 transcripts. Knockdown of otoc1 mRNA translation with antisense morpholinos produced a variety of aberrant otolith phenotypes. Our results suggest that Otoc1 may serve to nucleate calcium carbonate mineralization of aragonitic otoliths. PMID:18000829

Petko, Jessica A.; Millimaki, Bonny B.; Canfield, Victor A.; Riley, Bruce B.; Levenson, Robert

2009-01-01

318

Whole genome duplication: challenges and considerations associated with sequence orthology assignment in Salmoninae.  

PubMed

To illustrate some of the challenges and considerations in assigning correct orthology necessary for any comparative genomic investigation among salmonids, sequence data from the non-coding regions of different chromosomes in three members of the subfamily Salmoninae, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, were compared. By analysing c. 55 distinct loci, corresponding to c. 142 kbp sequence information per species, 18 duplicated patterns representative of the two sequential rounds of teleost-specific whole genome duplications (i.e. 3R and 4R WGD) were identified. Sequence similarities between the 4R paralogues were c. 90%, which was slightly lower than those of the 4R orthologues and c. 60% for the 3R products. Through careful examination of the sequence data, however, only 14 loci could reliably be assigned as true orthologues. Locus-specific trees were constructed through maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods and were rooted using the information from a close relative, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis. All approaches generated congruent trees supporting the {Coregonus [Salmo (Oncorhynchus, Salvelinus)]} topology. The general phenotypic characteristics of sequences, however, were highly suggestive of the basal position of Oncorhynchus, raising the hypothesis of an accelerated rate of nucleotide evolution in this species. PMID:21884100

Moghadam, H K; Ferguson, M M; Danzmann, R G

2011-09-01

319

A Leishmania Ortholog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Modulates Host Macrophage Responses  

SciTech Connect

Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as revealed by a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure (1.03 A). Differences between the two proteins in the N-terminal tautomerization site are evident, and we provide evidence for the selective, species-specific inhibition of MIF by small-molecule antagonists that target this site. Lm1740MIF shows significant binding interaction with the MIF receptor, CD74 (K(d) = 2.9 x 10(-8) M). Like its mammalian counterpart, Lm1740MIF induces ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in a CD74-dependent manner and inhibits the activation-induced apoptosis of macrophages. The ability of Lm1740MIF to inhibit apoptosis may facilitate the persistence of Leishmania within the macrophage and contribute to its evasion from immune destruction.

Kamir,D.; Zierow, S.; Leng, L.; Cho, Y.; Diaz, Y.; Griffith, J.; McDonald, C.; Merk, M.; Mitchell, R.; et al

2008-01-01

320

Identification of putative orthologous genes for the phylogenetic reconstruction of temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).  

PubMed

The temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) are highly diverse in morphology but lack a substantial amount of genetic variation. The taxonomy of this lineage is intractable, and the relationships within the tribe have not been well resolved. Recent studies indicated that this tribe could have a complex evolutionary history. Although phylogenetic studies of the tribe have been carried out, most of these phylogenetic reconstructions were based on plastid data, which provide lower phylogenetic resolution compared with nuclear data. In this study, we intended to identify a set of desirable nuclear genes for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. Using two different methodologies, we identified 209 and 916 genes, respectively, as putative single copy orthologous genes. A total of 112 genes was successfully amplified and sequenced by next-generation sequencing technologies in five species sampled from the tribe. As most of the genes exhibited intra-individual allele heterozygotes, we investigated phylogenetic utility by reconstructing the phylogeny based on individual genes. Discordance among gene trees was observed and, to resolve the conflict, we performed a range of analyses using BUCKy and HybTree. While caution should be taken when inferring a phylogeny from multiple conflicting genes, our analysis indicated that 74 of the 112 investigated genes are potential markers for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. PMID:24606129

Zhang, Li-Na; Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

2014-09-01

321

Genetical and comparative genomics of Brassica under altered Ca supply identifies Arabidopsis Ca-transporter orthologs.  

PubMed

Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization. PMID:25082855

Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; Lysenko, Artem; Mayes, Sean; O Lochlainn, Seosamh; Blasco, Bego; Bowen, Helen C; Rawlings, Chris J; Rios, Juan J; Welham, Susan; Carion, Pierre W C; Dupuy, Lionel X; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

2014-07-01

322

Posterior expression of nanos orthologs during embryonic and larval development of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis.  

PubMed

Cnidarians are primitive animals located in a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of the Animal Kingdom, as an outgroup of the Bilaterians. Therefore, studies on cnidarian developmental biology may illustrate how fundamental developmental processes have originated and changed during animal evolution. A particular example of this is the establishment of polarity along the body axes, which is under the control of a number of developmental genes, most of them conserved in evolution and playing similar roles in diverged species. Concerning the anterior-posterior axis, genetic and molecular studies on Drosophila have shown that the nanos gene plays an essential role in defining posterior structures during early embryonic development. Here we report the isolation of two nanos orthologs in the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis. We show that nanos mRNA is asymmetrically distributed in the fertilized egg and this asymmetry is maintained during embryonic development. At gastrula and planula larva stages, nanos expression is permanently associated with posterior body regions. These results, together with our previous analysis in the hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea, indicate that posterior nanos expression during development is a conserved feature among cnidarians. Therefore, the potential role of cnidarian nanos in defining axial polarity as a posterior determinant would represent an ancestral trait in the Animal Kingdom. PMID:16172988

Torras, Raquel; González-Crespo, Sergio

2005-01-01

323

CT406 encodes a chlamydial ortholog of NrdR, a repressor of ribonucleotide reductase.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is dependent on its host cell for nucleotides. Chlamydia imports ribonucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) but not deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and instead uses ribonucleotide reductase to convert imported ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. The genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase have been recently shown to be negatively controlled by a conserved regulator called NrdR. In this study, we provide direct evidence that Escherichia coli NrdR is a transcriptional repressor and that C. trachomatis CT406 encodes its chlamydial ortholog. We showed that CT406 binds specifically to two NrdR boxes upstream of the nrdAB operon in C. trachomatis. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we confirmed that these NrdR boxes function as an operator since they were necessary and sufficient for CT406-mediated repression. We validated our in vitro findings with reporter studies in E. coli showing that both E. coli NrdR and CT406 repressed transcription from the E. coli nrdH and C. trachomatis nrdAB promoters in vivo. This in vivo repression was reversed by hydroxyurea treatment. Since hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and reduces intracellular deoxyribonucleotide levels, these results suggest that NrdR activity is modulated by a deoxyribonucleotide corepressor. PMID:21725017

Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Akers, Johnny C; Tan, Ming

2011-09-01

324

The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha expresses orthologs of the fungal Agaricus bisporus agglutinin family.  

PubMed

A lectin different from the previously described mannose-binding agglutinins has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Biochemical characterization of the purified lectin combined with the data from earlier transcriptome analyses demonstrated that the novel M. polymorpha agglutinin is not related to any of the known plant lectin families, but closely resembles the Agaricus bisporus-type lectins, which hitherto have been found exclusively in fungi. Immunolocalization studies confirmed that lectin is exclusively associated with plant cells, ruling out the possibility of a fungal origin. Extensive screening of publicly accessible databases confirmed that, apart from fungi, the occurrence of A. bisporus-type lectins is confined to M. polymorpha and the moss Tortula ruralis. Expression of a typical fungal protein in a liverwort and a moss raises the question of the origin of the corresponding genes. Regardless of the evolutionary origin, the presence of a functional A. bisporus lectin ortholog in M. polymorpha provides evidence for the expression of an additional carbohydrate-binding domain in Viridiplantae. PMID:17041032

Peumans, Willy J; Fouquaert, Elke; Jauneau, Alain; Rougé, Pierre; Lannoo, Nausicaä; Hamada, Hiroki; Alvarez, Richard; Devreese, Bart; Van Damme, Els J M

2007-06-01

325

Mycobacterium thermoresistibile as a source of thermostable orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins  

PubMed Central

The genus Mycobacterium comprises major human pathogens such as the causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and many environmental species. Tuberculosis claims ?1.5 million lives every year, and drug resistant strains of Mtb are rapidly emerging. To aid the development of new tuberculosis drugs, major efforts are currently under way to determine crystal structures of Mtb drug targets and proteins involved in pathogenicity. However, a major obstacle to obtaining crystal structures is the generation of well-diffracting crystals. Proteins from thermophiles can have better crystallization and diffraction properties than proteins from mesophiles, but their sequences and structures are often divergent. Here, we establish a thermophilic mycobacterial model organism, Mycobacterium thermoresistibile (Mth), for the study of Mtb proteins. Mth tolerates higher temperatures than Mtb or other environmental mycobacteria such as M. smegmatis. Mth proteins are on average more soluble than Mtb proteins, and comparison of the crystal structures of two pairs of orthologous proteins reveals nearly identical folds, indicating that Mth structures provide good surrogates for Mtb structures. This study introduces a thermophile as a source of protein for the study of a closely related human pathogen and marks a new approach to solving challenging mycobacterial protein structures. PMID:22544630

Edwards, Thomas E; Liao, Reiling; Phan, Isabelle; Myler, Peter J; Grundner, Christoph

2012-01-01

326

Detection and Characterization of Megasatellites in Orthologous and Nonorthologous Genes of 21 Fungal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Megasatellites are large DNA tandem repeats, originally described in Candida glabrata, in protein-coding genes. Most of the genes in which megasatellites are found are of unknown function. In this work, we extended the search for megasatellites to 20 additional completely sequenced fungal genomes and extracted 216 megasatellites in 203 out of 142,121 genes, corresponding to the most exhaustive description of such genetic elements available today. We show that half of the megasatellites detected encode threonine-rich peptides predicted to be intrinsically disordered, suggesting that they may interact with several partners or serve as flexible linkers. Megasatellite motifs were clustered into several families. Their distribution in fungal genes shows that different motifs are found in orthologous genes and similar motifs are found in unrelated genes, suggesting that megasatellite formation or spreading does not necessarily track the evolution of their host genes. Altogether, these results suggest that megasatellites are created and lost during evolution of fungal genomes, probably sharing similar functions, although their primary sequences are not necessarily conserved. PMID:23543670

Tekaia, Fredj; Dujon, Bernard

2013-01-01

327

Global alignment of multiple protein interaction networks with application to functional orthology detection.  

PubMed

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and their networks play a central role in all biological processes. Akin to the complete sequencing of genomes and their comparative analysis, complete descriptions of interactomes and their comparative analysis is fundamental to a deeper understanding of biological processes. A first step in such an analysis is to align two or more PPI networks. Here, we introduce an algorithm, IsoRank, for global alignment of multiple PPI networks. The guiding intuition here is that a protein in one PPI network is a good match for a protein in another network if their respective sequences and neighborhood topologies are a good match. We encode this intuition as an eigenvalue problem in a manner analogous to Google's PageRank method. Using IsoRank, we compute a global alignment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens PPI networks. We demonstrate that incorporating PPI data in ortholog prediction results in improvements over existing sequence-only approaches and over predictions from local alignments of the yeast and fly networks. Previous methods have been effective at identifying conserved, localized network patterns across pairs of networks. This work takes the further step of performing a global alignment of multiple PPI networks. It simultaneously uses sequence similarity and network data and, unlike previous approaches, explicitly models the tradeoff inherent in combining them. We expect IsoRank-with its simultaneous handling of node similarity and network similarity-to be applicable across many scientific domains. PMID:18725631

Singh, Rohit; Xu, Jinbo; Berger, Bonnie

2008-09-01

328

Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains.  

PubMed

A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-?-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

2013-10-01

329

Bacterial and algal orthologs of prostaglandin H?synthase: novel insights into the evolution of an integral membrane protein.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin H?synthase (PGHS; EC 1.14.99.1), a bi-functional heme enzyme that contains cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities, plays a central role in the inflammatory response, pain, and blood clotting in higher eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss the progenitors of the mammalian enzyme by using modern bioinformatics and homology modeling to draw comparisons between this well-studied system and its orthologs from algae and bacterial sources. A clade of bacterial and algal orthologs is described that have salient structural features distinct from eukaryotic counterparts, including the lack of a dimerization and EGF-like domains, the absence of gene duplicates, and minimal membrane-binding domains. The functional implications of shared and variant features are discussed. PMID:25281773

Gupta, Kushol; Selinsky, Barry S

2015-01-01

330

Protective effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in Toxocara canis infection is not due to direct action on the larvae.  

PubMed

In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05). We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii. PMID:24037293

Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Glaeser, Thaís Aimeé; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Scaini, Carlos James

2013-01-01

331

Comparative sequence analysis of the SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 orthologous region in Thellungiella halophila and Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide a framework for studies to understand the contribution of SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1) to salt tolerance in Thellungiella halophila, we sequenced and annotated a 193-kb T. halophila BAC containing a putative SOS1 locus (ThSOS1) and compared the sequence to the orthologous 146-kb region of the genome of its salt-sensitive relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall, the two sequences were colinear,

Gyoungju Nah; Christopher L. Pagliarulo; Peter G. Mohr; Meizhong Luo; Nick Sisneros; Yeisoo Yu; Kristi Collura; Jennifer Currie; Jose Luis Goicoechea; Rod A. Wing; Karen S. Schumaker

2009-01-01

332

Divergent CFTR orthologs respond differently to the channel inhibitors CFTRinh-172, glibenclamide, and GlyH-101  

PubMed Central

Comparison of diverse orthologs is a powerful tool to study the structure and function of channel proteins. We investigated the response of human, killifish, pig, and shark cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to specific inhibitors of the channel: CFTRinh-172, glibenclamide, and GlyH-101. In three systems, including organ perfusion of the shark rectal gland, primary cultures of shark rectal gland tubules, and expression studies of each ortholog in cRNA microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes, we observed fundamental differences in the sensitivity to inhibition by these channel blockers. In organ perfusion studies, shark CFTR was insensitive to inhibition by CFTRinh-172. This insensitivity was also seen in short-circuit current experiments with cultured rectal gland tubular epithelial cells (maximum inhibition 4 ± 1.3%). In oocyte expression studies, shark CFTR was again insensitive to CFTRinh-172 (maximum inhibition 10.3 ± 2.5% at 25 ?M), pig CFTR was insensitive to glibenclamide (maximum inhibition 18.4 ± 4.4% at 250 ?M), and all orthologs were sensitive to GlyH-101. The amino acid residues considered responsible by previous site-directed mutagenesis for binding of the three inhibitors are conserved in the four CFTR isoforms studied. These experiments demonstrate a profound difference in the sensitivity of different orthologs of CFTR proteins to inhibition by CFTR blockers that cannot be explained by mutagenesis of single amino acids. We believe that the potency of the inhibitors CFTRinh-172, glibenclamide, and GlyH-101 on the CFTR chloride channel protein is likely dictated by the local environment and the three-dimensional structure of additional residues that form the vestibules, the chloride pore, and regulatory regions of the channel. PMID:21940661

Stahl, Maximilian; Stahl, Klaus; Brubacher, Marie B.

2012-01-01

333

Molecular Cloning of cgrA , the Gene Encoding the Aspergillus nidulans Ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGR1 encodes a 120-amino acid protein with a predominant nucleolar localization. In this study we report the identification and\\u000a cloning of the ortholog, cgrA, from Aspergillus nidulans. The cgrA gene is comprised of three exons on A. nidulans Chromosome 7. The cDNA contains a single open reading frame (ORF) that would encode a protein of 114 amino acids

Jianlan Sun; Douglas Boettner; Nichole Huebner; Fan Xu; Judith C. Rhodes; David S. Askew

2001-01-01

334

Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon. PMID:24502723

Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-10-01

335

Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.  

PubMed

Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2008-08-25

336

Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

2004-01-01

337

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger) was sequenced using blood samples obtained from a wild female Tibetan wolf captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average elevation above 3500?m, is the highest plateau in the world. Sequence analysis showed that its structure is in accordance with other Canidae species, but GTG is used as the start codon in ND4L gene which is different from many canide animals. PMID:24438245

Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Guangshuai

2014-01-17

338

Unusual behavior by bison, Bison bison, toward elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incidents are described of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the bison knocked a wolf-wounded elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

2004-01-01

339

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

340

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

341

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

2007-07-01

342

Bilateral cataracts in a coyote (Canis latrans) pup from Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

A free-ranging coyote (Canis latrans) pup was found in rural Saskatchewan and was subsequently presented to a veterinary teaching hospital by a wildlife rehabilitator. On physical examination, the pup was found to be blind as a result of bilateral, mature cataracts, which were confirmed on postmortem examination. No other significant intraocular or extraocular disease was detected, resulting in a presumptive diagnosis of congenital cataract. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of congenital cataract in any wild canid species. PMID:20597237

Granson, Hilary; Grahn, Bruce; Parker, Dennilyn; Himsworth, Chelsea

2010-06-01

343

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

344

Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with parasites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and parasites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguination. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote. PMID:17939363

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V

2007-09-01

345

Structural Investigation of a Viral Ortholog of Human NEIL2/3 DNA Glycosylases  

PubMed Central

Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04 Å resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E.; Averill, April M.; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

2013-01-01

346

Pervasive Variation of Transcription Factor Orthologs Contributes to Regulatory Network Evolution  

PubMed Central

Differences in transcriptional regulatory networks underlie much of the phenotypic variation observed across organisms. Changes to cis-regulatory elements are widely believed to be the predominant means by which regulatory networks evolve, yet examples of regulatory network divergence due to transcription factor (TF) variation have also been observed. To systematically ascertain the extent to which TFs contribute to regulatory divergence, we analyzed the evolution of the largest class of metazoan TFs, Cys2-His2 zinc finger (C2H2-ZF) TFs, across 12 Drosophila species spanning ~45 million years of evolution. Remarkably, we uncovered that a significant fraction of all C2H2-ZF 1-to-1 orthologs in flies exhibit variations that can affect their DNA-binding specificities. In addition to loss and recruitment of C2H2-ZF domains, we found diverging DNA-contacting residues in ~44% of domains shared between D. melanogaster and the other fly species. These diverging DNA-contacting residues, found in ~70% of the D. melanogaster C2H2-ZF genes in our analysis and corresponding to ~26% of all annotated D. melanogaster TFs, show evidence of functional constraint: they tend to be conserved across phylogenetic clades and evolve slower than other diverging residues. These same variations were rarely found as polymorphisms within a population of D. melanogaster flies, indicating their rapid fixation. The predicted specificities of these dynamic domains gradually change across phylogenetic distances, suggesting stepwise evolutionary trajectories for TF divergence. Further, whereas proteins with conserved C2H2-ZF domains are enriched in developmental functions, those with varying domains exhibit no functional enrichments. Our work suggests that a subset of highly dynamic and largely unstudied TFs are a likely source of regulatory variation in Drosophila and other metazoans. PMID:25748510

Nadimpalli, Shilpa; Persikov, Anton V.; Singh, Mona

2015-01-01

347

Dsc orthologs are required for hypoxia adaptation, triazole drug responses, and fungal virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ?dscA and ?dscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ?dscA and ?dscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ?dscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

Willger, Sven D; Cornish, E Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A; Lehmann, Margaret M; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Cramer, Robert A

2012-12-01

348

Structural investigation of a viral ortholog of human NEIL2/3 DNA glycosylases.  

PubMed

Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04? resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E; Averill, April M; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S; Doublié, Sylvie

2013-12-01

349

The Complexity of Vesicle Transport Factors in Plants Examined by Orthology Search  

PubMed Central

Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the ‘core-set’ of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed. PMID:24844592

Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

2014-01-01

350

An RNAi-Based Suppressor Screen Identifies Interactors of the Myt1 Ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Oocyte maturation in all species is controlled by a protein complex termed the maturation promoting factor (MPF). MPF comprises a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and its partner cyclin, and it is regulated by dueling regulatory phosphorylation events on the CDK. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Wee1/Myt1 ortholog WEE-1.3 provides the inhibitory phosphorylations on CDK-1 that keep MPF inactive and halt meiosis. Prior work has shown that depletion of WEE-1.3 in C. elegans results in precocious oocyte maturation in vivo and a highly penetrant infertility phenotype. This study sought to further define the precocious maturation phenotype and to identify novel interactors with WEE-1.3. We found that WEE-1.3 is expressed throughout the germline and in developing embryos in a perinuclear pattern, and demonstrated that oocytes in WEE-1.3–depleted germlines have begun to transcribe embryonic genes and exhibit inappropriate expression of proteins normally restricted to fertilized eggs. In addition, we performed an RNAi suppressor screen of the infertile phenotype to identify novel factors that, when co-depleted with WEE-1.3, restore fertility to these animals. We screened ?1900 essential genes by RNAi feeding and identified 44 (?2% of the tested genes) that are suppressors of the WEE-1.3 depletion phenotype. The suppressors include many previously unidentified players in the meiotic cell cycle and represent a pool of potential WEE-1.3 interacting proteins that function during C. elegans oocyte maturation and zygotic development. PMID:25298536

Allen, Anna K.; Nesmith, Jessica E.; Golden, Andy

2014-01-01

351

The soybean stem growth habit gene Dt1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1.  

PubMed

Classical genetic analysis has revealed that the determinate habit of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by a recessive allele at the determinate stem (Dt1) locus. To dissect the molecular basis of the determinate habit, we isolated two orthologs of pea (Pisum sativum) TERMINAL FLOWER1a, GmTFL1a and GmTFL1b, from the soybean genome. Mapping analysis indicated that GmTFL1b is a candidate for Dt1. Despite their high amino acid identity, the two genes had different transcriptional profiles. GmTFL1b was expressed in the root and shoot apical meristems (SAMs), whereas GmTFL1a was mainly expressed in immature seed. The GmTFL1b transcript accumulated in the SAMs during early vegetative growth in both the determinate and indeterminate lines but thereafter was abruptly lost in the determinate line. Introduction of the genomic region of GmTFL1b from the indeterminate line complemented the stem growth habit in the determinate line: more nodes were produced, and flowering in the terminal raceme was delayed. The identity between Dt1 and GmTFL1b was also confirmed with a virus-induced gene silencing experiment. Taken together, our data suggest that Dt1 encodes the GmTFL1b protein and that the stem growth habit is determined by the variation of this gene. The dt1 allele may condition the determinate habit via the earlier loss in GmTFL1b expression concomitant with floral induction, although it functions normally under the noninductive phase of flowering. An association test of DNA polymorphisms with the stem growth habit among 16 cultivars suggested that a single amino acid substitution in exon 4 determines the fate of the SAM after floral induction. PMID:20219831

Liu, Baohui; Watanabe, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Tomoo; Kong, Fanjiang; Kanazawa, Akira; Xia, Zhengjun; Nagamatsu, Atsushi; Arai, Maiko; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Keisuke; Masuta, Chikara; Harada, Kyuya; Abe, Jun

2010-05-01

352

Cloning of Xenopus orthologs of Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase and initial characterization of XEco2.  

PubMed

Sister chromatid cohesion is important for the correct alignment and segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Although the cohesin complex has been shown to play a physical role in holding sister chromatids together, its loading onto chromatin is not sufficient for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. The activity of the cohesin complex must be turned on by Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase at the replication forks as the result of a specific mechanism. To dissect this mechanism in the well established in vitro system based on the use of Xenopus egg extracts, we cloned two Xenopus orthologs of Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase, XEco1 and XEco2. Both proteins share a domain structure with known members of Ctf7/Eco1 family proteins. Moreover, biochemical analysis showed that XEco2 exhibited acetyltransferase activity. We raised a specific antibody against XEco2 and used it to further characterize XEco2. In tissue culture cells, XEco2 gradually accumulated in nuclei through the S phase. In nuclei formed in egg extract, XEco2 was loaded into the chromatin at a constant level in a manner sensitive to geminin, an inhibitor of the pre-replication complex assembly, but insensitive to aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerases. In both systems, no specific localization was observed during mitosis. In XEco2-depleted egg extracts, DNA replication occurred with normal kinetics and efficiency, and the condensation and sister chromatid cohesion of subsequently formed mitotic chromosomes was unaffected. These observations will serve as a platform for elucidating the molecular function of Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion in future studies, in which XEco1 and XEco2 should be dissected in parallel. PMID:19016859

Takagi, Masatoshi; Bunai, Keigo; Yanagi, Ken-ichiro; Imamoto, Naoko

2008-12-01

353

Non-human lnc-DC orthologs encode Wdnm1-like protein  

PubMed Central

In a recent publication in Science, Wang et al. found a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expressed in human dendritic cells (DC), which they designated lnc-DC. Based on lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in human and murine systems, they concluded that lnc-DC is important in differentiation of monocytes into DC. However, Wang et al. did not mention that their so-called “mouse lnc-DC ortholog” gene was already designated “ Wdnm1-like” and is known to encode a small secreted protein.  We found that incapacitation of the Wdnm1-like open reading frame (ORF) is very rare among mammals, with all investigated primates except for hominids having an intact ORF. The null-hypothesis by Wang et al. therefore should have been that the human lnc-DC transcript might only represent a non-functional relatively young evolutionary remnant of a protein coding locus.  Whether this null-hypothesis can be rejected by the experimental data presented by Wang et al. depends in part on the possible off-target (immunogenic or otherwise) effects of their RNAi procedures, which were not exhaustive in regard to the number of analyzed RNAi sequences and control sequences.  If, however, the conclusions by Wang et al. on their human model are correct, and they may be, current knowledge regarding the Wdnm1-like locus suggests an intriguing combination of different functions mediated by transcript and protein in the maturation of several cell types at some point in evolution. We feel that the article by Wang et al. tends to be misleading without the discussion presented here. PMID:25309733

Dijkstra, Johannes M.; Ballingall, Keith T.

2014-01-01

354

Depletion of the IKBKAP ortholog in zebrafish leads to hirschsprung disease-like phenotype  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of IKBKAP (inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein) in the development of enteric nervous system (ENS) and Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). METHODS: In this study, we injected a morpholino that blocked the translation of ikbkap protein to 1-cell stage zebrafish embryos. The phenotype in the ENS was analysed by antibody staining of the pan-neuronal marker HuC/D followed by enteric neuron counting. The mean numbers of enteric neurons were compared between the morphant and the control. We also studied the expressions of ret and phox2bb, which are involved in ENS development, in the ikbkap morpholino injected embryos by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and compared them with the control. RESULTS: We observed aganglionosis (?2, P < 0.01) and a reduced number of enteric neurons (38.8 ± 9.9 vs 50.2 ± 17.3, P < 0.05) in the zebrafish embryos injected with ikbkap translation-blocking morpholino (morphant) when compared with the control embryos. Specificity of the morpholino was confirmed by similar results obtained using a second non-overlapping morpholino that blocked the translation of ikbkap. We further studied the morphant by analysing the expression levels of genes involved in ENS development such as ret, phox2bb and sox10, and found that phox2bb, the ortholog of human PHOX2B, was significantly down-regulated (0.51 ± 0.15 vs 1.00 ± 0, P < 0.05). Although we also observed a reduction in the expression of ret, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: Loss of IKBKAP contributed to HSCR as demonstrated by functional analysis in zebrafish embryos. PMID:25717236

Cheng, William Wai-Chun; Tang, Clara Sze-Man; Gui, Hong-Sheng; So, Man-Ting; Lui, Vincent Chi-Hang; Tam, Paul Kwong-Hang; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Mercè

2015-01-01

355

Colorimetric detection of Ehrlichia canis via nucleic acid hybridization in gold nano-colloids.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP). The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles' surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease. PMID:25111239

Muangchuen, Ajima; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

356

Detection of circulating parasite antigen and specific antibody in Toxocara canis infections.  

PubMed Central

Serological surveys, measuring humoral antibody responses, have indicated significant levels of human infection with the zoonotic nematode Toxocara canis, and raised concern about the resultant risk of ocular and neurological damage. Such measurements do not distinguish with certainty current infection from past exposure. Thus, we have developed a test for circulating Toxocara antigen released by parasites in the host. This monoclonal antibody-based two-site 'sandwich' assay discriminates between T. canis and the related feline ascarid T. cati, and has been used, in tandem with the standard ELISA, to examine experimental and human infections. In experimental animals, antigen is transiently detectable, disappearing when immunocomplexed with host antibody. Antigen was also found in sera from UK patients diagnosed with visceral or ocular toxocariasis, and in four asymptomatic Papua New Guinean children. In the latter population, individuals positive for parasite antigens were not necessarily positive for antibody, implying that some infected cases may be negative in the current diagnostic ELISA. The antibody test was also adapted to measure host antibody directed to single monoclonal antibody-defined epitopes, revealing evidence of differential temporal regulation of distinct antibody specificities. PMID:2465108

Robertson, B D; Burkot, T R; Gillespie, S H; Kennedy, M W; Wambai, Z; Maizels, R M

1988-01-01

357

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

358

Clinical observations on Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis infections in dogs.  

PubMed

Thirty-five cases of Babesia gibsoni infection and 11 cases of Babesia canis infection were diagnosed and treated in dogs at Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, between April 1979 and February 1980. Diagnosis was made by demonstrating the organisms in blood smears and by serologic examination, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Serologic findings correlated well with the occurrence of infection in mature dogs, but poorly in young (1- to 3-month-old) dogs. Although these 2 intraerythrocytic parasites were readily distinguishable on Giemsa-stained blood smears and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the clinical syndromes were similar. Most dogs were anorectic and depressed and were found to have regenerative anemia. Of 37 dogs tested, 31 were Coomb's test-positive, and most of these became Coombs' test-negative after treatment and disappearance of clinical signs. Specific treatment consisted predominantly of the use of diminazene aceturate. Pentamidine isethionate also used. Although these drugs were effective in halting and reversing the clinical progression of the disease, they usually were ineffective in clearing the blood of B gibsoni organisms, and relapses commonly occurred. Both drugs appeared to be more effective against B canis. It was concluded that some of the several hundred dogs arriving in the United States annually from Okinawa are carriers of B gibsoni, a parasite only recently discovered in North America. PMID:7061333

Farwell, G E; LeGrand, E K; Cobb, C C

1982-03-01

359

The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

2005-09-01

360

Ecological Changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Response to the Ice Age Megafaunal Extinctions  

PubMed Central

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13–29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8–10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary – from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

Meachen, Julie A.; Janowicz, Adrianna C.; Avery, Jori E.; Sadleir, Rudyard W.

2014-01-01

361

Spectral results for the blue plume stars in Canis Major Overdensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present distances and kinematics and look at the possible populations for the blue plume (BP) stars in the Canis Major Overdensity (CMO). We conducted a medium resolution spectral survey on the BP stars (N=303) in CMO (centered at l = 238o ; b = -8o) using the data from AAOmega Spectrograph. We used a modified version of the SNIP algorithm to normalize our fluxed absorption spectra. After determining the radial velocities from measurements of strong absorption features for the stars we use a Bayesian analysis of spectral feature strengths and photometric colors to determine Teff, Logg and [Fe/H]. Our procedure makes use of grid for model synthetic spectra computed using SPECTRUM with Atlas9 model atmospheres and Kurucz model colors. We determine the absolute magnitude using the stellar parameters and BaSTI isochrones and compute distances and ages for the BP stars. From stellar calibration data using our procedure our preliminary results suggest this technique can produce both reddening and distance determinations to within 10%. We will report on the spatial, kinematic, metallicity and age distribution for the BP stars at the center of the Canis Major Overdensity.

Sharoz Rafiul Islam, Mirza; Wilhelm, R. J.

2014-01-01

362

Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

Meachen, Julie A; Janowicz, Adrianna C; Avery, Jori E; Sadleir, Rudyard W

2014-01-01

363

Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment. PMID:24502735

Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

2013-10-01

364

Evidence of genetic distinction and long-term population decline in wolves (Canis lupus) in the Italian Apennines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical information suggests the occurrence of an extensive human-caused contraction in the distribution range of wolves ( Canis lupus ) during the last few centuries in Europe. Wolves disappeared from the Alps in the 1920s, and thereafter continued to decline in peninsular Italy until the 1970s, when approximately 100 individuals survived, isolated in the central Apennines. In this study we

V. Lucchini; A. Galov; E. Randi

2004-01-01

365

Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) fail to show understanding of means-end connections in a string-pulling task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris) were tested in four experiments for their understanding of means-end connections. In each of the experiments, the dogs attempted to retrieve a food treat that could be seen behind a barrier and which was connected, via string, to a within-reach wooden block. In the experiments, either one or two strings were present, but the

Britta Osthaus; Stephen E. G. Lea; Alan M. Slater

2005-01-01

366

Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal concentrations in wolves ( Canis lupus L. 1758) from north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf Canis lupus is a major terrestrial predator in eastern Europe and, as a top carnivore, may be exposed to high concentrations of contaminants that are readily transferred through the food chain. Despite this, there are few published data on pollutant and pesticide levels in wolves. This study utilised tissues from animals legally killed by hunters for other reasons

Richard F Shore; Adriano Casulli; Valodia Bologov; Claire L Wienburg; Amjad Afsar; Paul Toyne; Giacomo Dell'Omo

2001-01-01

367

The Cryptic African Wolf: Canis aureus lupaster Is Not a Golden Jackal and Is Not Endemic to Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Egyptian jackal (Canis aureus lupaster) has hitherto been considered a large, rare subspecies of the golden jackal (C. aureus). It has maintained its taxonomical status to date, despite studies demonstrating morphological similarities to the grey wolf (C. lupus). We have analyzed 2055 bp of mitochondrial DNA from C. a. lupaster and investigated the similarity to C. aureus and C.

Eli Knispel Rueness; Maria Gulbrandsen Asmyhr; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; David W. MacDonald; Afework Bekele; Anagaw Atickem; Nils Chr. Stenseth; Thomas M. Gilbert

2011-01-01

368

Obey or Not Obey? Dogs (Canis familiaris) Behave Differently in Response to Attentional States of Their Owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested in a familiar context in a series of 1-min trials on how well they obeyed after being told by their owner to lie down. Food was used in 1\\/3 of all trials, and during the trial the owner engaged in 1 of 5 activities. The dogs behaved differently depending on the owner's attention

Christine Schwab; Ludwig Huber

2006-01-01

369

Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Schoen, J.W.

2004-01-01

370

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006), pp. 19 M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors)  

E-print Network

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006), pp. 1­9 M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors) Keyframe Control of Complex Particle Systems Using the Adjoint Method Chris Wojtan1 , Peter J. There are several instances in which controlled particle systems are desirable. Motion pictures like Lord

Turk, Greg

371

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors)  

E-print Network

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors) Simulating Speech with a Physics-Based Facial Muscle Model Eftychios Sifakis Andrew Selle Avram Robinson-Mosher Ronald Fedkiw Stanford University Stanford University Stanford University Stanford University Intel

Fedkiw, Ron

2006-01-01

372

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

373

Validation for use with coyotes ( Canis latrans) of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Dirofilaria immitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological tests offer a potentially powerful tool for monitoring parasites in wildlife populations. However, such tests must be validated before using them with target wildlife populations. We evaluated in coyotes (Canis latrans) the performance of a commercially available serological test used to detect canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in domestic dogs. We obtained 265 coyote carcasses and serological specimens from 54

B. N. Sacks; B. B. Chomel; R. W. Kasten; C. C. Chang; R. K. Sanders; S. D. Leterme

2002-01-01

374

Serologic Survey for Canine Infectious Diseases among Sympatric Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) and Coyotes (Canis latrans )i n Southeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coy- otes (Canis latrans) are sympatric canids dis- tributed throughout many regions of the Great Plains of North America. The prevalence of ca- nid diseases among these two species where they occur sympatrically is presently unknown. From January 1997 to January 2001, we col- lected blood samples from 89 swift foxes and 122 coyotes on

Eric M. Gese; Seija M. Karki; Mead L. Klavetter; Edward R. Schauster; Ann M. Kitchen

2004-01-01

375

A Survey of the Parasites of Coyotes (Canis latrans )i nNew York based on Fecal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colo- nized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coy- otes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite com- ponent community diversity was

Matthew E. Gompper; Rachel M. Goodman; Roland W. Kays; Justina C. Ray; Christine V. Fiorello

2003-01-01

376

Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why  

Microsoft Academic Search

Territorial defense and maintenance are an important facet of the social ecology of most carnivore species. From January 1991 to June 1993, we observed 54 coyotes (Canis latrans) for 2507 h in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, during which we observed 112 instances of territory defense. The identity of the coyotes involved in challenging and evicting intruding animals was known. Alpha

Eric M. Gese

2001-01-01

377

Dirofilaria immitis in the Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) in a Tropical Region of the Northern Territory, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart and lungs from 32 adult dingoes (Canis famihiaris dingo) were exam- med for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria imrnitis) infection. Eighteen of 32 (56%) samples were infected, with intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 31 worms per animal. Seven of 18 (39%) infections were single sex infections. Large numbers of circulating microfilariae were pres- ent in blood from all

T. W. Starr; R. C. MuIIey

378

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors)  

E-print Network

Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors) Interactive Animation of Dynamic Manipulation Yeuhi Abe and Jovan Popovi´c Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract Lifelike animation of object

Popovic, Jovan

379

Comparison of Simultaneous Splenic Sample PCR with Blood Sample PCR for Diagnosis and Treatment of Experimental Ehrlichia canis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a tick-borne disease with a global distribution (9). Diagnosis of CME is confirmed by demonstration of morulae in blood smears, serology, cul- turing of the rickettsiae, and PCR using Ehrlichia canis-specific primers. Tetracyclines are commonly used in the treatment of CME, with doxycycline in particular being the most acceptable and widely used (2, 3). Blood

Shimon Harrus; Martin Kenny; Limor Miara; Itzhak Aizenberg; Trevor Waner; Susan Shaw

2004-01-01

380

Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

1985-01-01

381

Detection and molecular characterization of canine babesiosis causative agent Babesia canis in the naturally infected dog in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is an emerging infectious disease in Europe. Although previously uncommon, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. In the last few years an increasing number of cases with a wide variety of clinical signs have been recorded throughout the country. In Lithuania the identification of the disease agent in veterinarian clinics is based on a microscopic analysis of size and morphology. To date, no data on the genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs have been documented for Lithuania. A total of 123 blood samples from dogs showing clinical signs of babesiosis on the basis of veterinary examination were tested for the presence of babesial parasites. Babesia isolated from dogs were detected and characterized by nested-PCR and sequence analysis of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia parasites were detected in blood smears of 94 dogs (76.4%). The molecular analysis revealed the presence of B. canis in 108 dogs (87.8%). Two genotypes of B. canis were distinguished on the basis on two nucleotide (GA ? AG) substitutions observed in 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results of the present study provide knowledge of the distribution of B. canis genotypes in dogs in Lithuania, and show the necessity to use a molecular analysis for an accurate diagnosis of canine babesiosis. PMID:25257504

Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Karvelien?, Birut?; Grigonis, Aidas; Aleksandravi?ien?, Asta; Zamokas, Gintaras; Babickait?, Lina; Sab?nas, Vytautas; Petkevi?ius, Saulius

2014-10-15

382

Biochemical properties, expression profiles, and tissue localization of orthologous acetylcholinesterase-2 in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter for cholinergic neurotransmission in animals. Most insects studied so far possess two AChE genes: ace-1 paralogous and ace-2 orthologous to Drosophila melanogaster ace. We characterized the catalytic domain of Anopheles gambiae AChE1 in a previous study (Jiang et al., 2009) and report here biochemical properties of A. gambiae AChE2 expressed in Sf9 cells. An unknown protease in the expression system cleaved the recombinant AChE2 next to Arg110, yielding two non-covalently associated polypeptides. A mixture of the intact and cleaved AChE2 had a specific activity of 72.3 U/mg, much lower than that of A. gambiae AChE1 (523 U/mg). The order of Vmax/KM values for the model substrates was acetylthiocholine > propionylthiocholine ? acetyl-(?-methyl)thiocholine > butyrylthiocholine. The IC50’s for eserine, carbaryl, BW284C51, paraoxon and malaoxon were 1.32, 13.6, 26.8, 192 and 294 nM, respectively. A. gambiae AChE2 bound eserine and carbaryl stronger than paraoxon and malaoxon, whereas eserine and malaoxon modified the active site Ser232 faster than carbaryl or paraoxon did. Consequently, the ki’s were 1.173, 0.245, 0.029 and 0.018 ?M?1min?1 for eserine, carbaryl, paraoxon and malaoxon, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions showed a similar pattern of ace-1 and ace-2 expression. Their mRNAs were abundant in early embryos, greatly decreased in late embryos, larvae, pupae, and pharate adult, and became abundant again in adults. Both transcripts were higher in head and abdomen than thorax of adults and higher in male than female mosquitos. Transcript levels of ace-1 were 1.9- to 361.8-fold higher than those of ace-2, depending on developmental stages and body parts. Cross-reacting polyclonal antibodies detected AChEs in adult brains, thoracic ganglia, and genital/rectal area. Activity assays, immunoblotting, and tandem mass spectrometric analysis indicated that A. gambiae AChE1 is responsible for most of acetylthiocholine hydrolysis in the head extracts. Taken together, these data indicate that A. gambiae AChE2 may play a less significant role than AChE1 does in the mosquito nervous system. PMID:23267863

Zhao, Picheng; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

2013-01-01

383

Systemic acquired resistance in soybean is regulated by two proteins, Orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced in non-inoculated leaves following infection with certain pathogenic strains. SAR is effective against many pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule of the SAR pathway. The development of SAR is associated with the induction of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) is a regulatory gene of the SA signal pathway [1-3]. SAR in soybean was first reported following infection with Colletotrichum trancatum that causes anthracnose disease. We investigated if SAR in soybean is regulated by a pathway, similar to the one characterized in Arabidopsis. Results Pathogenesis-related gene GmPR1 is induced following treatment of soybean plants with the SAR inducer, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or infection with the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. In P. sojae-infected plants, SAR was induced against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Soybean GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes showed high identities to Arabidopsis NPR1. They showed similar expression patterns among the organs, studied in this investigation. GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 are the only soybean homologues of NPR1and are located in homoeologous regions. In GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 transformed Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants, SAR markers: (i) PR-1 was induced following INA treatment and (ii) BGL2 following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and SAR was induced following Pst infection. Of the five cysteine residues, Cys82, Cys150, Cys155, Cys160, and Cys216 involved in oligomer-monomer transition in NPR1, Cys216 in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 proteins was substituted to Ser and Leu, respectively. Conclusion Complementation analyses in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutants revealed that homoeologous GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1. Therefore, SAR pathway in soybean is most likely regulated by GmNPR1 genes. Substitution of Cys216 residue, essential for oligomer-monomer transition of Arabidopsis NPR1, with Ser and Leu residues in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2, respectively, suggested that there may be differences between the regulatory mechanisms of GmNPR1 and Arabidopsis NPR proteins. PMID:19656407

Sandhu, Devinder; Tasma, I Made; Frasch, Ryan; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

2009-01-01

384

Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and dog (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

As part of a programme of comparative measurements of Pd (diffusional water permeability) the RBCs (red blood cells) from dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and greyhound dog (Canis familiaris) were studied. The morphologies of the dingo and greyhound RBCs [examined by light and SEM (scanning electron microscopy)] were found to be very similar, with regard to aspect ratio and size; the mean diameters were estimated to be the same (approximately 7.2 microm) for both dingo and greyhound RBCs. The water diffusional permeability was monitored by using an Mn2+-doping 1H NMR technique at 400 MHz. The Pd (cm/s) values of dingo and greyhound RBCs were similar: 6.5 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 7.5 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 10 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 11.5 x 10(-3) at 42 degrees C. The inhibitory effect of a mercury-containing SH (sulfhydryl)-modifying reagent PCMBS (p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate) was investigated. The maximal inhibition of dingo and greyhound RBCs was reached in 15-30 min at 37 degrees C with 2 mmol/l PCMBS. The values of maximal inhibition were in the range 72-74% when measured at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, and approximately 66% at 37 degrees C. The lowest value of Pd (corresponding to the basal permeability to water) was approximately 2-3 x 10(-3) cm/s in the temperature range 25-37 degrees C. The Ea,d (activation energy of water diffusion) was 25 kJ/mol for dingo RBC and 23 kJ/mol for greyhound RBCs. After incubation with PCMBS, the values of Ea,d increased, reaching 46-48 kJ/mol in the condition of maximal inhibition of water exchange. The electrophoretograms of membrane polypeptides of the dingo and greyhound RBCs were compared and seen to be very similar. We postulate that the RBC parameters reported in the present study are characteristic of all canine species and, in particular in the two cases presented here, these parameters have not been changed by the peculiar Australian habitat over the millennia (as in the case of the dingo) or over shorter time periods, decades or centuries (as in the case of the domestic greyhound). PMID:19947930

Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Matei, Horea; Cox, Guy C; Romeo, Tony; Mironescu, Eugen; Kuchel, Philip W

2010-04-01

385

Molecular Characterization and Alternative Splicing of a Sodium Channel and DSC1 Ortholog Genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

386

Subolesin/akirin orthologs from Ornithodoros spp. soft ticks: cloning, RNAi gene silencing and protective effect of the recombinant proteins.  

PubMed

Subolesin/akirin is a well characterized protective antigen highly conserved across vector species and thus potentially useful for the development of a broad-spectrum vaccine for the control of arthropod infestations including hard ticks, mosquitoes, sand flies and the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Soft ticks could be also targeted by this vaccine if proved that the soft tick subolesin orthologs are conserved and induce protective immune responses too. However, to date no soft tick subolesin orthologs have been fully characterized nor tested as recombinant antigens in vaccination trials. The objectives of the present work were to clone and characterize the subolesin orthologs from two important vector species of soft ticks as Ornithodoros erraticus and O. moubata, to evaluate the effect of subolesin gene silencing by RNAi, and to test the protective value of the recombinant antigens in vaccination trials. The obtained results demonstrate that both soft tick subolesins are highly conserved showing more than 69% and 74% identity with those of hard ticks in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that both soft ticks possess fully operative RNAi machinery, and that subolesin gene silencing by dsRNA injection inhibits oviposition indicating the involvement of subolesin in tick reproduction. Finally, vaccination with the recombinant soft tick subolesins induced a partial protective effect resulting in the reduction of the oviposition rate. These preliminary results encourage further studies on the use of recombinant subolesins as vaccines for the control of soft tick infestations, either alone or in combination with other specific molecules. PMID:22105082

Manzano-Román, Raúl; Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Oleaga, Ana; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

2012-04-30

387

The evolution of the glandular kallikrein locus: identification of orthologs and pseudogenes in the cotton-top tamarin.  

PubMed

Comparisons of the glandular kallikreins loci in human, mouse and rat revealed remarkable differences. For example, the mouse and the rat lack the genes encoding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2). In contrast, the intergenic region between KLK1 and KLK15 is devoid of genes and spans only 1.5 kb in humans, but encompasses 23 KLK1-like genes spanning 290 kb in the mouse. To further elucidate the evolution of glandular kallikrein genes, we investigated the structure and organization of these genes in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), a New World monkey. We conclude that this species has no PSA gene. Moreover, the ortholog of the hK2 gene is a pseudogene, as it contains several mutations that preclude formation of a functional serine protease. The expression of this gene was probably silenced by a 15-bp deletion observed in an androgen response element in the upstream promoter region. Replacing the deleted base pairs in vitro with nucleotides from the human counterpart dramatically restored the transcriptional activity to a level that even surpassed that of the human ortholog. We also determined the nucleotide sequence of KLK15 and the intergenic region between this gene and KLK1 in the cotton-top tamarin. The region between KLK1 and KLK15 is conserved between the cotton-top tamarin and humans, and there are no signs of the extension seen in the mouse. KLK15 appeared to be functional, thus, we predict that it generates a protease with specificity similar to that of the human ortholog. PMID:15588589

Olsson, A Yvonne; Valtonen-André, Camilla; Lilja, Hans; Lundwall, Ake

2004-12-22

388

Distinct Physiological Roles of the Three [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Orthologs in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis ? †  

PubMed Central

Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) and play a key role in the energy metabolism of microorganisms in anaerobic environments. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1, which assimilates organic carbon coupled with the reduction of elemental sulfur (S0) or H2 generation, harbors three gene operons encoding [NiFe]-hydrogenase orthologs, namely, Hyh, Mbh, and Mbx. In order to elucidate their functions in vivo, a gene disruption mutant for each [NiFe]-hydrogenase ortholog was constructed. The Hyh-deficient mutant (PHY1) grew well under both H2S- and H2-evolving conditions. H2S generation in PHY1 was equivalent to that of the host strain, and H2 generation was higher in PHY1, suggesting that Hyh functions in the direction of H2 uptake in T. kodakarensis under these conditions. Analyses of culture metabolites suggested that significant amounts of NADPH produced by Hyh are used for alanine production through glutamate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase. On the other hand, the Mbh-deficient mutant (MHD1) showed no growth under H2-evolving conditions. This fact, as well as the impaired H2 generation activity in MHD1, indicated that Mbh is mainly responsible for H2 evolution. The copresence of Hyh and Mbh raised the possibility of intraspecies H2 transfer (i.e., H2 evolved by Mbh is reoxidized by Hyh) in this archaeon. In contrast, the Mbx-deficient mutant (MXD1) showed a decreased growth rate only under H2S-evolving conditions and exhibited a lower H2S generation activity, indicating the involvement of Mbx in the S0 reduction process. This study provides important genetic evidence for understanding the physiological roles of hydrogenase orthologs in the Thermococcales. PMID:21515783

Kanai, Tamotsu; Matsuoka, Ryoji; Beppu, Haruki; Nakajima, Akihito; Okada, Yoshihiro; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

2011-01-01

389

Loss of LIN35, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the tumor suppressor p105Rb, results in enhanced RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening is a very powerful tool for analyzing gene function in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. The effectiveness of RNAi varies from gene to gene, however, and neuronally expressed genes are largely refractive to RNAi\\u000a in wild-type worms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We found that C. elegans strains carrying mutations in lin-35, the worm ortholog of the tumor suppressor gene p105Rb,

Ben Lehner; Andrea Calixto; Catriona Crombie; Julia Tischler; Angelo Fortunato; Martin Chalfie; Andrew G Fraser

2006-01-01

390

Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: increased exposure through consumption of marine prey.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (?(13)C, ?(15)N, and ?(34)S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

McGrew, Ashley K; Ballweber, Lora R; Moses, Sara K; Stricker, Craig A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; O'Hara, Todd M

2014-01-15

391

[Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].  

PubMed

In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

2012-02-01

392

Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.  

PubMed

Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

2013-10-18

393

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio-tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and March. We observed no other deer or deer sign, but regularly observed deer, deer sign and wolf-killed deer in adjacent wolf-pack territories. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

394

Intense extreme ultraviolet emission from the B star Epsilon Canis Majoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of the brightest nonsolar source of EUV emission: the B2 II star Epsilon Canis Majoris. This source has been detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite's all-sky photometric survey. It is approximately 30 times brighter at 600 A than the predicted emission from the hot white dwarf star HZ 43, previously believed to be the brightest EUV source. We have fitted a simple B star photospheric model to the observed broadband EUV fluxes to explain this emission. Assuming a stellar temperature of 25,000 K and a gravity (log g) of 3.3, we derive an interstellar hydrogen column density of 1.05 +/- 0.05 x 10 exp 18/sq cm over the 187 pc to the star. This corresponds to a line-of-sight number density of hydrogen, of 0.002/cu cm, which is comparable to values found in the rarefied Local Bubble region which surrounds the sun.

Vallerga, John V.; Vedder, Peter W.; Welsh, Barry Y.

1993-01-01

395

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

2009-01-01

396

Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (?13C, ?15N, and ?34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

397

A survey of the parasites of coyotes (Canis latrans) in New York based on fecal analysis.  

PubMed

Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colonized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coyotes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite component community diversity was higher (n = 16 species) in southern New York than in middle and northern sites (nine species each) and infracommunity species richness was greater in southern New York than at the other sites. These differences may reflect the variable diets of coyotes, as well as recent colonization of the region and the mixing of component communities from expanding coyote populations. PMID:14567236

Gompper, Matthew E; Goodman, Rachel M; Kays, Roland W; Ray, Justina C; Fiorello, Christine V; Wade, Susan E

2003-07-01

398

Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides. PMID:25380355

Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

2015-01-01

399

Faint early-type stars and emission-line stars in the Canis Majoris complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of OB stars in the Canis Majoris complex, a survey and classification have been done for stars in the area. The study is based on spectral observations at the Kiso Schmidt tlescope. In the present field about 1800 OBA stars were classified, where the majority is dominated by B late and A early type stars. A survey for emission-line stars was also carried out in the same region. In total, 128 emission-line stars were detected, ranging from V = 6 to 15. A comparison shows that some emission-line stars of this region contained in the existing catalogs are common with the authors', and some exhibit no detectable emission line on the plates. This can probably be considered as the result of variation in emission-line strength.

Wiramihardja, S. D.; Kogure, T.

400

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America. PMID:16456176

Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

2005-10-01

401

Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents. PMID:25121408

Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

2014-10-01

402

Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (?13C, ?15N, and ?34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

403

Structure and expression of the zebrafish mest gene, an ortholog of mammalian imprinted gene PEG1/MEST.  

PubMed

PEG1/MEST is a paternally expressed gene in placental mammals. Here, we report identification of zebrafish (Danio rerio) gene mest, an ortholog of mammalian PEG1/MEST. Zebrafish mest encodes a polypeptide of 344 amino acids and shows a significant similarity to mammalian orthologs. Zebrafish mest is present as a single copy in the zebrafish genome and is closely linked to copg2 as in mammals. It is notable that 10 of 11 intron positions in mest are conserved among mammalian PEG1/MEST genes, indicating that the genomic organization and linkage between mest and copg2 loci was established in ancient vertebrates. Zebrafish mest is expressed in blastula, segmentation, and larval stages, exhibiting gradually increased expression as the development proceeds. Allelic expression analysis in hybrid larvae shows that both parental alleles are transcribed. We also observed one-codon alternative splicing involving an alternative usage of the two consecutive splice acceptors of intron 1, generating two protein isoforms with different lengths of a single amino acid. PMID:16263186

Hahn, Yoonsoo; Yang, Seung Kyoung; Chung, Jae Hoon

2005-11-10

404

Solution Structure of the QUA1 Dimerization Domain of pXqua, the Xenopus Ortholog of Quaking  

PubMed Central

The STAR protein family member Quaking is essential for early development in vertebrates. For example, in oligodendrocyte cells it regulates the splicing, localization, translation and lifetime of a set of mRNAs that code for crucial components of myelin. The Quaking protein contains three contiguous conserved regions: a QUA1 oligomerization element, followed by a single-stranded RNA binding motif comprising the KH and QUA2 domains. An embryonic lethal point mutation in the QUA1 domain, E48G, is known to affect both the aggregation state and RNA-binding properties of the murine Quaking ortholog (QKI). Here we report the NMR solution structure of the QUA1 domain from the Xenopus laevis Quaking ortholog (pXqua), which forms a dimer composed of two perpendicularly docked ?-helical hairpin motifs. Size exclusion chromatography studies of a range of mutants demonstrate that the dimeric state of the pXqua QUA1 domain is stabilized by a network of interactions between side-chains, with significant roles played by an intra-molecular hydrogen bond between Y41 and E72 (the counterpart to QKI E48) and an inter-protomer salt bridge between E72 and R67. These results are compared with recent structural and mutagenesis studies of QUA1 domains from the STAR family members QKI, GLD-1 and Sam68. PMID:23520467

Ali, Muzaffar; Broadhurst, R. William

2013-01-01

405

The Pea Photoperiod Response Gene STERILE NODES Is an Ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The STERILE NODES (SN) locus in pea (Pisum sativum) was one of the first photoperiod response genes to be described and provided early evidence for the genetic control of long-distance signaling in flowering-time regulation. Lines homozygous for recessive sn mutations are early flowering and photoperiod insensitive, with an increased ability to promote flowering across a graft union in short-day conditions. Here, we show that SN controls developmental regulation of genes in the FT family and rhythmic regulation of genes related to circadian clock function. Using a positional and functional candidate approach, we identify SN as the pea ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO, a GARP transcription factor from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with an important role in circadian clock function. In addition to induced mutants, sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of at least three other independent, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations among known sn cultivars. Examination of genetic and regulatory interactions between SN and two other circadian clock genes, HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR) and DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), suggests a complex relationship in which HR regulates expression of SN and the role of DNE and HR in control of flowering is dependent on SN. These results extend previous work to show that pea orthologs of all three Arabidopsis evening complex genes regulate clock function and photoperiod-responsive flowering and suggest that the function of these genes may be widely conserved. PMID:24706549

Liew, Lim Chee; Hecht, Valérie; Sussmilch, Frances C.; Weller, James L.

2014-01-01

406

ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes  

SciTech Connect

The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

2009-07-23

407

Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues. PMID:24318516

Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

2014-05-01

408

Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry  

PubMed Central

Background Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. Methodology/ Principal Findings We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves. PMID:18841199

Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

409

Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

2012-01-01

410

Electron microscopic investigations on stages of dog piroplasms cultured in vitro: Asian isolates of Babesia gibsoni and strains of B. canis from France and Hungary.  

PubMed

Stages obtained from two Asian Babesia gibsoni-isolates cultured in vitro were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and compared to strains of B. canis cultured in vitro. While the developmental stages of the latter preserved their shape in culture, many of the initially small stages of the B. gibsoni strains grew considerably and often looked rather similar to B. canis. PMID:11822735

Walter, Susanne; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Zweygarth, Erich; Schein, Eberhard

2002-01-01

411

The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Methods Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick to attach and start feeding before being killed by the acaricide. PMID:24957215

2014-01-01

412

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

413

‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Proteins Orthologous with pSymA-Encoded Proteins of Sinorhizobium meliloti: Hypothetical Roles in Plant Host Interaction  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021, a nitrogen-fixing, root-nodulating bacterial microsymbiont of alfalfa, has a 3.5 Mbp circular chromosome and two megaplasmids including 1.3 Mbp pSymA carrying nonessential ‘accessory’ genes for nitrogen fixation (nif), nodulation and host specificity (nod). A related bacterium, psyllid-vectored ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ is an obligate phytopathogen with a reduced genome that was previously analyzed for genes orthologous to genes on the S. meliloti circular chromosome. In general, proteins encoded by pSymA genes are more similar in sequence alignment to those encoded by S. meliloti chromosomal orthologs than to orthologous proteins encoded by genes carried on the ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome. Only two ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ proteins were identified as having orthologous proteins encoded on pSymA but not also encoded on the chromosome of S. meliloti. These two orthologous gene pairs encode a Na+/K+ antiporter (shared with intracellular pathogens of the family Bartonellacea) and a Co++, Zn++ and Cd++ cation efflux protein that is shared with the phytopathogen Agrobacterium. Another shared protein, a redox-regulated K+ efflux pump may regulate cytoplasmic pH and homeostasis. The pSymA and ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ orthologs of the latter protein are more highly similar in amino acid alignment compared with the alignment of the pSymA-encoded protein with its S. meliloti chromosomal homolog. About 182 pSymA encoded proteins have sequence similarity (?E-10) with ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ proteins, often present as multiple orthologs of single ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ proteins. These proteins are involved with amino acid uptake, cell surface structure, chaperonins, electron transport, export of bioactive molecules, cellular homeostasis, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and synthesis of amino acids and metabolic cofactors. The presence of multiple orthologs defies mutational analysis and is consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins may be of particular importance in host/microbe interaction and their duplication likely facilitates their ongoing evolution. PMID:22761700

Kuykendall, L. David; Shao, Jonathan Y.; Hartung, John S.

2012-01-01

414

Enigmatic orthology relationships between Hox clusters of the african butterfly fish and other teleosts following ancient whole-genome duplication.  

PubMed

Numerous ancient whole-genome duplications (WGD) have occurred during eukaryote evolution. In vertebrates, duplicated developmental genes and their functional divergence have had important consequences for morphological evolution. Although two vertebrate WGD events (1R/2R) occurred over 525 Ma, we have focused on the more recent 3R or TGD (teleost genome duplication) event which occurred approximately 350 Ma in a common ancestor of over 26,000 species of teleost fishes. Through a combination of whole genome and bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequencing we characterized all Hox gene clusters of Pantodon buchholzi, a member of the early branching teleost subdivision Osteoglossomorpha. We find 45 Hox genes organized in only five clusters indicating that Pantodon has suffered more Hox cluster loss than other known species. Despite strong evidence for homology of the five Pantodon clusters to the four canonical pre-TGD vertebrate clusters (one HoxA, two HoxB, one HoxC, and one HoxD), we were unable to confidently resolve 1:1 orthology relationships between four of the Pantodon clusters and the eight post-TGD clusters of other teleosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that many Pantodon genes segregate outside the conventional "a" and "b" post-TGD orthology groups, that extensive topological incongruence exists between genes physically linked on a single cluster, and that signal divergence causes ambivalence in assigning 1:1 orthology in concatenated Hox cluster analyses. Out of several possible explanations for this phenomenon we favor a model which keeps with the prevailing view of a single TGD prior to teleost radiation, but which also considers the timing of diploidization after duplication, relative to speciation events. We suggest that although the duplicated hoxa clusters diploidized prior to divergence of osteoglossomorphs, the duplicated hoxb, hoxc, and hoxd clusters concluded diploidization independently in osteoglossomorphs and other teleosts. We use the term "tetralogy" to describe the homology relationship which exists between duplicated sequences which originate through a shared WGD, but which diploidize into distinct paralogs from a common allelic pool independently in two lineages following speciation. PMID:24974377

Martin, Kyle J; Holland, Peter W H

2014-10-01

415

Functional Evolution of a Multigene Family: Orthologous and Paralogous Pheromone Receptor Genes in the Turnip Moth, Agrotis segetum  

PubMed Central

Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs), for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z)-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and relaxed evolutionary constraints or positive selection among paralogues allow functional divergence to occur in spite of purifying selection being the norm. PMID:24130875

Zhang, Dan-Dan; Löfstedt, Christer

2013-01-01

416

Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): construction, expression and biochemical properties of the G119S orthologous mutant.  

PubMed

Background Phlebotomus papatasi vectors zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Previous expression of recombinant P. papatasi acetylcholinesterase (PpAChE1) revealed 85% amino acid sequence identity to mosquito AChE and identified synthetic carbamates that effectively inhibited PpAChE1 with improved specificity for arthropod AChEs compared to mammalian AChEs. We hypothesized that the G119S mutation causing high level resistance to organophosphate insecticides in mosquitoes may occur in PpAChE1 and may reduce sensitivity to inhibition. We report construction, expression, and biochemical properties of rPpAChE1 containing the G119S orthologous mutation.MethodsTargeted mutagenesis introduced the G119S orthologous substitution in PpAChE1 cDNA. Recombinant PpAChE1 enzymes containing or lacking the G119S mutation were expressed in the baculoviral system. Biochemical assays were conducted to determine altered catalytic properties and inhibitor sensitivity resulting from the G119S substitution. A molecular homology model was constructed to examine the modeled structural interference with docking of inhibitors of different classes. Genetic tests were conducted to determine if the G119S orthologous codon existed in polymorphic form in a laboratory colony of P. papatasi.ResultsRecombinant PpAChE1 containing the G119 substitution exhibited altered biochemical properties, and reduced inhibition by compounds that bind to the acylation site on the enzyme (with the exception of eserine). Less resistance was directed against bivalent or peripheral site inhibitors, in good agreement with modeled inhibitor docking. Eserine appeared to be a special case capable of inhibition in the absence of covalent binding at the acylation site. Genetic tests did not detect the G119S mutation in a laboratory colony of P. papatasi but did reveal that the G119S codon existed in polymorphic form (GGA + GGC).ConclusionsThe finding of G119S codon polymorphism in a laboratory colony of P. papatasi suggests that a single nucleotide transversion (GGC ¿ AGC) may readily occur, causing rapid development of resistance to organophosphate and phenyl-substituted carbamate insecticides under strong selection. Careful management of pesticide use in IPM programs is important to prevent or mitigate development and fixation of the G119S mutation in susceptible pest populations. Availability of recombinant AChEs enables identification of novel inhibitory ligands with improved efficacy and specificity for AChEs of arthropod pests. PMID:25491113

Temeyer, Kevin B; Tong, Fan; Totrov, Maxim M; Tuckow, Alexander P; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Carlier, Paul R; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2014-12-10

417

Enigmatic Orthology Relationships between Hox Clusters of the African Butterfly Fish and Other Teleosts Following Ancient Whole-Genome Duplication  

PubMed Central

Numerous ancient whole-genome duplications (WGD) have occurred during eukaryote evolution. In vertebrates, duplicated developmental genes and their functional divergence have had important consequences for morphological evolution. Although two vertebrate WGD events (1R/2R) occurred over 525 Ma, we have focused on the more recent 3R or TGD (teleost genome duplication) event which occurred approximately 350 Ma in a common ancestor of over 26,000 species of teleost fishes. Through a combination of whole genome and bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequencing we characterized all Hox gene clusters of Pantodon buchholzi, a member of the early branching teleost subdivision Osteoglossomorpha. We find 45 Hox genes organized in only five clusters indicating that Pantodon has suffered more Hox cluster loss than other known species. Despite strong evidence for homology of the five Pantodon clusters to the four canonical pre-TGD vertebrate clusters (one HoxA, two HoxB, one HoxC, and one HoxD), we were unable to confidently resolve 1:1 orthology relationships between four of the Pantodon clusters and the eight post-TGD clusters of other teleosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that many Pantodon genes segregate outside the conventional “a” and “b” post-TGD orthology groups, that extensive topological incongruence exists between genes physically linked on a single cluster, and that signal divergence causes ambivalence in assigning 1:1 orthology in concatenated Hox cluster analyses. Out of several possible explanations for this phenomenon we favor a model which keeps with the prevailing view of a single TGD prior to teleost radiation, but which also considers the timing of diploidization after duplication, relative to speciation events. We suggest that although the duplicated hoxa clusters diploidized prior to divergence of osteoglossomorphs, the duplicated hoxb, hoxc, and hoxd clusters concluded diploidization independently in osteoglossomorphs and other teleosts. We use the term “tetralogy” to describe the homology relationship which exists between duplicated sequences which originate through a shared WGD, but which diploidize into distinct paralogs from a common allelic pool independently in two lineages following speciation. PMID:24974377

Martin, Kyle J.; Holland, Peter W.H.

2014-01-01

418

CDK12 is a transcription elongation-associated CTD kinase, the metazoan ortholog of yeast Ctk1  

PubMed Central

Drosophila contains one (dCDK12) and humans contain two (hCDK12 and hCDK13) proteins that are the closest evolutionary relatives of yeast Ctk1, the catalytic subunit of the major elongation-phase C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CTDK-I. However, until now, neither CDK12 nor CDK13 has been demonstrated to be a bona fide CTD kinase. Using Drosophila, we demonstrate that dCDK12 (CG7597) is a transcription-associated CTD kinase, the ortholog of yCtk1. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the distribution of dCDK12 on formaldehyde-fixed polytene chromosomes is virtually identical to that of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), but is distinct from that of P-TEFb (dCDK9 + dCyclin T). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirm that dCDK12 is present on the transcribed regions of active Drosophila genes. Compared with P-TEFb, dCDK12 amounts are lower at the 5? end and higher in the middle and at the 3? end of genes (both normalized to RNAPII). Appropriately, Drosophila dCDK12 purified from nuclear extracts manifests CTD kinase activity in vitro. Intriguingly, we find that cyclin K is associated with purified dCDK12, implicating it as the cyclin subunit of this CTD kinase. Most importantly, we demonstrate that RNAi knockdown of dCDK12 in S2 cells alters the phosphorylation state of the CTD, reducing its Ser2 phosphorylation levels. Similarly, in human HeLa cells, we show that hCDK13 purified from nuclear extracts displays CTD kinase activity in vitro, as anticipated. Also, we find that chimeric (yeast/human) versions of Ctk1 containing the kinase homology domains of hCDK12/13 (or hCDK9) are functional in yeast cells (and also in vitro); using this system, we show that a bur1ts mutant is rescued more efficiently by a hCDK9 chimera than by a hCDK13 chimera, suggesting the following orthology relationships: Bur1 ? CDK9 and Ctk1 ? CDK12/13. Finally, we show that siRNA knockdown of hCDK12 in HeLa cells results in alterations in the CTD phosphorylation state. Our findings demonstrate that metazoan CDK12 and CDK13 are CTD kinases, and that CDK12 is orthologous to yeast Ctk1. PMID:20952539

Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Liu, Pengda; Phatnani, Hemali P.; Fuda, Nicholas J.; Cooper, Jeffrey J.; Price, David H.; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T.; Greenleaf, Arno L.

2010-01-01

419

Copy-number variation of cancer-gene orthologs is sufficient to induce cancer-like symptoms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Copy-number variation (CNV), rather than complete loss of gene function, is increasingly implicated in human disease. Moreover, gene dosage is recognised as important in tumourigenesis, and there is an increasing realisation that CNVs may not be just symptomatic of the cancerous state but may, in fact, be causative. However, the identification of CNV-related phenotypes for mammalian genes is a slow process, due to the technical difficulty of constructing deletion mutants. Using the genome-wide deletion library for the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have identified genes (termed haploproficient, HP) which, when one copy is deleted from a diploid cell, result in an increased rate of proliferation. Since haploproficiency under nutrient-sufficient conditions is a novel phenotype, we sought here to characterise a subset of the yeast haploproficient genes which seem particularly relevant to human cancers. Results We show that, for a subset of HP genes, heterozygous deletion is sufficient to cause aberrant cell cycling and altered rates of apoptosis, phenotypes associated with cancer in mammalian cells. A majority of these yeast genes are the orthologs of mammalian cancer genes, and hence our studies suggest that CNV of these oncogenic orthologs may be sufficient to lead to tumourigenesis in human cells. Moreover, where not already implicated, this cluster of cancer-like phenotypes in this model eukaryote may be predictive of the involvement in cancer of the mammalian orthologs of these yeast HP genes. Using the yeast set as a model, we show that the response to a range of anti-cancer drugs is strongly dependent on gene dosage, such that intermediate concentrations of the drugs can actually increase a mutant’s growth rate. Conclusions The exploitation of data on the phenotypic impact of heterozygosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has permitted the prediction of CNVs affecting tumourigenesis in humans. Our yeast data also suggest that the identification of CNVs in tumour cells may assist both the selection of anti-cancer drugs and the dosages at which they should be administered if they are to be a beneficial, rather than a deleterious, therapy. PMID:23531409

2013-01-01

420

Patterns of wolf Canis lupus predation on wild and domestic ungulates in the Western Carpathian Mountains (S Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the predator-prey relationships among wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, wild ungulates, and livestock in the managed mountain forests of the Western Carpathians (S Poland). Though\\u000a roe deerCapreolus capreolus dominated in the community of wild ungulates and livestock was abundant within the study area, the three wolf packs preyed\\u000a mainly on red deerCervus elaphus (42% of food biomass), and next

Sabina Nowak; Robert W. Mys?ajek; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska

2005-01-01

421

Urine-marking and ground-scratching by free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in summer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.

Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

422

Erratum: Optical Spectroscopy of EZ Canis Majoris: Indication for Large-Scale Structures in a Wolf-Rayet Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper ``Optical Spectroscopy of EZ Canis Majoris: Indication for Large-Scale Structures in a Wolf-Rayet Wind'' by Thierry Morel, Nicole St-Louis, and Sergey V. Marchenko (ApJ, 482, 470 [1997]), there are several errors that should be corrected. In the legends to Figures 3 and 6 and on page 483, 55% should read 99%. The revised version of Figure 12 given here replaces Figure 12 in the paper.

Morel, Thierry; St-Louis, Nicole; Marchenko, Sergey V.

1997-11-01

423

Winter–spring food habits of an island population of Coyote Canis Latrans in Baja California, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of the coyote (Canis latrans) on San Luis Gonzaga Island of Baja California, Mexico were investigated. We collected 239 scat samples for analysis on 14 May 1997. Samples ranged from fresh to approximately 2 months old. Frequency of diet components was 48.9% birds, 21.9% fish, 14.8% plants, 3.6% mammals, 4.0% insects, 0.7% reptiles, 0.5% arachnids, and 5% crustaceans.

S. T. Álvarez-Castañeda; P. González-Quintero

2005-01-01

424

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

2011-01-01

425

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew Valley, Utah, 1977-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey abundances with prey consumption rates. Previous studies reported a cyclic trend in black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus Gray, 1837) density with a period of 10 years and >150-fold amplitude, as well as short-term fluctuations among some rodent species that exceeded an 8-fold

Rebecca A. Bartel; Frederick F. Knowlton

2005-01-01

426

Effects of canine heartworm ( Dirofilaria immitis ) on body condition and activity of free-ranging coyotes ( Canis latrans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used radiotelemetry to study relationships among canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection, body condition, and activity of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans). Average body mass at death was lower for 17 coyotes in a high-intensity infected group (x = 33.6 heartworms) than for 18 coyotes in a control group (x = 3.6 heartworms; p < 0.01). Coyotes in the infected group

Benjamin N. Sacks; Karen M. Blejwas

2000-01-01

427

Monitoring wolves ( Canis lupus ) by non-invasive genetics and camera trapping: a small-scale pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring populations of elusive large carnivores like wolves (Canis lupus), which are often distributed at low density in widespread forested areas, is difficult or exceedingly expensive. Aiming\\u000a to assess the power of two indirect monitoring methods, non-invasive genetic sampling and camera trapping, we designed a small-scale\\u000a pilot study that was carried out from 2006 to 2008 in and around the

Marco Galaverni; Davide Palumbo; Elena Fabbri; Romolo Caniglia; Claudia Greco; Ettore Randi

428

Dirofilaria immitis in the dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) in a tropical region of the Northern Territory, Australia.  

PubMed

The heart and lungs from 32 adult dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) were examined for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection. Eighteen of 32 (56%) samples were infected, with intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 31 worms per animal. Seven of 18 (39%) infections were single sex infections. Large numbers of circulating microfilariae were present in blood from all dingoes infected with both sexes of worms. PMID:3352087

Starr, T W; Mulley, R C

1988-01-01

429

Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

Sovada, M.A.; Telesco, D.J.; Roy, C.C.

2000-01-01

430

Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical–chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50–200g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical–chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the

Christian Sonne; Rune Dietz; Maja Kirkegaard; Robert J. Letcher; Soheila Shahmiri; Steen Andersen; Per Møller; Aage Kristian Olsen; Asger L. Jensen

2008-01-01

431

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals distal gut bacterial diversity in wild wolves ( Canis lupus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the microbial communities in the distal gut of wild wolves (Canis lupus). Fecal samples were collected from three healthy unrelated adult wolves captured at the nearby of Dalai Lake Nature Reserve\\u000a in Inner Mongolia of China. The diversity of fecal bacteria was investigated by constructing PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene clone\\u000a libraries using

Honghai Zhang; Lei Chen

2010-01-01

432

Antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel.  

PubMed

Blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in Israel, were examined. A serological Study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. The seroprevalence of CPV, E. canis, CDV, and L. infantum were 72.3% (34/47), 54.3% (25/46), 52.2% (24/46), and 6.5% (3/46) respectively. Faecal flotation tests revealed a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum (13/17, 76%) and a low prevalence of Dipilidium caninum infestation. Examination of blood smears revealed Hepatazoon canis gamonts in one jackal. Golden jackals are among the most common free-ranging carnivores in Israel and neighboring countries. Their habitats are in proximity to densely populated areas and they bear close phylogenic relation to the domestic dog. These facts, combined with the high prevalence of the jackals' exposure to the major canine pathogens demonstrated in this study, suggest that they may serve as a reservoir for the transmission of certain diseases to domestic dogs. PMID:11409931

Shamir, M; Yakobson, B; Baneth, G; King, R; Dar-Verker, S; Markovics, A; Aroch, I

2001-07-01

433

Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis.  

PubMed

Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia. PMID:25517530

Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Santos, Luciana Ladislau dos; Ribeiro, Laura Raquel Rios; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho de; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

2014-01-01

434

Host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, Ehrlichia canis  

PubMed Central

The ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. Ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Historically, advances in tick-borne disease control strategies have typically followed explication of tick-pathogen-vertebrate interactions, thus it is reasonable to expect novel, more sustainable approaches to control of these diseases as the transmission of their associated infections are investigated at the molecular through ecological levels. Better understanding of the interactions between E. canis and its canine and tick hosts would also elucidate similar interactions for other Ehrlichia species as well as the potential roles of canine sentinels, reservoirs and models of tick-borne zoonoses. This article summarizes natural exposure studies and experimental investigations of E. canis in the context of what is understood about biological vectors of tick-borne Anaplasmataceae. PMID:18963493

Stich, R. W.; Schaefer, John J.; Bremer, William G.; Needham, Glen R.; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2008-01-01

435

Evaluation of Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

We determined MICs of antibiotics against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canis by real-time quantitative PCR. The doubling times of the organisms were established: 19 h for E. chaffeensis, 26 h for A. phagocytophilum, and 28 h for E. canis. In comparison to the reference method for determining sensitivities, which uses Diff-Quick staining, our PCR assay was very sensitive and specific. We confirmed that doxycycline and rifampin are highly active against these bacteria and found variable susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones; A. phagocytophilum was susceptible, but E. canis and E. chaffeensis were only partly susceptible. ?-Lactam compounds, cotrimoxazole, macrolide compounds, and telithromycin showed no activity against any of the three organisms. Thiamphenicol was found to be more active than chloramphenicol. For the first time, we showed that these three species have numerous point mutations in their 23S RNA genes, with those at positions 754, 2057, 2058, 2059, and 2611 (Escherichia coli numbering) known to confer resistance to macrolide compounds in other bacteria. The role of each of these mutations in resistance to these drugs should be investigated in the future. Our study confirms previous reports that quantitative PCR is a reliable method for determining antibiotic susceptibility; therefore, it might be useful for screening new drugs. PMID:15561862

Branger, S.; Rolain, J. M.; Raoult, D.

2004-01-01

436

Toxocara canis: potential activity of natural products against second-stage larvae in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic activity of extracts from Chenopodiumambrosioides, Pycnanthusangolensis and Nutridesintox was in vitro and in vivo investigated, against Toxocaracanis larvae. The in vitro assays results showed that the aqueous extract of Nutridesintox was the most effective, followed by C. ambrosioides extracts, hexane, dichloromethane and the infusion. P. angolensis extracts showed a lower anthelmintic activity compared to the other natural products. For the in vivo assays, Nutridesintox, the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were administered orally to T. canis-infected mice, in single doses, during three consecutive days. The efficacy was evaluated on the 17th day post-infection, not only by counting T. canis larvae in the tissues but also by ELISA detection of IgM and IgG antibodies and histological analysis of liver and lungs. The different treatments did not reduce the larvae burden and had no influence on the antibodies dynamic. Interestingly, a reduction on the inflammatory infiltrates was observed in the liver and lung sections of the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. In conclusion, the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides is of further research interest, as it showed an anthelmintic activity in vitro and a reduction on the inflammatory reaction produced by the infection of T. canis larvae in vivo. PMID:20447397

Reis, Mariana; Trinca, Alcione; Ferreira, Maria José U; Monsalve-Puello, Ana R; Grácio, Maria Amélia A

2010-10-01

437

Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in W??e 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from W??e 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in W??e 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals.

Ivanoff, Dmitry V.; Wolsan, Mieczys?aw; Marciszak, Adrian

2014-08-01

438

Network of Cancer Genes: a web resource to analyze duplicability, orthology and network properties of cancer genes  

PubMed Central

The Network of Cancer Genes (NCG) collects and integrates data on 736 human genes that are mutated in various types of cancer. For each gene, NCG provides information on duplicability, orthology, evolutionary appearance and topological properties of the encoded protein in a comprehensive version of the human protein-protein interaction network. NCG also stores information on all primary interactors of cancer proteins, thus providing a complete overview of 5357 proteins that constitute direct and indirect determinants of human cancer. With the constant delivery of results from the mutational screenings of cancer genomes, NCG represents a versatile resource for retrieving detailed information on particular cancer genes, as well as for identifying common properties of precompiled lists of cancer genes. NCG is freely available at: http://bio.ifom-ieo-campus.it/ncg. PMID:19906700

Syed, Adnan S.; D’Antonio, Matteo; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.

2010-01-01

439

The gene Sr33, an ortholog of barley Mla genes, encodes resistance to wheat stem rust race Ug99.  

PubMed

Wheat stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, afflicts bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). New virulent races collectively referred to as "Ug99" have emerged, which threaten global wheat production. The wheat gene Sr33, introgressed from the wild relative Aegilops tauschii into bread wheat, confers resistance to diverse stem rust races, including the Ug99 race group. We cloned Sr33, which encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat protein. Sr33 is orthologous to the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mla mildew resistance genes that confer resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The wheat Sr33 gene functions independently of RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 chaperones. Haplotype analysis from diverse collections of Ae. tauschii placed the origin of Sr33 resistance near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. PMID:23811228

Periyannan, Sambasivam; Moore, John; Ayliffe, Michael; Bansal, Urmil; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Deal, Karin; Luo, Mingcheng; Kong, Xiuying; Bariana, Harbans; Mago, Rohit; McIntosh, Robert; Dodds, Peter; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans

2013-08-16

440

Impairment of Drosophila orthologs of the human orphan protein C19orf12 induces bang sensitivity and neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Mutations in the orphan gene C19orf12 were identified as a genetic cause in a subgroup of patients with NBIA, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of iron in the basal ganglia. C19orf12 was shown to be localized in mitochondria, however, nothing is known about its activity and no functional link exists to the clinical phenotype of the patients. This situation led us to investigate the effects of C19orf12 down-regulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Two genes are present in D. melanogaster, which are orthologs of C19orf12, CG3740 and CG11671. Here we provide evidence that transgenic flies with impaired C19orf12 homologs reflect the neurodegenerative phenotype and represent a valid tool to further analyze the pathomechanism in C19orf12-associated NBIA. PMID:24586779

Iuso, Arcangela; Sibon, Ody C M; Gorza, Matteo; Heim, Katharina; Organisti, Cristina; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger

2014-01-01