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1

New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats  

PubMed Central

Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ) when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV), with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts.

2012-01-01

2

Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis Infection with Recombinant Proteins  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia canis causes a potentially fatal rickettsial disease of dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. We recently reported the cloning of two immunoreactive E. canis proteins, P28 and P140, that were applicable for serodiagnosis of the disease. In the present study we cloned a new immunoreactive E. canis surface protein gene of 1,170 bp, which encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 42.6 kDa (P43). The P43 gene was not detected in E. chaffeensis DNA by Southern blot, and antisera against recombinant P43 (rP43) did not react with E. chaffeensis as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Forty-two dogs exhibiting signs and/or hematologic abnormalities associated with canine ehrlichiosis were tested by IFA assay and by recombinant Western immunoblot. Among the 22 samples that were IFA positive for E. canis, 100% reacted with rP43, 96% reacted with rP28, and 96% reacted with rP140. The specificity of the recombinant proteins compared to the IFAs was 96% for rP28, 88% for P43 and 63% for P140. The results of this study demonstrate that the rP43 and rP28 are sensitive and reliable serodiagnostic antigens for E. canis infections.

McBride, Jere W.; Corstvet, Richard E.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Walker, David H.

2001-01-01

3

Adamantane-based dendrons for trimerization of the therapeutic P140 peptide.  

PubMed

Dendrons constituted of an adamantane core, a focal point and three arms, were synthetized starting from a multifunctional adamantane derivative. Maleimido groups at the periphery of the scaffold were used to covalently attach the peptide called P140, a therapeutic phosphopeptide controlling disease activity in systemic lupus, both in mice and patients. Biotinylation of the trimers at the focal point was performed using click chemistry and the conjugates were studied in terms of solubility, binding affinity to its receptor, the HSPA8/HSC70 chaperone protein, effect on HSPA8 folding property and in vivo activity. The results showed that the trimerization of P140 peptide does not trigger aggregation or steric hindrances during the interaction with HSPA8 protein. Compared to the monomeric cognate peptide, the trivalent P140 peptide displayed the same capacity, in vitro, to down-regulate HSPA8 activity and, in vivo in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice, to reduce abnormal blood hypercellularity. The control trimer synthesized with the same scaffold and a scrambled sequence of P140 showed no effect in vivo. This work reveals that adamantane-based scaffolds with a well-defined spatial conformation are promising trivalent systems for molecular recognition and for biomedical applications. PMID:24889033

Lamanna, Giuseppe; Grillaud, Maxime; Macri, Christophe; Chaloin, Olivier; Muller, Sylviane; Bianco, Alberto

2014-08-01

4

Glycosylation of Homologous Immunodominant Proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis  

PubMed Central

The glycoprotein genes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (1,644 bp) and Ehrlichia canis (2,064 bp) encode proteins of 548 to 688 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of only 61 and 73 kDa but with electrophoretic mobilities of 120 kDa (P120) and 140 kDa (P140), respectively. The 120-kDa protein gene of E. chaffeensis contains four identical 240-bp tandem repeat units, and the 140-kDa protein gene of E. canis has 14 nearly identical, tandemly arranged 108-bp repeat units. Conserved serine-rich motifs identified in the repeat units of P120 and P140 were also found in the repeat units of the human granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis agent 130-kDa protein and of the fimbria-associated adhesin protein Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguis. Nearly the entire (99%) E. chaffeensis P120 gene (1,616 bp), the 14-repeat region (78%) of the E. canis P140 gene (1,620 bp), and a 2-repeat region from the E. chaffeensis P120 gene (520 bp) were expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins exhibited molecular masses ranging from 1.6 to 2 times larger than those predicted by the amino acid sequences. Antibodies against the recombinant proteins reacted with E. chaffeensis P120 and E. canis P140, respectively. Carbohydrate was detected on the E. chaffeensis and E. canis recombinant proteins, including the two-repeat polypeptide region of E. chaffeensis P120. A carbohydrate compositional analysis identified glucose, galactose, and xylose on the recombinant proteins. The presence of only one site for N-linked (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr) glycosylation, a lack of effect of N-glycosidase F, the presence of 70 and 126 Ser/Thr glycosylation sites in the repeat regions of P120 and P140, respectively, and a high molar ratio of carbohydrate to protein suggest that the glycans may be O linked.

McBride, Jere W.; Yu, Xue-jie; Walker, David H.

2000-01-01

5

p140Cap suppresses the invasive properties of highly metastatic MTLn3-EGFR cells via impaired cortactin phosphorylation.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that the adaptor protein p140Cap regulates tumor properties in terms of cell motility and growth. Here, by using the highly metastatic rat adenocarcinoma cell line MTLn3-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we assess the role of p140Cap in metastasis formation. Orthotopic transplantation of MTLn3-EGFR cells over-expressing p140Cap in Rag2(-/-)?(c)(-/-) mice resulted in normal primary tumor growth compared with the controls. Strikingly, p140Cap over-expression causes an 80% inhibition in the number of lung metastases. p140Cap over-expressing cells display a 50% reduction in directional cell migration, an increased number and size of focal adhesions, and a strong impairment in the ability to invade in a 3D matrix. p140Cap over-expression affects EGFR signaling and tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in response to EGF stimulation. Intriguingly, p140Cap associates with cortactin via interaction with its second proline-rich domain to the cortactin SH3 domain. The phosphomimetic cortactin tyrosine 421 mutant rescues migration and invasive properties in p140Cap over-expressing cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that p140Cap suppresses the invasive properties of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells by inhibiting cortactin-dependent cell motility. PMID:21725361

Damiano, L; Le Dévédec, S E; Di Stefano, P; Repetto, D; Lalai, R; Truong, H; Xiong, J L; Danen, E H; Yan, K; Verbeek, F J; De Luca, E; Attanasio, F; Buccione, R; Turco, E; van de Water, B; Defilippi, P

2012-02-01

6

Identification of two regions in the p140Cap adaptor protein that retain the ability to suppress tumor cell properties.  

PubMed

p140Cap is an adaptor protein that negatively controls tumor cell properties, by inhibiting in vivo tumor growth and metastasis formation. Our previous data demonstrated that p140Cap interferes with tumor growth and impairs invasive properties of cancer cells inactivating signaling pathways, such as the tyrosine kinase Src or E-cadherin/EGFR cross-talk. In breast cancer p140Cap expression inversely correlates with tumor malignancy. p140Cap is composed of several conserved domains that mediate association with specific partners. Here we focus our attention on two domains of p140Cap, the TER (Tyrosine Enriched Region) which includes several tyrosine residues, and the CT (Carboxy Terminal) which contains a proline rich sequence, involved in binding to SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively. By generating stable cell lines expressing these two proteins, we demonstrate that both TER and CT domains maintain the ability to associate the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Src, to inhibit Src activation and Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation, and to impair in vitro and in vivo tumor cell features. In particular expression of TER and CT proteins in cancer cells inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth and directional migration at a similar extent of the full length p140Cap protein. Moreover, by selective point mutations and deletion we show that the ability of the modules to act as negative regulators of cell migration and proliferation mainly resides on the two tyrosines (Y) inserted in the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences in the TER module and in the second proline-rich stretch contained in the CT protein. Gene signature of cells expressing p140Cap, TER or CT lead to the identification of a common pattern of 105 down-regulated and 128 up-regulated genes, suggesting that the three proteins can act through shared pathways. Overall, this work highlights that the TER and CT regions of p140Cap can efficiently suppress tumor cell properties, opening the perspective that short, defined p140Cap regions can have therapeutic effects. PMID:23841028

Sharma, Nanaocha; Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Fiorentino, Arianna; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Cabodi, Sara; Singh, Vijay; Chiorino, Giovanna; Turco, Emilia; Stefano, Paola Di; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

7

Identification of two regions in the p140Cap adaptor protein that retain the ability to suppress tumor cell properties  

PubMed Central

p140Cap is an adaptor protein that negatively controls tumor cell properties, by inhibiting in vivo tumor growth and metastasis formation. Our previous data demonstrated that p140Cap interferes with tumor growth and impairs invasive properties of cancer cells inactivating signaling pathways, such as the tyrosine kinase Src or E-cadherin/EGFR cross-talk. In breast cancer p140Cap expression inversely correlates with tumor malignancy. p140Cap is composed of several conserved domains that mediate association with specific partners. Here we focus our attention on two domains of p140Cap, the TER (Tyrosine Enriched Region) which includes several tyrosine residues, and the CT (Carboxy Terminal) which contains a proline rich sequence, involved in binding to SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively. By generating stable cell lines expressing these two proteins, we demonstrate that both TER and CT domains maintain the ability to associate the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Src, to inhibit Src activation and Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation, and to impair in vitro and in vivo tumor cell features. In particular expression of TER and CT proteins in cancer cells inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth and directional migration at a similar extent of the full length p140Cap protein. Moreover, by selective point mutations and deletion we show that the ability of the modules to act as negative regulators of cell migration and proliferation mainly resides on the two tyrosines (Y) inserted in the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences in the TER module and in the second proline-rich stretch contained in the CT protein. Gene signature of cells expressing p140Cap, TER or CT lead to the identification of a common pattern of 105 down-regulated and 128 up-regulated genes, suggesting that the three proteins can act through shared pathways. Overall, this work highlights that the TER and CT regions of p140Cap can efficiently suppress tumor cell properties, opening the perspective that short, defined p140Cap regions can have therapeutic effects.

Sharma, Nanaocha; Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Fiorentino, Arianna; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Cabodi, Sara; Singh, Vijay; Chiorino, Giovanna; Turco, Emilia; Stefano, Paola Di; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

8

Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters (POCs).  

PubMed

Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters (POCs) is a JAVA client-server application which accesses an updated database containing all complete poxvirus genomes; it automatically groups orthologous genes into families based on BLASTP scores for assessment by a human database curator. POCs has a user-friendly interface permitting complex SQL queries to retrieve interesting groups of DNA and protein sequences as well as gene families for subsequent interrogation by a variety of integrated tools: BLASTP, BLASTX, TBLASTN, Jalview (multiple alignment), Dotlet (Dotplot), Laj (local alignment), and NAP (nucleotide to amino acid alignment). PMID:12424130

Ehlers, Angelika; Osborne, John; Slack, Stephanie; Roper, Rachel L; Upton, Chris

2002-11-01

9

P110 and P140 Cytadherence-Related Proteins Are Negative Effectors of Terminal Organelle Duplication in Mycoplasma genitalium  

PubMed Central

Background The terminal organelle is a complex structure involved in many aspects of the biology of mycoplasmas such as cell adherence, motility or cell division. Mycoplasma genitalium cells display a single terminal organelle and duplicate this structure prior to cytokinesis in a coordinated manner with the cell division process. Despite the significance of the terminal organelle in mycoplasma virulence, little is known about the mechanisms governing its duplication. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we describe the isolation of a mutant, named T192, with a transposon insertion close to the 3? end of the mg192 gene encoding for P110 adhesin. This mutant shows a truncated P110, low levels of P140 and P110 adhesins, a large number of non-motile cells and a high frequency of new terminal organelle formation. Further analyses revealed that the high rates of new terminal organelle formation in T192 cells are a direct consequence of the reduced levels of P110 and P140 rather than to the expression of a truncated P110. Consistently, the phenotype of the T192 mutant was successfully complemented by the reintroduction of the mg192 WT allele which restored the levels of P110 and P140 to those of the WT strain. Quantification of DAPI-stained DNA also showed that the increase in the number of terminal organelles in T192 cells is not accompanied by a higher DNA content, indicating that terminal organelle duplication does not trigger DNA replication in mycoplasmas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the existence of a mechanism regulating terminal organelle duplication in M. genitalium and strongly suggest the implication of P110 and P140 adhesins in this mechanism.

Pich, Oscar Q.; Burgos, Raul; Querol, Enrique; Pinol, Jaume

2009-01-01

10

Molecular characterisation of Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli from naturally infected European dogs.  

PubMed

The morphologically small Babesia species isolated from naturally infected dogs in Europe, Japan, and US are described as Babesia gibsoni despite the fact that molecular techniques show that they should be assigned to two or three separate taxons. The morphologically large Babesia isolated from dogs in Europe, Africa, and US were generally classified as B. canis until it was proposed to distinguish three related, albeit genetically distinct subspecies of this genus, namely B. canis canis, B. canis rossi, and B. canis vogeli. The insight into the molecular taxonomy of canine piroplasms is, however, limited because only partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) sequence data exist for two species from the B. canis group. In this work, we molecularly characterised natural Babesia infections in 11 dogs from Croatia, France, Italy, and Poland. These infections were diagnosed as caused by B. canis canis and B. canis vogeli based on the analysis of the complete sequence of the ssrRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the large Babesia species of dogs belong the to the Babesia sensu stricto clade, which includes species characterised by transovarial transmission in the tick vectors and by exclusive development inside the mammalian host erythrocytes. The new data facilitate the reliable molecular diagnosis of the subspecies of B. canis. PMID:12079734

Cacciň, Simone M; Antunovic, Boris; Moretti, Annabella; Mangili, Vittorio; Marinculic, Albert; Baric, Renata Rafaj; Slemenda, Susan B; Pieniazek, Norman J

2002-07-01

11

The Spliceosomal Phosphopeptide P140 Controls the Lupus Disease by Interacting with the HSC70 Protein and via a Mechanism Mediated by ?? T Cells  

PubMed Central

The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4+ T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4?CD8?B220+ T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on ?? T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4+ T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity.

Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Decossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

2009-01-01

12

Autochthonous canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis in Latvia.  

PubMed

This is the first report of confirmed canine babesiosis in Latvia supporting the observed geographical expansion of this disease. Between 2009 and 2011 three dogs which have not traveled outside of Latvia were diagnosed with babesiosis. Hematological analysis and serological tests for granulocytic anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and borreliosis were negative (Idexx SNAP 4Dx test). Peripheral blood erythrocytes of the three dogs contained large Babesia that were identified as Babesia canis canis by PCR. Sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene were 98-100% similar to the sequences of B. canis canis isolated from dogs in other European countries. We conclude that these are the first autochthonous canine babesiosis cases reported from Latvia. PMID:23582665

Berzina, Inese; Capligina, Valentina; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate; Cirule, Dina; Matise, Ilze

2013-09-23

13

p140mDia, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, is a target protein for Rho small GTPase and is a ligand for profilin.  

PubMed Central

Rho small GTPase regulates cell morphology, adhesion and cytokinesis through the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a protein, p140mDia, as a downstream effector of Rho. It is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, a protein required for cytokinesis, and belongs to a family of formin-related proteins containing repetitive polyproline stretches. p140mDia binds selectively to the GTP-bound form of Rho and also binds to profilin. p140mDia, profilin and RhoA are co-localized in the spreading lamellae of cultured fibroblasts. They are also co-localized in membrane ruffles of phorbol ester-stimulated sMDCK2 cells, which extend these structures in a Rho-dependent manner. The three proteins are recruited around phagocytic cups induced by fibronectin-coated beads. Their recruitment is not induced after Rho is inactivated by microinjection of botulinum C3 exoenzyme. Overexpression of p140mDia in COS-7 cells induced homogeneous actin filament formation. These results suggest that Rho regulates actin polymerization by targeting profilin via p140mDia beneath the specific plasma membranes.

Watanabe, N; Madaule, P; Reid, T; Ishizaki, T; Watanabe, G; Kakizuka, A; Saito, Y; Nakao, K; Jockusch, B M; Narumiya, S

1997-01-01

14

Stable differentiation and clonality of murine long-term hematopoiesis after extended reduced-intensity selection for MGMT P140K transgene expression  

PubMed Central

Efficient in vivo selection increases survival of gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and protects hematopoiesis, even if initial gene transfer efficiency is low. Moreover, selection of a limited number of transduced HSCs lowers the number of cell clones at risk of gene activation by insertional mutagenesis. However, a limited clonal repertoire greatly increases the proliferation stress of each individual clone. Therefore, understanding the impact of in vivo selection on proliferation and lineage differentiation of stem-cell clones is essential for its clinical use. We established minimal cell and drug dosage requirements for selection of P140K mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT P140K)–expressing HSCs and monitored their differentiation potential and clonality under long-term selective stress. Up to 17 administrations of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea (BCNU) did not impair long-term differentiation and proliferation of MGMT P140K–expressing stem-cell clones in mice that underwent serial transplantation and did not lead to clonal exhaustion. Interestingly, not all gene-modified hematopoietic repopulating cell clones were efficiently selectable. Our studies demonstrate that the normal function of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is not compromised by reduced-intensity long-term in vivo selection, thus underscoring the potential value of MGMT P140K selection for clinical gene therapy.

Ball, Claudia R.; Pilz, Ingo H.; Schmidt, Manfred; Fessler, Sylvia; Williams, David A.; Glimm, Hanno

2007-01-01

15

Molecular characterisation of Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli from naturally infected European dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologically small Babesia species isolated from naturally infected dogs in Europe, Japan, and US are described as Babesia gibsoni despite the fact that molecular techniques show that they should be assigned to two or three separate taxons. The morphologically large Babesia isolated from dogs in Europe, Africa, and US were generally classified as B. canis until it was proposed

Simone M. Cacciň; Boris Antunovic; Annabella Moretti; Vittorio Mangili; Albert Marinculic; Renata Rafaj Baric; Susan B. Slemenda; Norman J. Pieniazek

2002-01-01

16

Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites: the EPLYA and EGLYA motifs have a key role in tyrosine phosphorylation and Csk binding, and are substrates of the Abl kinase.  

PubMed

Protein phosphorylation tightly regulates specific binding of effector proteins that control many diverse biological functions of cells (e. g. signaling, migration and proliferation). p140Cap is an adaptor protein, specifically expressed in brain, testis and epithelial cells, that undergoes phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant protein, in which both EPLYA/EGLYA tyrosines were converted to phenylalanine, was no longer tyrosine phosphorylated, despite the presence of other tyrosine residues in p140Cap sequence. Moreover, this mutant lost its ability to bind the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), previously shown to interact with p140Cap by Far Western analysis. In addition, we found that in vitro and in HEK-293 cells, the Abelson kinase is the major kinase involved in p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation on the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences. Overall, these data represent an original attempt to in vivo characterise phosphorylated residues of p140Cap. Elucidating the function of p140Cap will provide novel insights into its biological activity not only in normal cells, but also in tumors. PMID:23383002

Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Sharma, Nanaocha; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Jensen, Ole N; Cabodi, Sara; Turco, Emilia; Di Stefano, Paola; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

17

Imaging Stem Cell-derived Persistent Foci After In Vivo Selection of Lentiviral MGMT-P140K Transduced Murine Bone Marrow Cells  

PubMed Central

The engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after drug resistance gene transfer and drug selection may recapitulate stress response hematopoiesis, but the processes remain elusive. Homing, trafficking, and localization of transduced cells and the impact of insertion site on focal expansion have not been well characterized. With the goal of optimizing and understanding these processes under conditions of low multiplicity of infection (MOI) lentiviral gene transfer, we used drug resistance gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-P140K and in vivo selection to enrich for transduced and transgene-expressing HSCs. To systemically monitor homing, trafficking, and expansion after transplantation and drug selection over time, we linked MGMT-P140K to the firefly luciferase gene in lentiviral self-inactivating vectors. Periodic bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of transplanted recipients was followed for up to 9 months after both primary and secondary transplantation. Initial dispersion and widespread early homing and engraftment were transient, followed by detection of persistent and discrete foci at stable tissue sites after in vivo drug selection. From these studies, we concluded that drug resistance gene transfer followed by early or late drug selection can result in stable gene expression and cell expansion in persistent foci of transduced bone marrow cells that often remain in fixed sites for extended periods of time.

Lin, Yuan; Cheung, Perrin; Roth, Justin C; Wilson, David L; Gerson, Stanton L

2011-01-01

18

Molecular characterization of Babesia canis canis isolates from naturally infected dogs in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babesia canis has generally been considered the only large Babesia to infect dogs. In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis canis isolated from naturally infected dogs in Poland by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from 76 Babesia-symptomatic dogs. A 559-bp fragment of the

Lukasz Adaszek; Stanislaw Winiarczyk

2008-01-01

19

Gene tree correction guided by orthology  

PubMed Central

Background Reconciled gene trees yield orthology and paralogy relationships between genes. This information may however contradict other information on orthology and paralogy provided by other footprints of evolution, such as conserved synteny. Results We explore a way to include external information on orthology in the process of gene tree construction. Given an initial gene tree and a set of orthology constraints on pairs of genes or on clades, we give polynomial-time algorithms for producing a modified gene tree satisfying the set of constraints, that is as close as possible to the original one according to the Robinson-Foulds distance. We assess the validity of the modifications we propose by computing the likelihood ratio between initial and modified trees according to sequence alignments on Ensembl trees, showing that often the two trees are statistically equivalent. Availability Software and data available upon request to the corresponding author.

2013-01-01

20

Assessment of orthologous splicing isoforms in human and mouse orthologous genes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent discoveries have highlighted the fact that alternative splicing and alternative transcripts are the rule, rather than the exception, in metazoan genes. Since multiple transcript and protein variants expressed by the same gene are, by definition, structurally distinct and need not to be functionally equivalent, the concept of gene orthology should be extended to the transcript level in order to describe evolutionary relationships between structurally similar transcript variants. In other words, the identification of true orthology relationships between gene products now should progress beyond primary sequence and "splicing orthology", consisting in ancestrally shared exon-intron structures, is required to define orthologous isoforms at transcript level. Results As a starting step in this direction, in this work we performed a large scale human- mouse gene comparison with a twofold goal: first, to assess if and to which extent traditional gene annotations such as RefSeq capture genuine splicing orthology; second, to provide a more detailed annotation and quantification of true human-mouse orthologous transcripts defined as transcripts of orthologous genes exhibiting the same splicing patterns. Conclusions We observed an identical exon/intron structure for 32% of human and mouse orthologous genes. This figure increases to 87% using less stringent criteria for gene structure similarity, thus implying that for about 13% of the human RefSeq annotated genes (and about 25% of the corresponding transcripts) we could not identify any mouse transcript showing sufficient similarity to be confidently assigned as a splicing ortholog. Our data suggest that current gene and transcript data may still be rather incomplete - with several splicing variants still unknown. The observation that alternative splicing produces large numbers of alternative transcripts and proteins, some of them conserved across species and others truly species-specific, suggests that, still maintaining the conventional definition of gene orthology, a new concept of "splicing orthology" can be defined at transcript level.

2010-01-01

21

Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon canis. Five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with H. canis, and all became infected with H. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. Antibodies reactive with H.

Gad Baneth; Varda Shkap; Michael Samish; Eugene Pipano; Igor Savitsky

1998-01-01

22

Horizontal Branch Stars in the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, the Canis Major Dwarf was discovered and found to be the closest satellite galaxy to our Milky Way. The object of this investigation is to explore the chemical and kinematic properties of the Canis Major Dwarf. To accomplish this we selected a a candidate population of horizontal branch stars in the direction of Canis Major, and analyzed their

A. Westfall; R. Wilhelm; W. L. Powell

2005-01-01

23

Molecular characterization of Babesia canis canis isolates from naturally infected dogs in Poland.  

PubMed

Babesia canis has generally been considered the only large Babesia to infect dogs. In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis canis isolated from naturally infected dogs in Poland by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from 76 Babesia-symptomatic dogs. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then digested with HincII restriction enzyme, and isolates were classified according to whether they were cut (group A) or not (group B) by this endonuclease. Sequencing of the PCR products from the isolates led to the identification of seven sequence variants (four in group A, and three in group B). Sequences were compared with GenBank sequences, and alignments showed that all B. canis canis isolates from Europe may be classified into groups A or B as defined in our study. PMID:18243559

Adaszek, Lukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanislaw

2008-04-15

24

Optimized lentiviral vectors for HIV gene therapy: multiplexed expression of small RNAs and inclusion of MGMT(P140K) drug resistance gene.  

PubMed

Gene therapy with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is a promising approach to engineering immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that may lead to a functional cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In support of this approach, we created lentiviral vectors with an engineered polycistronic platform derived from the endogenous MCM7 gene to express a diverse set of small antiviral RNAs and a drug resistance MGMT(P140K) marker. Multiple strategies for simultaneous expression of up to five RNA transgenes were tested. The placement and orientation of each transgene and its promoter were important determinants for optimal gene expression. Antiviral RNA expression from the MCM7 platform with a U1 promoter was sufficient to provide protection from R5-tropic HIV in macrophages and resulted in reduced hematopoietic toxicity compared with constructs expressing RNA from independent RNA polymerase III promoters. The addition of an HIV entry inhibitor and nucleolar TAR RNA decoy did not enhance antiviral potency over constructs that targeted only viral RNA transcripts. We also demonstrated selective enrichment of gene-modified cells in vivo using a humanized mouse model. The use of these less toxic, potent anti-HIV vectors expressing a drug selection marker is likely to enhance the in vivo efficacy of our stem cell gene therapy approach in treating HIV/AIDS. PMID:24576853

Chung, Janet; Scherer, Lisa J; Gu, Angel; Gardner, Agnes M; Torres-Coronado, Monica; Epps, Elizabeth W; Digiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

2014-05-01

25

Long-term polyclonal and multilineage engraftment of methylguanine methyltransferase P140K gene-modified dog hematopoietic cells in primary and secondary recipients  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of methylguanine methyltransferase P140K (MGMTP140K) has been successfully used for in vivo selection and chemoprotection in mouse and large animal studies, and has promise for autologous and allogeneic gene therapy. We examined the long-term safety of MGMTP140K selection in a clinically relevant dog model. Based on the association of provirus integration and proto-oncogene activation leading to leukemia in the X-linked immunodeficiency trial, we focused our analysis on the distribution of retrovirus integration sites (RIS) relative to proto-oncogene transcription start sites (TSS). We analyzed RIS near proto-oncogene TSS before (n = 157) and after (n = 129) chemotherapy in dogs that received MGMTP140K gene-modified cells and identified no overall increase of RIS near proto-oncogene TSS after chemotherapy. We also wanted to determine whether in vivo selected cells retained fundamental characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells. To that end, we performed secondary transplantation of MGMTP140K gene-modified cells after in vivo selection in dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)–matched dogs. Gene-modified cells achieved multilineage repopulation, and we identified the same gene-modified clone in both dogs more than 800 and 900 days after transplantation. These data suggest that MGMTP140K selection is well tolerated and should allow clinically for selection of gene-corrected cells in genetic or infectious diseases or chemoprotection for treatment of malignancy.

Beard, Brian C.; Sud, Reeteka; Keyser, Kirsten A.; Ironside, Christina; Neff, Tobias; Gerull, Sabine; Trobridge, Grant D.

2009-01-01

26

Lentiviral MGMT(P140K)-mediated in vivo selection employing a ubiquitous chromatin opening element (A2UCOE) linked to a cellular promoter.  

PubMed

Notwithstanding recent successes, insertional mutagenesis as well as silencing and variegation of transgene expression still represent considerable obstacles to hematopoietic gene therapy. This also applies to O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-mediated myeloprotection, a concept recently proven clinically effective in the context of glioblastoma therapy. To improve on this situation we here evaluate a SIN-lentiviral vector expressing the MGMT(P140K)-cDNA from a combined A2UCOE/PGK-promoter. In a murine in vivo chemoselection model the A2UCOE.PGK.MGMT construct allowed for significant myeloprotection as well as robust and stable selection of transgenic hematopoietic cells. In contrast, only transient enrichment and severe myelotoxicity was observed for a PGK.MGMT control vector. Selection of A2UCOE.PGK.MGMT-transduced myeloid and lymphoid mature and progenitor cells was demonstrated in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus. Unlike the PGK and SFFV promoters used as controls, the A2UCOE.PGK promoter allowed for sustained vector copy number-related transgene expression throughout the experiment indicating an increased resistance to silencing, which was further confirmed by CpG methylation studies of the PGK promoter. Thus, our data support a potential role of the A2UCOE.PGK.MGMT-vector in future MGMT-based myeloprotection and chemoselection strategies, and underlines the suitability of the A2UCOE element to stabilize lentiviral transgene expression in hematopoietic gene therapy. PMID:24875758

Phaltane, Ruhi; Lachmann, Nico; Brennig, Sebastian; Ackermann, Mania; Modlich, Ute; Moritz, Thomas

2014-08-01

27

Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36. PMID:23490559

Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

2013-06-28

28

Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys infection in a dog.  

PubMed

A 12-month-old male neutered mixed breed dog was presented with a history of diarrhea, lethargy, emaciation, polydypsia, and sniffling. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, and normal rectal temperature (38°C). Hematologic abnormalities included anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated ALP and ALT activities. A SNAP 4Dx test result was positive for Ehrlichia canis. Babesia canis vogeli organisms were found in the peripheral blood films, while morulae of E canis were not seen. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed the presence of both B c vogeli and E canis organisms, and also was positive for Anaplasma platys infection. The dog recovered following treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate, with normal hematology and biochemical profiles. PMID:24138512

Al Izzi, Salah; Martin, Donald S; Chan, Roxanne Y Y; Leutenegger, Christian M

2013-12-01

29

Imidocarb: A chemoprophylactic experiment with Babesia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight dogs, given imidocarb dipropionate subcutaneously at a dose of 6 mg\\/kg, were challenged with a sporozoite stabilate of a French strain of Babesia canis, prepared from infected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, 2, 3, 4 or 5 weeks after treatment. Three control dogs were similarly infected but not preventively treated. One of the controls and one of the dogs treated 5

G. Uilenberg; P. A. H. M. Verdiesen; D. Zwart

1981-01-01

30

The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.

Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

2008-01-01

31

Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

Mech, L. D.; Tracy, S.

2004-01-01

32

Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

Mech, L. D.; Tracy, S.

2004-01-01

33

Evolutionary plasticity determination by orthologous groups distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic plasticity may be understood as the ability of a functional gene network to tolerate alterations in its components or structure. Usually, the studies involving gene modifications in the course of the evolution are concerned to nucleotide sequence alterations in closely related species. However, the analysis of large scale data about the distribution of gene families in non-exclusively closely related species can provide insights on how plastic or how conserved a given gene family is. Here, we analyze the abundance and diversity of all Eukaryotic Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) present in STRING database, resulting in a total of 4,850 KOGs. This dataset comprises 481,421 proteins distributed among 55 eukaryotes. Results We propose an index to evaluate the evolutionary plasticity and conservation of an orthologous group based on its abundance and diversity across eukaryotes. To further KOG plasticity analysis, we estimate the evolutionary distance average among all proteins which take part in the same orthologous group. As a result, we found a strong correlation between the evolutionary distance average and the proposed evolutionary plasticity index. Additionally, we found low evolutionary plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes associated with inviability and Mus musculus genes associated with early lethality. At last, we plot the evolutionary plasticity value in different gene networks from yeast and humans. As a result, it was possible to discriminate among higher and lower plastic areas of the gene networks analyzed. Conclusions The distribution of gene families brings valuable information on evolutionary plasticity which might be related with genetic plasticity. Accordingly, it is possible to discriminate among conserved and plastic orthologous groups by evaluating their abundance and diversity across eukaryotes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof Manyuan Long, Hiroyuki Toh, and Sebastien Halary.

2011-01-01

34

75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation Assessment AGENCY...conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New Mexico as...component of the Service's gray wolf (Canis lupus) recovery efforts. Not required by...

2010-05-05

35

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use a rapid and easy DNA-based test, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. 10 DNA samples of 18S RNA-A and 10 DNA samples of 18S RNA-B of B. canis canis were used in the study. LAMP method could successfully detect DNA in all examined samples down to 0.1 pg dilution. Obtained results suggest that this method has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in diagnosis of canine babesiosis. PMID:23691588

Adaszek, ?; Jankowska, M; Kalinowski, M; Banach, T; Wu?upek, D; Winiarczyk, S

2013-01-01

36

Metabolism evolution based on network degrees of orthologous enzymes.  

PubMed

The evolution of orthologous proteins opens a new era of research where the concepts of orthology and paralogy have become more and more substantial, as the whole-genome comparison allows their identification in complete genomes. Functional specificity of proteins is understood to be conserved among orthologs but it shows much more variability among paralogs. We used this laying claim to identify inter-species interactions based on orthologous protein networks which are crucial for understanding the evolution of orthologous proteins. We analyzed six classes of enzymatic protein sequence data using the node degrees of orthologous proteins. The results demonstrated the evolutionary importance of the fatty acid syntheses and the photosynthetic system in algae. Methods which have successfully exploited network structure at many different levels of detail are a cornerstone of systems biology. PMID:23548027

Dave, Kirtan; Panchal, Hetalkumar

2013-01-01

37

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2008-02-14

38

Identification of a glycosylated Ehrlichia canis 19-kilodalton major immunoreactive protein with a species-specific serine-rich glycopeptide epitope.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis has a small subset of major immunoreactive proteins that includes a 19-kDa protein that elicits an early Ehrlichia-specific antibody response in infected dogs. We report herein the identification and molecular characterization of this highly conserved 19-kDa major immunoreactive glycoprotein (gp19) ortholog of the Ehrlichia chaffeensis variable-length PCR target (VLPT) protein. E. canis gp19 has substantial carboxyl-terminal amino acid homology (59%) with E. chaffeensis VLPT and the same chromosomal location; however, the E. chaffeensis VLPT gene (594 bp) has tandem repeats that are not present in the E. canis gp19 gene (414 bp). Consistent with other ehrlichial glycoproteins, the gp19 protein exhibited a larger-than-predicted mass (approximately 3 kDa), O-linked glycosylation sites were predicted in an amino-terminal serine/threonine/glutamate (STE)-rich patch (26 amino acids), carbohydrate was detected on the recombinant gp19 protein, and the neutral sugars glucose and galactose were detected on the recombinant amino-terminal polypeptide. E. canis gp19 composition consists of five predominant amino acids, cysteine, glutamate, tyrosine, serine, and threonine, concentrated in the STE-rich patch and a carboxyl-terminal domain predominated by cysteine and tyrosine (55%). The amino-terminal STE-rich patch contained a major species-specific antibody epitope strongly recognized by serum from an E. canis-infected dog. The recombinant glycopeptide epitope was substantially more reactive with antibody than the synthetic (nonglycosylated) peptide, and periodate treatment of the recombinant glycopeptide epitope reduced its immunoreactivity, demonstrating the importance of a carbohydrate immunodeterminant(s). The gp19 protein was present on reticulate and dense-cored cells, and it was found extracellularly in the fibrillar matrix and associated with the morula membrane, the host cell cytoplasm, and the nucleus. PMID:17088359

McBride, Jere W; Doyle, C Kuyler; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Cardenas, Ana Maria; Popov, Vsevolod L; Nethery, Kimberly A; Woods, Michael E

2007-01-01

39

Hepatozoon canis infection in a litter of Dalmatian dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Hepatozoon canis is described in a litter of seven Dalmatians. Four littermates were presented with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis and the remaining three puppies were parasitemic with H. canis with no other concurrent disease. Parasitemia ranged between 3% and 67% of the blood neutrophils. The mean number of parasitized neutrophils per ?l among littermates with concurrent hepatozoonosis

G. Baneth; I. Aroch; B. Presentey

1997-01-01

40

"Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

Marmor, Michael; And Others

1987-01-01

41

Comprehensive Analysis of Orthologous Protein Domains Using the HOPS Database  

PubMed Central

One of the most reliable methods for protein function annotation is to transfer experimentally known functions from orthologous proteins in other organisms. Most methods for identifying orthologs operate on a subset of organisms with a completely sequenced genome, and treat proteins as single-domain units. However, it is well known that proteins are often made up of several independent domains, and there is a wealth of protein sequences from genomes that are not completely sequenced. A comprehensive set of protein domain families is found in the Pfam database. We wanted to apply orthology detection to Pfam families, but first some issues needed to be addressed. First, orthology detection becomes impractical and unreliable when too many species are included. Second, shorter domains contain less information. It is therefore important to assess the quality of the orthology assignment and avoid very short domains altogether. We present a database of orthologous protein domains in Pfam called HOPS: Hierarchical grouping of Orthologous and Paralogous Sequences. Orthology is inferred in a hierarchic system of phylogenetic subgroups using ortholog bootstrapping. To avoid the frequent errors stemming from horizontally transferred genes in bacteria, the analysis is presently limited to eukaryotic genes. The results are accessible in the graphical browser NIFAS, a Java tool originally developed for analyzing phylogenetic relations within Pfam families. The method was tested on a set of curated orthologs with experimentally verified function. In comparison to tree reconciliation with a complete species tree, our approach finds significantly more orthologs in the test set. Examples for investigating gene fusions and domain recombination using HOPS are given.

Storm, Christian E.V.; Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.

2003-01-01

42

[Prevalence of ocular lesions in children seropositive to Toxocara canis].  

PubMed

Intraocular invasion by Toxocara canis is one of the most commonly recognized etiologies of uveitis and blindness in children. In order to estimate the prevalence of ocular lesions caused by toxocariasis in a pediatric referral hospital, we conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical charts of all children seropositive to Toxocara canis, who also had an eye exam between the years 2005 and 2009 at the Calvo Mackenna Children's Hospital in Santiago, Chile. We identified 175 children [mean age 6 years (range 0.66-15)] seropositive to Toxocara canis, who had dilated eye exam. Only one child [(0.57%); 95% CI, -0.55 - 1.69] had ophthalmoscopic findings compatible with Toxocara canis infection. The patient also suffered from decreased vision of the affected eye. The information gained from this study may be of useful for the implementation of algorithms for the ophthalmological examination of children seropositive to Toxocara canis in public hospitals in Chile. PMID:22051620

Sánchez T, Juan E; López G, Juan P; González N, Militza; Villaseca D, Eduardo; Manieu M, Denise; Roizen B, Alejandra; Noemí H, Isabel; Viovy A, Alejandro

2011-10-01

43

USEFULNESS OF TOUCHDOWN PCR ASSAY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ATYPICAL CASES OF BABESIA CANIS CANIS INFECTIONS IN DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate usefulness of PCR assay for the diagnosis of atypical cases of the Babesia canis infections. Primers designed based on the 18 S RNA gene sequence of B. canis. The location of the primers was targeted to evolutionary conserved region. Blood samples from dogs suspected for babesiosis were analysed microscopically and then

AGNIESZKA S. SOBCZYK; GRZEGORZ KOTOMSKI

44

Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

Mech, L. D.

2000-01-01

45

New localities of Dermacentor reticulatus tick (vector of Babesia canis canis) in central and eastern Poland.  

PubMed

Dermacentor reticulatus tick is a vector and final host of Babesia canis canis, protozoan parasite of the dog. In Poland and other European countries, endemic regions for canine babesiosis caused by B. canis canis are the same as endemic regions for D. reticulatus. In many of these regions, canine babesiosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in dogs. In Europe, increasing range of geographical distribution of D. reticulatus is observed. A consequence of this fact may be increasing range of canine babesiosis. D. reticulatus is one of the most common ticks occurring in Poland, however, it occurs mainly in the north-eastern and eastern part of the country, and there are many areas in which this species has not been reported yet. In this study, D. reticulatus ticks were collected from March 2007 to November 2008 in central and eastern Mazowsze region, and in some localities in Bia?ystok and Lublin regions. Twenty four new sites for D. reticulatus, mainly in central and eastern regions of Mazowsze Province have been found. 18 localities are placed on banks of the fishing ponds or in river valleys and 6 are forests borders or barren lands and meadows, not situated near rivers or other water reservoirs. All tick-rich sites are localized in river valleys or on pond banks. However, statistical analysis showed that there were no differences in the density of ticks between groups of areas. These results show that the occurrence of D. reticulatus in newly detected areas has became endemic. Probably woodless, unregulated river valleys are important migration tracts for this species of tick and enable them to penetrate new territories. It seems likely that geographical range of D. reticulatus is widening from east to west of Poland what can induce an increase in the number of canine babesiosis cases in areas non-endemic for B. canis canis and its vector. Climate change may be also partially responsible for earlier beginning of tick's seasonal activity as well as for bigger faunal diversity (more potential host species both for adults and immature stages). PMID:20169932

Zygner, W; Górski, P; Wedrychowicz, H

2009-01-01

46

Efficacy of eprinomectin against Toxacara canis in dogs.  

PubMed

This study was made to investigate efficacy of eprinomectin against to Toxocara canis in dogs. In the study, 20 stray dogs naturally infected with T. canis were divided into two groups as treatment (ten dogs) and control (ten dogs). Eprinomectin (100 microg/kg, Eprinex 250 ml) was given to treatment group dogs orally, and eggs per gram were determined in the faeces on the day of pre-treatment and the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth days of post-treatment. No side effects associated with nervous, respiratory, gastrointestinal systems and some haematological parameters were observed. In conclusion, eprinomectin was determined to be 100% effectual against T. canis. PMID:17992540

Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Birdane, Fatih Mehmet; Adanir, Ramazan

2008-02-01

47

Intestinal helminth parasite community in wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.  

PubMed

From 1987 to 1993, 89 wolves (Canis lupus) collected throughout the whole Italian range were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. Twelve species were found, including 5 nematodes (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Toxascaris leonina) and 7 cestodes (Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. ovis, Mesocestoides lineatus and Dipylidium caninum). No significant differences were detected between sexes. T. canis showed higher prevalence and numbers in youngs, while E. granulosus and T. vulpis in adults. Interference between U. stenocephala and A. caninum was detected. Parasite biocenosis was stable in respect to geographical and ecological variables. PMID:8065823

Guberti, V; Stancampiano, L; Francisci, F

1993-12-01

48

The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

Nowak R. M.; Federoff, N. E.

2002-01-01

49

In vitro cultivation of Babesia canis canis parasites isolated from dogs in Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to perform in vitro cultivation of Babesia canis protozoa isolated from dogs with clinical babesiosis. A primary culture initiated in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 40% canine serum supported parasite growth in vitro in 5% carbon dioxide in air atmosphere. Subsequent subcultures into HL-1 medium with 40% dog serum or EMEM with 40% foetal bovine serum also supported parasite propagation. The parasites have been continuously cultured through six passages, although the parasitemias are low, ranging from 0.56% to 0.59%. The partial small subunit ribosomal rRNA gene sequence was identical in blood-derived and culture-derived Babesia. The parasites from 17 cultures were classified as EU622792, and from 13 cultures as EU622793. These data show that an efficient in vitro cultivation of B. canis could serve as a starting point to obtain a protozoan antigen used for immunisation of the dogs against piroplasmosis. PMID:21127906

Adaszek, ?ukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2011-05-01

50

In vitro cultivation of Babesia canis canis parasites isolated from dogs in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to perform in vitro cultivation of Babesia canis protozoa isolated from dogs with clinical babesiosis. A primary culture initiated in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 40%\\u000a canine serum supported parasite growth in vitro in 5% carbon dioxide in air atmosphere. Subsequent subcultures into HL-1 medium\\u000a with 40% dog serum or EMEM with 40% foetal bovine

?ukasz Adaszek; Stanis?aw Winiarczyk

2011-01-01

51

Application of the SYBR Green real-time HRM PCR technique in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated in the areas of eastern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the real-time polymerised chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melting\\u000a (HRM) method in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated from dogs in the areas of eastern Poland. The studies involved 20 isolates of B. canis canis qualified depending on the analysis of the 18S RNA gene sequence to

?ukasz Adaszek; Stanis?aw Winiarczyk

2010-01-01

52

Efficient large-scale protein sequence comparison and gene matching to identify orthologs and co-orthologs  

PubMed Central

Broadly, computational approaches for ortholog assignment is a three steps process: (i) identify all putative homologs between the genomes, (ii) identify gene anchors and (iii) link anchors to identify best gene matches given their order and context. In this article, we engineer two methods to improve two important aspects of this pipeline [specifically steps (ii) and (iii)]. First, computing sequence similarity data [step (i)] is a computationally intensive task for large sequence sets, creating a bottleneck in the ortholog assignment pipeline. We have designed a fast and highly scalable sort-join method (afree) based on k-mer counts to rapidly compare all pairs of sequences in a large protein sequence set to identify putative homologs. Second, availability of complex genomes containing large gene families with prevalence of complex evolutionary events, such as duplications, has made the task of assigning orthologs and co-orthologs difficult. Here, we have developed an iterative graph matching strategy where at each iteration the best gene assignments are identified resulting in a set of orthologs and co-orthologs. We find that the afree algorithm is faster than existing methods and maintains high accuracy in identifying similar genes. The iterative graph matching strategy also showed high accuracy in identifying complex gene relationships. Standalone afree available from http://vbc.med.monash.edu.au/?kmahmood/afree. EGM2, complete ortholog assignment pipeline (including afree and the iterative graph matching method) available from http://vbc.med.monash.edu.au/?kmahmood/EGM2.

Mahmood, Khalid; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Song, Jiangning; Whisstock, James C.; Konagurthu, Arun S.

2012-01-01

53

Expression of myriapod pair rule gene orthologs  

PubMed Central

Background Segmentation is a hallmark of the arthropods; most knowledge about the molecular basis of arthropod segmentation comes from work on the fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this species a hierarchic cascade of segmentation genes subdivides the blastoderm stepwise into single segment wide regions. However, segmentation in the fly is a derived feature since all segments form virtually simultaneously. Conversely, in the vast majority of arthropods the posterior segments form one at a time from a posterior pre-segmental zone. The pair rule genes (PRGs) comprise an important level of the Drosophila segmentation gene cascade and are indeed the first genes that are expressed in typical transverse stripes in the early embryo. Information on expression and function of PRGs outside the insects, however, is scarce. Results Here we present the expression of the pair rule gene orthologs in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). We find evidence that these genes are involved in segmentation and that components of the hierarchic interaction of the gene network as found in insects may be conserved. We further provide evidence that segments are formed in a single-segment periodicity rather than in pairs of two like in another myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. Finally we show that decoupling of dorsal and ventral segmentation in Glomeris appears already at the level of the PRGs. Conclusions Although the pair rule gene network is partially conserved among insects and myriapods, some aspects of PRG interaction are, as suggested by expression pattern analysis, convergent, even within the Myriapoda. Conserved expression patterns of PRGs in insects and myriapods, however, may represent ancestral features involved in segmenting the arthropod ancestor.

2011-01-01

54

First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

David, Mech, L.; Kurtz, H. J.

1999-01-01

55

Breeding season of wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12 deg. and 80 deg. N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

Mech, L. D.

2002-01-01

56

Breeding season of Wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12?? and 80??N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

Mech, L. D.

2002-01-01

57

Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1993-01-01

58

Babesia canis rossi infection in a Texas dog.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old intact male Boerboel dog, imported from South Africa 1 week previously, was presented to a Texas veterinarian for lethargy, anorexia, and labored breathing. The dog was febrile, anemic, leukopenic, thrombocytopenic, and slightly azotemic. Results of the IDEXX SNAP-4Dx enzyme immunoassay were negative for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. An EDTA blood sample analyzed at Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences revealed nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and large protozoal piroplasms in 0.7% of the RBCs. Piroplasms were 2-5?m long and varied in shape from round to oval to piriform; extracellular merozoites were also observed. Nested PCR was performed on DNA extracted from blood using primers that amplify the 18s rRNA gene from all known Babesia species, and the product was sequenced. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of the 437 base sequence revealed 99-100% similarity to Babesia canis rossi, 92-93% similarity to Babesia canis canis, and 92% similarity to Babesia canis vogeli. The dog responded well to treatment with imidocarb. PCR analysis of a second blood sample 2 weeks later was negative for Babesia spp. DNA. This case represents the first diagnosis of B. canis rossi infection in the United States. PMID:21790699

Allison, Robin W; Yeagley, Todd J; Levis, Kristina; Reichard, Mason V

2011-09-01

59

Resolving the Ortholog Conjecture: Orthologs Tend to Be Weakly, but Significantly, More Similar in Function than Paralogs  

PubMed Central

The function of most proteins is not determined experimentally, but is extrapolated from homologs. According to the “ortholog conjecture”, or standard model of phylogenomics, protein function changes rapidly after duplication, leading to paralogs with different functions, while orthologs retain the ancestral function. We report here that a comparison of experimentally supported functional annotations among homologs from 13 genomes mostly supports this model. We show that to analyze GO annotation effectively, several confounding factors need to be controlled: authorship bias, variation of GO term frequency among species, variation of background similarity among species pairs, and propagated annotation bias. After controlling for these biases, we observe that orthologs have generally more similar functional annotations than paralogs. This is especially strong for sub-cellular localization. We observe only a weak decrease in functional similarity with increasing sequence divergence. These findings hold over a large diversity of species; notably orthologs from model organisms such as E. coli, yeast or mouse have conserved function with human proteins.

Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Studer, Romain A.; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Dessimoz, Christophe

2012-01-01

60

Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Babesia canis vogeli in ticks from Israel.  

PubMed

: Ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. Therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of Israel. Non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. A total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ten ticks per pool)-were included in this study. In addition, 13 single free-roaming Hyalomma spp. ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B. canis vogeli and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA sequences were detected in R. sanguineus ticks. Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA was also detected in Hyalomma spp. ticks. Neither Hepatozoon spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in any of the ticks examined. This study describes the first detection of E. canis in the tick R. turanicus, which may serve as a vector of this canine pathogen; E. canis was the most common pathogen detected in the collected questing ticks. It also describes the first detection of A. bovis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in Israel. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of DNA of the latter two pathogens in R. sanguineus, and of A. bovis in R. turanicus. PMID:20636417

Harrus, S; Perlman-Avrahami, A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Morick, D; Eyal, O; Baneth, G

2011-03-01

61

Phylogenetic and Functional Assessment of Orthologs Inference Projects and Methods  

PubMed Central

Accurate genome-wide identification of orthologs is a central problem in comparative genomics, a fact reflected by the numerous orthology identification projects developed in recent years. However, only a few reports have compared their accuracy, and indeed, several recent efforts have not yet been systematically evaluated. Furthermore, orthology is typically only assessed in terms of function conservation, despite the phylogeny-based original definition of Fitch. We collected and mapped the results of nine leading orthology projects and methods (COG, KOG, Inparanoid, OrthoMCL, Ensembl Compara, Homologene, RoundUp, EggNOG, and OMA) and two standard methods (bidirectional best-hit and reciprocal smallest distance). We systematically compared their predictions with respect to both phylogeny and function, using six different tests. This required the mapping of millions of sequences, the handling of hundreds of millions of predicted pairs of orthologs, and the computation of tens of thousands of trees. In phylogenetic analysis or in functional analysis where high specificity is required, we find that OMA and Homologene perform best. At lower functional specificity but higher coverage level, OrthoMCL outperforms Ensembl Compara, and to a lesser extent Inparanoid. Lastly, the large coverage of the recent EggNOG can be of interest to build broad functional grouping, but the method is not specific enough for phylogenetic or detailed function analyses. In terms of general methodology, we observe that the more sophisticated tree reconstruction/reconciliation approach of Ensembl Compara was at times outperformed by pairwise comparison approaches, even in phylogenetic tests. Furthermore, we show that standard bidirectional best-hit often outperforms projects with more complex algorithms. First, the present study provides guidance for the broad community of orthology data users as to which database best suits their needs. Second, it introduces new methodology to verify orthology. And third, it sets performance standards for current and future approaches.

Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Dessimoz, Christophe

2009-01-01

62

The clinical course of babesiosis in 76 dogs infected with protozoan parasites Babesia canis canis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to trace the clinical course of babesiosis in 76 dogs infected with Babesia canis protozoa and to assess the usefulness of PCR method in the routine diagnosis of the disease. The investigations were conducted in three successive seasons of the biological activity of ticks on dogs displaying possible clinical signs of babesiosis, the latter assigned individual numbers from 001 to 076. All the animals underwent routine clinical examinations and blood was collected for haematological, biochemical, parasitological and molecular tests for babesiosis. The most frequent clinical signs observed in the course of the disease were changes in urine colour and xanthosis or paleness of mucous membranes, whereas in the haematological and biochemical examinations, the most frequent laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, leucopoenia, anaemia and an increase in levels of urea and bilirubin. In all blood smears stained with the May-Grunwald and Giemsa methods, from the 76 dogs, the presence of Babesia canis protozoa was observed in erythrocytes, and their DNA was detected in 69 blood samples by means of PCR technique. The course of the disease and the results of molecular examinations suggested the haemolytic form of babesiosis. The previous genetic analysis of isolates of Babesia canis canis from the eastern areas of Poland helped to distinguish two specific groups, A and B, within the species (Adaszek and Winiarczyk 2008a). The present study revealed a certain interrelation between the intensification of thrombocytopenia and the fact that protozoa belong to either group A or B. The mean number of thrombocytes in dogs infected with protozoa from group A was 61.11 thousand/mm3, whereas the mean number of thrombocytes in the blood of dogs infected with protozoa from group B was 27.47 thousand/mm3. A strong correlation was also observed between the low level of thrombocytes and the increase in the internal body temperature (p = 0.02), accelerated pulse rate (p = 0.01) and discoloration of urine (p = 0.04). As a result of the treatment of dogs with imidocarb, recovery was observed in 73 out of the 76 dogs brought to the clinic. PMID:19459444

Adaszek, ?; Winiarczyk, S; Skrzypczak, M

2009-01-01

63

Using orthologous and paralogous proteins to identify specificity determining residues  

PubMed Central

Background Concepts of orthology and paralogy are become increasingly important as whole-genome comparison allows their identification in complete genomes. Functional specificity of proteins is assumed to be conserved among orthologs and is different among paralogs. We used this assumption to identify residues which determine specificity of protein-DNA and protein-ligand recognition. Finding such residues is crucial for understanding mechanisms of molecular recognition and for rational protein and drug design. Results Assuming conservation of specificity among orthologs and different specificity of paralogs, we identify residues which correlate with this grouping by specificity. The method is taking advantage of complete genomes to find multiple orthologs and paralogs. The central part of this method is a procedure to compute statistical significance of the predictions. The procedure is based on a simple statistical model of protein evolution. When applied to a large family of bacterial transcription factors, our method identified 12 residues that are presumed to determine the protein-DNA and protein-ligand recognition specificity. Structural analysis of the proteins and available experimental results strongly support our predictions. Our results suggest new experiments aimed at rational re-design of specificity in bacterial transcription factors by a minimal number of mutations. Conclusions While sets of orthologous and paralogous proteins can be easily derived from complete genomic sequences, our method can identify putative specificity determinants in such proteins.

2002-01-01

64

Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis infection.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

Kim, Ji Hee; Chung, Woo-Baek; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

2012-09-01

65

Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection  

PubMed Central

A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea.

Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

2012-01-01

66

Identification of Isolates of Streptococcus canis Infecting Humans  

PubMed Central

During a survey of Group G and C streptococcal infections of humans two epidemiologically unrelated Group G streptococcal isolates were identified, one from a case of bacteremia and one from a wound infection. These isolates were atypical among this sample in that the emm gene could not be amplified from them by PCR. Biochemical characterization identified the isolates as Streptococcus canis, an organism normally associated with animal hosts. The biochemical identification was confirmed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both isolates and comparison with sequences of the S. canis type strain and other related streptococci of animals and humans. Comparative sequencing of fragments of two other housekeeping genes, sodA and mutS, confirmed that the isolates are most closely related to S. canis. The identification of two isolates of S. canis from a relatively small sample set suggests that the practice of identifying streptococci only by the Lancefield serological group may result in underestimation of the presence of S. canis in the human population.

Whatmore, Adrian M.; Engler, Kathryn H.; Gudmundsdottir, Gudny; Efstratiou, Androulla

2001-01-01

67

Toxocara canis infection of children: epidemiologic and neuropsychologic findings.  

PubMed Central

Sera from 4,652 children whose blood was submitted to the New York City Department of Health for lead analysis were tested for antibodies to Toxocara canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standardized to the age distribution of the study population, T. canis seropositivity (inverse titers greater than or equal to 16) was 5.7 per cent in males and 5.1 per cent in females. T. canis antibody titers and lead exposures as measured by Centers for Disease Control lead classes were positively correlated. Children who were seropositive to T. canis (cases) were compared to seronegatives (controls) matched on age (+/- 6 months), sex, time-of-screening (+/- 3 months) and CDC lead class. Logistic regression analysis of 155 case-control pairs demonstrated elevated relative risks (RRs) for geophagia (RR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.75, 5.64) and having had a litter of puppies in the home (RR = 5.22; 95% CI = 1.63, 16.71). Compared to controls, cases had increased eosinophil counts, serum immunoglobulin E concentrations, and anti-hemagglutinin-A titers. Small deficits in cases compared to controls were found in performance on several neuropsychological tests after adjustment for potential confounders including case-control differences in race, socioeconomic status, and current blood lead concentrations. The study thus confirmed that T. canis infection is common in urban children and suggested that infection may be associated with adverse neuropsychological effects.

Marmor, M; Glickman, L; Shofer, F; Faich, L A; Rosenberg, C; Cornblatt, B; Friedman, S

1987-01-01

68

Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

Miller, B. J.; Harlow, H. J.; Harlow, T. S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W. J.

2012-01-01

69

Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of

AHMET UNVER; MIRIAM PEREZ; NELSON ORELLANA; HAIBIN HUANG; YASUKO RIKIHISA; Departmento de Medicina Cirugia

2001-01-01

70

Polymerase chain reaction confirmation of Babesia canis canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs suspected of babesiosis in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis was considered an imported tick transmitted disease until the first case of autochthonous canine babesiosis in Slovakia was described in 2002. Since then, the number of cases kept increasing every year. The causative agent of babesiosis in dogs is not yet characterized; therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the agent and the rate of infection in the vector tick D. reticulatus in Slovakia. Babesia canis canis was detected in 80 out of 87 blood samples from dogs with clinical manifestations of babesiosis. Six dogs suspected of babesiosis tested positive for presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and one mixed infection of B. c. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected. B. c. canis was detected in 35.6% questing adults of D. reticulatus. The obtained sequences from blood samples showed 99.7% and from D. reticulatus, 99.4% similarity with the B. c. canis (AY072926) from dogs infected in Croatia. In our study, we characterized the agent of canine babesiosis from blood samples of naturally infected dogs and D. reticulatus, the vector tick. Further, the presence of A. phagocytophilum, bacterium responsible for the canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, was recorded in dogs for the first time in Slovakia. PMID:21736486

Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Víchová, Bronislava; Gul'ová, Ivana; Derdáková, Markéta; Sesztáková, Edina; Pet'ko, Branislav

2011-11-01

71

Quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses\\u000a to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of\\u000a gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  To consistently quantify losses of orthologous groups of genes, we compared the gene repertoires of five vertebrates

Stefan Wyder; Evgenia V Kriventseva; Reinhard Schröder; Tatsuhiko Kadowaki; Evgeny M Zdobnov

2007-01-01

72

Clinical Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog in Turkey.  

PubMed

A five-year-old female dog was presented with a four-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and skin and gait abnormalities. Physical examination revealed weakness, depression, incoordination of the posterior limbs, emaciation, skin and hair coat alterations, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and fever. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed abnormalities which included anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low serum glucose and albumin concentrations, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The diagnosis was confirmed microscopically, by demonstrating the presence of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes within neutrophils in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Treatment consisting of toltrazuril and a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was effective in relieving the clinical signs and clearing the blood of H. canis gametocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of H. canis infection in a dog in Turkey. PMID:15600273

Voyvoda, H; Pasa, S; Uner, A

2004-12-01

73

Meningitis by Toxocara canis after ingestion of raw ostrich liver.  

PubMed

Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antigen but had no symptoms or signs suggesting toxocariasis. This is the first report of toxocariasis in a family due to ingestion of raw ostrich liver in Korea. PMID:22969260

Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S

2012-09-01

74

Binary Orthologic with Modus Ponens Is either Orthomodular or Distributive  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that binary orthologic becomes either quantum or classical logic when nothing but modus ponens rule is added to it, depending on the kind of the operation of implication used. We also show that in the usual approach the rule characterizes neither quantum nor classical logic. The dierence turns out to stem from the chosen valuation on a model

Norman D. Megill

1998-01-01

75

Identification of serum biomarkers in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis using a proteomic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. There are limited data on serum proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the serum proteome. The aim of this study was to identify the potential serum biomarkers of babesiosis using proteomic techniques in order to increase our understanding about disease pathogenesis. Results Serum samples were collected from 25 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis caused by B. canis canis. Blood was collected on the day of admission (day 0), and subsequently on the 1st and 6th day of treatment. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum samples of dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis (day 0, day 1 and day 6) and healthy dogs were run in triplicate. 2DE image analysis showed 64 differentially expressed spots with p???0.05 and 49 spots with fold change ?2. Six selected spots were excised manually and subjected to trypsin digest prior to identification by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry on an Amazon ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass spectrometry data was processed using Data Analysis software and the automated Matrix Science Mascot Daemon server. Protein identifications were assigned using the Mascot search engine to interrogate protein sequences in the NCBI Genbank database. A number of differentially expressed serum proteins involved in inflammation mediated acute phase response, complement and coagulation cascades, apolipoproteins and vitamin D metabolism pathway were identified in dogs with babesiosis. Conclusions Our findings confirmed two dominant pathogenic mechanisms of babesiosis, haemolysis and acute phase response. These results may provide possible serum biomarker candidates for clinical monitoring of babesiosis and this study could serve as the basis for further proteomic investigations in canine babesiosis.

2014-01-01

76

Dogs' ( Canis familaris ) responsiveness to human pointing gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 3 experiments, dogs (Canis familiaris) were presented with variations of the human pointing gesture: gestures with reversed direction of movement, cross-pointing, and different arm extensions. Dogs performed at above chance level if they could see the hand (and index finger) protruding from the human body contour. If these minimum requirements were not accessible, dogs still could

Krisztina Soproni; Ádám Miklósi; József Topál; Vilmos Csányi

2002-01-01

77

An example of endurance in an old wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An 11 to 13-year-old Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) was observed chasing a young Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) for 6 to 7 minutes and catching it. This provides an example of the degree of endurance of which an old wolf is capable.

Mech, L.D.

1997-01-01

78

An Example of Endurance in an Old Wolf, Canis lupus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "An Example of Endurance in an Old Wolf, Canis lupus" describes an eleven- to thirteen-year-old male Arctic wolf chasing hares. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

Mech, L. D.

79

Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2009-01-01

80

QuartetS: A Fast and Accurate Algorithm for Large-Scale Orthology Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The unparalleled growth in the availability of genomic data offers both a challenge to develop orthology detection methods that are simultaneously accurate and high throughput and an opportunity to improve orthology detection by leveraging evolutionary ev...

C. Yu J. Reifman N. Zavaljevski V. Desai

2011-01-01

81

Orthologs of macrophage migration inhibitory factor from parasitic nematodes  

PubMed Central

Chronic helminth infections are associated with modulation of host cellular immune responses, presumably to prolong parasite survival within the mammalian host. This phenomenon is attributed, at least in part, to the elaboration of parasite molecules, including orthologs of host cytokines and receptors, at the host–parasite interface. This review describes recent progress in the characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) orthologs from parasitic nematodes. The roles of these molecules in parasite developmental biology and pathogenesis are discussed. Further knowledge of the species-specific activities and three-dimensional structures of human and parasitic nematode MIF molecules should make them ideal targets for drug- and/or vaccine-based strategies aimed at nematode disease control.

Vermeire, Jon J.; Cho, Yoonsang; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael

2013-01-01

82

Cross-Referencing Eukaryotic Genomes: TIGR Orthologous Gene Alignments (TOGA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative genomics promises to rapidly accelerate the identification and functional classification of biologically important human genes. We developed the TIGR Orthologous Gene Alignment (TOGA; ?http:\\/\\/www.tigr.org\\/tdb\\/toga\\/toga.shtml?) database to provide a cross-reference between fully and partially sequencedeukaryotic transcribedsequences. Starting with the assembledexpressedsequence tag (EST) andgene sequences that comprise the 28 TIGR Gene Ind ices, we usedhigh-stringency pair-wise sequence searches anda reflexive, transitive

Yuandan Lee; Razvan Sultana; Geo Pertea; Jennifer Cho; Svetlana Karamycheva; Jennifer Tsai; Foo Cheung; Valentin Antonescu; Joseph White

2002-01-01

83

Factors affecting the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species tree in bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background As originally defined, orthologous genes implied a reflection of the history of the species. In recent years, many studies have examined the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species trees in bacteria. These studies have produced contradictory results that may have been influenced by orthologous gene misidentification and artefactual phylogenetic reconstructions. Here, using a method that allows the detection and exclusion of false positives during identification of orthologous genes, we address the question of whether putative orthologous genes within bacteria really reflect the history of the species. Results We identified a set of 370 orthologous genes from the bacterial order Rhizobiales. Although manifesting strong vertical signal, almost every orthologous gene had a distinct phylogeny, and the most common topology among the orthologous gene trees did not correspond with the best estimate of the species tree. However, each orthologous gene tree shared an average of 70% of its bipartitions with the best estimate of the species tree. Stochastic error related to gene size affected the concordance between the best estimated of the species tree and the orthologous gene trees, although this effect was weak and distributed unevenly among the functional categories. The nodes showing the greatest discordance were those defined by the shortest internal branches in the best estimated of the species tree. Moreover, a clear bias was evident with respect to the function of the orthologous genes, and the degree of divergence among the orthologous genes appeared to be related to their functional classification. Conclusion Orthologous genes do not reflect the history of the species when taken as individual markers, but they do when taken as a whole. Stochastic error affected the concordance of orthologous genes with the species tree, albeit weakly. We conclude that two important biological causes of discordance among orthologous genes are incomplete lineage sorting and functional restriction.

2008-01-01

84

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

2014-06-16

85

The Jackson Laboratory: Mouse Genome Informatics - Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Jackson Laboratory as part of Mouse Genome Informatics, this website features Mammalian Orthology and Comparative Maps. At this site, searches can be made in the area of Mammalian Orthology by species, gene symbol, name, or map position. Site visitors can also build comparative maps, retrieve an Oxford Grid to display a two-species orthology comparison, and view orthologies between mouse and human or mouse and rat at the whole genome level. The site links to Gene Family Information, MGI Mammalian Orthology Criteria, and MGI Database Reports as well.

86

Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

2010-01-01

87

Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

Mech, L. D.; Phillips, M. K.; Smith, D. W.; Kreeger, T. J.

1996-01-01

88

Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. PMID:24635009

Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

2014-08-01

89

76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes; Final rule Federal Register...Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...of the gray wolf as the Western Great Lakes (WGL) Distinct Population...

2011-12-28

90

[Orthologs of arabidopsis CLAVATA 1 gene in cultivated Brassicaceae plants].  

PubMed

In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica napus), and also three CLV1 fragments from rape (B. rapa), canola (B. napus), and false flax (Camelina sativa), which corresponded to the transmembrane domain and a part of the kinase domain of the CLAVATA1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the full-size CLV1 ortholog from B. napus were similar by 81 and 87% to the prototype gene from arabidopsis; in the case of shorter gene fragments, the similarity was as high as 91-93 and 98%, respectively. By their primary structure, the CLV1 genes in the Brassicaceae considerably differ from its putative structural homologs beyond this family. PMID:15027212

Martynov, V V; Tsvetkov, I L; Khavkin, E E

2004-01-01

91

78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened...Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY...wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced the...

2013-09-05

92

78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened...Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY...wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi). On September 5, 2013,...

2013-10-02

93

In vivo evaluation of albendazole microspheres for the treatment of Toxocara canis larva migrans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with proven efficacy against many parasites such as intestinal helminths. Toxocariasis is one of the important parasitic diseases in humans and animals caused by Toxocara canis. It is well known that T. canis larvae migrate in paratenic hosts, including humans where it may cause visceral larva migrans. Thus, the present research was carried out using

María G. Barrera; Darío Leonardi; Raul E. Bolmaro; Claudia G. Echenique; Alejandro C. Olivieri; Claudio J. Salomon; María C. Lamas

2010-01-01

94

Amplification of Ehrlichial DNA from Dogs 34 Months after Infection with Ehrlichia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether dogs in the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) are carriers of Ehrlichia canis and to determine the significance of persistent indirect immunofluorescent anti-E. canis antibody titers during this phase, PCR was performed with blood, bone marrow, and splenic aspirates collected 34 months postinoculation from six clinically healthy beagle dogs experimentally infected with E.

SHIMON HARRUS; TREVOR WANER; ITZHAK AIZENBERG; JANET E. FOLEY; AMY M. POLAND; HYLTON BARK

1998-01-01

95

Reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis as a model for Microsporum canis dermatophytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis. The complexity of mechanisms involved in dermatophytic infections makes relevant in vivo studies particularly difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to develop a new in vitro model of M. canis dermatophytosis using feline fetal keratinocytes in reconstructed interfollicular epidermis, and to investigate its

Jeremy Tabart; Aline Baldo; Sandy Vermout; Betty Nusgens; Charles Lapiere; Bertrand Losson; Bernard Mignon

2007-01-01

96

A STUDY OF ECTOPARASITES OF CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS IN MUEANG DISTRICT, KHON KAEN, THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied ectoparasites found on Canis lupus familiaris sampled in five areas in Mueang district, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. The prevalence of fleas and ticks as well as their density were determined in 100 dogs that did not receive treatments. A total number of 458 ectoparasites was found corresponding to two species: 25.8% Ctenocephalides canis and 74.2% Rhipicephalus sanguineus. R.

Choosak Nithikathkul; Ruxsina Polseela; Jareerat Iamsa-ard; Chalobol Wongsawad; Sathaporn Jittapalapong

97

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril\\u000a may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the

Serdar Pasa; Huseyin Voyvoda; Tulin Karagenc; Abidin Atasoy; Serkal Gazyagci

98

Roundup: a multi-genome repository of orthologs and evolutionary distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: We have created a tool for ortholog and phylogenetic profile retrieval called Roundup. Roundup is backed by a massive repository of orthologs and associated evolutionary distances that was built using the reciprocalsmallest distance algorithm,an approach thathasbeenshowntoimproveuponalternativeapproachesofortholog detection, such as reciprocal blast. Presently, the Roundup repository contains all possible pair-wise comparisons for over 250 genomes, including32Eukaryotes,morethandoublingthecoverageofanysimilar resource. The orthologs are

Todd F. Deluca; I-hsien Wu; Jian Pu; Thomas Monaghan; Leonid Peshkin; Saurav Singh; Dennis P. Wall

2006-01-01

99

Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an 340-bp fragment

Adam J. Birkenheuer; Michael G. Levy; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2003-01-01

100

High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines. PMID:24704311

Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-06-01

101

Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion  

PubMed Central

Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of ‘excretory–secretory’ products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured larvae. However, these appear to be produced once the parasite has entered the mammalian host, as they are recognised by specific antibodies in infected patients. Elucidating the function of these genes, or analysing if micro-RNA translational silencing suppresses production of the proteins, may point towards new drug targets for tissue-phase parasites in humans.

Maizels, Rick M.

2013-01-01

102

The QUEST RR Lyrae Survey of the Canis Major Overdensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the QUEST RR Lyrae Survey in the Canis Major overdensity. The survey consists of multi-epoch observations in V and R filters, obtained with the Jürgen Stock telescope and the QUEST-I camera at the National Observatory of Venezuela, spanning a total area of 16.7 square degrees. A number of 12 RR Lyrae stars were identified, 6 of type ab and 6 of type c. We compare our results with the number of RR Lyrae stars expected from the halo and thick disk, as well as that expected from dSph galaxies with different specific frequencies of RR Lyrae stars.

Mateu, C.; Vivas, A. K.

2009-05-01

103

Mosaic Organization of Orthologous Sequences in Grass Genomes  

PubMed Central

Although comparative genetic mapping studies show extensive genome conservation among grasses, recent data provide many exceptions to gene collinearity at the DNA sequence level. Rice, sorghum, and maize are closely related grass species, once sharing a common ancestor. Because they diverged at different times during evolution, they provide an excellent model to investigate sequence divergence. We isolated, sequenced, and compared orthologous regions from two rice subspecies, sorghum, and maize to investigate the nature of their sequence differences. This study represents the most extensive sequence comparison among grasses, including the largest contiguous genomic sequences from sorghum (425 kb) and maize (435 kb) to date. Our results reveal a mosaic organization of the orthologous regions, with conserved sequences interspersed with nonconserved sequences. Gene amplification, gene movement, and retrotransposition account for the majority of the nonconserved sequences. Our analysis also shows that gene amplification is frequently linked with gene movement. Analyzing an additional 2.9 Mb of genomic sequence from rice not only corroborates our observations, but also suggests that a significant portion of grass genomes may consist of paralogous sequences derived from gene amplification. We propose that sequence divergence started from hotspots along chromosomes and expanded by accumulating small-scale genomic changes during evolution. [GenBank Accession Numbers: Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) php200725 region: AF119222; rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) php200725 region: AF128457; sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) php200725 region: AF114171, AF527807, AF727808, AF527809; maize (Zea mays) php200725 region: AF090447, AF528565; rice chromosome 10 region (2.9 Mb): AC073391, AC087549, AC027657, AC087547, AC027658, AC087546, AC027659, AC087550, AC025905, AC087545, AF229187, AC027660, AC087544, AC027661, AC027662, AC087543, AC073392, AC087542, AC025906, AC073393, AC025907.

Song, Rentao; Llaca, Victor; Messing, Joachim

2002-01-01

104

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Embryonation of Toxocara canis Eggs.  

PubMed

Abstract Toxocara canis is a zoonotic nematode parasite that can be transmitted to humans by food or water contaminated with T. canis eggs from infected dog feces. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a useful alternative to thermal treatments to eliminate pathogens from foods. Most of the research on HPP has focused on prokaryotes, but little is known about its effects on eukaryotic organisms. We evaluated the ability of HPP to affect embryonation of T. canis eggs to test the hypothesis that HPP treatment can delay development of T. canis eggs. Efficacy of HPP was determined by using an embryonation assay on T. canis eggs from naturally infected puppies. For each treatment, 2500 T. canis eggs in tap water were placed in sealable plastic bags and subjected to 138-400 megapascals (MPa; 1?MPa=10 atm=147?psi) for 60?s in a commercial HPP unit. We found that treatment with 300 or 400?MPa for 60?s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207?MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively. Results from this study suggest that HPP may be a useful treatment to protect foods from T. canis contamination. PMID:24866420

Rosypal, Alexa C; Houk, Alice E; Flick, George J; Lindsay, David S

2014-07-01

105

Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Orthology, Paralogy, and Conserved Synteny for Dog and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships are necessary to infer human molecular function from experiments in model organisms. Previous genome-scale approaches to predicting these relationships have been limited by their use of protein similarity and their failure to take into account multiple splicing events and gene prediction errors. We have developed PhyOP, a new phylogenetic orthology prediction pipeline based

Leo Goodstadt; Chris P. Ponting

2006-01-01

106

Detection of gene orthology from gene co-expression and protein interaction networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ortholog detection methods present a powerful approach for finding genes that participate in similar biological processes across different organisms, extending our understanding of interactions between genes across different pathways, and understanding the evolution of gene families. RESULTS: We exploit features derived from the alignment of protein-protein interaction networks and gene-coexpression networks to reconstruct KEGG orthologs for Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces

Fadi Towfic; Susan VanderPlas; Casey A. Oliver; Oliver Couture; Christopher K. Tuggle; M. Heather West Greenlee; Vasant Honavar

2010-01-01

107

Detection of Gene Orthology Based on Protein-Protein Interaction Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ortholog detection methods present a powerful approach for finding genes that participate in similar biological processes across different organisms, extending our understanding of interactions between genes across different pathways, and understanding the evolution of gene families. We exploit features derived from the alignment of protein-protein interaction networks to reconstruct KEGG orthologs for Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo

Fadi Towfic; M. Heather West Greenlee; Vasant Honavar

2009-01-01

108

Response to Comment on ``Tequila, a Neurotrypsin Ortholog, Regulates Long-Term Memory Formation in Drosophila''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonderegger and Patthy argue that the trypsin catalytic domains of Drosophila Tequila and human neurotrypsin are not linked by an orthology relationship. We present analyses based both on BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) comparisons and on phylogenetic relationships, which show that these two proteases do share an orthologous region that includes the trypsin domain.

Thomas Preat; Jean-Luc Da Lage; Laurence Colleaux; Gérard Didelot; Florence Molinari; Paul Tchenio; Elodie Milhiet; Arnold Munnich; Marie-Louise Cariou

2007-01-01

109

Comment on ``Tequila, a Neurotrypsin Ortholog, Regulates Long-Term Memory Formation in Drosophila''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Didelot et al. (Reports, 11 August 2006, p. 851) claimed that Drosophila Tequila (Teq) and human neurotrypsin are orthologs and concluded that deficient long-term memory after Teq inactivation indicates that neurotrypsin plays its essential role for human cognitive functions through a similar mechanism. Our analyses suggest that Teq and neurotrypsin are not orthologous, leading us to question their equivalent roles

Peter Sonderegger; Laszlo Patthy

2007-01-01

110

First Reported Isolation of Neisseria canis from a Deep Facial Wound Infection in a Dog?  

PubMed Central

Neisseria canis was isolated in pure culture from a mandibular abscess in a dog. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was used to obtain a sample from the abscess. Conventional bacteriological examination techniques followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing from pure subculture and construction of a phylogenetic tree verified the isolate as N. canis. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that a broader phylogenetic platform is needed in the part of the phylogenetic tree where the canine pathogenic N. canis isolate is located. The canine pathogenic isolate was found to be resistant to cephalexin and trimethoprim.

Cantas, Hasan; Pekarkova, Marta; Kippenes, Hege S.; Brudal, Espen; Sorum, Henning

2011-01-01

111

Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population.  

PubMed

The principal threat to the persistence of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) in the wild is hybridization with the coyote (Canis latrans). To facilitate idengification and removal of hybrids, assignment tests are developed which use genotype data to estimate identity as coyote, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or full red wolf. The tests use genotypes from the red wolves that founded the surviving population and the resulting pedigree, rather than a contemporary red wolf sample. The tests are evaluated by analysing both captive red wolves at 18 microsatellite loci, and data simulated under a highly parameterized, biologically reasonable model. The accuracy of assignment rates are generally high, with over 95% of known red wolves idengified correctly. There are, however, tradeoffs between ambiguous assignments and misassignments, and between misidengifying red wolves as hybrids and hybrids as red wolves. These result in a compromise between limiting introgression and avoiding demographic losses. The management priorities and level of introgression determine the combination of test and removal strategy that best balances these tradeoffs. Ultimately, we conclude that the use of the assignment tests has the capacity to arrest and reverse introgression. To our knowledge, the presented approach is novel in that it accounts for genetic drift when the genotypes under analysis are temporally separated from the reference populations to which they are being assigned. These methods may be valuable in cases where reference databases for small populations have aged substantially, pedigree information is available or data are generated from historical samples. PMID:14629346

Miller, Craig R; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

2003-12-01

112

Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors  

PubMed Central

Background A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and of the cellular components of the olfactory system. Results We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs. Conclusion Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining receptor conformation or regulating receptor activity. We anticipate that the identification of vertebrate OR orthologs in amphioxus will lead to an improved understanding of OR gene family evolution, OR gene function, and the mechanisms that control cell-specific expression, axonal guidance, signal transduction and signal integration.

Churcher, Allison M; Taylor, John S

2009-01-01

113

An orthology-based analysis of pathogenic protozoa impacting global health: an improved comparative genomics approach with prokaryotes and model eukaryote orthologs.  

PubMed

Abstract A key focus in 21(st) century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

Cuadrat, Rafael R C; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M; Mattoso, Marta; Dávila, Alberto M R

2014-08-01

114

Application of the SYBR Green real-time HRM PCR technique in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated in the areas of eastern Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the real-time polymerised chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melting (HRM) method in the differentiation of the Babesia canis canis protozoa isolated from dogs in the areas of eastern Poland. The studies involved 20 isolates of B. canis canis qualified depending on the analysis of the 18S RNA gene sequence to group A (EU 622792) and 20 isolates qualified to group B (EU 622793). It was proven with the real-time PCR technique that the melting temperature (Tm) of the obtained products of amplification was 78 degrees C for the representatives of group A and 81 degrees C for the representatives of group B, which proves that the real-time SYBR Green HRM PCR method is a technique allowing for the differentiation of the B. canis isolates which are slightly different with respect to the genetic structure, without the necessity to carry out time-consuming studies, i.e., sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. PMID:20155367

Adaszek, Lukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2010-04-01

115

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy: study of effects of econazole on Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is a frequent dermatophyte in France, and causes tinea and herpes circinatus in children. This work shows the superficial and ultrastructural alterations induced by Econazole nitrate on this fungus. PMID:4058564

Mazabrey, D; Nadal, J; Seguela, J P; Linas, M D

1985-09-01

116

Doxycycline Hyclate Treatment of Experimental Canine Ehrlichiosis Followed by Challenge Inoculation with Two Ehrlichia canis Strains  

PubMed Central

Dogs were experimentally inoculated with Ehrlichia canis Florida to assess the efficacy of doxycycline hyclate for the treatment of acute ehrlichiosis. Treatment with doxycycline eliminated infection in eight of eight dogs. Untreated infected control dogs appeared to eliminate the infection or, alternatively, suppress the degree of ehrlichiemia to a level not detectable by tissue culture isolation or PCR or by transfusion of blood into recipient dogs. Prior infection did not infer protection against homologous (strain Florida) or heterologous (strain NCSU Jake) strains of E. canis. We conclude that doxycycline hyclate is an effective treatment for acute E. canis infection; however, these results may not be applicable to chronic infections in nature. Spontaneous resolution of infection, induced by the dog’s innate immune response, provides evidence that an E. canis vaccine, once developed, might potentially confer protective immunity against the organism.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Hancock, Susan I.

1998-01-01

117

OrthoDB: a hierarchical catalog of animal, fungal and bacterial orthologs  

PubMed Central

The concept of orthology provides a foundation for formulating hypotheses on gene and genome evolution, and thus forms the cornerstone of comparative genomics, phylogenomics and metagenomics. We present the update of OrthoDB—the hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org). From its conception, OrthoDB promoted delineation of orthologs at varying resolution by explicitly referring to the hierarchy of species radiations, now also adopted by other resources. The current release provides comprehensive coverage of animals and fungi representing 252 eukaryotic species, and is now extended to prokaryotes with the inclusion of 1115 bacteria. Functional annotations of orthologous groups are provided through mapping to InterPro, GO, OMIM and model organism phenotypes, with cross-references to major resources including UniProt, NCBI and FlyBase. Uniquely, OrthoDB provides computed evolutionary traits of orthologs, such as gene duplicability and loss profiles, divergence rates, sibling groups, and now extended with exon–intron architectures, syntenic orthologs and parent–child trees. The interactive web interface allows navigation along the species phylogenies, complex queries with various identifiers, annotation keywords and phrases, as well as with gene copy-number profiles and sequence homology searches. With the explosive growth of available data, OrthoDB also provides mapping of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes to the current orthologous groups.

Waterhouse, Robert M.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

2013-01-01

118

Results from the Coded Aperture Neutron Imaging System (CANIS).  

SciTech Connect

Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays ({approx}1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging- a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter

2010-11-01

119

Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2010-01-01

120

Zinc-responsive dermatosis in a red wolf (canis rufus).  

PubMed

An 18-mo-old male red wolf (Canis rufus) presented with footpad hyperkeratosis, suppurative paronychia, distal limb pyoderma, and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Diet for the previous 11 mo consisted of a mixture of two commercially prepared dog foods with a mineral supplement containing primarily calcium. Culture of the draining tracts on the distal limbs yielded a mixed population of opportunistic bacteria. Histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of zinc deficiency. Medical therapy consisted of 15 mg/kg amoxicillin p.o. b.i.d. and 10 mg/kg zinc sulfate p.o. s.i.d. Calcium supplementation was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved by 10 wk after the initiation of treatment. PMID:10982145

Kearns, K; Sleeman, J; Frank, L; Munson, L

2000-06-01

121

Evola: Ortholog database of all human genes in H-InvDB with manual curation of phylogenetic trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthologs are genes in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by specia- tion. Currently, with the rapid growth of transcrip- tome data of various species, more reliable orthology information is prerequisite for further studies. However, detection of orthologs could be erroneous if pairwise distance-based methods, such as reciprocal BLAST searches, are utilized. Thus, as a sub-database of

Akihiro Matsuya; Ryuichi Sakate; Yoshihiro Kawahara; Kanako O. Koyanagi; Yoshiharu Sato; Yasuyuki Fujii; Chisato Yamasaki; Takuya Habara; Hajime Nakaoka; Fusano Todokoro; Kaori Yamaguchi; Toshinori Endo; Satoshi Ota; Wojciech Makalowski; Kazuho Ikeo; Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Kousuke Hanada; Katsuyuki Hashimoto; Momoki Hirai; Hisakazu Iwama; Naruya Saitou; Aiko T. Hiraki; Lihua Jin; Yayoi Kaneko; Masako Kanno; Katsuhiko Murakami; Akiko Ogura Noda; Naomi Saichi; Ryoko Sanbonmatsu; Mami Suzuki; Jun-ichi Takeda; Masayuki Tanaka; Takashi Gojobori; Tadashi Imanishi; Takeshi Itoh

2008-01-01

122

Excavation of Pid3 Orthologs with Differential Resistance Spectra to Magnaporthe oryzae in Rice Resource  

PubMed Central

Twenty-six orthologs of the rice blast resistance gene Pid3 from cultivated varieties and wild rice accessions distributed in different areas were cloned by allele mining. Sequence analysis showed that while each of the orthologous genes from indica varieties and most wild accessions encodes a complete NBS-LRR protein, each of the proteins encoded by those from japonica varieties and few wild rice accessions presents a premature termination. Eleven of the 26 orthologs were selected for blast resistance testing by transforming into the blast susceptible rice variety TP309, respectively. Inoculation of 23 M. oryzae strains collected from diverse regions of China to the respective transgenic plants revealed that 6 Pid3 orthologs showed susceptible to all the tested strains, while the other 5 orthologs showed differential resistance spectra in a gradually spectrum-widen order as Pid3-W3, Pid3-W4, Pid3-I3, Pid3-W5 and Pid3-I1. Amino acid sequences alignment of these orthologs indicated that the sequence diversities between the blast resistance orthologs were mostly located in the LRR domain such as the substitutions of Q694H,D856H,Q896R,D899E etc. However, the differences between the resistance orthologs and the susceptible ones were mostly located in the NBS domain. The present experiments provide an example of that the ortholog evaluation of plant R genes could be an efficient way to expand the rice blast resistance and some other plant disease resistance as well for breeding.

Shang, Junjun; Pang, Zhiqian; Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Guanghuai; Tao, Yong; Xu, Qian; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xianfeng; Li, Shigui; Xu, Jichen; Zhu, Lihuang

2014-01-01

123

Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in mice during Toxocara canis larvae migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between inflammation in organs with Toxocara canis larval migration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were investigated following the infection of mice with 1,000 infective eggs. Gelatinase activity was defined by gelatin zymography, optimum pH, inhibitor specificity and Western blot analysis. MMP-9 activity was present in the lungs, liver, muscles, and brain during T. canis larval migration. This enzyme had

S. C. Lai; K. M. Chen; H. C. Chen; H. H. Lee

2005-01-01

124

Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings  

PubMed Central

Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI). Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the thrombocytopenia resolved. Despite immunosuppression, neither A. platys nor E. canis DNA was PCR amplified from doxycycline-treated dogs. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that simultaneous or sequential infection with A. platys and E. canis can alter various pathophysiological parameters in experimentally infected dogs, and because natural exposure to multiple tick-borne pathogens occurs frequently in dogs, awareness of co-infection is important in clinical practice.

2010-01-01

125

IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i. PMID:22634886

Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

2012-01-01

126

SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes  

SciTech Connect

At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

2013-10-15

127

Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.  

PubMed

A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis. PMID:23962826

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

2013-11-01

128

HaMStR: Profile hidden markov model based search for orthologs in ESTs  

PubMed Central

Background EST sequencing is a versatile approach for rapidly gathering protein coding sequences. They provide direct access to an organism's gene repertoire bypassing the still error-prone procedure of gene prediction from genomic data. Therefore, ESTs are often the only source for biological sequence data from taxa outside mainstream interest. The widespread use of ESTs in evolutionary studies and particularly in molecular systematics studies is still hindered by the lack of efficient and reliable approaches for automated ortholog predictions in ESTs. Existing methods either depend on a known species tree or cannot cope with redundancy in EST data. Results We present a novel approach (HaMStR) to mine EST data for the presence of orthologs to a curated set of genes. HaMStR combines a profile Hidden Markov Model search and a subsequent BLAST search to extend existing ortholog cluster with sequences from further taxa. We show that the HaMStR results are consistent with those obtained with existing orthology prediction methods that require completely sequenced genomes. A case study on the phylogeny of 35 fungal taxa illustrates that HaMStR is well suited to compile informative data sets for phylogenomic studies from ESTs and protein sequence data. Conclusion HaMStR extends in a standardized manner a pre-defined set of orthologs with ESTs from further taxa. In the same fashion HaMStR can be applied to protein sequence data, and thus provides a comprehensive approach to compile ortholog cluster from any protein coding data. The resulting orthology predictions serve as the data basis for a variety of evolutionary studies. Here, we have demonstrated the application of HaMStR in a molecular systematics study. However, we envision that studies tracing the evolutionary fate of individual genes or functional complexes of genes will greatly benefit from HaMStR orthology predictions as well.

Ebersberger, Ingo; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt

2009-01-01

129

Functional characterization in Caenorhabditis elegans of transmembrane worm-human orthologs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The complete genome sequences for human and the nematodeCaenorhabditis elegansoffer an opportunity to learn more about human gene function through functional characterization of orthologs in the worm.\\u000a Based on a previous genome-wide analysis of worm-human orthologous transmembrane proteins, we selected seventeen genes to\\u000a explore experimentally inC. elegans. These genes were selected on the basis that they all have high confidence

Anna Henricson; Erik LL Sonnhammer; David L Baillie; Ana Vaz Gomes

2004-01-01

130

Comment on "Tequila, a neurotrypsin ortholog, regulates long-term memory formation in Drosophila".  

PubMed

Didelot et al. (Reports, 11 August 2006, p. 851) claimed that Drosophila Tequila (Teq) and human neurotrypsin are orthologs and concluded that deficient long-term memory after Teq inactivation indicates that neurotrypsin plays its essential role for human cognitive functions through a similar mechanism. Our analyses suggest that Teq and neurotrypsin are not orthologous, leading us to question their equivalent roles in higher brain function. PMID:17588915

Sonderegger, Peter; Patthy, Laszlo

2007-06-22

131

Expression profiling of the bottom fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus orthologous genes using oligonucleotide microarrays.  

PubMed

The bottom fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is reported to have arisen as a natural hybrid of two yeast strains, S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. The S. pastorianus genome includes S. cerevisiae-type (Sc-type) genes and orthologous lager-fermenting-yeast specific-type (Lg-type) genes derived from S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, respectively. To gain insights into the physiological properties of S. pastorianus, we developed an in situ synthesized 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray for gene expression monitoring of these orthologous genes, consisting of approximately 6600 Sc-type genes and 3200 Lg-type genes. A comparison of the transcriptional profile of orthologous genes (e.g. Sc-type and Lg-type genes) in S. cerevisiae or S. bayanus demonstrated the feasibility of performing gene expression studies with this microarray. Genome-wide analysis of S. pastorianus with this microarray could clearly distinguish more than 67% of the expressed orthologous genes. Furthermore, it was shown that the gene expression of particular Lg-type genes differed from that of the orthologous Sc-type genes, suggesting that some Lg-type and Sc-type genes may have different functional roles. We conclude that the oligonucleotide microarray that we constructed is a powerful tool for the monitoring of gene expression of the orthologous genes of S. pastorianus. PMID:19243081

Minato, Toshiko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Tatsuji; Shimada, Emiko; Mizutani, Satoru; Kobayashi, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki

2009-03-01

132

First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

2013-02-01

133

Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland.  

PubMed

Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006-2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR for diagnosis and the same methods were used to identify the vector-borne pathogens in 26 dogs presenting at veterinary clinics with symptoms of vector-borne diseases. None of four studied vector-borne pathogens was detected in samples originating from veterinary clinics. Among the remaining 82 dogs B. canis infections were confirmed in three dogs undergoing treatment for babesiosis. The DNA of tick-borne pathogens was also found among 22 (27.8%) of the 79 apparently healthy dogs, including 20 cases of B. canis infection (25.3%), one case of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection and one case of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. No evidence of Bartonella spp. and Ehrlichia canis infections were found in this set of samples. Sequencing of a Babesia fragment of 18S rDNA amplified from acute (n=5) and asymptomatic (n=5) cases revealed that all isolates were identical to the Babesia canis canis sequence, originally isolated from Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. A range of factors was shown to affect the distribution of babesiosis in sled dogs. The data are also discussed in respect to the health risk factors generated by asymptomatic B. canis infections and the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis measures taken by sled dog owners. PMID:19837515

Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Rodo, Anna; Si?ski, Edward; Bajer, Anna

2009-12-23

134

C-reactive protein and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein levels in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate whether acute-phase protein responses occur in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were serially measured in the plasma of five dogs experimentally inoculated with E. canis and 10 sham-inoculated or noninoculated control dogs. The CRP concentration was measured by a canine-specific capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the AAG concentration was measured by a canine-specific radial immunodiffusion method. In all E. canis-inoculated dogs, a 3.3- to 6.5-fold increase in the plasma CRP concentration and a 1.9- to 8.6-fold increase in the plasma AAG concentration over the preinoculation level occurred at days 4 to 6 postexposure. Despite the persistence of E. canis and high antibody titers, both CRP and AAG concentrations gradually declined to preexposure levels by day 34 postexposure. E. canis-infected dogs had mild and transient clinical signs which resolved without treatment by day 14 postexposure. The CRP and AAG concentrations in control inoculated or nontreated dogs remained within the normal range throughout the experimental period. Of 12 dogs naturally infected with E. canis, 75% had greater than 50 micrograms of CRP per ml and 83% had greater than 500 micrograms of AAG per ml. All of these 12 dogs had chronic and severe clinical signs of canine ehrlichiosis. Thus, elevations in the levels of acute-phase proteins occur in both acute and chronic canine ehrlichiosis. Determination of CRP and AAG concentrations may help in assessing the severity of inflammatory damage in dogs with E. canis infections.

Rikihisa, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kwak, I; Iqbal, Z; Kociba, G; Mott, J; Chichanasiriwithaya, W

1994-01-01

135

Iterative orthology prediction uncovers new mitochondrial proteins and identifies C12orf62 as the human ortholog of COX14, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background Orthology is a central tenet of comparative genomics and ortholog identification is instrumental to protein function prediction. Major advances have been made to determine orthology relations among a set of homologous proteins. However, they depend on the comparison of individual sequences and do not take into account divergent orthologs. Results We have developed an iterative orthology prediction method, Ortho-Profile, that uses reciprocal best hits at the level of sequence profiles to infer orthology. It increases ortholog detection by 20% compared to sequence-to-sequence comparisons. Ortho-Profile predicts 598 human orthologs of mitochondrial proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe with 94% accuracy. Of these, 181 were not known to localize to mitochondria in mammals. Among the predictions of the Ortho-Profile method are 11 human cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly proteins that are implicated in mitochondrial function and disease. Their co-expression patterns, experimentally verified subcellular localization, and co-purification with human COX-associated proteins support these predictions. For the human gene C12orf62, the ortholog of S. cerevisiae COX14, we specifically confirm its role in negative regulation of the translation of cytochrome c oxidase. Conclusions Divergent homologs can often only be detected by comparing sequence profiles and profile-based hidden Markov models. The Ortho-Profile method takes advantage of these techniques in the quest for orthologs.

2012-01-01

136

Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes of Babesia spp and Ehrlichia canis detected in dogs from Ribeir?o Preto, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The partial DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia canis and the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia canis detected in dogs from Ribeirăo Preto, Brazil, were compared to sequences from other strains deposited in GenBank. The E. canis strain circulating in Ribeirăo Preto is identical to other strains previously detected in the region, whereas the subspecies Babesia canis vogeli is the main Babesia strain circulating in dogs from Ribeirăo Preto.

Oliveira, L.P.; Cardozo, G.P.; Santos, E.V.; Mansur, M.A.B.; Donini, I.A.N.; Zissou, V.G.; Roberto, P.G.; Marins, M.

2009-01-01

137

Immobilization of gray wolves (Canis lupus) with sufentanil citrate.  

PubMed

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were immobilized with 0.5 mg/kg xylazine plus 7.5 micrograms/kg of either sufentanil (n = 8), etorphine (n = 8), or carfentanil (n = 2). Drug doses used in this study were selected to provide consistency for comparison and are not recommended doses for effective immobilization of wolves. Induction times were similar among groups (11.9 +/- 1.0 min). Thirty min after induction, wolves were given either 0.5 mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride plus 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine hydrochloride or saline only intravenously. Arousal times for wolves given naloxone and yohimbine (1.2 +/- 0.1 min) were shorter than wolves given saline (35.5 +/- 6.4 min). Respiratory rates were similar among the three drug groups (6.9 +/- 1.0 breaths/min). One animal given sufentanil then saline was found dead 108 min after induction. Presumptive diagnosis was renarcotization and hypothermia. Results indicated that sufentanil is an effective opioid immobilizing agent for gray wolves. PMID:2147448

Kreeger, T J; Seal, U S

1990-10-01

138

Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

Gipson, P. S.; Ballard, W. B.

1998-01-01

139

Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene played a dominant role in sculpting the evolutionary histories of many high-latitude organisms. The refugial hypothesis argues that populations retracted during glacial maxima and were isolated in separate refugia. One prediction of this hypothesis is that populations inhabiting different refugia diverged and then, during interglacial periods, rapidly expanded into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction cycles in the late Pleistocene. Our analyses of variation of mitochondrial control region sequences corroborate previous microsatellite analyses supporting independent evolutionary histories for Coastal and Continental wolves in North America. Coastal wolves represent the remnants of a formerly widespread and diverse southern clade that expanded into coastal Southeast Alaska, likely in the early Holocene. In contrast, extant northern Continental populations appear to be admixed, composed of lineages independently arising from ancestors that persisted in either southern or northern (Beringia) refugia. This pattern of diversification suggests the possibility of 3 temporally independent colonizations of North America by wolves from Asia. Coastal wolves are the last vestige of a formerly widespread phylogroup that largely was extirpated in North America by humans during the last century. The independent phylogeographic history of these Coastal wolves has yet to be characterized. Their distinctiveness among North American wolf populations may warrant a reevaluation of their conservation status and management. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Weckworth, B. V.; Talbot, S. L.; Cook, J. A.

2010-01-01

140

Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of persons with serologic evidence of E. canis infection.  

PubMed Central

The results of a serosurvey of Oklahomans for the presence of antibody to Ehrlichia canis is reported. Paired serum specimens, from patients lacking the serologic criteria for diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), were tested. A four-fold increase in E. canis-IFA antibody was found in 16/144 (11 percent) of these paired serum samples. Patients with serologic evidence of E. canis infection had a mean age of 34 years, 69 percent were male, and 63 percent lived in a town less than 10,000 population. Signs and symptoms included: fever 94 percent, headache 94 percent, fatigue 94 percent, anorexia 81 percent, nausea 60 percent, and rash 44 percent. When compared to control patients, whose sera were submitted for RMSF testing but did not meet serologic criteria for RMSF or E. canis, case-patients were more likely to have had leukopenia (OR = 4.9, 95 percent Cl = 1.2, 19.0) and tick exposure (OR = 9.5, 95 percent Cl = 1.4, 62.7). The results suggest E. canis, or a closely related agent, is a cause of human illness. Ticks are probable vector.

Rohrbach, B W; Harkess, J R; Ewing, S A; Kudlac, J; McKee, G L; Istre, G R

1990-01-01

141

Babesia canis: evidence for genetic diversity among isolates revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of B. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For this purpose, we identified a Babesia canis specific DNA probe named pS8. This 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of B. canis DNA. Results suggest that the pS8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. This probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in B. canis enzyme-digested genomic DNA. RFLP patterns obtained with the pS8 probe revealed a large genetic diversity between various isolates and led us to distinguish several clones derived from a single isolate. Results suggest that for a single isolate, the fingerprints obtained reflect those of a few quantitatively dominant clones. This technique can now be routinely applied and provides a convenient tool for the characterization and the identification of B. canis isolates, strains and clones. PMID:8533020

Citard, T; Mähl, P; Boulouis, H J; Chavigny, C; Druilhe, P

1995-09-01

142

Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop. PMID:23990425

Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Weso?owska, Agnieszka; W?drychowicz, Halina

2013-09-01

143

Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy

SD Gaunt; MJ Beall; BA Stillman; L Lorentzen; PPVP Diniz; R Chandrashekar; EB Breitschwerdt

2010-01-01

144

Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.  

PubMed

A group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with Babesia canis. The ability of the collar to prevent transmission of B. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. All 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with B. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. All control dogs developed clinical signs of babesiosis and were rescue-treated with imidocarb dipropionate. These dogs also developed specific B. canis antibodies as identified by serology (IFA test) and were confirmed PCR/RLB positive. None of the 8 dogs treated with the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar became infected with B. canis, which was confirmed by the absence of specific B. canis antibodies and babesial DNA as confirmed by PCR/RLB. The collar caused 96.02% of the ticks to die within 48h post challenge and this increased to 100% within 4 days. Although a high percentage of 44% of the Dermacentor ticks were infected with B. canis, they were unable to transmit the infection to the treated group. Hence, the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar effectively prevented transmission of B. canis 1 month after application onto the dogs. PMID:23158840

Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

2013-02-18

145

Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia afzelii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in hard ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw (central Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to specify the occurrence and prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw, and to determine the Borrelia species occurring in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 590 collected ticks, 209 were identified as I. ricinus, and 381 as Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of B. canis was

Wojciech Zygner; S?awomir Jaros; Halina W?drychowicz

2008-01-01

146

Detection of the DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in Warsaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each month, from March 2003 to February 2004, 34 blood samples from dogs were randomly selected from the blood samples delivered to two veterinary laboratories in Warsaw and tested for the DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Borrelia DNA was detected in seven of the 408 dogs, A phagocytophilum DNA was found in

W. Zygner; P. Górski; H. W?drychowicz

2009-01-01

147

A molecular and serologic survey of Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii in dogs and ticks from Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization were used to survey for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii in blood samples of 65 dogs that harbored ticks from northcentral and northeastern Oklahoma. Dog blood samples were also examined for antibodies against E. canis and E. chaffeensis, using an immunofluorescent antibody test. Ten of 65 dogs (15.4%) examined

George L Murphy; S. A Ewing; Lisa C Whitworth; J. Carl Fox; A. Alan Kocan

1998-01-01

148

In vitro isolation and molecular characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Ehrlichia canis isolate was obtained from an naturally infected dog exhibiting clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in Săo Paulo Municipality, state of Săo Paulo, Brazil. The isolate was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the ehrlichial genes dsb, 16SrRNA, and p28. Partial dsb and 16S rRNA sequences were identical to three and five other E. canis strains, respectively, from different countries and continents (including North America, Africa, Asia and Europe). Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for this E. canis (Săo Paulo) differed by 1, 2, and 2 nucleotides from the corresponding sequences of the E. canis strains Jake (from USA), Oklahoma (USA), and VHE (Venezuela), respectively. The results in this study indicate that E. canis is the only recognized Ehrlichia species infecting dogs in Brazil.

Aguiar, Daniel M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

2008-01-01

149

Isolation, in vitro propagation, genetic analysis, and immunogenic characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from a blood sample obtained from a dog in southeastern Brazil was used to confirm a naturally acquired Ehrlichia (E.) canis infection. Following isolation and culturing of the new bacterial strain called Uberlândia, partial sequences of the dsb and p28 genes were obtained. The dsb partial sequence of the novel strain was 100% similar to dsb gene sequences of E. canis obtained from different geographic areas around the world. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for the E. canis Uberlândia strain differed at several nucleotides from other sequences available in GenBank. To confirm the antigenic profile of the Uberlândia strain, an indirect immunofluorescence assay against E. canis antigens was performed using dog sera collected from two different areas in Brazil (Uberlândia and Săo Paulo). The results suggest that both antigens were able to identify animals seropositive for E. canis in Brazil since these Brazilian strains appear to be highly conserved.

Rieck, Susana Elisa; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio

2014-01-01

150

Bioinformatics analysis of plant orthologous introns: identification of an intronic tRNA-like sequence.  

PubMed

Orthologous introns have identical positions relative to the coding sequence in orthologous genes of different species. By analyzing the complete genomes of five plants we generated a database of 40,512 orthologous intron groups of dicotyledonous plants, 28,519 orthologous intron groups of angiosperms, and 15,726 of land plants (moss and angiosperms). Multiple sequence alignments of each orthologous intron group were obtained using the Mafft algorithm. The number of conserved regions in plant introns appeared to be hundreds of times fewer than that in mammals or vertebrates. Approximately three quarters of conserved intronic regions among angiosperms and dicots, in particular, correspond to alternatively-spliced exonic sequences. We registered only a handful of conserved intronic ncRNAs of flowering plants. However, the most evolutionarily conserved intronic region, which is ubiquitous for all plants examined in this study, including moss, possessed multiple structural features of tRNAs, which caused us to classify it as a putative tRNA-like ncRNA. Intronic sequences encoding tRNA-like structures are not unique to plants. Bioinformatics examination of the presence of tRNA inside introns revealed an unusually long-term association of four glycine tRNAs inside the Vac14 gene of fish, amniotes, and mammals. PMID:25014137

Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Walters, Lorraine; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Khandekar, Sushant; Crawford, Erin; Zirbel, Craig L; Leisner, Scott; Prakash, Ashwin; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

2014-09-10

151

eggNOG v4.0: nested orthology inference across 3686 organisms.  

PubMed

With the increasing availability of various 'omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete database of orthologous groups via a web interface, as well as through bulk download. PMID:24297252

Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Rattei, Thomas; Creevey, Chris; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars J; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

2014-01-01

152

Testing the Ortholog Conjecture with Comparative Functional Genomic Data from Mammals  

PubMed Central

A common assumption in comparative genomics is that orthologous genes share greater functional similarity than do paralogous genes (the “ortholog conjecture”). Many methods used to computationally predict protein function are based on this assumption, even though it is largely untested. Here we present the first large-scale test of the ortholog conjecture using comparative functional genomic data from human and mouse. We use the experimentally derived functions of more than 8,900 genes, as well as an independent microarray dataset, to directly assess our ability to predict function using both orthologs and paralogs. Both datasets show that paralogs are often a much better predictor of function than are orthologs, even at lower sequence identities. Among paralogs, those found within the same species are consistently more functionally similar than those found in a different species. We also find that paralogous pairs residing on the same chromosome are more functionally similar than those on different chromosomes, perhaps due to higher levels of interlocus gene conversion between these pairs. In addition to offering implications for the computational prediction of protein function, our results shed light on the relationship between sequence divergence and functional divergence. We conclude that the most important factor in the evolution of function is not amino acid sequence, but rather the cellular context in which proteins act.

Radivojac, Predrag; Hahn, Matthew W.

2011-01-01

153

Efficacy of oral terbinafine in feline dermatophytosis due to Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most commonly responsible for ringworm in cats. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of oral terbinafine (Lamisil; Sandoz) in the treatment of feline ringworm caused by M canis, and to consider this drug as an alternative to griseofulvin or imidazoles. Fifteen cats infected with M canis were treated orally once daily with 30 mg/kg of terbinafine over a 2-week period. All treated animals were checked for dermatophytes on the last day of treatment, a month later and 3 months after the last administration of the drug. Only 12 cats could be used in the whole trial and 11 of these (92%) showed a complete cure. Terbinafine could be an effective alternative to griseofulvin when fungal resistance or idiosyncrasic intolerance are shown and, compared with griseofulvin, could give a faster rate of cure and less relapses. PMID:11919014

Mancianti, F; Pedonese, F; Millanta, F; Guarnieri, L

1999-03-01

154

Chronic canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): a retrospective study of 19 natural cases.  

PubMed

Nineteen dogs from Greece with chronic ehrlichiosis were studied. The dogs exhibited bicytopenia or pancytopenia, bone marrow hypoplasia, seroreactivity to Ehrlichia canis (E. canis) antigens, and had no history of drug or radiation exposure. Anorexia, depression, severe bleeding tendencies, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity were also hallmarks of the disease. All these animals eventually died, irrespective of the treatment applied. Some dogs were also serologically positive for Rickettsia conorii, Leishmania infantum (L. infantum), and Bartonella vinsonii subspp. berkhoffii. Polymerase chain reaction testing of bone marrow samples revealed E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilia, Anaplasma platys, and L. infantum in some dogs. Concurrent infections did not appear to substantially influence the clinical course and final outcome of the chronic canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:15131097

Mylonakis, Mathios E; Koutinas, Alex F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Billinis, Charalambos D; Leontides, Leonidas S; Kontos, Vassilios S

2004-01-01

155

Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection in an untraveled Nigerian dog.  

PubMed

A sexually intact 6-month-old female Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Clinic of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, for the following complaints: anorexia, hemoglobinuria, fever, tick infestation and general malaise. Microscopy revealed piroplasms with a wide range of sizes (1-5 ?m in length) in red blood cells, raising a suspicion of a co-infection with two or more Babesia species. Specific PCR assays for canine Babesia spp. and DNA sequencing revealed the presence of Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection. This study constitutes the first report of co-infection with B. canis and B. rossi in the West African sub-region and the first report of autochthonous B. canis on the African continent. Practitioners should be aware of potential changes in the species/sub-species of Babesia causing canine babesiosis in this region. PMID:20705395

Kamani, Joshua; Sannusi, Abdulrahim; Dogo, A Goni; Tanko, James T; Egwu, Kinsley O; Tafarki, Agbadu E; Ogo, Isaac N; Kemza, Sarah; Onovoh, Emmanuel; Shamaki, David; Lombin, Lami H; Catto, Victoria; Birkenheuer, Adam J

2010-10-29

156

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

157

Synergistic inhibition of the growth in vitro of Microsporum canis by miconazole and chlorhexidine.  

PubMed

An agar dilution technique was used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of miconazole, chlorhexidine and a 1:1 combination of both agents for 10 isolates of Microsporum canis. For nine of 10 of the isolates, a combination of miconazole and chlorhexidine was more effective than either agent alone; fractional inhibitory concentration indices indicated a synergistic effect for five isolates and an additive effect for four. These results illustrate the potent antimycotic effect of miconazole and chlorhexidine against M. canis and are in accordance with previous clinical studies that showed the value of using miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo in association with oral griseofulvin in the treatment of feline dermatophytosis caused by M. canis. PMID:12662267

Perrins, N; Bond, R

2003-04-01

158

Environmental detection of Microsporum canis arthrospores in the households of infected cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus the environment. The environments inhabited by 30 symptomatic animals (21 cats and 9 dogs) infected by M canis were examined by sampling both surfaces and indoor air. The surfaces were examined by means of contact plates; the air sampling was performed with a Sas super-100 AIR SAMPLER (PBI, Italy). Environmental contamination was detected in all households with cats, while only four out of nine houses harbouring dogs were found positive. The frequence of isolation in each sampling, and the results in terms of colony forming units per plate in the different houses appeared to be quite homogeneous. Heavily infected environments harboured kittens only. Infected owners were observed in eight households, in all of which at least one infected cat was present. No history of human dermatophytosis in households harbouring dogs was found. On the basis of our results, infected cats appear to cause substantial environmental contamination, and provoke a substantial presence of viable airborne fungal elements. Dogs seem to be of lower importance in the spread of M CANIS: they contaminated surfaces, but they never contaminated the air. The results of this study confirm the potential leading role of the feline species in the environmental spread of M canis. PMID:14623201

Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Corazza, M; D'Achille, P; Ponticelli, C

2003-12-01

159

[Unusual infection--Pasteurella canis bacteremia in a child after exposure to rabbit secretions].  

PubMed

Pasteurella spp. is a natural habitant of the oral flora and digestive tract of various domestic animals. There are several species of Pasteurella which can cause disease in humans. The most common species is Pmultocida, generally associated with an animal bite. The infection that evolves is usually constricted to the area of the bite. Systemic forms of infection are rare and were described in patients with underlying diseases. The authors would like to report on a case of a healthy 21-month-old child diagnosed with Pasteurella canis bacteremia after exposure to rabbit secretions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteremia which was caused by Pasteurella canis. PMID:21449149

Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Peretz, Avi; Zarfin, Yehoshua

2011-01-01

160

Antagonists of GPR35 Display High Species Ortholog Selectivity and Varying Modes of Action  

PubMed Central

Variation in pharmacology and function of ligands at species orthologs can be a confounding feature in understanding the biology and role of poorly characterized receptors. Substantial selectivity in potency of a number of GPR35 agonists has previously been demonstrated between human and rat orthologs of this G protein-coupled receptor. Via a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay of induced interactions between GPR35 and ?-arrestin-2, addition of the mouse ortholog to such studies indicated that, as for the rat ortholog, murine GPR35 displayed very low potency for pamoate, whereas potency for the reference GPR35 agonist zaprinast was intermediate between the rat and human orthologs. This pattern was replicated in receptor internalization and G protein activation assays. The effectiveness and mode of action of two recently reported GPR35 antagonists, methyl-5-[(tert-butylcarbamothioylhydrazinylidene)methyl]-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyrazole-4-carboxylate (CID-2745687) and 2-hydroxy-4-[4-(5Z)-5-[(E)-2-methyl-3-phenylprop-2-enylidene]-4-oxo-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]butanoylamino)benzoic acid (ML-145), were investigated. Both CID-2745687 and ML-145 competitively inhibited the effects at human GPR35 of cromolyn disodium and zaprinast, two agonists that share an overlapping binding site. By contrast, although ML-145 also competitively antagonized the effects of pamoate, CID-2745687 acted in a noncompetitive fashion. Neither ML-145 nor CID-2745687 was able to effectively antagonize the agonist effects of either zaprinast or cromolyn disodium at either rodent ortholog of GPR35. These studies demonstrate that marked species selectivity of ligands at GPR35 is not restricted to agonists and considerable care is required to select appropriate ligands to explore the function of GPR35 in nonhuman cells and tissues.

Jenkins, Laura; Harries, Nicholas; Lappin, Jennifer E.; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Neetoo-Isseljee, Zaynab; Southern, Craig; McIver, Edward G.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Taylor, Debra L.

2012-01-01

161

Conservation of peptide acceptor preferences between Drosophila and mammalian polypeptide-GalNAc transferase ortholog pairs  

PubMed Central

UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide ?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltrans- ferases (ppGalNAc Ts) comprise a large family of glycosyltransferases that initiate mucin-type protein O-glycosylation, transferring ?-GalNAc to Thr and Ser residues of polypeptide acceptors. Families of ppGalNAc Ts are found across diverse eukaryotes with orthologs identifiable from mammals to single-cell organisms. The peptide substrate specificity and specific protein targets of the individual ppGalNAc T family members remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported a series of oriented random peptide substrate libraries for quantitatively determining the peptide substrate specificities of the mammalian ppGalNAc T1 and T2 (Gerken TA, Raman J, Fritz TA, Jamison O. 2006. Identification of common and unique peptide substrate preferences for the UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide ?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases T1 & T2 (ppGalNAc T1 & T2) derived from oriented random peptide substrates. J Biol Chem. 281:32403–32416). With these substrates, previously unknown features of the transferases were revealed. Utilizing these and a new lengthened set of random peptides, studies have now been performed on PGANT5 and PGANT2, the Drosophila orthologs of T1 and T2. The results from these studies suggest that the major peptide substrate determinants for these transferases are contained within 2 to 3 residues flanking the site of glycosylation. It is further found that the mammalian and fly T1 orthologs display very similar peptide substrate preferences, while the T2 orthologs are nearly indistinguishable, suggesting similar peptide preferences amongst orthologous pairs have been maintained across evolution. This conclusion is further supported by sequence homology comparisons of each of the transferase orthologs, showing that the peptide substrate and UDP binding site residues are more highly conserved between species relative to their remaining catalytic and lectin domain residues.

Gerken, Thomas A; Ten Hagen, Kelly G; Jamison, Oliver

2008-01-01

162

A Functional MicroRNA155 Ortholog Encoded by the Oncogenic Marek's Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) MiR-K12-11 was recently shown to be a functional ortholog of miR-155, a miRNA that plays a major role in lymphoid malignancies and the modulation of immune responses. Here we show that miR-M4, encoded by the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus of chickens, shares common targets with miR-155 and thus is also a functional ortholog of

Yuguang Zhao; Yongxiu Yao; Hongtao Xu; Luke Lambeth; Lorraine P. Smith; Lydia Kgosana; Xiaowei Wang; Venugopal Nair

2009-01-01

163

The first detection of Babesia EU1 and Babesia canis canis in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) collected in urban and rural areas in northern Poland.  

PubMed

Ixodes ricinus, the most commonly observed tick species in Poland, is a known vector of such pathogenic microorganisms as TBE viruses, Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Babesia divergens and B. microti in our country. Our study aimed to find out whether this tick can also transmit other babesiae of medical and veterinary importance. DNA extracts of 1392 ticks (314 nymphs, 552 male and 526 female ticks) collected in urban and rural areas in the Pomerania province (northern Poland), were examined by nested PCR for the detection of Babesia spp., using outer primers: 5-22F and 1661R, and inner primers: 455-479F and 793-772R, targeting specific fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, at least 1.6% ticks were found to be infected with babesial parasites. In the case of nymphs, the minimal prevalence was 0.6%, and it was approx. 3-times lower than in adults (1.9%). Percentages of infected males and females were comparable (2.0% vs. 1.7%). Sequences of 15/22 PCR-derived fragments of 18S rRNA gene demonstrated 100% similarities with the sequence of Babesia EUI (proposed name B. venatorum) (acc. no. AY046575) (n = 13) and with B. canis canis (acc. no. AY321119) (n = 2), deposited in the GenBank database. The partial 18S rDNA sequences of Babesia EUI and B. c. canis obtained by us from I. ricinus have been deposited in GenBank, accession nos. GQ325619 and GQ325620, respectively. The results obtained suggest the possible role of I. ricinus as a source of microorganisms, which have been identified as agents of human and canine babesiosis, respectively, in Europe. To our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence of Babesia EUI and B. c. canis in I. ricinus in Poland. PMID:19899616

Cieniuch, Stella; Sta?czak, Joanna; Ruczaj, Anna

2009-01-01

164

Molecular cloning of the gene for a conserved major immunoreactive 28-kilodalton protein of Ehrlichia canis: a potential serodiagnostic antigen.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a 28-kDa protein of Ehrlichia canis was cloned, sequenced, and expressed, and a comparative molecular analysis with homologous genes of E. canis, Cowdria ruminantium, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was performed. The complete gene has an 834-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 278 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 30.5 kDa. An N-terminal signal sequence was identified, suggesting that the protein undergoes posttranslational modification to a mature 27.7-kDa protein (P28). The E. canis p28 gene has significant nucleic acid and amino acid sequence homologies with the E. chaffeensis outer membrane protein-1 (omp-1) gene family, with the Cowdria ruminantium map-1 gene, and with other E. canis 28-kDa-protein genes. Southern blotting revealed the presence of at least two additional homologous p28 gene copies in the E. canis genome, confirming that p28 is a member of a polymorphic multiple-gene family. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that E. canis P28 has four variable regions, and it shares similar surface-exposed regions, antigenicity, and T-cell motifs with E. chaffeensis P28. The p28 genes from seven different E. canis isolates were identical, indicating that the gene for this major immunoreactive protein is highly conserved. In addition, reactivity of sera from clinical cases of canine ehrlichiosis with the recombinant P28 demonstrated that the recombinant protein may be a reliable serodiagnostic antigen. PMID:10225842

McBride, J W; Yu, X j; Walker, D H

1999-05-01

165

Epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present article was an epidemio- logical and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of Ilhéus and Itabuna in Bahia, as well as an evaluation of associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 153 dogs and DNA was extracted and analyzed by the nested-polymerase chain reaction, us- ing one pair of primers to detect Ehrlichia

F. S. Carvalho; A. A. Wenceslau; R. S. A. Carlos; G. R. Albuquerque

2008-01-01

166

The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte.

Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mimica, Lycia Mara Jenne

2011-01-01

167

Congenital bone deformities and the inbred wolves ( Canis lupus) of Isle Royale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf (Canis lupus) population on Isle Royale, a remote island in Lake Superior, North America, is extremely inbred. Nevertheless, the consequences of genetic deterioration have not been detected for this intensively studied population, until now. We found that 58% (n=36) of Isle Royale wolves exhibited some kind of congenital malformation in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column and

Jannikke Räikkönen; John A. Vucetich; Rolf O. Peterson; Michael P. Nelson

2009-01-01

168

Congenital defects in a highly inbred wild wolf population ( Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wild populations negative effects from inbreeding are usually difficult to assess. The contemporary Scandinavian wolf population (Canis lupus) was established in 1983. With only three founders this population, with approximately 100 individuals, exhibits lower genetic variability than the neighbouring eastern population. Congenital malformations of the backbone were found in this highly inbred population. This study assesses the frequency and

Jannikke Räikkönen; A. Bignert; P. Mortensen; B. Fernholm

2006-01-01

169

Clinical, Hematologic, and Molecular Findings in Naturally Occurring Babesia canis vogeli in Egyptian Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background. Canine babesiosis is a clinically important hemoprotozoan parasite affecting dogs. The goal of this present study was to determine the clinical symptoms and to establish its hematological and microscopic detection and compare it with the PCR findings attained from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli. Methodology/Principal Findings. 13-PCR confirmed Babesia-infected dogs were examined; seminested PCR was used to discover the precise type of Babesia and Babesia canis vogeli was the only subspecies detected. The most consistent clinical signs were elevated rectal temperature and a pale mucous membrane. Thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis, along with a significant reduction in red cell parameters, were the most commonly recorded hematologic alterations. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of typical large merozoites and trophozoites of B. canis in the ratio 76.92%. Conclusions/Significance. The presumptive diagnosis of canine babesiosis should be based on a fever and anemia, while thrombocytopenia is considered the hallmark of the disease; microscopic examination may not be very revealing in the detection at low parasitemia, but it remains the most rapid confirmatory method. Seminested PCR turned out to be a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis; during the process of differentiation between Babesia subspecies, only B. canis subsp. vogeli was detected.

Salem, N. Y.; Farag, H. S.

2014-01-01

170

Helicobacter canis Bacteremia in a Patient with Fever of Unknown Origin  

PubMed Central

A 57-year-old woman with common variable immune deficiency and liver failure of unknown etiology presented with recurrent fevers over a 5-month period. She was found to have Helicobacter canis bacteremia. Immunocompromised hosts with exposure to cats or dogs may be at risk for infection with this organism, which may be challenging to diagnose.

Abidi, Maheen Z.; Wilhelm, Mark P.; Neff, Jadee L.; Hughes, John G.; Cunningham, Scott A.

2013-01-01

171

The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Greenland: A Historical Review and Present Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few decades, little information on the wolf (Canis lupus) in Greenland has been published. The decline of the species and its extirpation in the late 1930s from East Greenland is well documented. Since then, there has been a tendency for wolves sighted in the North and East Greenland National Park to be classified as temporary visitors wandering

PETER R. DAWES; MAGNUS ELANDER; MATS ERICSON

1986-01-01

172

Application of 10% imidacloprid\\/50% permethrin to prevent Ehrlichia canis exposure in dogs under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) caused by Ehrlichia canis is the most known canine tick-borne disease (TBD) spread throughout the world. Preventing tick bites is a priority to reduce the risk of TBDs and it was the aim of the present study to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer) (Advantix®; Bayer AG, Germany) in

Domenico Otranto; Paola Paradies; Gabriella Testini; Maria Stefania Latrofa; Stefania Weigl; Cinzia Cantacessi; Norbert Mencke; Donato de Caprariis; Antonio Parisi; Gioia Capelli; Dorothee Stanneck

2008-01-01

173

Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Are Sensitive to the Attentional State of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial (control condition), whereas in others, the human (a) left the room, (b) turned her back, (c) engaged in a distracting activity, or (d)

Josep Call; Juliane Bräuer; Juliane Kaminski; Michael Tomasello

2003-01-01

174

A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

Mech, L. David

2014-01-01

175

Rapid screening and cultivation of Ehrlichia canis from refrigerated carrier blood  

PubMed Central

Improved detection and isolation of rickettsial agents from naturally infected dogs would facilitate understanding the epidemiologic roles of these hosts. In this study, current methods were refined for rapid screening of carrier blood and ticks for Ehrlichia canis, and the feasibility of blood culture after PCR screening was addressed.

McClure, Jennifer C.; Crothers, Michelle L.; Schaefer, John J.; Stanley, Patrick D.; Stich, Roger W.

2008-01-01

176

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. PMID:24657583

Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

2014-06-01

177

Confirmation of occurrence of Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Babesia infections in domestic dogs in South Africa was studied using reverse line blot hybridization and 18S sequence analysis. Babesia canis vogeli was confirmed for the first time in domestic dogs in South Africa. Out of a total of 297 blood samples collected from domestic dogs in Bloemfontein, East London, Johannesburg, Durban and from the Onderstepoort Veterinary

P. T Matjila; B. L Penzhorn; C. P. J Bekker; A. M Nijhof; F Jongejan

2004-01-01

178

Characterization and comparison of merozoite antigens of different Babesia canis isolates by serological and immunological investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merozoites of fourBabesia canis isolates from Hungary, France, Africa, and Egypt were purified. Antigens were compared in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblotting. In the ELISA, antigen from the highly pathogenic isolate from Hungary showed the highest sensitivity for homologous and heterologous immune sera. This was confirmed by immunoblotting. Protein bands of the Hungarian isolate were strongly recognized

Susann Hauschild; P. Shayan; E. Schein

1995-01-01

179

Failure of imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril/emodepside plus clindamycin in treating Hepatozoon canis infection.  

PubMed

Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) is among the most widespread vector-borne infections of dogs, primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks. Based on the absence of a consensus on the treatment regimes for canine hepatozoonosis, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate (5-6 mg/kg subcutaneously once a week for 6 weeks), and of toltrazuril/emodepside (Procox(®), 15 mg/kg once a day for 6 days) in association with clindamycin (15 mg/kg once a day for 21 days) in treating naturally infected dogs. At the enrollment time (T0), 32 dogs, cytologically or molecularly positive for H. canis, were assigned to test and control groups. Animals were treated according to the specific therapeutic protocol, and the presence of H. canis gamonts was assessed weekly by cytology and PCR throughout six months (T1-T19). In addition, any abnormality in leucocyte morphology was evaluated and recorded. Results indicate that, in spite of a reduction in the percentage of infected dogs, both treatments did not provide parasitological cure. Accordingly, new treatment protocols or active compounds against H. canis should be investigated. PMID:24439769

De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Giannelli, Alessio; de Caprariis, Donato; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

2014-03-01

180

Plasma insulin concentrations in hypoglycaemic dogs with Babesia canis rossi infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoglycaemia has been identified as a life-threatening metabolic complication in almost 20% of severely ill dogs suffering from babesiosis due to Babesia canis rossi infection, and has been correlated with mortality. Hyperinsulinaemia as a result of inappropriate insulin secretion may precipitate hypoglycaemia, and has been suggested as a possible cause of hypoglycaemia in human and murine malaria. This prospective, cross-sectional,

P. Rees; J. P. Schoeman

2008-01-01

181

Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs. PMID:24808645

Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

2014-06-01

182

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T.

J. P. Dubey; R. Zarnke; N. J. Thomas; S. K. Wong; W. Van Bonnd; M. Briggs; J. W. Davis; R. Ewing; M. Menseh; O. C. H. Kwok; S. Romand; P. Thulliez

2003-01-01

183

Killing of a Muskox, Ovibos moschatus, by two Wolves, Canis lupus, and subsequent caching  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed.

David, Mech, L.; Adams, L. G.

1999-01-01

184

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

2001-01-01

185

Sustained release cyclosporine therapy for bilateral keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a red wolf (Canis rufus).  

PubMed

A 12-yr-old intact male red wolf (Canis rufus) diagnosed with bilateral idiopathic dry eye was treated with subconjunctival drug delivery implants designed to release therapeutic levels of cyclosporine from 12-24 mo. Normal tear production and corneal health has been maintained, alleviating the need for daily handling of the animal for topical medication. PMID:17315447

Acton, Anne E; Beale, A Brady; Gilger, Brian C; Stoskopf, Michael K

2006-12-01

186

First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country.

2014-01-01

187

Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs.

2014-01-01

188

OrthoDB: the hierarchical catalog of eukaryotic orthologs in 2011.  

PubMed

The concept of homology drives speculation on a gene's function in any given species when its biological roles in other species are characterized. With reference to a specific species radiation homologous relations define orthologs, i.e. descendants from a single gene of the ancestor. The large-scale delineation of gene genealogies is a challenging task, and the numerous approaches to the problem reflect the importance of the concept of orthology as a cornerstone for comparative studies. Here, we present the updated OrthoDB catalog of eukaryotic orthologs delineated at each radiation of the species phylogeny in an explicitly hierarchical manner of over 100 species of vertebrates, arthropods and fungi (including the metazoa level). New database features include functional annotations, and quantification of evolutionary divergence and relations among orthologous groups. The interface features extended phyletic profile querying and enhanced text-based searches. The ever-increasing sampling of sequenced eukaryotic genomes brings a clearer account of the majority of gene genealogies that will facilitate informed hypotheses of gene function in newly sequenced genomes. Furthermore, uniform analysis across lineages as different as vertebrates, arthropods and fungi with divergence levels varying from several to hundreds of millions of years will provide essential data for uncovering and quantifying long-term trends of gene evolution. OrthoDB is freely accessible from http://cegg.unige.ch/orthodb. PMID:20972218

Waterhouse, Robert M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Kriventseva, Evgenia V

2011-01-01

189

OrthoDB: the hierarchical catalog of eukaryotic orthologs in 2011  

PubMed Central

The concept of homology drives speculation on a gene’s function in any given species when its biological roles in other species are characterized. With reference to a specific species radiation homologous relations define orthologs, i.e. descendants from a single gene of the ancestor. The large-scale delineation of gene genealogies is a challenging task, and the numerous approaches to the problem reflect the importance of the concept of orthology as a cornerstone for comparative studies. Here, we present the updated OrthoDB catalog of eukaryotic orthologs delineated at each radiation of the species phylogeny in an explicitly hierarchical manner of over 100 species of vertebrates, arthropods and fungi (including the metazoa level). New database features include functional annotations, and quantification of evolutionary divergence and relations among orthologous groups. The interface features extended phyletic profile querying and enhanced text-based searches. The ever-increasing sampling of sequenced eukaryotic genomes brings a clearer account of the majority of gene genealogies that will facilitate informed hypotheses of gene function in newly sequenced genomes. Furthermore, uniform analysis across lineages as different as vertebrates, arthropods and fungi with divergence levels varying from several to hundreds of millions of years will provide essential data for uncovering and quantifying long-term trends of gene evolution. OrthoDB is freely accessible from http://cegg.unige.ch/orthodb.

Waterhouse, Robert M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

2011-01-01

190

A methodology for detecting the orthology signal in a PPI network at a functional complex level  

PubMed Central

Background Stable evolutionary signal has been observed in a yeast protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. These finding suggests more connected regions of a PPI network to be potential mediators of evolutionary information. Because more connected regions of PPI networks contain functional complexes, we are motivated to exploit the orthology relation for identifying complexes that can be clearly attributed to such evolutionary signal. Results We proposed a computational methodology for detecting the orthology signal present in a PPI network at a functional complex level. Specifically, we examined highly functionally coherent putative protein complexes as detected by a clustering technique in the complete yeast PPI network, in the yeast sub-network which spans only ortholog proteins as determined by a given second organism, and in yeast sub-networks induced by a set of proteins randomly selected. We proposed a filtering technique for extracting orthology-driven clusters with unique functionalities, that is, neither enriched by clusters identified using the complete yeast PPI network nor identified using random sampling. Moreover, we extracted functional categories that can be clearly attributed to the presence of evolutionary signal as described by these clusters. Conclusions Application of the proposed methodology to the yeast PPI network indicated that evolutionary information at a functional complex level can be retrieved from the structure of the network. In particular, we detected protein complexes whose functionality could be uniquely attributed to the evolutionary signal. Moreover, we identified functions that are over-represented in these complexes due the evolutionary signal.

2012-01-01

191

Genome-wide expression analysis of Saccharomyces pastorianus orthologous genes using oligonucleotide microarrays.  

PubMed

The lager brewing yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus, an allopolyploid species hybrid, contains 2 diverged sub-genomes; one derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc-type) and the other from Saccharomyces bayanus (Sb-type). We analyzed the functional roles of these orthologous genes in determining the phenotypic features of S. pastorianus. We used a custom-made oligonucleotide microarray containing probes designed for both Sc-type and Sb-type ORFs for a comprehensive expression analysis of S. pastorianus in a pilot-scale fermentation. We showed a high degree of correlation between the expression levels and the expression changes for a majority of orthologous gene sets during the fermentation process. We screened the functional categories and metabolic pathways where Sc- or Sb-type genes have higher expression levels than the corresponding orthologous genes. Our data showed that, for example, pathways for sulfur metabolism, cellular import, and production of branched amino acids are dominated by Sb-type genes. This comprehensive expression analysis of orthologous genes can provide valuable insights on understanding the phenotype of S. pastorianus. PMID:20547377

Horinouchi, Takaaki; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Kawaide, Risa; Furusawa, Chikara; Nakao, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2010-11-01

192

OrthoSelect: a web server for selecting orthologous gene alignments from EST sequences  

PubMed Central

In the absence of whole genome sequences for many organisms, the use of expressed sequence tags (EST) offers an affordable approach for researchers conducting phylogenetic analyses to gain insight about the evolutionary history of organisms. Reliable alignments for phylogenomic analyses are based on orthologous gene sequences from different taxa. So far, researchers have not sufficiently tackled the problem of the completely automated construction of such datasets. Existing software tools are either semi-automated, covering only part of the necessary data processing, or implemented as a pipeline, requiring the installation and configuration of a cascade of external tools, which may be time-consuming and hard to manage. To simplify data set construction for phylogenomic studies, we set up a web server that uses our recently developed OrthoSelect approach. To the best of our knowledge, our web server is the first web-based EST analysis pipeline that allows the detection of orthologous gene sequences in EST libraries and outputs orthologous gene alignments. Additionally, OrthoSelect provides the user with an extensive results section that lists and visualizes all important results, such as annotations, data matrices for each gene/taxon and orthologous gene alignments. The web server is available at http://orthoselect.gobics.de.

Schreiber, Fabian; Worheide, Gert; Morgenstern, Burkhard

2009-01-01

193

RIO: Analyzing proteomes by automated phylogenomics using resampled inference of orthologs  

PubMed Central

Background When analyzing protein sequences using sequence similarity searches, orthologous sequences (that diverged by speciation) are more reliable predictors of a new protein's function than paralogous sequences (that diverged by gene duplication). The utility of phylogenetic information in high-throughput genome annotation ("phylogenomics") is widely recognized, but existing approaches are either manual or not explicitly based on phylogenetic trees. Results Here we present RIO (Resampled Inference of Orthologs), a procedure for automated phylogenomics using explicit phylogenetic inference. RIO analyses are performed over bootstrap resampled phylogenetic trees to estimate the reliability of orthology assignments. We also introduce supplementary concepts that are helpful for functional inference. RIO has been implemented as Perl pipeline connecting several C and Java programs. It is available at http://www.genetics.wustl.edu/eddy/forester/. A web server is at http://www.rio.wustl.edu/. RIO was tested on the Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans proteomes. Conclusion The RIO procedure is particularly useful for the automated detection of first representatives of novel protein subfamilies. We also describe how some orthologies can be misleading for functional inference.

2002-01-01

194

A complex history of rearrangement in an orthologous region of the maize, sorghum, and rice genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of large insert clones containing genomic DNA that is orthologous to the maize adh1 region were obtained for sorghum, rice, and the adh1-homoeologous region of maize, a remnant of the tetraploid history of the Zea lineage. By using all four genomes, it was possible to describe the nature, timing, and lineages of most of the genic rearrangements that

Katica Ilic; Phillip J. Sanmiguel; Jeffrey L. Bennetzen

2003-01-01

195

Colinearity and Its Exceptions in Orthologous adh Regions of Maize and Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthologous adh regions of the sorghum and maize genomes were sequenced and analyzed. Nine known or candidate genes, including adh1, were found in a 225-kilobase (kb) maize sequence. In a 78-kb space of sorghum, the nine homologues of the maize genes were identified in a colinear order, plus five additional genes. The major fraction of DNA in maize, occupying 166

Alexander P. Tikhonov; Phillip J. Sanmiguel; Yuko Nakajima; Nina M. Gorenstein; Jeffrey L. Bennetzen; Zoya Avramova

1999-01-01

196

Evolutionary conservation and selection of human disease gene orthologs in the rat and mouse genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Model organisms have contributed substantially to our understanding of the etiology of human disease as well as having assisted with the development of new treatment modalities. The availability of the human, mouse and, most recently, the rat genome sequences now permit the comprehensive investigation of the rodent orthologs of genes associated with human disease. Here, we investigate whether human

Hui Huang; Eitan E Winter; Huajun Wang; Keith G Weinstock; Heming Xing; Leo Goodstadt; Peter D Stenson; David N Cooper; Douglas Smith; M Mar Albŕ; Chris P Ponting; Kim Fechtel

2004-01-01

197

A virulent genotype of Microsporum canis is responsible for the majority of human infections.  

PubMed

The zoophilic dermatophyte species Microsporum canis belongs to the Arthroderma otae complex and is known to mate with tester strains of that teleomorph species, at least in the laboratory. Human infections are likely to be acquired from the fur of cats, dogs and horses. Epidemiological studies to reveal sources and routes of infection have been hampered by a lack of polymorphic molecular markers. Human cases mainly concern moderately inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis, but, as cases of highly inflammatory ringworm are also observed, the question arises as to whether all lineages of M. canis are equally virulent to humans. In this study, two microsatellite markers were developed and used to analyse a global set of 101 M. canis strains to reveal patterns of genetic variation and dispersal. Using a Bayesian and a distance approach for structuring the M. canis samples, three populations could be distinguished, with evidence of recombination in one of them (III). This population contained 44 % of the animal isolates and only 9 % of the human strains. Population I, with strictly clonal reproduction (comprising a single multilocus genotype), contained 74 % of the global collection of strains from humans, but only 23 % of the animal strains. From these findings, it was concluded that population differentiation in M. canis is not allopatric, but rather is due to the emergence of a (virulent) genotype that has a high potential to infect the human host. Adaptation of genotypes resulting in a particular clinical manifestation was not evident. Furthermore, isolates from horses did not show a monophyletic clustering. PMID:17893177

Sharma, Rahul; de Hoog, S; Presber, Wolfgang; Gräser, Yvonne

2007-10-01

198

Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P?canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks. PMID:23812601

El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

2013-09-01

199

Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as S. canis infections were studied retrospectively. Schizonts resembling those of S. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-S. neurona antibodies, were found in six of eight retrospective cases, as well as in two additional dogs (one Basset Hound, one Springer Spaniel) not previously reported. S. neurona schizonts were found in several tissues including the central nervous system, lungs, and kidneys. Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in an adult dog, and neosporosis was diagnosed in an adult and a pup related to the one diagnosed with S. neurona. No serological reactivity to S. neurona antibodies occurred when S. canis-like liver schizonts were retrospectively assayed from two dogs, a dolphin, a sea lion, a horse, a chinchilla, a black or either of two polar bears. Sequencing conserved (18S) and variable (ITS-1) portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA isolated from the schizont-laden liver of a polar bear distinguished it from all previously characterized species of Sarcocystis. We take this genetic signature as provisionally representative of S. canis, an assumption that should be tested with future sequencing of similar liver infections in other mammalian hosts. These findings further extend the uncharacteristically broad intermediate host range for S. neurona, which also causes a neurologic disease in cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, zebras, lynxes, and sea otters. Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S. canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial and marine mammals. PMID:16458431

Dubey, J P; Chapman, Jennifer L; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mense, M; Schueler, Ronald L

2006-04-15

200

Evolutionary aspects of variability in bHLH orthologous families: insights from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.  

PubMed

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play significant roles in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. In recent work, we showed that three orthologous HLH families, pearl, amber, and peridot, have apparently been lost in the Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens lineages. To further address the gain and loss of bHLH proteins during bilaterian evolution, we examined the genome of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, which has recently been sequenced. We characterized the putative full set 65 bHLH genes and showed that genes previously categorized into the orthologous family PTFb, actually fall into two distinct orthologous families, 48-related-1 and 48-related-2. We also identified a novel orthologous family, clockwork orange. Based on these newly identified orthologous family members and on orphan bHLH factors, we propose that genes encoding bHLH factors in bilaterians are not as evolutionarily stable as previously thought. PMID:24125650

Gyoja, Fuki; Satoh, Nori

2013-10-01

201

Improvement of domain-level ortholog clustering by optimizing domain-specific sum-of-pairs score  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of ortholog groups is a crucial step in comparative analysis of multiple genomes. Although several computational methods have been developed to create ortholog groups, most of those methods do not evaluate orthology at the sub-gene level. In our method for domain-level ortholog clustering, DomClust, proteins are split into domains on the basis of alignment boundaries identified by all-against-all pairwise comparison, but it often fails to determine appropriate boundaries. Results We developed a method to improve domain-level ortholog classification using multiple alignment information. This method is based on a scoring scheme, the domain-specific sum-of-pairs (DSP) score, which evaluates ortholog clustering results at the domain level as the sum total of domain-level alignment scores. We developed a refinement pipeline to improve domain-level clustering, DomRefine, by optimizing the DSP score. We applied DomRefine to domain-level ortholog groups created by DomClust using a dataset obtained from the Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD), and evaluated the results using COG clusters and TIGRFAMs models as the reference data. Thus, we observed that the agreement between the resulting classification and the classifications in the reference databases is improved at almost every step in the refinement pipeline. Moreover, the refined classification showed better agreement than the classifications in the eggNOG databases when TIGRFAMs was used as the reference database. Conclusions DomRefine is a useful tool for improving the quality of domain-level ortholog classification among microbial genomes. Combining with a rapid domain-level ortholog clustering method, such as DomClust, it can be used to create a high-quality ortholog database that can serve as a solid basis for various comparative genome analyses.

2014-01-01

202

Detection of the DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in Warsaw.  

PubMed

Each month, from March 2003 to February 2004, 34 blood samples from dogs were randomly selected from the blood samples delivered to two veterinary laboratories in Warsaw and tested for the DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Borrelia DNA was detected in seven of the 408 dogs, A phagocytophilum DNA was found in two, and B canis DNA was found in 48 (11.8 per cent). The DNA of H canis was not found in any of the blood samples. Sequencing of the seven Borrelia amplicons showed that only the genospecies Borrelia afzelii was present, the first time it has been detected in dogs in Poland. PMID:19363228

Zygner, W; Górski, P; Wedrychowicz, H

2009-04-11

203

In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is an obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative tick-borne bacterium belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. E. canis is distributed worldwide and can cause serious and fatal infections in dogs. Among strains of E. canis, the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences are highly conserved. Using this gene to genetically differentiate isolates is therefore difficult. As an alternative, the gene gp36, which encodes for a major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, has been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of this pathogen. The present study describes the isolation and continuous propagation of a Spanish and 2 South African isolates of E. canis in IDE8 tick cells. Subsequently, canine DH82 cell cultures were infected using initial bodies obtained from infected IDE8 cultures. It was possible to mimic the life cycle of E. canis in vitro by transferring infection from tick cells to canine cells and back again. To characterize these E. canis strains at the molecular level, the 16S rRNA and gp36 genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and aligned with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. All 16S rRNA sequences amplified in this study were identical to previously reported E. canis strains. Maximum likelihood analysis based on the gp36 amino acid sequences showed that the South African and Spanish strains fall into 2 well-defined phylogenetic clusters amongst other E. canis strains. The members of these 2 phylogenetic clusters shared 2 unique molecular properties in the gp36 amino acid sequences: (i) deletion of glycine 117 and (ii) the presence of an additional putative N-linked glycosylation site. We further show correlation between the putative secondary structure and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of the gp36 amino acid sequences. A putative role of gp36 as an adhesin in E. canis is discussed. Overall, we report the successful in vitro culture of 3 new E. canis strains which present different molecular properties in their gp36 sequences. PMID:24713279

Zweygarth, Erich; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, Antoinette I; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matjila, Paul T; Lis, Katarzyna; Broniszewska, Marzena; Schöl, Heidrun; Ferrolho, Joana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia M F

2014-06-01

204

Seroepidemiology of Toxocara Canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. Methods A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7–12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. Results The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR?=?5.52, 95% CI?=?1.15–26.61, p?=?0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR?=?2.86, 95% CI?=?1.08–7.60, p?=?0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. Conclusions This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides regarding T. canis epidemiology can facilitate developing strategies for disease prevention and control.

2014-01-01

205

A molecular and serologic survey of Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii in dogs and ticks from Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization were used to survey for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii in blood samples of 65 dogs that harbored ticks from northcentral and northeastern Oklahoma. Dog blood samples were also examined for antibodies against E. canis and E. chaffeensis, using an immunofluorescent antibody test. Ten of 65 dogs (15.4%) examined were positive for Ehrlichia spp. by PCR. Four (6.2%) were positive for E. ewingii, 2 (3.1%) for E. canis, and 4 (6.2%) for E. chaffeensis. Seven dogs (10.8%) were seropositive for E. canis or E. chaffeensis. Ticks collected from PCR-positive dogs were examined by PCR for the presence of Ehrlichia DNA. Several groups of ticks were PCR-positive for E. ewingii or E. canis. E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which is considered the major vector for that organism. E. ewingii was detected in a larger variety of ticks, including the only known vector Amblyomma americanum, as well as in Dermacentor variabilis and R. sanguineus. Results suggest that Ehrlichia spp. which are canine and human pathogens circulate in dogs in Oklahoma and in several tick species that feed on dogs. PMID:9831955

Murphy, G L; Ewing, S A; Whitworth, L C; Fox, J C; Kocan, A A

1998-11-27

206

Electrolyte level and blood pH in dogs infected by various 18S RNA strains of Babaesia canis canis on the early stage of babesiosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the studies was to determine electrolyte disturbances and blood pH changes in dogs with babesiosis and possibly show a connection between the Babesia (B.) canis strain causing the infection and the intensity of these irregularities. 40 animals (group 1) with early babesiosis and 40 healthy dogs (group 2) were studied and their blood pH and blood levels of potassium, chlorides; calcium and sodium were determined. At the same time, molecular typing of parasites was carried out to detect which B.canis strain (18S RNA-A or 185 RNA-B) had caused the disease in dogs of group 1. In group 1, four dogs were acidaemic, twelve had normal blood pH, and 24 were alkalaemic. Potassium concentration was below normal in 16 out of 40 dogs (40%) and normal in 24 dogs. Hypochloremia was present in 36 out of 40 dogs; chloride was normal in the remaining four animals. Serum sodium concentration was low in 16 of 40 dogs, normal in 20 of 40 dogs and high in four dogs. Calcium concentration was normal in all 40 dogs. In dogs of group 2 no abnormalities of haematological or blood biochemical parameters were observed. 29 out of the 40 dogs of group 1 were infected with the 18S RNA-A strain and eleven with the 18S RNA-B strain of Babesia canis canis. We did not observe any correlation between the type of strain causing the infection and the electrolyte disturbances in the serum of sick dogs. Hypocalaemia was observed in ten specimen infected with 18S RNA-A and six infected with 18S RNA-B. Additionally, in dogs infected with 18S RNA-A, hypochloraemia (28), hyponatraemia (10), hypernatraemia (2) were observed, as well as blood pH drop (4) or increase (14). The 18S RNA-B-infected dogs suffered from hypochloraemia (8), hyponatraemia (6), hypernatraemia (2) and increase in blood pH (10).The studies conducted did not answer the question of whether the type of electrolyte disturbances in dogs with babesiosis can be connected with the strain of the parasite that induced the disease, as happens in the case of other clinical parameters (Adaszek et al., 2009). Further studies in this respect, conducted on a larger group of animals, are necessary. PMID:22372324

Adaszek, ?ukasz; Górna, Marta; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2012-01-01

207

Orthology-Based Multilevel Modeling of Differentially Expressed Mouse and Human Gene Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is great interest in finding human genes expressed through pharmaceutical intervention, thus opening a genomic window into benefit and side-effect profiles of a drug. Human insight gained from FDA-required animal experiments has historically been limited, but in the case of gene expression measurements, proposed biological orthologies between mouse and human genes provide a foothold for animal-to-human extrapolation. We have

Benjamin A. Ogorek; Leonard A. Stefanski

2009-01-01

208

The Importance of Being Cis: Evolution of Orthologous Fish and Mammalian Enhancer Activity  

PubMed Central

Conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in vertebrate genomes often act as developmental enhancers, but a critical issue is how well orthologous CNE sequences retain the same activity in their respective species, a characteristic important for generalization of model organism studies. To quantify how well CNE enhancer activity has been preserved, we compared the anatomy-specific activities of 41 zebra fish CNEs in zebra fish embryos with the activities of orthologous human CNEs in mouse embryos. We found that 13/41 (?30%) of the orthologous CNE pairs exhibit conserved positive activity in zebra fish and mouse. Conserved positive activity is only weakly associated with either sequence conservation or the absence of bases undergoing accelerated evolution. A stronger effect is that disparate activity is associated with transcription factor binding site divergence. To distinguish the contributions of cis- versus trans-regulatory changes, we analyzed 13 CNEs in a three-way experimental comparison: human CNE tested in zebra fish, human CNE tested in mouse, and orthologous zebra fish CNE tested in zebra fish. Both cis- and trans-changes affect a significant fraction of CNEs, although human and zebra fish sequences exhibit disparate activity in zebra fish (indicating cis regulatory changes) twice as often as human sequences show disparate activity when tested in mouse and zebra fish (indicating trans regulatory changes). In all four cases where the zebra fish and human CNE display a similar expression pattern in zebra fish, the human CNE also displays a similar expression pattern in mouse. This suggests that the endogenous enhancer activity of ?30% of human CNEs can be determined from experiments in zebra fish alone, and to identify these CNEs, both the zebra fish and the human sequences should be tested.

Ritter, Deborah I.; Kostka, Dennis; Pollard, Katherine S.; Guo, Su; Chuang, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

209

The Drosophila Polycomb group gene Sex combs extra encodes the ortholog of mammalian Ring1 proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In Drosophila, the Polycomb group (PcG) of genes is required for the maintenance of homeotic gene repression during development. Here, we have characterized the Drosophila ortholog of the products of the mammalian,Ring1=Ring1A and Rnf 2=Ring1B genes. We show,that Drosophila Ring corresponds to the Sex combs extra (Sce), a previously described PcG gene. We find that Ring=Sce is expressed and

Nicole Gorfinkiel; Laura Fanti; Teresa Melgar; Emiliano Garc?a; Sergio Pimpinelli; Isabel Guerrero; Miguel Vidal

2004-01-01

210

Conservation and immunogenicity of the mosquito ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of arthropod vectors of pathogens that affect human and animal health is important for the eradication of vector-borne\\u000a diseases. The ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin, was identified in Aedes albopictus and found to have conserved epitopes in ticks and mosquitoes. RNA interference with the tick and mosquito double-stranded\\u000a RNA in three tick species resulted in significant gene

Mario Canales; Victoria Naranjo; Consuelo Almazán; Ricardo Molina; Suzana A. Tsuruta; Matias P. J. Szabó; Raúl Manzano-Roman; José M. Pérez de la Lastra; Katherine M. Kocan; María Isabel Jiménez; Javier Lucientes; Margarita Villar; José de la Fuente

2009-01-01

211

Reduced Expression of the Caenorhabditis elegans p53 Ortholog cep-1 Results in Increased Longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperactivation of mammalian p53 has been shown to result in segmental progeria and decreased survivorship. Repression of the p53 homolog in Drosophila melanogaster has also been shown to increase survival. We show that RNA interference (RNAi) or genetic knockout of the Caenorhabditis elegans p53 ortholog, cep-1, leads to increased life span, which is dependent upon functional daf-16. Furthermore, one other

Oge Arum; Thomas E. Johnson

2007-01-01

212

Multiple roles for the E\\/Daughterless ortholog HLH-2 during C. elegans gonadogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLH-2 is the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the Drosophila Daughterless and mammalian E basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcriptional activators that function during diverse events during animal development. HLH-2 has been implicated in cell fate specification in different neural lineages and in the LIN-12\\/Notch-mediated anchor cell (AC)\\/ventral uterine precursor cell (VU) decision in the somatic gonad. Here, we show that hlh-2 plays

Xantha Karp; Iva Greenwald

2004-01-01

213

Functional Analysis of MRG-1: The Ortholog of Human MRG15 in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality Factor on Chromosome 4 (MORF4) induces senescence in several immortal human cell lines. MORF-related gene on chromosome 15 (MRG15), another expressed family member, is highly conserved and expressed in yeast to humans. To determine the biological functions of human MRG15 (hMRG15) we used RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to silence mrg-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, and its closest homolog Y37D8A.11. Expression

Abdullah Olgun; Tetyana Aleksenko; Olivia M. Pereira-Smith; Demetrios K. Vassilatis

2005-01-01

214

The Drosophila Polycomb group gene Sex combs extra encodes the ortholog of mammalian Ring1 proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, the Polycomb group (PcG) of genes is required for the maintenance of homeotic gene repression during development. Here, we have characterized the Drosophila ortholog of the products of the mammalian Ring1\\/Ring1A and Rnf2\\/Ring1B genes. We show that Drosophila Ring corresponds to the Sex combs extra (Sce), a previously described PcG gene. We find that Ring\\/Sce is expressed and

Nicole Gorfinkiel; Laura Fanti; Teresa Melgar; Emiliano Garc??a; Sergio Pimpinelli; Isabel Guerrero; Miguel Vidal

2004-01-01

215

Tequila, a Neurotrypsin Ortholog, Regulates Long-Term Memory Formation in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the human neurotrypsin gene are associated with autosomal recessive mental retardation. To further understand the pathophysiological consequences of the lack of this serine protease, we studied Tequila (Teq), the Drosophila neurotrypsin ortholog, using associative memory as a behavioral readout. We found that teq inactivation resulted in a long-term memory (LTM)-specific defect. After LTM conditioning of wild-type flies, teq

Gérard Didelot; Florence Molinari; Paul Tchénio; Daniel Comas; Elodie Milhiet; Arnold Munnich; Laurence Colleaux; Thomas Preat

2006-01-01

216

RR Lyrae Search and Stellar Populations Study in Canis Major: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of a RR Lyrae star search and stellar populations study performed in the Canis Major overdensity, spanning an area of 8.35 sq deg. The observations were made in R and V bands, with the QUEST camera installed in the 1-m Jürgen Stock Telescope at the Venezuela National Observatory. The resulting Hess diagram shows a possible, but weak, red giant branch and no obvious horizontal branch, red clump or main sequence turnoff. After a multi-epoch photometric search, 6 RR Lyrae stars were confirmed with further observations obtained at the 1.0-m and 1.3-m telescopes of the SMARTS consortium at CTIO. From these confirmed RR Lyrae stars, five of them have heliocentric distances between 5 and 7 kpc. Confirmation of their physical association with the Canis Major system awaits for a study of their radial velocities.

Mateu, C. E.; Vivas, A. K.; Zinn, R.; Miller, L.

2006-01-01

217

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia  

PubMed Central

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

Cirovic, Dusko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovic, Snezana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezic, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

218

Cortisol levels in cats' hair in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to perform a preliminary screening in the domestic cat to assess the concentration of cortisol in hairs by radioimmunoassay technique (RIA) in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infections. A total of 245 cats (7 with cutaneous lesions referable to dermatophytosis and 238 apparently healthy) coming from 14 shelters were examined. M. canis was isolated in 126 (51.4%) cats. The cortisol levels were significantly higher in cats with lesions or without lesions but with a high number of colonies in the plates (? 10 CFU) than in cats negative or with a lower number of colonies. The results obtained seem to highlight that chronic high levels of cortisol in cats could possibly promote the dermatophytes infections. Furthermore, in High-CFU asymptomatic cats, it could be present a state of infectious, and they, therefore, represents not a simple mechanical carrier. PMID:23962857

Galuppi, R; Leveque, J F C; Beghelli, V; Bonoli, C; Mattioli, M; Ostanello, F; Tampieri, M P; Accorsi, P A

2013-12-01

219

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

220

Null mutations in human and mouse orthologs frequently result in different phenotypes  

PubMed Central

One-to-one orthologous genes of relatively closely related species are widely assumed to have similar functions and cause similar phenotypes when deleted from the genome. Although this assumption is the foundation of comparative genomics and the basis for the use of model organisms to study human biology and disease, its validity is known only from anecdotes rather than from systematic examination. Comparing documented phenotypes of null mutations in humans and mice, we find that >20% of human essential genes have nonessential mouse orthologs. These changes of gene essentiality appear to be associated with adaptive evolution at the protein-sequence, but not gene-expression, level. Proteins localized to the vacuole, a cellular compartment for waste management, are highly enriched among essentiality-changing genes. It is probable that the evolution of the prolonged life history in humans required enhanced waste management for proper cellular function until the time of reproduction, which rendered these vacuole proteins essential and generated selective pressures for their improvement. If our gene sample represents the entire genome, our results would mean frequent changes of phenotypic effects of one-to-one orthologous genes even between relatively closely related species, a possibility that should be considered in comparative genomic studies and in making cross-species inferences of gene function and phenotypic effect.

Liao, Ben-Yang; Zhang, Jianzhi

2008-01-01

221

Identification and functional analysis of three MAX2 orthologs in chrysanthemum.  

PubMed

MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (MAX2), initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, is a key regulatory gene in strigolactone signal transduction. Three orthologs of MAX2 were cloned from Dendranthema grandiflorum (DgMAX2a, b, and c). Each of the genes has an open reading frame of 2,049 bp and encodes 682 amino acid proteins. The predicted amino acid sequences of the three DgMAX2s are most closely related to the MAX2 orthologs identified in petunia (PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B), and display the highest amino acid sequence similarity with PhMAX2A compared to other MAX2s. Expression analysis revealed that DgMAX2s are predominantly expressed in the stem and axillary buds. On a cellular level, we localized the DgMAX2a::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells, which is consistent with the nuclear localization of MAX2 in Arabidopsis. The chrysanthemum DgMAX2a is able to restore the max2-1 mutant branching to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, suggesting that it is a functional MAX2 ortholog. These results suggest that DgMAX2s may be candidate genes for reducing the shoot branching of chrysanthemum. PMID:23302095

Dong, Lili; Ishak, Abdurazak; Yu, Jing; Zhao, Ruiyan; Zhao, Liangjun

2013-05-01

222

wALADin benzimidazoles differentially modulate the function of porphobilinogen synthase orthologs.  

PubMed

The heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a potential drug target in several human pathogens. wALADin1 benzimidazoles have emerged as species-selective PBGS inhibitors against Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial worms. In the present study, we have systematically tested wALADins against PBGS orthologs from bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and plants to elucidate the inhibitory spectrum. However, the effect of wALADin1 on different PBGS orthologs was not limited to inhibition: several orthologs were stimulated by wALADin1; others remained unaffected. We demonstrate that wALADins allosterically modulate the PBGS homooligomeric equilibrium with inhibition mediated by favoring low-activity oligomers, while 5-aminolevulinic acid, Mg(2+), or K(+) stabilized high-activity oligomers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS could be inhibited or stimulated by wALADin1 depending on these factors and pH. We have defined the wALADin chemotypes responsible for either inhibition or stimulation, facilitating the design of tailored PBGS modulators for potential application as antimicrobial agents, herbicides, or drugs for porphyric disorders. PMID:24568185

Lentz, Christian S; Halls, Victoria S; Hannam, Jeffrey S; Strassel, Silke; Lawrence, Sarah H; Jaffe, Eileen K; Famulok, Michael; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

2014-03-27

223

Investigation of renal protein loss in dogs with acute experimentally induced Ehrlichia canis infection.  

PubMed

Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios and serum albumin concentrations were measured in 8 adult male dogs experimentally inoculated with Ehrlichia canis. Urinary protein concentration increased significantly, but transiently, during the acute phase of infection. Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios were highest (mean, 8.6) during the third and fourth weeks after infection, and decreased to less than 0.5 by 6 weeks after infection. Correspondingly, albumin concentration decreased significantly during the acute phase. Serum albumin concentrations were lowest (mean, 2.1 g/dl) the fourth week after infection and increased to greater than 3.0 g/dl by 11 weeks after infection. There was an inverse linear correlation between urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio and serum albumin concentration. The magnitude of proteinuria and its inverse relationship with serum albumin concentration suggested that hypoalbuminemia associated with acute E canis infection may be attributable primarily to increased renal loss of protein, rather than decreased hepatic synthesis as previously suggested. Another dog was subsequently inoculated with E canis from 1 of the experimentally infected dogs and a renal biopsy was performed during peak proteinuria (urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio = 22 and serum albumin = 1.1 g/dl). Immunofluorescent staining revealed mild to moderate deposits of anti-canine IgM, and to a lesser extent, anti-canine IgG and complement factor C3 in the glomerular tufts and mesangium. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed distortion and fusion of podocyte foot processes and increased microvilli on podocytes. These morphologic changes were consistent with transient glomerular leakage of protein of a magnitude that would significantly contribute to hypoalbuminemia during acute E canis infection. An underlying immunologic mechanism was suggested by positive glomerular immunofluorescence and previously described histologic findings. PMID:1595954

Codner, E C; Maslin, W R

1992-03-01

224

Verbal Attention Getting as a Key Factor in Social Learning Between Dog (Canis familiaris) and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pet dogs (Canis familiaris) learn to detour a V-shaped fence effectively from an unfamiliar human demonstrator. In this article, 4 main features of the demonstrator’s behavior are highlighted: (a) the manipulation of the target, (b) the familiarity of the demonstrator, (c) the role of verbal attention-getting behavior, and (d) whether a strange trained dog could also be an effective demonstrator.

Péter Pongrácz; Ádám Miklósi; Katalin Timár-Geng; Vilmos Csányi

2004-01-01

225

Evaluation of an attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.  

PubMed

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is an important tick-borne disease worldwide. No commercial vaccine for the disease is currently available and tick control is the main preventive measure against the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a multi-passaged attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis to serve as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and to assess the use of azithromycin in the treatment of acute ehrlichiosis. Twelve beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups of 4 dogs. Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (vaccinated) with an attenuated strain of E. canis (#611A) twice or once, respectively. The third group consisted of naďve dogs which served as controls. All 3 groups were challenged with a wild virulent strain of E. canis by administering infected dog-blood intravenously. Transient thrombocytopenia was the only hematological abnormality observed following inoculation of dogs with the attenuated strain. Challenge with the virulent strain resulted in severe disease in all 4 control dogs while only 3 of 8 vaccinated dogs presented mild transient fever. Furthermore, the mean blood rickettsial load was significantly higher in the control group (27-92-folds higher during days 14-19 post challenge with the wild the strain) as compared to the vaccinated dogs. The use of azithromycin was assessed as a therapeutic agent for the acute disease. Four days treatment resulted in further deterioration of the clinical condition of the dogs. Molecular comparison of 4 genes known to express immunoreactive proteins and virulence factors (p30, gp19, VirB4 and VirB9) between the attenuated strain and the challenge wild strain revealed no genetic differences between the strains. The results of this study indicate that the attenuated E. canis strain may serve as an effective and secure future vaccine for canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23072894

Rudoler, Nir; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; van Straten, Michael; Harrus, Shimon

2012-12-17

226

Interactions between cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large carnivore populations are recovering in many protected areas in North America, but the effect of increasing carnivore numbers on existing predator-prey and predator-predator interactions is poorly understood. We studied diet and spatial overlap among cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta (1993-2004) to evaluate how wolf recovery in the park influenced diet choice

Andrea D. KORTELLO; Thomas E. HURD; Dennis L. MURRAY

2007-01-01

227

Helicobacter canis isolated from a dog liver with multifocal necrotizing hepatitis.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analysis, a novel gram-negative bacterium, isolated from normal and diarrheic dogs as well as humans with gastroenteritis, has been recently named Helicobacter canis. A 2-month-old female crossbred puppy was submitted to necropsy with a history of weakness and vomiting for several hours prior to death. The liver had multiple and slightly irregular yellowish foci up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, the liver parenchyma contained randomly distributed, occasionally coalescing hepatocellular necrosis, often accompanied by large numbers of mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Sections of liver stained by the Warthin-Starry silver impregnation technique revealed spiral- to curve-shaped bacteria predominantly located in bile canaliculi and occasionally in bile ducts. Aerobic culture of liver was negative, whereas small colonies were noted on Campylobacter selective media after 5 days of microaerobic incubation. The bacteria were gram negative and oxidase positive but catalase, urease, and indoxyl acetate negative; nitrate was not reduced to nitrite, and the organism did not hydrolyze hippurate. The bacteria were also resistant to 1.5% bile. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria with bipolar sheathed flagella. By 16S rRNA analysis, the organism was determined to be H. canis. This is the first observation of H. canis in active hepatitis in a dog and correlates with recent findings of Helicobacter hepaticus- and Helicobacter bilis-related hepatic disease in mice. Further studies are clearly warranted to ascertain whether H. canis-associated hepatitis is more widespread in canines as well as a cause of previously classified idiopathic liver disease in humans.

Fox, J G; Drolet, R; Higgins, R; Messier, S; Yan, L; Coleman, B E; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E

1996-01-01

228

Characteristic genotypes discriminate between Babesia canis isolates of differing vector specificity and pathogenicity to dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA\\u000a gene were characterized in eight Babesia canis isolates of differing geographic origin, vector specificity, and pathogenicity to dogs. The genotypes determined by sequencing\\u000a segregated into three clearly separated groups close to or near the species level and correspond to the

Monika Zahler; Eberhard Schein; Heinz Rinder; Rainer Gothe

1998-01-01

229

Ultraviolet photometry with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite /ANS/ Observations of Beta Canis Majoris variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with detailed ANS observations of three Beta Canis Majoris variables: Xi-1 CMa, HD 61068 (whose discovery is reported here) and 15 CMa. Light curves at five ultraviolet wavelengths are presented, and the periods and amplitudes are discussed. The ultraviolet colors are used to derive temperatures and temperature variations, which are compared with the MK spectral types. The anomalously high luminosity found for Xi-1 CMa on the basis of certain line strengths is also discussed.

Lesh, J. R.; Wesselius, P. R.

1979-01-01

230

Antigenic characterization of ehrlichiae: protein immunoblotting of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia sennetsu, and Ehrlichia risticii.  

PubMed Central

In recent years a febrile illness apparently associated with tick bite in patients in the United States has been attributed to infection by an Ehrlichia species. This implication is based on serologic responses to E. canis, morphologic demonstration of ehrlichiae in clinical materials, and a single isolate distinct from E. canis which was obtained from a human patient by the Centers for Disease Control. Little is known about the antigens of the ehrlichiae. This report expands the breadth of available knowledge concerning the antigenic components and serologic responses to component antigens of E. canis, E. sennetsu, and E. risticii. Protein immunoblotting after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by using density gradient-purified ehrlichiae and homologous antisera demonstrated reproducible and characteristic antigens within each species (for E. sennetsu, 91, 64, 54, 44, 36, 34, 28, 25, and 24 kDa; for E. risticii, 70, 52, 48, 44, 35, 28, 24, 23, and 20 kDa; for E. canis, 110, 64, 52, 42, 33, 28, 24, 23, and 20 kDa). When antisera were reacted with heterologous antigens, cross-reactivity among these species was virtually restricted to the 70-kDa antigen. Furthermore, when serum samples obtained from 10 patients who were convalescing from ehrlichiosis were tested against each antigen, only three serum samples had any reactivities, and these serum samples reacted with only a few of the antigenic bands. These results documented the molecular sizes of electrophoretically separated antigens of the three Ehrlichia species, confirm their serologic relationships, and support the novel nature of the agent(s) of human ehrlichiosis in the United States. Images

Brouqui, P; Dumler, J S; Raoult, D; Walker, D H

1992-01-01

231

Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006–2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma\\/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled

Renata Welc-Fal?ciak; Anna Rodo; Edward Si?ski; Anna Bajer

2009-01-01

232

Haematological parameters in stray dogs seropositive and seronegative to Ehrlichia canis in North Trinidad.  

PubMed

In view of the fact that stray dogs are a reservoir for many diseases, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in stray dogs in North Trinidad and to evaluate the diagnostic implications of haematological alterations associated with seropositivity. Overall, 41 (44.6%) of 92 stray dogs were seropositive to E. canis by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Dogs, one year of age and older (59.7%) were more likely to be seropositive than dogs less than one year old (13.3%) (p<0.001). No significant differences in seropositivity between females and males were found. The odds ratios showed that seropositive dogs were 3.34 (CI 95%; 1.33-8.59) and 5.17 (CI 95%; 0.19-1.26) times more likely to have low platelet counts and elevated total serum protein concentrations (p=0.014 and p<0.001, respectively) than seronegative dogs. Lower mean platelet counts and a higher mean total protein concentration were associated with seropositivity (p<0.01). Mean eosinophil and segmented neutrophil counts were elevated in dogs that tested negative for E. canis antibodies (p=0.002 and p<0.005, respectively). Other haematological parameters were not different between the 2 groups. The high percentage of stray dogs infected with E. canis should alert veterinarians to the potential risk of transmission of the disease. A comprehensive study possibly using molecular methods such as nested PCR should be undertaken to determine how co-infection with other pathogens may alter haematological profiles. In general, control of ticks and stray dog populations may help to control the spread of tick-borne diseases. PMID:22658916

Asgarali, Zinora; Pargass, Indira; Adam, Judy; Mutani, Alexander; Ezeokoli, Chukwudozie

2012-09-01

233

Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

David, Mech, L.

2008-01-01

234

Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy. PMID:23182545

Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

2012-12-01

235

Seroprevalence of Babesia canis infection in clinically healthy dogs from western Romania.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 197 clinically healthy dogs residing in the Banat Region, the western historical part of Romania, were assayed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the presence of anti-Babesia canis antibodies. Overall, the seroprevalence was 19.8% (39/197). The percent of seropositive dogs in rural areas (28.4%; 19/67) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to dogs living in urban areas (15.4%; 20/130). Seroprevalence of B. canis infection in hunting dogs was also found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to canines with other lifestyles, but no significant difference was found between companion and kennel dogs. The statistical analysis showed that no significant differences (P > 0.05) were present between the seroprevalence of infected animals associated with age, gender, or breed. The hunting lifestyle was the only factor (OR = 4.57; 95% CI = 2.1-10.2; P = 0.002) positively associated with seroprevalence in dogs and can be considered the risk factor in the acquisition of infection. Also, the results of the present survey indicate that infection with B. canis in dogs is common in the sampling area and that it is an important pathogen for the local canine population. PMID:22681255

Imre, Mirela; Farkas, Róbert; Ilie, Marius; Imre, Kálmán; Hotea, Ionela; Morariu, Sorin; Morar, Doru; D?r?bu?, Gheorghe

2013-02-01

236

Imaging of Toxocara canis larvae labelled by CFSE in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Mice are used most often as a model for human toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis larvae. Variety of symptoms developing during the infection reflects behaviour of the larvae, which are able to escape from the intestine and further invade and damage various host organs. In order to find an approach enabling observation on parasite behaviour in mouse in vivo, we used an epifluorescence method and a small animal imaging system (SAIS). Larvae of T. canis were labelled by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) which incorporated on the parasite gastrointestinal tract. Following infection of BALB/c mice by CFSE-labelled larvae it has been observed that staining had no influence on viability and further migratory activity of the parasites through the host organs (the intestine, liver, lungs and brain) where they were detected by SAIS until day 17 p.i. In addition, the dye did not affect larval antigenic activity as well as the development of related immune response. Imaging of parasites labelled by CFSE, therefore, may represent a promising way to study behaviour of T. canis larvae in a paratenic host. PMID:21103889

Kolbeková, Petra; Kolá?ová, Libuše; V?tvi?ka, David; Syr??ek, Martin

2011-04-01

237

Incidence of patent Toxocara canis infection in bitches during the oestrous cycle.  

PubMed

The incidence of patent Toxocara canis infection as result of reactivation of somatic larvae with subsequent tracheal migration was investigated by faecal examination during 23 oestrous cycles of 15 bitches. Blood samples were collected for determination of total and differential leukocyte counts, prolactin concentration, and Toxocara titre. Five pregnant dogs were used as controls. In the cyclic dogs there were no alterations in white blood cell counts or prolactin concentration, in contrast with the pregnant dogs, in which both variables increased, starting 10 days after onset of the luteal phase. The difference was significant at day 40 and day 60 (both p < 0.005). No significant differences were observed in the number of eosinophils or in the Toxocara antibody titre. T. canis eggs were only found in the faeces of three 1-year-old, cyclic dogs at 1, 60, and 140 days, respectively, after the onset of the luteal phase. It is concluded that cyclic beagle bitches, in which prolactin levels increase in the second half of the luteal phase, are unlikely to be at higher risk for patent T. canis infection than in other phases. PMID:9684299

Overgaauw, P A; Okkens, A C; Bevers, M M; Kortbeek, L M

1998-07-01

238

Within-host evolution of Brucella canis during a canine brucellosis outbreak in a kennel  

PubMed Central

Background Little is currently known about Brucella evolution within the host during infection. The current study is the first to employ fine-scale genotyping on an isolate collection derived from a Brucella canis outbreak. Eight isolates of B. canis, cultured from different tissues of three dogs (female, stud dog, puppy of another female) from a single kennel over three months were genetically characterized with a 15-marker multi-locus, variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates and potential rapid mutational changes. Results MLVA discriminated among the otherwise indistinguishable isolates from different animals and from isolates collected at different time points within each host, with different VNTR alleles being detected at multiple dates and tissue sites. We suspect that all isolates cultured from the female, puppy, and stud dogs originated from the same strain, with subsequent rapid in vivo mutations. However, high mutation rates and apparent in several of the loci prevented making definitive epidemiological relationships among isolates. Conclusions This investigation highlights the rapid in vivo genetic mutations of several VNTRs of B. canis over a short time period in the host and the emergence of alternate alleles. However, this work also suggests the challenges of using highly mutable VNTRs to infer epidemiological relationships of strains within a short duration outbreak.

2013-01-01

239

Strong monovalent electrolyte imbalances in serum of dogs infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is a systemic tick-borne protozoan disease caused by infection with parasites of the genus Babesia. Acid-base disorders and ion imbalances have been described in dogs infected with Babesia rossi in South Africa. In this paper, the authors describe changes to monovalent ion concentrations and calculated parameters of monovalent ions in 70 dogs naturally infected with B. canis, a species occurring in Europe. Hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia, hyperchloraemia, decrease of chloride gap, strong ion gap, difference between sodium and chloride concentrations, and an increase of chloride-to-sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratios were the most prevalent changes. Hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia and hyperchloraemia were detected less frequently than in dogs infected with B. rossi, but the severity of these changes were similar. Comparison of monovalent ion concentrations in azotaemic and non-azotaemic, and anaemic and non-anaemic dogs infected with B. canis showed that azotaemic dogs had significantly lower sodium concentrations. The results of this study indicate a possible development of hyperchloraemic acidosis and the probable contribution of aldosterone in the development of hypokalaemia. However, further study on blood gas, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone in dogs infected with B. canis is needed. PMID:22463923

Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; W?drychowicz, Halina

2012-04-01

240

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L. D.; Nowak, R. M.; Weisberg, S.

2011-01-01

241

Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

2011-01-01

242

Genomics in cereals: from genome-wide conserved orthologous set (COS) sequences to candidate genes for trait dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent updates in comparative genomics among cereals have provided the opportunity to identify conserved orthologous set (COS)\\u000a DNA sequences for cross-genome map-based cloning of candidate genes underpinning quantitative traits. New tools are described\\u000a that are applicable to any cereal genome of interest, namely, alignment criterion for orthologous couples identification,\\u000a as well as the Intron Spanning Marker software to automatically select

Umar Masood Quraishi; Michael Abrouk; Stéphanie Bolot; Caroline Pont; Mickael Throude; Nicolas Guilhot; Carole Confolent; Fernanda Bortolini; Sébastien Praud; Alain Murigneux; Gilles Charmet; Jerome Salse

2009-01-01

243

PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/.

Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

244

argC Orthologs from Rhizobiales Show Diverse Profiles of Transcriptional Efficiency and Functionality in Sinorhizobium meliloti? †  

PubMed Central

Several factors can influence ortholog replacement between closely related species. We evaluated the transcriptional expression and metabolic performance of ortholog substitution complementing a Sinorhizobium meliloti argC mutant with argC from Rhizobiales (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium etli, and Mesorhizobium loti). The argC gene is necessary for the synthesis of arginine, an amino acid that is central to protein and cellular metabolism. Strains were obtained carrying plasmids with argC orthologs expressed under the speB and argC (S. meliloti) and lac (Escherichia coli) promoters. Complementation analysis was assessed by growth, transcriptional activity, enzymatic activity, mRNA levels, specific detection of ArgC proteomic protein, and translational efficiency. The argC orthologs performed differently in each complementation, reflecting the diverse factors influencing gene expression and the ability of the ortholog product to function in a foreign metabolic background. Optimal complementation was directly related to sequence similarity with S. meliloti, and was inversely related to species signature, with M. loti argC showing the poorest performance, followed by R. etli and A. tumefaciens. Different copy numbers of genes and amounts of mRNA and protein were produced, even with genes transcribed from the same promoter, indicating that coding sequences play a role in the transcription and translation processes. These results provide relevant information for further genomic analyses and suggest that orthologous gene substitutions between closely related species are not completely functionally equivalent.

Diaz, Rafael; Vargas-Lagunas, Carmen; Villalobos, Miguel Angel; Peralta, Humberto; Mora, Yolanda; Encarnacion, Sergio; Girard, Lourdes; Mora, Jaime

2011-01-01

245

PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics.  

PubMed

Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/. PMID:24250218

Kocot, Kevin M; Citarella, Mathew R; Moroz, Leonid L; Halanych, Kenneth M

2013-01-01

246

Efficacy of selamectin against experimentally induced and naturally acquired ascarid (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) infections in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of selamectin against adult ascarids was evaluated in eight controlled and masked studies in dogs. Three laboratory studies evaluated selamectin against experimentally induced infections of Toxocara canis; three laboratory studies evaluated selamectin against naturally acquired infections of T. canis; one laboratory study evaluated selamectin against naturally acquired infections of both T. canis and Toxascaris leonina; one field study evaluated selamectin against naturally acquired infections of ascarids (T. canis and/or T. leonina) in dogs presented as veterinary patients. Selamectin was administered topically to the skin of dogs in unit doses designed to deliver a minimum of 6mgkg(-1) (range, 6-12mgkg(-1)). In all studies, dogs were allocated randomly to treatment assignments (selamectin or vehicle control in laboratory studies: selamectin or reference product in the field study) on the basis of pretreatment fecal egg counts. For induced infections, there were significant reductions in geometric mean numbers of adult T. canis after a single application of selamectin (93.9-98.1%, P=0.0001), after two monthly applications (> or =88.3%, P< or =0.0001), and after three monthly applications (100%, P< or =0.0002). In the natural infection laboratory studies, when selamectin was administered twice at an interval of 30 days, the percentage reductions in geometric mean numbers of adult T. canis at necropsy were 84.6, 91.3, and 97.9%, and when selamectin was administered on days 0, 14, and 30, the percentage reductions were 91.1 and 97.6%. Geometric mean fecal T. canis egg counts were reduced by > or =92.9% (P< or =0.0067) at the end of the studies. In the field study, geometric mean fecal ascarid egg counts were reduced by 89.5 and 95. 5% (P=0.0001) for 14 and 30 days, respectively, after a single treatment with selamectin, and by 94.0% (P=0.0001) 30 days after the second treatment with selamectin. These reductions compared favorably with the egg count reductions from dogs treated with a reference product containing praziquantel, pyrantel embonate, and febantel. There were no adverse drug experiences or treatment-related mortalities during any of the studies. Selamectin, when administered topically in a unit dose providing a minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1), was safe and effective against adult T. canis and T. leonina and in reducing the fecal excretion of T. canis eggs in dogs. PMID:10940533

McTier, T L; Siedek, E M; Clemence, R G; Wren, J A; Bowman, D D; Hellmann, K; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Young, D R; Cruthers, L R; Smith, D G; Shanks, D J; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

2000-08-23

247

Risk of infection by the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with low doses of Toxocara canis eggs.  

PubMed

Experimental studies and registries of cases of human toxocariasis have shown that the consumption of raw or undercooked offal of the paratenic host of Toxocara canis may pose a risk of infection. Thus, we evaluated the risk of infection due to the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with different doses of embryonated T. canis eggs. Doses were 5-100 times smaller than the ones previously employed in this type of study. Groups of five chickens were inoculated with 5000 (control), 1000, 500, 300 or 50 eggs of T. canis, and at 72h post-inoculation, the liver of each bird was consumed by a BALB/c receptor mouse. Forty-eight hours after consumption, we examined the organs and carcasses of the mice for larvae of T. canis. All mice were positive for larvae, except the group that consumed the chicken liver inoculated with 50 eggs. This group contained only one positive mouse, in which the larva was lodged in the brain. In mice that consumed livers of chickens inoculated with ?300 eggs, larvae concentration was primarily in the liver and lungs, characterizing the initial phase of infection. We conclude that the consumption of raw poultry liver, under the studied conditions, poses a risk of infection even with a low number of infected T. canis eggs. PMID:24746238

Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Dutra, Paula Cardoso; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Rodrigues, Lourdes Helena; Silva, Ana Maria Wolkmer Azambuja; Scaini, Carlos James

2014-06-16

248

The spreading process of Ehrlichia canis in macrophages is dependent on actin cytoskeleton, calcium and iron influx and lysosomal evasion.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia canis is an obligate intracellular microorganism and the etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The invasion process has already been described for some bacteria in this genus, such as E. muris and E. chaffeensis, and consists of four stages: adhesion, internalisation, intracellular proliferation and intercellular spreading. However, little is known about the spreading process of E. canis. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium, iron and lysosomes from the host cell in the spreading of E. canis in dog macrophages in vitro. Different inhibitory drugs were used: cytochalasin D (actin polymerisation inhibitor), verapamil (calcium channel blocker) and deferoxamine (iron chelator). Our results showed a decrease in the number of bacteria in infected cells treated with all drugs when compared to controls. Lysosomes in infected cells were cytochemically labelled with acid phosphatase to allow the visualisation of phagosome-lysosome fusion and were further analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Phagosome-lysosome fusion was rarely observed in vacuoles containing viable E. canis. These data suggest that the spreading process of E. canis in vitro is dependent on cellular components analysed and lysosomal evasion. PMID:24378068

Alves, R N; Levenhagen, M A; Levenhagen, M M M D; Rieck, S E; Labruna, M B; Beletti, M E

2014-01-31

249

The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

250

Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis) in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5-21.7) were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% - 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0-26.4) compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9-18.5) but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis) other than B. canis is also recommended. PMID:24830899

Chinyoka, Simbarashe; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Marabini, Lisa; Dutlow, Keith; Matope, Gift; Pfukenyi, Davies M

2014-01-01

251

Isolation, in vitro propagation, genetic analysis, and immunogenic characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from a blood sample obtained from a dog in southeastern Brazil was used to confirm a naturally acquired Ehrlichia (E.) canis infection. Following isolation and culturing of the new bacterial strain called Uberlandia, partial sequences of the dsb and p28 genes were obtained. The dsb partial sequence of the novel strain was 100% similar to dsb gene sequences of E. canis obtained from different geographic areas around the world. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for the E. canis Uberlândia strain differed at several nucleotides from other sequences available in GenBank. To confirm the antigenic profile of the Uberlândia strain, an indirect immunofluorescence assay against E. canis antigens was performed using dog sera collected from two different areas in Brazil (Uberlândia and Săo Paulo). The results suggest that both antigens were able to identify animals seropositive for E. canis in Brazil since these Brazilian strains appear to be highly conserved. PMID:24136211

Alves, Rosiane Nascimento; Rieck, Susana Elisa; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beletti, Marcelo EmÍlio

2014-06-01

252

Increasing the precision of orthology-based complex prediction through network alignment  

PubMed Central

Macromolecular assemblies play an important role in almost all cellular processes. However, despite several large-scale studies, our current knowledge about protein complexes is still quite limited, thus advocating the use of in silico predictions to gather information on complex composition in model organisms. Since protein–protein interactions present certain constraints on the functional divergence of macromolecular assemblies during evolution, it is possible to predict complexes based on orthology data. Here, we show that incorporating interaction information through network alignment significantly increases the precision of orthology-based complex prediction. Moreover, we performed a large-scale in silico screen for protein complexes in human, yeast and fly, through the alignment of hundreds of known complexes to whole organism interactomes. Systematic comparison of the resulting network alignments to all complexes currently known in those species revealed many conserved complexes, as well as several novel complex components. In addition to validating our predictions using orthogonal data, we were able to assign specific functional roles to the predicted complexes. In several cases, the incorporation of interaction data through network alignment allowed to distinguish real complex components from other orthologous proteins. Our analyses indicate that current knowledge of yeast protein complexes exceeds that in other organisms and that predicting complexes in fly based on human and yeast data is complementary rather than redundant. Lastly, assessing the conservation of protein complexes of the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we discovered that its complexes repertoire is different from that of eukaryotes, suggesting new points of therapeutic intervention, whereas targeting the pathogen’s Restriction enzyme complex might lead to adverse effects due to its similarity to ATP-dependent metalloproteases in the human host.

Aloy, Patrick

2014-01-01

253

A low-polynomial algorithm for assembling clusters of orthologous groups from intergenomic symmetric best matches  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Identifying orthologous genes in multiple genomes is a fundamental task in comparative genomics. Construction of intergenomic symmetrical best matches (SymBets) and joining them into clusters is a popular method of ortholog definition, embodied in several software programs. Despite their wide use, the computational complexity of these programs has not been thoroughly examined. Results: In this work, we show that in the standard approach of iteration through all triangles of SymBets, the memory scales with at least the number of these triangles, O(g3) (where g = number of genomes), and construction time scales with the iteration through each pair, i.e. O(g6). We propose the EdgeSearch algorithm that iterates over edges in the SymBet graph rather than triangles of SymBets, and as a result has a worst-case complexity of only O(g3log g). Several optimizations reduce the run-time even further in realistically sparse graphs. In two real-world datasets of genomes from bacteriophages (POGs) and Mollicutes (MOGs), an implementation of the EdgeSearch algorithm runs about an order of magnitude faster than the original algorithm and scales much better with increasing number of genomes, with only minor differences in the final results, and up to 60 times faster than the popular OrthoMCL program with a 90% overlap between the identified groups of orthologs. Availability and implementation: C++ source code freely available for download at ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/wolf/COGs/COGsoft/ Contact: dmk@stowers.org Supplementary information: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online.

Kristensen, David M.; Kannan, Lavanya; Coleman, Michael K.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Sorokin, Alexander; Koonin, Eugene V.; Mushegian, Arcady

2010-01-01

254

Characterization of AtSTOP1 orthologous genes in tobacco and other plant species.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) and proton (H?) tolerances are essential traits for plants to adapt to acid soil environments. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these tolerances are mediated by a zinc-finger transcription factor, SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (AtSTOP1), which regulates the transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to both stressors. Here, the functions of orthologous proteins (STOP1-like proteins) in other plant species were characterized by reverse genetics analyses and in planta complementation assays. RNA interference of a gene for NtSTOP1 repressed Al and H? tolerances of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) roots. Tobacco roots released citrate in response to Al, concomitant with the up-regulated transcription of an ortholog of an Al tolerance gene encoding a citrate-transporting multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein. The RNA interference repression of NtSTOP1 blocked this process and also repressed the transcription of another orthologous gene for Al tolerance, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3, which encodes a prokaryote-type transporter. These results demonstrated that NtSTOP1 regulates Al tolerance in tobacco through the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The in planta complementation assays revealed that other plant species, including woody plants, a legume, and a moss (Physcomitrella patens), possess functional STOP1-like proteins that can activate several H? and Al-tolerance genes in Arabidopsis. Knocking out the gene encoding the STOP1-like protein decreased the Al tolerance of P. patens. Together, our results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation by STOP1-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved among land plants and that it confers the ability to survive in acid soils through the transcriptional regulation of Al- and H?-tolerance genes. PMID:23749850

Ohyama, Yoshinao; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Imaizumi, Ryujiro; Aoki, Toshio; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2013-08-01

255

Iteration method for predicting essential proteins based on orthology and protein-protein interaction networks  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of essential proteins plays a significant role in understanding minimal requirements for the cellular survival and development. Many computational methods have been proposed for predicting essential proteins by using the topological features of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, most of these methods ignored intrinsic biological meaning of proteins. Moreover, PPI data contains many false positives and false negatives. To overcome these limitations, recently many research groups have started to focus on identification of essential proteins by integrating PPI networks with other biological information. However, none of their methods has widely been acknowledged. Results By considering the facts that essential proteins are more evolutionarily conserved than nonessential proteins and essential proteins frequently bind each other, we propose an iteration method for predicting essential proteins by integrating the orthology with PPI networks, named by ION. Differently from other methods, ION identifies essential proteins depending on not only the connections between proteins but also their orthologous properties and features of their neighbors. ION is implemented to predict essential proteins in S. cerevisiae. Experimental results show that ION can achieve higher identification accuracy than eight other existing centrality methods in terms of area under the curve (AUC). Moreover, ION identifies a large amount of essential proteins which have been ignored by eight other existing centrality methods because of their low-connectivity. Many proteins ranked in top 100 by ION are both essential and belong to the complexes with certain biological functions. Furthermore, no matter how many reference organisms were selected, ION outperforms all eight other existing centrality methods. While using as many as possible reference organisms can improve the performance of ION. Additionally, ION also shows good prediction performance in E. coli K-12. Conclusions The accuracy of predicting essential proteins can be improved by integrating the orthology with PPI networks.

2012-01-01

256

A field trial evaluation of the prophylactic efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars against canine babesiosis (Babesia canis rossi) in South Africa.  

PubMed

South African canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis rossi is a common clinical disease in dogs in South Africa and remains a significant cause of domestic dog mortality. To determine whether tick-repellent, 9% amitraz-impregnated tick collars (Preventic-Virbac) could prevent tick-borne exposure to B. canis rossi, 50 dogs were assigned to two groups. Group 1 (20 dogs), polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--and reverse line blot (RLB)-negative for B. canis rossi, were fitted with amitraz collars and blood samples collected monthly, over a 6-month period, and analysed for B. canis rossi. Group 2 (30 dogs) included 5 dogs selected on a month-by-month basis from a population of dogs from the same geographical area as the group 1 dogs, but with no history of previous tick control, which were blood-sampled together with the treatment group and analysed for B. canis rossi by PCR and RLB, to serve as the control group. Eight of the 30 control dogs (26.6%) were PCR/RLB positive for B. canis rossi, indicating high pathogen exposure during the trial period. All twenty of the treatment group dogs remained negative for B. canis rossi throughout the 6 months of the trial. These results suggest that the use of amitraz-impregnated collars had a significant effect on reducing infection with B. canis rossi. PMID:17941596

Last, R D; Hill, J M; Matjila, P T; Rčme, C A

2007-06-01

257

Tequila, a neurotrypsin ortholog, regulates long-term memory formation in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Mutations in the human neurotrypsin gene are associated with autosomal recessive mental retardation. To further understand the pathophysiological consequences of the lack of this serine protease, we studied Tequila (Teq), the Drosophila neurotrypsin ortholog, using associative memory as a behavioral readout. We found that teq inactivation resulted in a long-term memory (LTM)-specific defect. After LTM conditioning of wild-type flies, teq expression transiently increased in the mushroom bodies. Moreover, specific inhibition of teq expression in adult mushroom bodies resulted in a reversible LTM defect. Hence, the Teq pathway is essential for information processing in Drosophila. PMID:16902143

Didelot, Gérard; Molinari, Florence; Tchénio, Paul; Comas, Daniel; Milhiet, Elodie; Munnich, Arnold; Colleaux, Laurence; Preat, Thomas

2006-08-11

258

GeConT 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

The Gene Context Tool (GeConT) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5? or 3? regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. GeConT 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont.

Martinez-Guerrero, C. E.; Ciria, R.; Abreu-Goodger, C.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Merino, E.

2008-01-01

259

Improving N-terminal protein annotation of Plasmodium species based on signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Signal peptide is one of the most important motifs involved in protein trafficking and it ultimately influences protein function. Considering the expected functional conservation among orthologs it was hypothesized that divergence in signal peptides within orthologous groups is mainly due to N-terminal protein sequence misannotation. Thus, discrepancies in signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins were used to identify misannotated proteins in five Plasmodium species. Methods Signal peptide (SignalP) and orthology (OrthoMCL) were combined in an innovative strategy to identify orthologous groups showing discrepancies in signal peptide prediction among their protein members (Mixed groups). In a comparative analysis, multiple alignments for each of these groups and gene models were visually inspected in search of misannotated proteins and, whenever possible, alternative gene models were proposed. Thresholds for signal peptide prediction parameters were also modified to reduce their impact as a possible source of discrepancy among orthologs. Validation of new gene models was based on RT-PCR (few examples) or on experimental evidence already published (ApiLoc). Results The rate of misannotated proteins was significantly higher in Mixed groups than in Positive or Negative groups, corroborating the proposed hypothesis. A total of 478 proteins were reannotated and change of signal peptide prediction from negative to positive was the most common. Reannotations triggered the conversion of almost 50% of all Mixed groups, which were further reduced by optimization of signal peptide prediction parameters. Conclusions The methodological novelty proposed here combining orthology and signal peptide prediction proved to be an effective strategy for the identification of proteins showing wrongly N-terminal annotated sequences, and it might have an important impact in the available data for genome-wide searching of potential vaccine and drug targets and proteins involved in host/parasite interactions, as demonstrated for five Plasmodium species.

2012-01-01

260

Efficacy of moxidectin 6-month injectable and milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets against naturally acquired toxocara canis infections in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of moxidectin injection (ProHeart 6 Sustained Release Injectable for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health) against naturally acquired infections of Toxocara canis was compared with that of milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets (Sentinel Flavor Tabs, Novartis Animal Health). Eighteen dogs with naturally acquired infections of T. canis were ranked by egg counts and randomly assigned to treatment with moxidectin (170 micro g/kg), milbemycin (500 micro g/kg)/lufenuron (10 mg/kg), or to an untreated control group (six dogs per treatment). Dogs were euthanized 7 days after treatment for recovery, identification, and enumeration of parasites by species. There was no apparent efficacy for moxidectin against T. canis. Conversely, milbemycin oxime/lufenuron was 91.5 % effective against naturally occurring infections of this canine parasite. PMID:12447835

Bowman, Dwight D; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David G

2002-01-01

261

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PROBIOTIC Saccharomyces boulardii IN Toxocara canis INFECTION IS NOT DUE TO DIRECT ACTION ON THE LARVAE  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05). We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Glaeser, Thais Aimee; Conceicao, Fabricio Rochedo; Leite, Fabio Pereira Leivas; Scaini, Carlos James

2013-01-01

262

Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon. PMID:24502723

Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-10-01

263

Investigation of glomerular lesions in dogs with acute experimentally induced Ehrlichia canis infection.  

PubMed

Six male Beagles were inoculated with Ehrlichia canis. Transient proteinuria was confirmed during the acute phase of infection by serial determination of urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. Peak urine protein loss, consisting principally of albumin, was observed 2.5 to 3.5 weeks after inoculation. Renal biopsy specimens were obtained before inoculation, during peak proteinuria, and 10 weeks after inoculation when proteinuria had resolved. Renal tissue was evaluated by use of light, immunofluorescent, and electron microscopy to correlate specific glomerular lesions with development of proteinuria. Histologic examination revealed perivenular and interstitial infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells localized principally to the renal cortex. Glomerular lesions were minimal to absent. Immunofluorescent staining revealed moderate to marked deposition of anti-canine IgG and IgM in the glomerular tufts and mesangium. Depositions of anti-canine complement factor C3 were not observed. Immunofluorescent staining persisted 10 weeks after inoculation, despite resolution of proteinuria, and probably represented passive trapping of immunoglobulins. Ultrastructural examination revealed fusion of podocyte processes that coincided with development of proteinuria. Electron-dense deposits or changes in the basement membrane were not observed. Morphometric measurements of average podocyte process length and percentage of coverage of basement membrane by podocyte processes were used to quantify the degree of process fusion. Both measurements increased significantly (P < 0.05) during peak proteinuria, and returned to preinoculation values when proteinuria had resolved 10 weeks after E canis inoculation. These findings indicated possible minimal-change glomerulopathy, rather than immune-complex glomerulonephritis, during acute E canis infection and could explain transient proteinuria without histologic evidence of glomerular disease. PMID:1476309

Codner, E C; Caceci, T; Saunders, G K; Smith, C A; Robertson, J L; Martin, R A; Troy, G C

1992-12-01

264

The first report of Hepatozoon canis identified in Vulpes vulpes and ticks from Italy.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the presence of Hepatozoon canis in Vulpes vulpes in Italy. During the years 2005 and 2006, a total of 119 foxes were collected and their spleen tissues were screened by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. In the same area, 290 ticks were picked off from dogs or collected from the environment. Microscopy detected inclusion bodies regarded as belonging to the genus Hepatozoon in four samples, whereas molecular diagnostics evidenced 16 foxes (13.4%) and 6 ticks (2.1%) positive to H. canis. The H. canis isolates we found in foxes, compared with the strains we previously detected in dogs from the same area and with the strains found in foxes from other European countries, show a certain genetic heterogeneity. In fact, seven isolates cluster with the Italian dog strain and nine isolates cluster with the fox strain found in Spain and Slovakia; moreover, the dog's strain is closely related to one tick's isolate, and the strain found in three Rhipicephalus sanguineus and in one Ixodes ricinus collected from the environment cluster with the aforementioned Spanish and Slovak fox strains. Our findings confirm the importance of R. sanguineus as final host and suggest that I. ricinus might also be implicated in parasite transmission, explaining in that way the occurrence of hepatozoonosis in areas considered R. sanguineus-free. The peridomestic habits of V. vulpes and the increasing global temperature are expected to amplify the impact of this vector-borne disease and to enforce the transmission of Hepatozoon to domestic animals. PMID:20420538

Gabrielli, Simona; Kumlien, Susanna; Calderini, Pietro; Brozzi, Alberto; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

2010-11-01

265

Recombinant human serine racemase: enzymologic characterization and comparison with its mouse ortholog.  

PubMed

D-serine plays a key role in glutamatergic neurotransmission in mammalian brain as a co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The enzyme responsible for D-serine biosynthesis, serine racemase (SR), is therefore a promising target for treatment of neuropathologies related to glutamate receptor excitotoxicity, such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease. Much of the experimental work to date has been performed on mouse serine racemase, which shares a high level of sequence identity with its human ortholog. In this work, we report the synthesis of a human SR gene variant optimized for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and describe the expression and purification of active recombinant human SR. This strategy may be of general interest to researchers wishing to express mammalian proteins in a bacterial system. Furthermore, we conduct a thorough analysis of the kinetics and inhibitor-sensitivity of the recombinant enzyme, and we provide the first direct comparison of human and mouse SR based on our kinetic data. The orthologs behave similarly overall and exhibit identical inhibition profiles, validating the use of mouse models in SR research. PMID:18812225

Hoffman, Hillary E; Jirásková, Jana; Ingr, Marek; Zvelebil, Marketa; Konvalinka, Jan

2009-01-01

266

Human and chicken TLR pathways: manual curation and computer-based orthology analysis  

PubMed Central

The innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide an evolutionarily well-conserved first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In the Reactome Knowledgebase we previously integrated annotations of human TLR molecular functions with those of over 4000 other human proteins involved in processes such as adaptive immunity, DNA replication, signaling, and intermediary metabolism, and have linked these annotations to external resources, including PubMed, UniProt, EntrezGene, Ensembl, and the Gene Ontology to generate a resource suitable for data mining, pathway analysis, and other systems biology approaches. We have now used a combination of manual expert curation and computer-based orthology analysis to generate a set of annotations for TLR molecular function in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Mammalian and avian lineages diverged approximately 300 million years ago, and the avian TLR repertoire consists of both orthologs and distinct new genes. The work described here centers on the molecular biology of TLR3, the host receptor that mediates responses to viral and other doubled-stranded polynucleotides, as a paradigm for our approach to integrated manual and computationally based annotation and data analysis. It tests the quality of computationally generated annotations projected from human onto other species and supports a systems biology approach to analysis of virus-activated signaling pathways and identification of clinically useful antiviral measures.

Gillespie, Marc; Shamovsky, Veronica; D'Eustachio, Peter

2011-01-01

267

MicroRNA Regulation of Cbx7 Mediates a Switch of Polycomb Orthologs during ESC Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Summary The Polycomb Group (PcG) of chromatin modifiers regulates pluripotency and differentiation. Mammalian genomes encode multiple homologs of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) components, including five orthologs of the Drosophila Polycomb protein (Cbx2, Cbx4, Cbx6, Cbx7, and Cbx8). We have identified Cbx7 as the primary Polycomb ortholog of PRC1 complexes in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The expression of Cbx7 is downregulated during ESC differentiation, preceding the upregulation of Cbx2, Cbx4, and Cbx8, which are directly repressed by Cbx7. Ectopic expression of Cbx7 inhibits differentiation and X chromosome inactivation and enhances ESC self-renewal. Conversely, Cbx7 knockdown induces differentiation and derepresses lineage-specific markers. In a functional screen, we identified the miR-125 and miR-181 families as regulators of Cbx7 that are induced during ESC differentiation. Ectopic expression of these miRNAs accelerates ESC differentiation via regulation of Cbx7. These observations establish a critical role for Cbx7 and its regulatory miRNAs in determining pluripotency.

O'Loghlen, Ana; Munoz-Cabello, Ana M.; Gaspar-Maia, Alexandre; Wu, Hsan-Au; Banito, Ana; Kunowska, Natalia; Racek, Tomas; Pemberton, Helen N.; Beolchi, Patrizia; Lavial, Fabrice; Masui, Osamu; Vermeulen, Michiel; Carroll, Thomas; Graumann, Johannes; Heard, Edith; Dillon, Niall; Azuara, Veronique; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Peters, Gordon; Bernstein, Emily; Gil, Jesus

2012-01-01

268

PANTHER version 7: improved phylogenetic trees, orthologs and collaboration with the Gene Ontology Consortium.  

PubMed

Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations. PMID:20015972

Mi, Huaiyu; Dong, Qing; Muruganujan, Anushya; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewis, Suzanna; Thomas, Paul D

2010-01-01

269

Human and chicken TLR pathways: manual curation and computer-based orthology analysis.  

PubMed

The innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide an evolutionarily well-conserved first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In the Reactome Knowledgebase we previously integrated annotations of human TLR molecular functions with those of over 4000 other human proteins involved in processes such as adaptive immunity, DNA replication, signaling, and intermediary metabolism, and have linked these annotations to external resources, including PubMed, UniProt, EntrezGene, Ensembl, and the Gene Ontology to generate a resource suitable for data mining, pathway analysis, and other systems biology approaches. We have now used a combination of manual expert curation and computer-based orthology analysis to generate a set of annotations for TLR molecular function in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Mammalian and avian lineages diverged approximately 300 million years ago, and the avian TLR repertoire consists of both orthologs and distinct new genes. The work described here centers on the molecular biology of TLR3, the host receptor that mediates responses to viral and other doubled-stranded polynucleotides, as a paradigm for our approach to integrated manual and computationally based annotation and data analysis. It tests the quality of computationally generated annotations projected from human onto other species and supports a systems biology approach to analysis of virus-activated signaling pathways and identification of clinically useful antiviral measures. PMID:21052677

Gillespie, Marc; Shamovsky, Veronica; D'Eustachio, Peter

2011-02-01

270

Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

2011-08-15

271

POGO-DB--a database of pairwise-comparisons of genomes and conserved orthologous genes.  

PubMed

POGO-DB (http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/) provides an easy platform for comparative microbial genomics. POGO-DB allows users to compare genomes using pre-computed metrics that were derived from extensive computationally intensive BLAST comparisons of >2000 microbes. These metrics include (i) average protein sequence identity across all orthologs shared by two genomes, (ii) genomic fluidity (a measure of gene content dissimilarity), (iii) number of 'orthologs' shared between two genomes, (iv) pairwise identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and (v) pairwise identity of an additional 73 marker genes present in >90% prokaryotes. Users can visualize these metrics against each other in a 2D plot for exploratory analysis of genome similarity and of how different aspects of genome similarity relate to each other. The results of these comparisons are fully downloadable. In addition, users can download raw BLAST results for all or user-selected comparisons. Therefore, we provide users with full flexibility to carry out their own downstream analyses, by creating easy access to data that would normally require heavy computational resources to generate. POGO-DB should prove highly useful for researchers interested in comparative microbiology and benefit the microbiome/metagenomic communities by providing the information needed to select suitable phylogenetic marker genes within particular lineages. PMID:24198250

Lan, Yemin; Morrison, J Calvin; Hershberg, Ruth; Rosen, Gail L

2014-01-01

272

ABS: a database of Annotated regulatory Binding Sites from orthologous promoters  

PubMed Central

Information about the genomic coordinates and the sequence of experimentally identified transcription factor binding sites is found scattered under a variety of diverse formats. The availability of standard collections of such high-quality data is important to design, evaluate and improve novel computational approaches to identify binding motifs on promoter sequences from related genes. ABS () is a public database of known binding sites identified in promoters of orthologous vertebrate genes that have been manually curated from bibliography. We have annotated 650 experimental binding sites from 68 transcription factors and 100 orthologous target genes in human, mouse, rat or chicken genome sequences. Computational predictions and promoter alignment information are also provided for each entry. A simple and easy-to-use web interface facilitates data retrieval allowing different views of the information. In addition, the release 1.0 of ABS includes a customizable generator of artificial datasets based on the known sites contained in the collection and an evaluation tool to aid during the training and the assessment of motif-finding programs.

Blanco, Enrique; Farre, Domenec; Alba, M. Mar; Messeguer, Xavier; Guigo, Roderic

2006-01-01

273

TreeFam v9: a new website, more species and orthology-on-the-fly.  

PubMed

TreeFam (http://www.treefam.org) is a database of phylogenetic trees inferred from animal genomes. For every TreeFam family we provide homology predictions together with the evolutionary history of the genes. Here we describe an update of the TreeFam database. The TreeFam project was resurrected in 2012 and has seen two releases since. The latest release (TreeFam 9) was made available in March 2013. It has orthology predictions and gene trees for 109 species in 15,736 families covering ?2.2 million sequences. With release 9 we made modifications to our production pipeline and redesigned our website with improved gene tree visualizations and Wikipedia integration. Furthermore, we now provide an HMM-based sequence search that places a user-provided protein sequence into a TreeFam gene tree and provides quick orthology prediction. The tool uses Mafft and RAxML for the fast insertion into a reference alignment and tree, respectively. Besides the aforementioned technical improvements, we present a new approach to visualize gene trees and alternative displays that focuses on showing homology information from a species tree point of view. From release 9 onwards, TreeFam is now hosted at the EBI. PMID:24194607

Schreiber, Fabian; Patricio, Mateus; Muffato, Matthieu; Pignatelli, Miguel; Bateman, Alex

2014-01-01

274

Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

From May 2007 to March 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. In addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. A mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify fragments of the 18S rDNA gene of Babesia spp or Hepatozoon spp revealed amplicons of the expected size in 20 (21.7%) dogs for Babesia, and 54 (58.7%) dogs for Hepatozoon. All Babesia-positive dogs were also Hepatozoon-positive. Among the 21 households, 15 (71.4%) from 3 counties had at least one PCR-positive dog, including 13 farms (rural area) and 2 homes (urban area). A total of 40 PCR products from the Hepatozoon-PCR, and 19 products from the Babesia-PCR were submitted to DNA sequencing. All generated sequences from Hepatozoon-PCR were identical to each other, and to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Surprisingly, all generated sequences from the Babesia PCR were also identical to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Dogs from 10 rural and 2 urban households were found infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Immature of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were found in dogs from only 4 rural households (also infested by R. sanguineus). All but one household with R. sanguineus-infested dogs had at least one Hepatozoon-infected dog. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ticks (i.e. R. sanguineus) infesting dogs in the households was significantly (P<0.05) associated with at least one PCR-positive dog. There was no significant association (P>0.05) between PCR-positive dogs and urban or rural households. Canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis is a high frequent infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is possibly vectored by R. sanguineus. Since all infected dogs were found apparently healthy, the pathogenicity of H. canis for dogs in Espírito Santo is yet to be elucidated. PMID:19482427

Spolidorio, Mariana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zago, Augusto M; Donatele, Dirlei M; Caliari, Késia M; Yoshinari, Natalino H

2009-08-26

275

A case of visceral leishmaniosis in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia.  

PubMed

The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leishmania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, indicated that lesions associated with infection by Leishmania infantum are, in this case, typical for visceral leshmaniosis commonly described in dogs. Review of the literature suggests that this is the first reported case of gray wolf death due to lesions caused by L. infantum. PMID:18436678

Beck, A; Beck, R; Kusak, J; Gudan, A; Martinkovic, F; Artukovic, B; Hohsteter, M; Huber, D; Marinculic, A; Grabarevic, Z

2008-04-01

276

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

277

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

2006-01-01

278

Unusual behavior by bison, Bison bison, toward elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incidents are described of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the bison knocked a wolf-wounded elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

Mech, L. D.; McIntyre, R. T.; Smith, D. W.

2004-01-01

279

Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

Mech, L. D.; McIntyre, R. T.; Smith, D. W.

2004-01-01

280

Effects of disinfectants on Toxocara canis embryogenesis and larval establishment in mice tissues.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effects of several different disinfectant solutions on embryonic development of Toxocara canis eggs and (ii) to investigate the potential infectivity of exposed eggs by assessing larval establishment in various tissues in a murine model. All the disinfectants tested were products routinely used in veterinary clinics, kennels, animal shelters and laboratories. Ova were obtained from gravid female T. canis uteri. Thirty samples containing 10,000 eggs were divided into five groups of six identical sample tubes per group. The treatments for the groups were as follows: Group H benzalconium chloride, Group A 70% ethanol, Group B 2-2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution, Group L 7.99% formaldehyde-based disinfectant and Group C tap water (controls). Samples were incubated at 27 ± 1°C and 80 ± 10% relative humidity. Embryonic development was evaluated on days +6, +9, +12, +15, +18, +21, +25, +28 and +36 of exposure by visual observation under light microscopy. Seventy percent ethanol degenerated all eggs within a few days and thus inhibited larval development. Sodium hypochlorite removed the external layer of the ova, but eggs harboured infective larvae for up to 2 weeks. Benzalconium chloride and formaldehyde-based disinfectants had no effect on T. canis embryogenesis according to comparison with control eggs (P > 0.05). Embryonated eggs from each of the six samples from Groups C, H and L were administered to mice as only these ova were considered viable based on in vitro trial. On day 30pi, those were euthanized and had their tissues were submitted to organ compression (brains) or acid-isolation technique (kidneys, lungs, livers and carcasses) for larval counting. The mean number of recovered larvae for Groups C, H and L were: 512.8, 393.7 and 477 respectively (P > 0.05). Larvae derived from Groups H and L eggs maintained their ability to migrate. However, larval establishment pattern differed from control. While certain disinfectants do negatively affect embryogenesis (70% ethanol) and reduce the integrity and durability (sodium hypochlorite) of infective T. canis eggs, others have no effect upon embryogenesis. Those eggs can still be a threat to human and animal health even after over a month of disinfectant exposure. PMID:20500505

Verocai, G G; Tavares, P V; Ribeiro, F de A; Correia, T R; Scott, F B

2010-12-01

281

Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.  

PubMed

Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species. PMID:24570169

Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

2014-05-01

282

OrthoMaM v8: A Database of Orthologous Exons and Coding Sequences for Comparative Genomics in Mammals.  

PubMed

Comparative genomic studies extensively rely on alignments of orthologous sequences. Yet, selecting, gathering, and aligning orthologous exons and protein-coding sequences (CDS) that are relevant for a given evolutionary analysis can be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this context, we developed OrthoMaM, a database of ORTHOlogous MAmmalian Markers describing the evolutionary dynamics of orthologous genes in mammalian genomes using a phylogenetic framework. Since its first release in 2007, OrthoMaM has regularly evolved, not only to include newly available genomes but also to incorporate up-to-date software in its analytic pipeline. This eighth release integrates the 40 complete mammalian genomes available in Ensembl v73 and provides alignments, phylogenies, evolutionary descriptor information, and functional annotations for 13,404 single-copy orthologous CDS and 6,953 long exons. The graphical interface allows to easily explore OrthoMaM to identify markers with specific characteristics (e.g., taxa availability, alignment size, %G+C, evolutionary rate, chromosome location). It hence provides an efficient solution to sample preprocessed markers adapted to user-specific needs. OrthoMaM has proven to be a valuable resource for researchers interested in mammalian phylogenomics, evolutionary genomics, and has served as a source of benchmark empirical data sets in several methodological studies. OrthoMaM is available for browsing, query and complete or filtered downloads at http://www.orthomam.univ-montp2.fr/. PMID:24723423

Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Scornavacca, Celine; Romiguier, Jonathan; Belkhir, Khalid; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric; Ranwez, Vincent

2014-07-01

283

On the Use of Gene Ontology Annotations to Assess Functional Similarity among Orthologs and Paralogs: A Short Report  

PubMed Central

A recent paper (Nehrt et al., PLoS Comput. Biol. 7:e1002073, 2011) has proposed a metric for the “functional similarity” between two genes that uses only the Gene Ontology (GO) annotations directly derived from published experimental results. Applying this metric, the authors concluded that paralogous genes within the mouse genome or the human genome are more functionally similar on average than orthologous genes between these genomes, an unexpected result with broad implications if true. We suggest, based on both theoretical and empirical considerations, that this proposed metric should not be interpreted as a functional similarity, and therefore cannot be used to support any conclusions about the “ortholog conjecture” (or, more properly, the “ortholog functional conservation hypothesis”). First, we reexamine the case studies presented by Nehrt et al. as examples of orthologs with divergent functions, and come to a very different conclusion: they actually exemplify how GO annotations for orthologous genes provide complementary information about conserved biological functions. We then show that there is a global ascertainment bias in the experiment-based GO annotations for human and mouse genes: particular types of experiments tend to be performed in different model organisms. We conclude that the reported statistical differences in annotations between pairs of orthologous genes do not reflect differences in biological function, but rather complementarity in experimental approaches. Our results underscore two general considerations for researchers proposing novel types of analysis based on the GO: 1) that GO annotations are often incomplete, potentially in a biased manner, and subject to an “open world assumption” (absence of an annotation does not imply absence of a function), and 2) that conclusions drawn from a novel, large-scale GO analysis should whenever possible be supported by careful, in-depth examination of examples, to help ensure the conclusions have a justifiable biological basis.

Thomas, Paul D.; Wood, Valerie; Mungall, Christopher J.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Blake, Judith A.

2012-01-01

284

Versatile Roles of CspA Orthologs in Complement Inactivation of Serum-Resistant Lyme Disease Spirochetes  

PubMed Central

CspA of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi represents a key molecule in immune evasion, protecting borrelial cells from complement-mediated killing. As previous studies focused almost exclusively on CspA of B. burgdorferi, here we investigate the different binding capacities of CspA orthologs of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. spielmanii for complement regulator factor H and plasminogen and their ability to inhibit complement activation by either binding these host-derived plasma proteins or independently by direct interaction with components involved in formation of the lethal, pore-like terminal complement complex. To further examine their function in serum resistance in vivo, a serum-sensitive B. garinii strain was used to generate spirochetes, ectopically producing functional CspA orthologs. Irrespective of their species origin, all three CspA orthologs impart resistance to complement-mediated killing when produced in a serum-sensitive B. garinii surrogate strain. To analyze the inhibitory effect on complement activation and to assess the potential to inactivate C3b by binding of factor H and plasminogen, recombinant CspA orthologs were also investigated. All three CspA orthologs simultaneously bound factor H and plasminogen but differed in regard to their capacity to inactivate C3b via bound plasmin(ogen) and inhibit formation of the terminal complement complex. CspA of B. afzelii binds plasmin(ogen) and inhibits the terminal complement complex more efficiently than CspA of B. burgdorferi and B. spielmanii. Taken together, CspA orthologs of serum-resistant Lyme disease spirochetes act as multifunctional evasion molecules that inhibit complement on two central activation levels, C3b generation and assembly of the terminal complement complex.

Hammerschmidt, Claudia; Koenigs, Arno; Siegel, Corinna; Hallstrom, Teresia; Skerka, Christine; Wallich, Reinhard; Zipfel, Peter F.

2014-01-01

285

OrthoMaM: A database of orthologous genomic markers for placental mammal phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular sequence data have become the standard in modern day phylogenetics. In particular, several long-standing questions of mammalian evolutionary history have been recently resolved thanks to the use of molecular characters. Yet, most studies have focused on only a handful of standard markers. The availability of an ever increasing number of whole genome sequences is a golden mine for modern systematics. Genomic data now provide the opportunity to select new markers that are potentially relevant for further resolving branches of the mammalian phylogenetic tree at various taxonomic levels. Description The EnsEMBL database was used to determine a set of orthologous genes from 12 available complete mammalian genomes. As targets for possible amplification and sequencing in additional taxa, more than 3,000 exons of length > 400 bp have been selected, among which 118, 368, 608, and 674 are respectively retrieved for 12, 11, 10, and 9 species. A bioinformatic pipeline has been developed to provide evolutionary descriptors for these candidate markers in order to assess their potential phylogenetic utility. The resulting OrthoMaM (Orthologous Mammalian Markers) database can be queried and alignments can be downloaded through a dedicated web interface . Conclusion The importance of marker choice in phylogenetic studies has long been stressed. Our database centered on complete genome information now makes possible to select promising markers to a given phylogenetic question or a systematic framework by querying a number of evolutionary descriptors. The usefulness of the database is illustrated with two biological examples. First, two potentially useful markers were identified for rodent systematics based on relevant evolutionary parameters and sequenced in additional species. Second, a complete, gapless 94 kb supermatrix of 118 orthologous exons was assembled for 12 mammals. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods unambiguously supported the new placental phylogeny by retrieving the monophyly of Glires, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, and Boreoeutheria. Muroid rodents thus do not represent a basal placental lineage as it was mistakenly reasserted in some recent phylogenomic analyses based on fewer taxa. We expect the OrthoMaM database to be useful for further resolving the phylogenetic tree of placental mammals and for better understanding the evolutionary dynamics of their genomes, i.e., the forces that shaped coding sequences in terms of selective constraints.

Ranwez, Vincent; Delsuc, Frederic; Ranwez, Sylvie; Belkhir, Khalid; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel JP

2007-01-01

286

[New studies on the characterization of virulence factors in Microsporum canis].  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is a worldwide distributed zoophilic and zoonotic dermatophyte which is responsible for most cases of feline ringworm. Its prevalence is on the rise in developed countries. Since 1995, the author and his Laboratory have developed a research programme to better understand the pathogenesis of M. canis dermatophytosis. Both the potential fungal virulence factors and the host immune response were investigated. A 31.5 kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB) and a 43.5 kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease (MEP) were purified from a crude exoantigen consisted in a mixture of inducible proteins secreted by the fungus in a medium enriched with keratin. Additionally, two gene families encoding respectively 3 SUBs and 3 MEPs, including the 2 keratinases previously purified (called SUB3 and MEP3), were characterized. The genes encoding several MEPs and SUBs were shown to be transcribed in vivo during infection by nested RT-PCR. Finally, we demonstrated that a specific cellular immune response towards the crude exoantigen, MEP3 and SUB3 was induced in experimentally infected guinea pigs. This indicates that the potential immunoprotective properties of these antigens are interesting to evaluate in the frame of the development of an efficient vaccine against feline ringworm. PMID:16465781

Mignon, Bernard

2005-01-01

287

Terbinafine hydrochloride treatment of Microsporum canis experimentally-induced ringworm in cats.  

PubMed

Cats represent the most important source of Microsporum canis infection to people. Terbinafine hydrochloride is commonly used in the treatment of microsporosis. Its fungicidal action permits short period of treatment. It was our objective to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in treatment of microsporosis in cats. We treated nine experimentally M. canis infected cats with terbinafine at a dose of 10-20mg/kg SID (low-dose group, LDG), nine cats with 30-40mg/kg SID (high-dose group, HDG), and nine cats were left untreated (control group, CG). The drug's levels in cats' plasma and hair were measured by a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) and the cats' cure was followed by Wood's lamp illumination, microscopic exam and fungal culture. We showed no difference between the clinical course in CG and LDG, but HDG were significantly differentiated from both other groups. Terbinafine levels in plasma at 120 days of treatment were not statistically different among LDG (4.13 microg/l) and HDG (5.48 microg/l), but levels in hair of LDG (1.24 microg/l) and HDG (3.62 microg/l) were significantly different. Terbinafine can be used for the treatment of microsporosis in cats in the dose of 30-40mg/kg SID. PMID:11557156

Kotnik, T; Kozuh Erzen, N; Kuzner, J; Drobnic-Kosorok, M

2001-11-01

288

The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

2005-09-01

289

Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).  

PubMed

Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana. PMID:25000705

Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

2014-06-01

290

Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ?99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ?94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503

Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

2014-04-01

291

Seroepidemiological survey for Toxocara canis infection in the northwestern part of Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, an ELISA with Toxocara canis antigen was used for the determination of sero-epidemiological survey of Toxocara canis infection in urban and rural areas of northwestern part of Turkey. Toxocara seroprevalance was detected among randomly selected 430 children in the rural areas and 141 children in the urban areas. Total seroprevalence rate of Toxocara antibodies was found as 12.95% in both groups. While significant levels of anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 73 out of 430 (16.97%) children from rural area while only one children (0.71%) had positive level of anti-Toxocara antibodies from urban area (p<0.001). In rural areas, anti-Toxocara antibodies were significantly higher in children who have a dog in their house than the children who have no dogs (53 vs. 20 children; p<0.01). Seropositivity rate of Toxocara antibodies were similar between age groups and genders (p>0.05). Based on these results, however total seroprevalence rate is lower than other countries, we have proposed that public health programs especially for children, may be effective for protecting from Toxocara infection. PMID:18224618

Do?an, Nihal; Dinleyici, Ener Ca?ri; Bor, Ozcan; Töz, Seray Ozensoy; Ozbel, Yusuf

2007-01-01

292

Comparison of Simultaneous Splenic Sample PCR with Blood Sample PCR for Diagnosis and Treatment of Experimental Ehrlichia canis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a tick-borne disease with a global distribution (9). Diagnosis of CME is confirmed by demonstration of morulae in blood smears, serology, cul- turing of the rickettsiae, and PCR using Ehrlichia canis-specific primers. Tetracyclines are commonly used in the treatment of CME, with doxycycline in particular being the most acceptable and widely used (2, 3). Blood

Shimon Harrus; Martin Kenny; Limor Miara; Itzhak Aizenberg; Trevor Waner; Susan Shaw

2004-01-01

293

Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) fail to show understanding of means-end connections in a string-pulling task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris) were tested in four experiments for their understanding of means-end connections. In each of the experiments, the dogs attempted to retrieve a food treat that could be seen behind a barrier and which was connected, via string, to a within-reach wooden block. In the experiments, either one or two strings were present, but the

Britta Osthaus; Stephen E. G. Lea; Alan M. Slater

2005-01-01

294

Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs) against Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma caninum in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala) was evaluated in nine randomised,blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies in naturally or experimentally infected dogs. The product was used at the proposed minimum dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy. Worm burdens in the control dogs ranged between 0 and 409 worms of the respective stage for T. canis and between 4 and 655 worms for hookworms. The studies demonstrated 100 % efficacy of emodepside/toltrazuril suspension against mature adult, ? 94.7 %efficacy against immature adult and 99.3 % efficacy against the L4 larval stage of T. canis. The efficacy against mature adult A. caninum was ? 99.5 % and the efficacy against mature adult U. stenocephala was 100 %. All differences between treatment and control groups were statistically significant and no gender effect was found. It can be concluded that the emodepside/toltrazuril suspension represents a safe and highly effective product in dogs with nematode (T. canis, hookworms) infection. PMID:21739370

Schimmel, Annette; Schroeder, Iris; Altreuther, Gertraut; Settje, Terry; Charles, Samuel; Wolken, Sonja; Kok, Dawid J; Ketzis, Jennifer; Young, David; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

2011-08-01

295

Validation for use with coyotes ( Canis latrans) of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Dirofilaria immitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological tests offer a potentially powerful tool for monitoring parasites in wildlife populations. However, such tests must be validated before using them with target wildlife populations. We evaluated in coyotes (Canis latrans) the performance of a commercially available serological test used to detect canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in domestic dogs. We obtained 265 coyote carcasses and serological specimens from 54

B. N. Sacks; B. B. Chomel; R. W. Kasten; C. C. Chang; R. K. Sanders; S. D. Leterme

2002-01-01

296

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

297

Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

Smith, T. S.; Partridge, S. T.; Schoen, J. W.

2004-01-01

298

The newt ortholog of CD59 is implicated in proximodistal identity during amphibian limb regeneration.  

PubMed

The proximodistal identity of a newt limb regeneration blastema is respecified by exposure to retinoic acid, but its molecular basis is unclear. We identified from a differential screen the cDNA for Prod 1, a gene whose expression in normal and regenerating limbs is regulated by proximodistal location and retinoic acid: Prod 1 is the newt ortholog of CD59. Prod 1/CD59 was found to be located at the cell surface with a GPI anchor which is cleaved by PIPLC. A proximal newt limb blastema engulfs a distal blastema after juxtaposition in culture, and engulfment is specifically blocked by PIPLC, and by affinity-purified antibodies to two distinct Prod 1/CD59 peptides. Prod 1 is therefore a cell surface protein implicated in the local cell-cell interactions mediating positional identity. PMID:12408806

da Silva, Sara Morais; Gates, Phillip B; Brockes, Jeremy P

2002-10-01

299

The fission yeast FANCM ortholog directs non-crossover recombination during meiosis.  

PubMed

The formation of healthy gametes depends on programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are each repaired as a crossover (CO) or non-crossover (NCO) from a homologous template. Although most of these DSBs are repaired without giving COs, little is known about the genetic requirements of NCO-specific recombination. We show that Fml1, the Fanconi anemia complementation group M (FANCM)-ortholog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, directs the formation of NCOs during meiosis in competition with the Mus81-dependent pro-CO pathway. We also define the Rad51/Dmc1-mediator Swi5-Sfr1 as a major determinant in biasing the recombination process in favor of Mus81, to ensure the appropriate amount of COs to guide meiotic chromosome segregation. The conservation of these proteins from yeast to humans suggests that this interplay may be a general feature of meiotic recombination. PMID:22723423

Lorenz, Alexander; Osman, Fekret; Sun, Weili; Nandi, Saikat; Steinacher, Roland; Whitby, Matthew C

2012-06-22

300

BLM helicase ortholog Sgs1 is a central regulator of meiotic recombination intermediate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Summary The BLM helicase has been shown to maintain genome stability by preventing accumulation of aberrant recombination intermediates. We show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLM ortholog, Sgs1, plays an integral role in normal meiotic recombination, beyond its documented activity limiting aberrant recombination intermediates. In wild type meiosis, temporally and mechanistically distinct pathways produce crossover and noncrossover recombinants. Crossovers form late in meiosis I prophase, by polo kinase-triggered resolution of Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates. Noncrossovers form earlier, via processes that do not involve stable HJ intermediates. In contrast, sgs1 mutants abolish early noncrossover formation. Instead, both noncrossovers and crossovers form by late HJ intermediate resolution, using an alternate pathway requiring the overlapping activities of Mus81-Mms4, Yen1, and Slx1–Slx4, nucleases with minor roles in wild-type meiosis. We conclude that Sgs1 is a primary regulator of recombination pathway choice during meiosis, and suggest a similar function in the mitotic cell cycle.

De Muyt, Arnaud; Jessop, Lea; Kolar, Elizabeth; Sourirajan, Anuradha; Chen, Jianhong; Dayani, Yaron; Lichten, Michael

2012-01-01

301

Negative regulation of abscisic acid signaling by the Brassica oleracea ABI1 ortholog.  

PubMed

ABI1 (ABA Insensitive 1) is an important component of the core regulatory network in early ABA (Abscisic acid) signaling. Here, we investigated the functions of an ABI1 ortholog in Brassica oleracea (BolABI1). The expression of BolABI1 was dramatically induced by drought, and constitutive expression of BolABI1 confers ABA insensitivity upon the wild-type. Subcellular localization and phosphatase assays reveal that BolABI1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus and harbors phosphatase activity. Furthermore, BolABI1 interacts with a homolog of OST1 (OPEN STOMATA 1) in B. oleracea (BolOST1) and can dephosphorylate ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5) in vitro. Overall, these results suggest that BolABI1 is a functional PP2C-type protein phosphatase that is involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:24269821

Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Mengyao; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhao, Huixian; Guo, Aiguang; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

2013-12-13

302

Identifying human-rhesus macaque gene orthologs using heterospecific SNP probes  

PubMed Central

We genotyped a Chinese and an Indian-origin rhesus macaque using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 and catalogued 85,473 uniquely mapping heterospecific SNPs. These SNPs were assigned to rhesus chromosomes according to their probe sequence alignments as displayed in the human and rhesus reference sequences. The conserved gene order (synteny) revealed by heterospecific SNP maps is in concordance with that of the published human and rhesus macaque genomes. Using these SNPs’ original human rs numbers, we identified 12,328 genes annotated in humans that are associated with these SNPs, 3,674 of which were found in at least one of the two rhesus macaques studied. Due to their density, the heterospecific SNPs allow fine-grained comparisons, including approximate boundaries of intra- and extra-chromosomal rearrangements involving gene orthologs, which can be used to distinguish rhesus macaque chromosomes from human chromosomes.

Kanthaswamy, Sree; Ng, Jillian; Ross, Cody T.; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Smith, David Glenn; Buffalo, Vince S.; Fass, Joseph N.; Lin, Dawei

2012-01-01

303

Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production.

Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

2013-01-01

304

Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D

2013-01-01

305

Bacterial expression of a eukaryotic membrane protein in fusion to various Mistic orthologs.  

PubMed

Mistic, a bacterial membrane-associating protein family, uniquely found in Bacillus species. It enhances expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins at the bacterial membrane. Mistic from B. subtilis (M110), expresses at the Escherichia coli membrane, however its shorter orthologs have been recently shown to be mainly cytoplasmic with varying membrane affinities. Based on that, we hypothesized that the expression level of membrane proteins fused to Mistic is correlated with the degree of membrane association of the particular Mistic protein. We compared expression levels by various Mistic proteins as fusion partners for the Aplysia californica Kv1.1 (aKv1.1) channel as a cargo membrane protein. Mistic from B. atrophaeus (M4), which has the highest membrane association among the shorter orthologs, enhanced expression of the transmembrane domain of aKv1.1 to the highest extent. In contrast, M1, which consists of the 84 C-terminal amino acids of M110 is the most soluble protein and showed the least capacity to express the channel. A chimeric Mistic, constructed with the first alpha-helix (H1) of M110 N-terminally fused to M4, did not increase the level of expression of aKv1.1 beyond those of either the M110 or the M4 fusions. The channel fused to M110, M4 or the aforementioned H1-M4 chimera, expresses in the highest quantity and quality among Mistic proteins, providing suitable sample for structural studies. Our data support the concept that expression levels of 'Misticated' membrane proteins are related to the independent chaperoning character of Mistic via direct membrane association, rather than related to specific sequence-dependent interaction with the E. coli translocon machinery. PMID:19524676

Dvir, Hay; Choe, Senyon

2009-11-01

306

Linking the potato genome to the conserved ortholog set (COS) markers  

PubMed Central

Background Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://solgenomics.net/) and many of these have been placed on the genetic maps of a number of solanaceous species. Results We amplified over 300 COS markers from eight potato accessions involving two diploid landraces of Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group (formerly classified as S. goniocalyx, S. phureja), and a dihaploid clone derived from a modern tetraploid cultivar of S. tuberosum and the wild species S. berthaultii, S. chomatophilum, and S. paucissectum. By BLASTn (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information) algorithm we mapped the DNA sequences of these markers into the potato genome sequence. Additionally, we mapped a subset of these markers genetically in potato and present a comparison between the physical and genetic locations of these markers in potato and in comparison with the genetic location in tomato. We found that most of the COS markers are single-copy in the reference genome of potato and that the genetic location in tomato and physical location in potato sequence are mostly in agreement. However, we did find some COS markers that are present in multiple copies and those that map in unexpected locations. Sequence comparisons between species show that some of these markers may be paralogs. Conclusions The sequence-based physical map becomes helpful in identification of markers for traits of interest thereby reducing the number of markers to be tested for applications like marker assisted selection, diversity, and phylogenetic studies.

2013-01-01

307

A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.  

PubMed

Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity. PMID:24589112

Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

2013-11-01

308

Tree pattern matching in phylogenetic trees: automatic search for orthologs or paralogs in homologous gene sequence databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Comparative sequence analysis is widely used to study genome function and evolution. This approach first requires the iden- tification of homologous genes and then the interpretation of their homology relationships (orthology or paralogy). To provide help in this complex task, we developed three databases of homologous genes containing sequences, multiple alignments and phylogenetic trees: HOBACGEN, HOVERGEN and HOGENOM. In

Jean-françois Dufayard; Laurent Duret; Simon Penel; Manolo Gouy; François Rechenmann; Guy Perričre

2005-01-01

309

Unresolved orthology and peculiar coding sequence properties of lamprey genes: the KCNA gene family as test case  

PubMed Central

Background In understanding the evolutionary process of vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lamprey) occupy crucial positions. Resolving molecular phylogenetic relationships of cyclostome genes with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) genes is indispensable in deciphering both the species tree and gene trees. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses, especially those including lamprey genes, have produced highly discordant results between gene families. To efficiently scrutinize this problem using partial genome assemblies of early vertebrates, we focused on the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related (KCNA) family, whose members are mostly single-exon. Results Seven sea lamprey KCNA genes as well as six elephant shark genes were identified, and their orthologies to bony vertebrate subgroups were assessed. In contrast to robustly supported orthology of the elephant shark genes to gnathostome subgroups, clear orthology of any sea lamprey gene could not be established. Notably, sea lamprey KCNA sequences displayed unique codon usage pattern and amino acid composition, probably associated with exceptionally high GC-content in their coding regions. This lamprey-specific property of coding sequences was also observed generally for genes outside this gene family. Conclusions Our results suggest that secondary modifications of sequence properties unique to the lamprey lineage may be one of the factors preventing robust orthology assessments of lamprey genes, which deserves further genome-wide validation. The lamprey lineage-specific alteration of protein-coding sequence properties needs to be taken into consideration in tackling the key questions about early vertebrate evolution.

2011-01-01

310

On the artefactual parasitic eubacteria clan in conditioned logdet phylogenies: heterotachy and ortholog identification artefacts as explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic reconstruction methods based on gene content often place all the parasitic and endosymbiotic eubacteria (parasites for short) together in a clan. Many other lines of evidence point to this parasites clan being an artefact. This artefact could be a consequence of the methods used to construct ortholog databases (due to some unknown bias), the methods used to estimate

Ajanthah Sangaralingam; Edward Susko; David Bryant; Matthew Spencer

2010-01-01

311

OsPIE1, the Rice Ortholog of Arabidopsis PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING1, Is Essential for Embryo Development  

PubMed Central

Background The SWR1 complex is important for the deposition of histone variant H2A.Z into chromatin necessary to robustly regulate gene expression during growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the catalytic subunit of the SWR1-like complex, encoded by PIE1 (PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING1), has been shown to function in multiple developmental processes including flowering time pathways and petal number regulation. However, the function of the PIE1 orthologs in monocots remains unknown. Methodology/Findings We report the identification of the rice (Oryza sativa) ortholog, OsPIE1. Although OsPIE1 does not exhibit a conserved exon/intron structure as Arabidopsis PIE1, its encoded protein is highly similar to PIE1, sharing 53.9% amino acid sequence identity. OsPIE1 also has a very similar expression pattern as PIE1. Furthermore, transgenic expression of OsPIE1 completely rescued both early flowering and extra petal number phenotypes of the Arabidopsis pie1-2 mutant. However, homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of OsPIE1 in rice were embryonically lethal, in contrast to the viable mutants in the orthologous genes for yeast, Drosophila and Arabidopsis (Swr1, DOMINO and PIE1, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results suggest that OsPIE1 is the rice ortholog of Arabidopsis PIE1 and plays an essential role in rice embryo development.

Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Zhanghua; Bao, Lieming; Wang, Junming; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

2010-01-01

312

In vitro susceptibility to antimycotics of Microsporum canis isolates from cats.  

PubMed

One hundred thirty-four isolates of Microsporum canis, obtained from cats, were tested for in vitro susceptibility to various antifungal agents. The fungi were classified as susceptible, resistant, and intermediate by measuring the size of the zone of inhibited growth on yeast nitrogen base agar medium. Clotrimazole had the highest activity (99.2%), followed by tioconazole (89.6%), griseofulvin (88.8%), econazole (73.1%), ketoconazole (50.7%), miconazole (15.7%), and isoconazole (12.7%). We found 14.9% of the isolates to be susceptible to all the assayed drugs, whereas the highest resistance frequency (41.8%) was against 2 antimycotics. A simultaneous resistance to all the tested antimycotics was not found. The differences among the antifungal drugs activity were examined, and administration of drugs for which a simultaneous resistance was minimal is suggested. PMID:1429182

Puccini, S; Valdré, A; Papini, R; Mancianti, F

1992-11-01

313

Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.  

PubMed

Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

2013-10-18

314

Purification and characterization of excretory and secretory antigen of Toxocara canis larvae.  

PubMed Central

Excretory/secretory (ES) antigen of Toxocara canis larvae was isolated from the culture medium of second-stage larvae by gel filtration. The antigen induced production of not only IgM or IgG but also IgE antibody. The antigen, when treated with guanidine hydrochloride and 2-mercaptoethanol, lost its allergenic activity but retained an ability to induce IgM or IgG antibody. Purified antigen was of glycoprotein nature and had a molecular weight of 35,000. The whole antigen showed a cross-reaction with the serum from Ascaris suum-infected mice. The antigen did not contain phosphorylcholine as a structural component. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Sugane, K; Oshima, T

1983-01-01

315

Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum.  

PubMed

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy. N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. Oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out (KO) mice. Viable N. caninum (designated NcWolfUS1) was isolated in cell cultures seeded with tissue homogenate from the infected mouse. Typical thick walled tissue cysts were found in outbred mice inoculated with the parasite from the KO mouse. Tissue stages in mice stained positively with N. caninum-specific polyclonal antibodies. Our observation suggests that wolves may be an important link in the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum. PMID:21640485

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Rajendran, C; Miska, K; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S

2011-09-27

316

Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n = 11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary captive gray wolves (n = 20), as demonstrated by significant increases in QRS duration, QT interval, and QT interval corrected for heart rate, a tendency towards increased Q, R, and S wave voltages in all leads, and a significant decrease in heart rate. We conclude that exercise activity level and therefore lifestyle affects physiologic variables in wild animals. An immediate consequence of this finding is that physiologic measurements obtained from a captive wild-animal population with reduced exercise activity level may not accurately reflect the normal physiologic state for free-ranging members of the same species. PMID:9787834

Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

1998-07-01

317

Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.  

PubMed

Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities. PMID:8028116

Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

1994-04-01

318

Photometry, polarimetry, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry of the enigmatic Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New observations of the peculiar Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris collected since 1987 are presented, and photometric, polarimetric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric data are discussed. Linear polarization data are well fitted with an eccentric binary model where an additional free parameter is included to allow for epoch-dependent changes of the geometrical electron distribution in the W-R envelope. This yields a set of basic parameters, including an eccentricity e = 0.39 +/- 0.02 and an orbital inclination i = 114 deg +/- 3 deg. The spectroscopic data show global profile variations for all three observed strong emission lines He II 5412 A, C IV 5807 A, and He I 5876 A. Radial velocities of the lines vary with the 3.766-day period. Radially expanding inhomogeneities are superposed on the line profiles and variable polarization in the lines is observed.

Robert, Carmelle; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent; Lamontagne, Robert; Seggewiss, Wilhelm; Niemela, Virpi S.; Cerruti, Miguel A.; Barrett, Paul; Bailey, Jeremy; Garcia, Jorge

1992-01-01

319

Increased AST/ALT ratio in azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

The AST/ALT ratio was estimated in 182 dogs infected with Babesia canis. Among these dogs 65 had anaemia and 68 were azotaemic. Student's t test was used to compare means of the AST/ALT ratio in anaemic and non-anaemic dogs, and in azotaemic and non-azotaemic dogs (p < 0.05). The differences in AST/ALT ratio between anaemic (1.52 +/- 1.15) and non-anaemic (1.76 +/- 1.34) dogs were statistically insignificant (p = 0.23), however, the comparison of AST/ALT ratio between azotaemic (2.68 +/- 1.52) and non-azotaemic (1.08 +/- 0.53) dogs revealed a significantly higher value of this index in azotaemic dogs (p = 0.00). The present results suggest that kidney injury contributed to increased AST activity in these dogs. PMID:23214368

Zygner, W; Gójska-Zygner, O; Norbury, L J; Wedrychowicz, H

2012-01-01

320

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D. J.; Mech, L. D.

2009-01-01

321

Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (?13C, ?15N, and ?34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

322

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio-tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and March. We observed no other deer or deer sign, but regularly observed deer, deer sign and wolf-killed deer in adjacent wolf-pack territories. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

2006-01-01

323

Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

2012-01-01

324

Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program. PMID:22006189

Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

2012-05-01

325

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.  

PubMed

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n?=?6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P?

Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

2011-09-01

326

Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.  

PubMed

Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

2014-01-01

327

Characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed red wolf (Canis rufus) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Ejaculates of the red wolf (Canis rufus) were evaluated immediately after collection and freeze-thawing to initiate a reproductive database for this endangered species. Electroejaculates from 13 adult red wolves collected during the breeding season (February-March; n=25; 1-3 collections/male) had a mean volume of 4.7+/-0.7 ml, 146.5+/-25.7 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and 71.2% motile spermatozoa. The mean proportion of cells with normal morphology was 73.6+/-3.2% (range, 20.3-93.7%), with 64% of ejaculates (16/25) containing 70-90% normal spermatozoa. The four most predominant abnormalities were a coiled flagellum (8.1%), a bent flagellum (4.7%), a bent midpiece with no cytoplasmic droplet (3.3%;), and a detached head defect (6.4%). After cooling in glycerolated extender, semen was frozen using a pelleting method on dry ice before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Pellets were thawed in phosphate buffered saline and examined for % sperm motility, normal morphology, viability and intact acrosomes. There was a decline (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (approximately 40%) and percentage of normal sperm (11.9%) after freezing, but no change in the proportion of viable cells. After freezing, there was a marked decline (P < 0.05) in the proportion of intact acrosomes from 74.5% to 55.5% which was accompanied by an increased proportion (P < 0.05) of partial acrosomes from 11.9% to 35.8%. These data demonstrate that, although red wolf spermatozoa can survive freeze-thawing using a technique common for domestic dog sperm, the finding of significant acrosome damage reveals (1) likely species specificity in the Canis genus and (2) the need for refining sperm cryopreservation technology for the red wolf. PMID:9835383

Goodrowe, K L; Hay, M A; Platz, C C; Behrns, S K; Jones, M H; Waddell, W T

1998-10-01

328

The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Methods Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick to attach and start feeding before being killed by the acaricide.

2014-01-01

329

High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus  

PubMed Central

Background Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar) are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12) between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41). Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary. Estimated silent substitution rates were 1.28 × 10-9 and 1.68 × 10-9 per site and year, which are close to rates found in other perennials but much lower than rates in annuals.

2010-01-01

330

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

331

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed. PMID:16884021

Khan, R A; Evans, L

2006-06-01

332

Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains.  

PubMed

A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-?-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

2013-10-01

333

BLM helicase ortholog Sgs1 is a central regulator of meiotic recombination intermediate metabolism.  

PubMed

The BLM helicase has been shown to maintain genome stability by preventing accumulation of aberrant recombination intermediates. We show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLM ortholog, Sgs1, plays an integral role in normal meiotic recombination, beyond its documented activity limiting aberrant recombination intermediates. In wild-type meiosis, temporally and mechanistically distinct pathways produce crossover and noncrossover recombinants. Crossovers form late in meiosis I prophase, by polo kinase-triggered resolution of Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates. Noncrossovers form earlier, via processes that do not involve stable HJ intermediates. In contrast, sgs1 mutants abolish early noncrossover formation. Instead, both noncrossovers and crossovers form by late HJ intermediate resolution, using an alternate pathway requiring the overlapping activities of Mus81-Mms4, Yen1, and Slx1-Slx4, nucleases with minor roles in wild-type meiosis. We conclude that Sgs1 is a primary regulator of recombination pathway choice during meiosis and suggest a similar function in the mitotic cell cycle. PMID:22500736

De Muyt, Arnaud; Jessop, Lea; Kolar, Elizabeth; Sourirajan, Anuradha; Chen, Jianhong; Dayani, Yaron; Lichten, Michael

2012-04-13

334

PXA1, a possible Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of the human adrenoleukodystrophy gene.  

PubMed Central

The adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the human peroxisome membrane. It is defective in X chromosome-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder with impaired peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. We report cloning and characterization of PXA1, a yeast gene encoding a protein (Pxa1p) exhibiting high similarity to ALDp. Disruption of PXA1 results in impaired growth on oleic acid and reduced ability to oxidize oleate. Pxa1p is peroxisome associated; however, in the PXA1 mutant yeast, as in ALD cells, peroxisomes are morphologically intact. Disruption of a second yeast gene, YKL741, which encodes a more distantly related ALDp homolog (Yk174p), in either wild-type or PXA1 mutant yeast, results in a growth phenotype identical to that of the PXA1 mutant. This result suggests that Yk1741p and Pxa1p may be subunits of the same transporter. Sequence analysis of Pxa1p, ALDp, and related ABC transporters reveals a possible fatty acid binding domain and a 14-amino acid EAA-like motif, previously described only in prokaryotes. Because of the similarities in sequence and function, we propose that Pxa1p is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of ALDp. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Shani, N; Watkins, P A; Valle, D

1995-01-01

335

Arabidopsis Has Two Functional Orthologs of the Yeast V-ATPase Assembly Factor Vma21p  

PubMed Central

How individual protein subunits assemble into the higher order structure of a protein complex is not well understood. Four proteins dedicated to the assembly of the V0 subcomplex of the V-ATPase in the ER have been identified in yeast, but their precise mode of molecular action remains to be identified. In contrast to the highly conserved subunits of the V-ATPase, orthologs of the yeast assembly factors are not easily identified based on sequence similarity. We show here that two ER-localized Arabidopsis proteins that share only 25% sequence identity with Vma21p can functionally replace this yeast assembly factor. Loss of AtVMA21a function in RNAi seedlings caused impaired cell expansion and changes in Golgi morphology characteristic for plants with reduced V-ATPase activity, and we therefore conclude that AtVMA21a is the first V-ATPase assembly factor identified in a multicellular eukaryote Moreover, VMA21p acts as a dedicated ER escort chaperone, a class of substrate specific accessory proteins so far not identified in higher plants.

Neubert, Christoph; Graham, Laurie A.; Black-Maier, Eric W.; Coonrod, Emily M.; Liu, Tzu-Yin; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Seidel, Thorsten; Stevens, Tom H.; Schumacher, Karin

2010-01-01

336

Role of yeast Rad5 and its human orthologs, HLTF and SHPRH in DNA damage tolerance.  

PubMed

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad6-Rad18 DNA damage tolerance pathway constitutes a major defense system against replication fork blocking DNA lesions. The Rad6-Rad18 ubiquitin-conjugating/ligase complex governs error-free and error-prone translesion synthesis by specialized DNA polymerases, as well as an error-free Rad5-dependent postreplicative repair pathway. For facilitating replication through DNA lesions, translesion synthesis polymerases copy directly from the damaged template, while the Rad5-dependent damage tolerance pathway obtains information from the newly synthesized strand of the undamaged sister duplex. Although genetic data demonstrate the importance of the Rad5-dependent pathway in tolerating DNA damages, there has been little understanding of its mechanism. Also, the conservation of the yeast Rad5-dependent pathway in higher order eukaryotic cells remained uncertain for a long time. Here we summarize findings published in recent years regarding the role of Rad5 in promoting error-free replication of damaged DNA, and we also discuss results obtained with its human orthologs, HLTF and SHPRH. PMID:20096653

Unk, Ildiko; Hajdú, Ildikó; Blastyák, András; Haracska, Lajos

2010-03-01

337

Sesquiterpene action, and morphogenetic signaling through the ortholog of retinoid X receptor, in higher Diptera.  

PubMed

Morphogenetic signaling by small terpenoid hormones is a common feature of both vertebrate and invertebrate development. Most attention on insect developmental signaling by small terpenoids has focused on signaling by juvenile hormone through bHLH-PAS proteins (e.g., the MET protein), especially as that signaling axis intersects with ecdysteroid action through the receptor EcR. However, a series of endocrine and pharmacological studies on pupariation in cyclorrhaphous Diptera have remained persistently refractory to explanation with the above two-axis model. Recently, the terpenoid compound methyl farnesoate has been physicochemically demonstrated to exist in circulation at physiological concentrations, in several mecopterid orders, including Diptera. In addition, it has also been recently demonstrated that the receptor to which methyl farnesoate binds with nanomolar affinity (ultraspiracle, an ortholog of retinoid X receptor) requires a functioning ligand binding pocket to sustain the morphogenetic transition to puparium formation. This review evaluates endocrine and pharmacological evidence for developmental pathways reached by methyl farnesoate action, and assesses the participation of the retinoid X receptor ligand pocket in signal transduction to those developmental endpoints. PMID:24120505

Jones, Davy; Jones, Grace; Teal, Peter E A

2013-12-01

338

Mutations in orthologous genes in human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and the brachymorphic mouse.  

PubMed

The osteochondrodysplasias are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting skeletal development, linear growth and the maintenance of cartilage and bone. We have studied a large inbred Pakistani family with a distinct form of recessively inherited spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) and mapped a gene associated with this dwarfing condition to chromosome 10q23-24, a region syntenic with the locus for the brachymorphic mutation on mouse chromosome 19. We identified two orthologous genes, ATPSK2 and Atpsk2, encoding novel ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase orthologues in the respective regions of the human and mouse genomes. We characterized a nonsense mutation in ATPSK2 in the SEMD family and a missense mutation in the region of Atpsk2 encoding the APS kinase activity in the brachymorphic mouse. ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase catalyses the metabolic activation of inorganic sulfate to PAPS, the universal donor for post-translational protein sulfation in all cell types. The cartilage-specificity of the human and mouse phenotypes provides further evidence of the critical role of sulfate activation in the maturation of cartilage extracellular matrix molecules and the effect of defects in this process on the architecture of cartilage and skeletogenesis. PMID:9771708

Faiyaz ul Haque, M; King, L M; Krakow, D; Cantor, R M; Rusiniak, M E; Swank, R T; Superti-Furga, A; Haque, S; Abbas, H; Ahmad, W; Ahmad, M; Cohn, D H

1998-10-01

339

CT406 Encodes a Chlamydial Ortholog of NrdR, a Repressor of Ribonucleotide Reductase ?  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatisis an obligate intracellular bacterium that is dependent on its host cell for nucleotides. Chlamydiaimports ribonucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) but not deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and instead uses ribonucleotide reductase to convert imported ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. The genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase have been recently shown to be negatively controlled by a conserved regulator called NrdR. In this study, we provide direct evidence that Escherichia coliNrdR is a transcriptional repressor and that C. trachomatisCT406 encodes its chlamydial ortholog. We showed that CT406 binds specifically to two NrdR boxes upstream of the nrdABoperon in C. trachomatis. Using an in vitrotranscription assay, we confirmed that these NrdR boxes function as an operator since they were necessary and sufficient for CT406-mediated repression. We validated our in vitrofindings with reporter studies in E. colishowing that both E. coliNrdR and CT406 repressed transcription from the E. colinrdHand C. trachomatisnrdABpromoters in vivo. This in vivorepression was reversed by hydroxyurea treatment. Since hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and reduces intracellular deoxyribonucleotide levels, these results suggest that NrdR activity is modulated by a deoxyribonucleotide corepressor.

Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Akers, Johnny C.; Tan, Ming

2011-01-01

340

Isolation of a CONSTANS Ortholog from Pharbitis nil and Its Role in Flowering1  

PubMed Central

The short-day plant Pharbitis nil is a model plant for the study of photoperiodic control of floral initiation. Flower formation can be induced at the cotyledon stage by a single long night of at least 14 h in duration. Using differential display of mRNA we identified a P. nil ortholog of the Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO) gene, which will be referred to as PnCO. Expression of PnCO was high after a 14-h night, but low when the dark period was 12 h or less. Our results indicate that the level of the PnCO transcript is photoperiodically regulated. After transfer from continuous light to darkness, PnCO showed a circadian pattern of expression. Expression of the CAB gene, which is a molecular marker for the circadian clock, exhibited a different pattern of expression than did PnCO and was not subject to the same photoperiodic control. A major portion of the PnCO transcripts contained an unspliced intron. Only the intron-free PnCO was able to complement the co mutant of Arabidopsis by shortening the time to flower.

Liu, Jiayou; Yu, Jianping; McIntosh, Lee; Kende, Hans; Zeevaart, Jan A.D.

2001-01-01

341

Expression of the decapentaplegic ortholog in embryos of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli.  

PubMed

The gene decapentaplegic (dpp) and its homologs are essential for establishing the dorsoventral body axis in arthropods and vertebrates. However, the expression of dpp is not uniform among different arthropod groups. While this gene is expressed along the dorsal body region in insects, its expression occurs in a mesenchymal group of cells called cumulus in the early spider embryo. A cumulus-like structure has also been reported from centipedes, suggesting that it might be either an ancestral feature of arthropods or a derived feature (=synapomorphy) uniting the chelicerates and myriapods. To decide between these two alternatives, we analysed the expression patterns of a dpp ortholog in a representative of one of the closest arthropod relatives, the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed unique expression patterns in the early mesoderm anlagen of the antennal segment and in the dorsal and ventral extra-embryonic tissue, suggesting a divergent role of dpp in these tissues in Onychophora. In contrast, the expression of dpp in the dorsal limb portions resembles that in arthropods, except that it occurs in the mesoderm rather than in the ectoderm of the onychophoran limbs. A careful inspection of embryos of E. rowelli revealed no cumulus-like accumulation of dpp expressing cells at any developmental stage, suggesting that this feature is either a derived feature of chelicerates or a synapomorphy uniting the chelicerates and myriapods. PMID:23872340

Treffkorn, Sandra; Mayer, Georg

2013-12-01

342

High-resolution cardiovascular function confirms functional orthology of myocardial contractility pathways in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Phenotype-driven screens in larval zebrafish have transformed our understanding of the molecular basis of cardiovascular development. Screens to define the genetic determinants of physiological phenotypes have been slow to materialize as a result of the limited number of validated in vivo assays with relevant dynamic range. To enable rigorous assessment of cardiovascular physiology in living zebrafish embryos, we developed a suite of software tools for the analysis of high-speed video microscopic images and validated these, using established cardiomyopathy models in zebrafish as well as modulation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Quantitative analysis in wild-type fish exposed to NO or in a zebrafish model of dilated cardiomyopathy demonstrated that these tools detect significant differences in ventricular chamber size, ventricular performance, and aortic flow velocity in zebrafish embryos across a large dynamic range. These methods also were able to establish the effects of the classic pharmacological agents isoproterenol, ouabain, and verapamil on cardiovascular physiology in zebrafish embryos. Sequence conservation between zebrafish and mammals of key amino acids in the pharmacological targets of these agents correlated with the functional orthology of the physiological response. These data provide evidence that the quantitative evaluation of subtle physiological differences in zebrafish can be accomplished at a resolution and with a dynamic range comparable to those achieved in mammals and provides a mechanism for genetic and small-molecule dissection of functional pathways in this model organism.

Pomerantsev, Eugene V.; Mably, John D.; MacRae, Calum A.

2010-01-01

343

Characterization of human mucin (MUC15) and identification of ovine and caprine orthologs.  

PubMed

The glycoprotein MUC15 (mucin 15) was initially isolated from the bovine milk fat globule membrane. The present work demonstrates the existence of immunologically similar proteins ( approximately 130 kDa) in ovine, caprine, porcine, and buffalo milk samples. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed the presence of ovine and caprine MUC15 orthologs in milk fat globule membranes. Expression of MUC15 in human milk was demonstrated by immunostaining ( approximately 150 kDa) as well as by mass spectrometry. Screening of a human multiple tissue expression array showed abundant MUC15 gene expression in placenta, salivary gland, thyroid gland, trachea, esophagus, kidney, testis, and the leukemia K-562 cell line. Furthermore, moderate expression was seen in the pancreas, adult and fetal lung, fetal kidney, lymph node, adult and fetal thymus, and parietal lobe. Structural motifs for interactions (epidermal growth factor receptor and Src homology 2 domains) are identified in the intracellular region. Implication of the mucin in signal transduction and the potential physiological function of MUC15 are discussed. PMID:19038922

Pallesen, L T; Pedersen, L R L; Petersen, T E; Knudsen, C R; Rasmussen, J T

2008-12-01

344

Detection and Characterization of Megasatellites in Orthologous and Nonorthologous Genes of 21 Fungal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Megasatellites are large DNA tandem repeats, originally described in Candida glabrata, in protein-coding genes. Most of the genes in which megasatellites are found are of unknown function. In this work, we extended the search for megasatellites to 20 additional completely sequenced fungal genomes and extracted 216 megasatellites in 203 out of 142,121 genes, corresponding to the most exhaustive description of such genetic elements available today. We show that half of the megasatellites detected encode threonine-rich peptides predicted to be intrinsically disordered, suggesting that they may interact with several partners or serve as flexible linkers. Megasatellite motifs were clustered into several families. Their distribution in fungal genes shows that different motifs are found in orthologous genes and similar motifs are found in unrelated genes, suggesting that megasatellite formation or spreading does not necessarily track the evolution of their host genes. Altogether, these results suggest that megasatellites are created and lost during evolution of fungal genomes, probably sharing similar functions, although their primary sequences are not necessarily conserved.

Tekaia, Fredj; Dujon, Bernard

2013-01-01

345

Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis Infective Larvae Requires the DAF-16 Ortholog FKTF-1  

PubMed Central

Based on metabolic and morphological similarities between infective third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes and dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans, it is hypothesized that similar genetic mechanisms control the development of these forms. In the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, FKTF-1 is an ortholog of DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor that regulates dauer larval development in C. elegans. Using transgenesis, we investigated the role of FKTF-1 in S. stercoralis' infective larval development. In first-stage larvae, GFP-tagged recombinant FKTF-1b localizes to the pharynx and hypodermis, tissues remodeled in infective larvae. Activating and inactivating mutations at predicted AKT phosphorylation sites on FKTF-1b give constitutive cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the protein, respectively, indicating that its post-translational regulation is similar to other FOXO-class transcription factors. Mutant constructs designed to interfere with endogenous FKTF-1b function altered the intestinal and pharyngeal development of the larvae and resulted in some transgenic larvae failing to arrest in the infective stage. Our findings indicate that FKTF-1b is required for proper morphogenesis of S. stercoralis infective larvae and support the overall hypothesis of similar regulation of dauer development in C. elegans and the formation of infective larvae in parasitic nematodes.

Castelletto, Michelle L.; Massey, Holman C.; Lok, James B.

2009-01-01

346

Analysis of orthologous groups reveals archease and DDX1 as tRNA splicing factors.  

PubMed

RNA ligases have essential roles in many cellular processes in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria, including in RNA repair and stress-induced splicing of messenger RNA. In archaea and eukaryotes, RNA ligases also have a role in transfer RNA splicing to generate functional tRNAs required for protein synthesis. We recently identified the human tRNA splicing ligase, a multimeric protein complex with RTCB (also known as HSPC117, C22orf28, FAAP and D10Wsu52e) as the essential subunit. The functions of the additional complex components ASW (also known as C2orf49), CGI-99 (also known as C14orf166), FAM98B and the DEAD-box helicase DDX1 in the context of RNA ligation have remained unclear. Taking advantage of clusters of eukaryotic orthologous groups, here we find that archease (ARCH; also known as ZBTB8OS), a protein of unknown function, is required for full activity of the human tRNA ligase complex and, in cooperation with DDX1, facilitates the formation of an RTCB-guanylate intermediate central to mammalian RNA ligation. Our findings define a role for DDX1 in the context of the human tRNA ligase complex and suggest that the widespread co-occurrence of archease and RtcB proteins implies evolutionary conservation of their functional interplay. PMID:24870230

Popow, Johannes; Jurkin, Jennifer; Schleiffer, Alexander; Martinez, Javier

2014-07-01

347

Identification of novel human damage response proteins targeted through yeast orthology.  

PubMed

Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for cellular survival after treatment with DNA damaging agents. For this purpose, human homologs of S. cerevisiae proteins were identified and mapped onto the human protein-protein interaction network. The resulting human network was highly modular and a series of selection rules were implemented to identify 45 candidates for human toxicity-modulating proteins. The corresponding transcripts were targeted by RNA interference in human cells. The cell lines with depleted target expression were challenged with three DNA damaging agents: the alkylating agents MMS and 4-NQO, and the oxidizing agent t-BuOOH. A comparison of the survival revealed that the majority (74%) of proteins conferred either sensitivity or resistance. The identified human toxicity-modulating proteins represent a variety of biological functions: autophagy, chromatin modifications, RNA and protein metabolism, and telomere maintenance. Further studies revealed that MMS-induced autophagy increase the survival of cells treated with DNA damaging agents. In summary, we show that damage recovery proteins in humans can be identified through homology to S. cerevisiae and that many of the same pathways are represented among the toxicity modulators. PMID:22615993

Svensson, J Peter; Fry, Rebecca C; Wang, Emma; Somoza, Luis A; Samson, Leona D

2012-01-01

348

Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling mediates phosphorylation of polycomb ortholog Cbx7.  

PubMed

Cbx7 is one of five mammalian orthologs of the Drosophila Polycomb. Cbx7 recognizes methylated lysine residues on the histone H3 tail and contributes to gene silencing in the context of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). However, our knowledge of Cbx7 post-translational modifications remains limited. Through combined biochemical and mass spectrometry approaches, we report a novel phosphorylation site on mouse Cbx7 at residue Thr-118 (Cbx7T118ph), near the highly conserved Polycomb box. The generation of a site-specific antibody to Cbx7T118ph demonstrates that Cbx7 is phosphorylated via MAPK signaling. Furthermore, we find Cbx7T118 phosphorylation in murine mammary carcinoma cells, which can be blocked by MEK inhibitors. Upon EGF stimulation, Cbx7 interacts robustly with other members of PRC1. To test the role of Cbx7T118 phosphorylation in gene silencing, we employed a RAS-induced senescence model system. We demonstrate that Cbx7T118 phosphorylation moderately enhances repression of its target gene p16. In summary, we have identified and characterized a novel MAPK-mediated phosphorylation site on Cbx7 and propose that mitogen signaling to the chromatin template regulates PRC1 function. PMID:24194518

Wu, Hsan-au; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Chandler, Hollie; Georgilis, Athena; Zullow, Hayley; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Gil, Jesus; Peters, Gordon; Bernstein, Emily

2013-12-20

349

Detection and characterization of megasatellites in orthologous and nonorthologous genes of 21 fungal genomes.  

PubMed

Megasatellites are large DNA tandem repeats, originally described in Candida glabrata, in protein-coding genes. Most of the genes in which megasatellites are found are of unknown function. In this work, we extended the search for megasatellites to 20 additional completely sequenced fungal genomes and extracted 216 megasatellites in 203 out of 142,121 genes, corresponding to the most exhaustive description of such genetic elements available today. We show that half of the megasatellites detected encode threonine-rich peptides predicted to be intrinsically disordered, suggesting that they may interact with several partners or serve as flexible linkers. Megasatellite motifs were clustered into several families. Their distribution in fungal genes shows that different motifs are found in orthologous genes and similar motifs are found in unrelated genes, suggesting that megasatellite formation or spreading does not necessarily track the evolution of their host genes. Altogether, these results suggest that megasatellites are created and lost during evolution of fungal genomes, probably sharing similar functions, although their primary sequences are not necessarily conserved. PMID:23543670

Tekaia, Fredj; Dujon, Bernard; Richard, Guy-Franck

2013-06-01

350

Transmission of Toxocara canis via Ingestion of Raw Cow Liver: A Cross-Sectional Study in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to ascertain the relationship between ingestion of raw cow liver and Toxocara canis infection. A total of 150 apparently healthy adults were divided into 2 groups; 1 group consisted of 86 adults with positive results of Toxocara ELISA, and the other group of 64 adults with negative results. One researcher collected the history of ingestion of raw cow liver within 1 year and recent history of keeping dogs. Among 86 seropositive adults for T. canis, 68 (79.1%) had a recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that a recent ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs were related to an increased risk of toxocariasis (odds ratios, 4.4 and 3.7; and 95% confidence intervals, 1.9-10.2 and 1.2-11.6, respectively). A recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs was significantly associated with toxocariasis.

Choi, Dongil; Choi, Dong-Chull; Lee, Kyung Soo; Paik, Seung Woon; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Huh, Sun

2012-01-01

351

Transmission of Toxocara canis via ingestion of raw cow liver: a cross-sectional study in healthy adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to ascertain the relationship between ingestion of raw cow liver and Toxocara canis infection. A total of 150 apparently healthy adults were divided into 2 groups; 1 group consisted of 86 adults with positive results of Toxocara ELISA, and the other group of 64 adults with negative results. One researcher collected the history of ingestion of raw cow liver within 1 year and recent history of keeping dogs. Among 86 seropositive adults for T. canis, 68 (79.1%) had a recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that a recent ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs were related to an increased risk of toxocariasis (odds ratios, 4.4 and 3.7; and 95% confidence intervals, 1.9-10.2 and 1.2-11.6, respectively). A recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs was significantly associated with toxocariasis. PMID:22451730

Choi, Dongil; Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Dong-Chull; Lee, Kyung Soo; Paik, Seung Woon; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Huh, Sun

2012-03-01

352

A comparison of the protein constituents of the major body compartments of the dog roundworm, Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

An analysis of the protein profiles of intact worms and isolated tissues of adult male and female Toxocara canis worms was conducted. Soluble proteins recovered from homogenized whole specimens and dissected tissues (body wall, reproductive tract, esophagus and intestine) of T. canis adults from several different canine hosts were separated by size using gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and visualized with silver staining. SDS-PAGE profiles of worms from different hosts were found to be virtually identical irrespective of sex or tissue type. Recovered proteins ranged in size from 3.4 to 325 kDa. As expected, variations existed between the protein profiles of different body tissues, with only slight variations between the sexes. The largest number of recovered proteins was present in the female reproductive tract extracts. PMID:17949909

Sun, Tiffany; Bellosa, Mary L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Ho, Dean S; Bowman, Dwight D

2007-11-30

353

Selection of rendezvous sites and reuse of pup raising areas among wolves Canis lupus of north-eastern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coarse scale analysis was carried out of factors affecting rendezvous site selection and fidelity to pup raising areas in\\u000a wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 packs inhabiting the north eastern Apennines, Italy. From 1993 to 2004, 44 rendezvous sites were identified,\\u000a and compared with random sites for variables related to topography, habitat, and human presence. Rendezvous sites were significantly\\u000a more frequent

Claudia Capitani; Luca Mattioli; Elisa Avanzinelli; Andrea Gazzola; Paolo Lamberti; Lorenza Mauri; Massimo Scandura; Alessia Viviani; Marco Apollonio

2006-01-01

354

Efficacy of Emodepside plus Toltrazuril (Procox ® Oral Suspension for Dogs) against Toxocara canis , Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma caninum in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Pro-and between 4 and 655 worms for hookworms. The cox® oral suspension for dogs) against different studies demonstrated 100 % efficacy of emodepside\\/ species of gastrointestinal\\u000a nematodes (Toxocara toltrazuril suspension against mature adult, ?94.7% canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria steno-efficacy against immature adult and 99.3 % efficacy cephala) was evaluated in nine randomised, against the

Annette Schimmel; Iris Schroeder; Gertraut Altreuther; Terry Settje; Samuel Charles; Sonja Wolken; Dawid J. Kok; Jennifer Ketzis; David Young; Douglas Hutchens; Klemens J. Krieger

2011-01-01

355

Encounter frequencies between GPS-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) and moose ( Alces alces ) in a Scandinavian wolf territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 6,000 GPS fixes from two wolves (Canis lupus) and 30,000 GPS fixes from five moose (Alces alces) in a wolf territory in southern Scandinavia were used to assess the static and dynamic interactions between predator and\\u000a prey individuals. Our results showed that wolves were closer to some of the moose when inside their home ranges than expected\\u000a if they

Ane Eriksen; Petter Wabakken; Barbara Zimmermann; Harry P. Andreassen; Jon M. Arnemo; Hege Gundersen; Jos M. Milner; Olof Liberg; John Linnell; Hans C. Pedersen; Hĺkan Sand; Erling J. Solberg; Torstein Storaas

2009-01-01

356

A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures: I. Kinematics of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures that\\u000awe undertook with the 2dF spectrograph on the AAT, we present the radial\\u000avelocities of more than 1500 Red Giant Branch and Red Clump stars towards the\\u000acentre of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. With a mean velocity of 72\\\\pm7 km\\/s at\\u000aa Heliocentric distance of 5.5

N. F. Martin; R. A. Ibata; B. C. Conn; G. F. Lewis; M. Bellazzini; M. J. Irwin

2005-01-01

357

A Spherical Non-LTE Line-blanketed Stellar Atmosphere Model of the Early B Giant epsilon Canis Majoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a spherical non-LTE fully line-blanketed model atmosphere to fit the full multiwavelength spectrum, including the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) continuum observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, of the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (CMa). The available spectrophotometry of epsilon CMa from 350 Angstroms to 25 mu m is best fitted with model parameters Teff = 21,750 K, log g

J. P. Aufdenberg; P. H. Hauschildt; S. N. Shore; E. Baron

1998-01-01

358

How do guide dogs and pet dogs ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for their toy and for playing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When apes are not fully understood by humans, they persist with attempts to communicate, elaborating their behaviours to better\\u000a convey their meaning. Such abilities have never been investigated in dogs. The present study aimed to clarify any effect of\\u000a the visual attentional state of the owner on dogs’ (Canis familiaris) social-communicative signals for interacting with humans, and to determine whether

Florence Gaunet

2010-01-01

359

How do guide dogs of blind owners and pet dogs of sighted owners ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during human–dog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear.\\u000a Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted\\u000a owners, respectively, is one way to tackle this problem; more

Florence Gaunet

2008-01-01

360

Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

Sovada, M. A.; Telesco, D. J.; Roy, C. C.

2000-01-01

361

Urine-marking and ground-scratching by free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in summer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.

Mech, L. D.

2006-01-01

362

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

2011-01-01

363

A study of the efficacy of topical and systemic therapy for the treatment of feline Microsporum canis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsporum canis infection was induced in 21 healthy SPF-derived cats. Once infection was established (4 weeks after inoculation) the cats were divided into three equal groups housed in separate rooms and monitored for 16 weeks. During this time, group A cats received oral griseofulvin at approximately 50mg\\/kg daily and were shampooed twice weekly with a product containing chlorhexidine and miconazole.

AH Sparkes; A Robinson; AD MacKay; SE Shau

2000-01-01

364

Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland.  

PubMed

The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in W??e 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from W??e 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in W??e 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals. PMID:24969730

Ivanoff, Dmitry V; Wolsan, Mieczys?aw; Marciszak, Adrian

2014-08-01

365

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2008-04-01

366

Dogs with Hepatozoon canis respond to the oxidative stress by increased production of glutathione and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon spp. It has been reported in the United States, southern Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the Far East. In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis was reported for the first time in 1933. In the present study, serum glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and ceruloplasmin levels were analysed in 14 dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis as well as in 10 healthy dogs. Blood smears were prepared from peripheral blood and ticks were collected for identification in the laboratory. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was found only on diseased dogs. No ticks were observed on healthy dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis is made mainly by the detection of gametocytes within neutrophils and monocytes. The haematological diagnosis was confirmed using PCR analyses by amplifying a partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of Hepatozoon spp. Infection was detected in 14 animals. Compared to controls, the serum GSH, MDA and NO levels in infected animals increased significantly (p<0.05, <0.01 for MDA), whereas the concentrations of ceruloplasmin in diseased animals remained unaltered. The results of the present study suggest that in dogs infected with H. canis increased levels of GSH, MDA and NO may be related to host's defences against parasitic infection. PMID:15936891

Kiral, Funda; Karagenc, Tulin; Pasa, Serdar; Yenisey, Cigdem; Seyrek, Kamil

2005-07-15

367

Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia afzelii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in hard ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw (central Poland).  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to specify the occurrence and prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw, and to determine the Borrelia species occurring in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 590 collected ticks, 209 were identified as I. ricinus, and 381 as Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of B. canis was detected in 11% of D. reticulatus ticks. We found that 6.2% of I. ricinus ticks harbored B. burgdorferi s.l. specific DNA and 2.9% harbored A. phagocytophilum DNA. In these samples sequencing of the detected Borrelia amplicon confirmed infection with Borrelia afzelii genospecies. New sequences were submitted to the GenBank database (accession no. EU152128, EU152127, EU152126). This work is the first detection of B. afzelii and A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Warsaw, and the first survey for the prevalence of B. canis, B. afzelii, and A. phagocytophilum in ticks in central Poland. PMID:18328630

Zygner, Wojciech; Jaros, S?awomir; Wedrychowicz, Halina

2008-05-01

368

In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of some essential oils against feline isolates of Microsporum canis.  

PubMed

The treatment of dermatophytoses due to Microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. Volatile essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. The anti-M. canis activity of some EOs chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Eleven feline isolates of M. canis were tested by microdilution against EOs extracted from Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Illicium verum and Citrus limon. A mixture composed by 5% O. vulgare, 5% R. officinalis and 2% T. serpillum, in sweet almond oil was administered to seven infected, symptomatic cats. T. serpillum and O. vulgare showed the lowest MICs, followed by I. verum, R. officinalis and C. limon. The assay performed on mixture showed that antimycotic activity of each component was enhanced. Four out of seven treated cats recovered both clinically and culturally. T. serpillum and O. vulgare EOs showed a strong antifungal activity. Preliminary data suggest a possible application in managing feline microsporiasis. Considering the potential zoonotic impact of this infection, the use of alternative antimycotic compounds would be of aid to limit the risk of environmental spreading of arthrospores. PMID:23518021

Mugnaini, L; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Leonardi, M; Pisseri, F; Mancianti, F

2012-06-01

369

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event.

2012-01-01

370

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

371

Identification and characterization of orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Improving crop species by breeding for salt tolerance or introducing salt tolerant traits is one method of increasing crop yields in saline affected areas. Extensive studies of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has led to the availability of substantial information regarding the function and importance of many genes involved in salt tolerance. However, the identification and characterization of A. thaliana orthologs in species such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape) can prove difficult due to the significant genomic changes that have occurred since their divergence approximately 20 million years ago (MYA). The recently released Brassica rapa genome provides an excellent resource for comparative studies of A. thaliana and the cultivated Brassica species, and facilitates the identification of Brassica species orthologs which may be of agronomic importance. Sodium hydrogen antiporter (NHX) proteins transport a sodium or potassium ion in exchange for a hydrogen ion in the other direction across a membrane. In A. thaliana there are eight members of the NHX family, designated AtNHX1-8, that can be sub-divided into three clades, based on their subcellular localization: plasma membrane (PM), intracellular class I (IC-I) and intracellular class II (IC-II). In plants, many NHX proteins are primary determinants of salt tolerance and act by transporting Na+ out of the cytosol where it would otherwise accumulate to toxic levels. Significant work has been done to determine the role of both PM and IC-I clade members in salt tolerance in a variety of plant species, but relatively little analysis has been described for the IC-II clade. Here we describe the identification of B. napus orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, using the B. rapa genome sequence, macro- and micro-synteny analysis, comparative expression and promoter motif analysis, and highlight the value of these multiple approaches for identifying true orthologs in closely related species with multiple paralogs.

Ford, Brett A.; Ernest, Joanne R.; Gendall, Anthony R.

2012-01-01

372

Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic ad- aptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (21.86 to 1°C) and three South American (4 to 10°C) noto- thenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American

PETER A. FIELDS; GEORGE N. SOMERO

1998-01-01

373

Highly diverged homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial mRNA-specific translational activators have orthologous functions in other budding yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Translation of mitochondrially coded mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on membrane-bound mRNA-specific activator proteins, whose targets lie in the mRNA 5'-untranslated leaders (5'-UTLs). In at least some cases, the activators function to localize translation of hydrophobic proteins on the inner membrane and are rate limiting for gene expression. We searched unsuccessfully in divergent budding yeasts for orthologs of the COX2- and COX3-specific translational activator genes, PET111, PET54, PET122, and PET494, by direct complementation. However, by screening for complementation of mutations in genes adjacent to the PET genes in S. cerevisiae, we obtained chromosomal segments containing highly diverged homologs of PET111 and PET122 from Saccharomyces kluyveri and of PET111 from Kluyveromyces lactis. All three of these genes failed to function in S. cerevisiae. We also found that the 5'-UTLs of the COX2 and COX3 mRNAs of S. kluyveri and K. lactis have little similarity to each other or to those of S. cerevisiae. To determine whether the PET111 and PET122 homologs carry out orthologous functions, we deleted them from the S. kluyveri genome and deleted PET111 from the K. lactis genome. The pet111 mutations in both species prevented COX2 translation, and the S. kluyveri pet122 mutation prevented COX3 translation. Thus, while the sequences of these translational activator proteins and their 5'-UTL targets are highly diverged, their mRNA-specific functions are orthologous.

Costanzo, M C; Bonnefoy, N; Williams, E H; Clark-Walker, G D; Fox, T D

2000-01-01

374

Determination of transmembrane topology of the Escherichia coli natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) ortholog.  

PubMed

The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) defines a conserved family of secondary metal transporters. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the Nramp family revealed the early duplication of an ancestral eukaryotic Nramp gene, which was likely derived from a bacterial ortholog and characterized as a proton-dependent manganese transporter MntH (Makui, H., Roig, E., Cole, S. T., Helmann, J. D., Gros, P., and Cellier, M. F. (2000) Mol. Microbiol. 35, 1065-1078). Escherichia coli MntH represents a model of choice to study structure function relationship in the Nramp protein family. Here, we report E. coli MntH transmembrane topology using a combination of in silico predictions, genetic fusion with cytoplasmic and periplasmic reporters, and MntH functional assays. Constructs of the secreted form of beta-lactamase (Blam) revealed extra loops between transmembrane domains 1/2, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10, and placed the C terminus periplasmically; chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs indicated cytoplasmic loops 2/3, 6/7, 8/9, and 10/11. Two intra loops for which no data were produced (N terminus, intra loop 4/5) both display composition bias supporting their deduced localization. The extra loops 5/6 and 6/7 and periplasmic exposure of the C terminus were confirmed by targeted reporter insertion. Three of them preserved MntH function as measured by a disk assay of divalent metal uptake and a fluorescence assay of divalent metal-dependent proton transport, whereas a truncated form lacking transmembrane domain 11 was inactive. These results demonstrate that EcoliA is a type III integral membrane protein with 11 transmembrane domains transporting both divalent metal ions and protons. PMID:14607838

Courville, Pascal; Chaloupka, Roman; Veyrier, Frédéric; Cellier, Mathieu F M

2004-01-30

375

Identification of dAven, a Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of the cell cycle regulator Aven  

PubMed Central

Aven is a regulator of the DNA damage response and G2/M cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Aven is associated with poor prognosis in patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, and altered intracellular Aven distribution is associated with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and papillary carcinoma breast cancer subtypes. Although Aven orthologs have been identified in most vertebrate species, no Aven gene has been reported in invertebrates. Here, we describe a Drosophila melanogaster open reading frame (ORF) that shares sequence and functional similarities with vertebrate Aven genes. The protein encoded by this ORF, which we named dAven, contains several domains that are highly conserved among Aven proteins of fish, amphibian, bird and mammalian origins. In flies, knockdown of dAven by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in lethality when its expression was reduced either ubiquitously or in fat cells using Gal4 drivers. Animals undergoing moderate dAven knockdown in the fat body had smaller fat cells displaying condensed chromosomes and increased levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 (PHH3), suggesting that dAven was required for normal cell cycle progression in this tissue. Remarkably, expression of dAven in Xenopus egg extracts resulted in G2/M arrest that was comparable to that caused by human Aven. Taken together, these results suggest that, like its vertebrate counterparts, dAven plays a role in cell cycle regulation. Drosophila could be an excellent model for studying the function of Aven and identifying cellular factors that influence its activity, revealing information that may be relevant to human disease.

Zou, Sige; Chang, Joy; LaFever, Leesa; Tang, Wangli; Johnson, Erika L; Hu, Jack; Wilk, Ronit; Krause, Henry M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

2011-01-01

376

Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.  

PubMed

Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1311bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6. PMID:24952136

Wei, Fei; Li, Min; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Wen, Liang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Shuai, Jie

2014-08-15

377

Functional analysis of cotton orthologs of GA signal transduction factors GID1 and SLR1.  

PubMed

Gibberellic acid (GA) is both necessary and sufficient to promote fiber elongation in cultured fertilized ovules of the upland cotton variety Coker 312. This is likely due to the temporal and spatial regulation of GA biosynthesis, perception, and subsequent signal transduction that leads to alterations in gene expression and morphology. Our results indicate that the initiation of fiber elongation by the application of GA to cultured ovules corresponds with increased expression of genes that encode xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin (EXP) that are involved in promoting cell elongation. To gain a better understanding of the GA signaling components in cotton, that lead to such changes in gene expression, two GA receptor genes (GhGID1a and GhGID1b) and two DELLA protein genes (GhSLR1a and GhSLR1b) that are orthologous to the rice GA receptor (GID1) and the rice DELLA gene (SLR1), respectively, were characterized. Similar to the GA biosynthetic genes, expression of GhGID1a and GhGID1b is under the negative regulation by GA while GA positively regulates GhSLR1a. Recombinant GST-GhGID1s showed GA-binding activity in vitro that was augmented in the presence of GhSLR1a, GhSLR1b, or rice SLR1, indicating complex formation between the receptors and repressor proteins. This was further supported by the GA-dependent interaction of these proteins in yeast cells. Ectopic expression of the GhGID1a in the rice gid1-3 mutant plants rescued the GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype, which demonstrates that it is a functional GA receptor. Furthermore, ectopic expression of GhSLR1b in wild type Arabidopsis led to reduced growth and upregulated expression of DELLA-responsive genes. PMID:18506581

Aleman, Lorenzo; Kitamura, Jun; Abdel-mageed, Haggag; Lee, Joohyun; Sun, Yan; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Allen, Randy D

2008-09-01

378

Enhancing the prediction of protein pairings between interacting families using orthology information  

PubMed Central

Background It has repeatedly been shown that interacting protein families tend to have similar phylogenetic trees. These similarities can be used to predicting the mapping between two families of interacting proteins (i.e. which proteins from one family interact with which members of the other). The correct mapping will be that which maximizes the similarity between the trees. The two families may eventually comprise orthologs and paralogs, if members of the two families are present in more than one organism. This fact can be exploited to restrict the possible mappings, simply by impeding links between proteins of different organisms. We present here an algorithm to predict the mapping between families of interacting proteins which is able to incorporate information regarding orthologues, or any other assignment of proteins to "classes" that may restrict possible mappings. Results For the first time in methods for predicting mappings, we have tested this new approach on a large number of interacting protein domains in order to statistically assess its performance. The method accurately predicts around 80% in the most favourable cases. We also analysed in detail the results of the method for a well defined case of interacting families, the sensor and kinase components of the Ntr-type two-component system, for which up to 98% of the pairings predicted by the method were correct. Conclusion Based on the well established relationship between tree similarity and interactions we developed a method for predicting the mapping between two interacting families using genomic information alone. The program is available through a web interface.

Izarzugaza, Jose MG; Juan, David; Pons, Carles; Pazos, Florencio; Valencia, Alfonso

2008-01-01

379

The Complexity of Vesicle Transport Factors in Plants Examined by Orthology Search  

PubMed Central

Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the ‘core-set’ of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed.

Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

2014-01-01

380

Protein-protein interactions and substrate channeling in orthologous and chimeric aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes.  

PubMed

Bacterial aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes catalyze the last steps in the meta cleavage pathway of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The aldolase (TTHB246) and dehydrogenase (TTHB247) from Thermus thermophilus were separately expressed and purified from recombinant Escherichia coli. The aldolase forms a dimer, while the dehydrogenase is a monomer; these enzymes can form a stable tetrameric complex in vitro, consisting of two aldolase and two dehydrogenase subunits. Upon complex formation, the K(m) value of 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate, the substrate of TTHB246, is decreased 4-fold while the K(m) of acetaldehyde, the substrate of TTHB247, is increased 3-fold. The k(cat) values of each enzyme were reduced by ~2-fold when they were in a complex. The half-life of TTHB247 at 50 °C increased by ~4-fold when it was in a complex with TTHB246. The acetaldehyde product from TTHB246 could be efficiently channelled directly to TTHB247, but the channeling efficiency for the larger propionaldehyde was ~40% lower. A single A324G substitution in TTHB246 increased the channeling efficiency of propionaldehyde to a value comparable to that of acetaldehyde. Stable and catalytically competent chimeric complexes could be formed between the T. thermophilus enzymes and the orthologous aldolase (BphI) and dehydrogenase (BphJ) from the biphenyl degradation pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. However, channeling efficiencies for acetaldehyde in these chimeric complexes were ~10%. Structural and sequence analysis suggests that interacting residues in the interface of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex are highly conserved among homologues, but coevolution of partner enzymes is required to fine-tune this interaction to allow for efficient substrate channeling. PMID:22316175

Baker, Perrin; Hillis, Colleen; Carere, Jason; Seah, Stephen Y K

2012-03-01

381

Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia canis) in dogs from Romania.  

PubMed

Tick-borne diseases are of great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania there is only limited information regarding the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs. In all, 1146 serum samples were tested by SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen. The correlation between positive cases and their geographic distribution, as well as potential risk factors (age, sex, breed, type of dog, habitat, and prophylactic treatments) were evaluated. Overall, 129 dogs (11.3%) were serologically-positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. The seroprevalence for the four infectious agents were: A. phagocytophilum 5.5% (63/1146), D. immitis 3.3% (38/1146), E. canis 2.1% (24/1146), and B. burgdorferi 0.5% (6/1146). Co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was registered in 2 dogs (0.2%). The geographical distribution of the seropositive cases suggests clustered foci in southern regions and in the western part of the country for D. immitis, and in the southeastern region (Constan?a County) for E. canis. A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi showed a homogenous distribution, with a tendency for Lyme-positive samples to concentrate in central Romania. For D. immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and E. canis, administering prophylactic treatments was a risk factor associated with infection. Another associated risk factor was the type of dog (stray dogs were at risk being positive for D. immitis, shelter dogs for E. canis, and hunting dogs for B. burgdorferi). The prevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher in males and in dogs older than 2 years. This survey represents the first data detailing A. phagocytophilum and E. canis seroprevalence in Romanian dogs, and the most comprehensive epidemiological study on vector-borne infections in dogs from this country. PMID:22607068

Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Györke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Jodies, Robert; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Cozma, Vasile

2012-07-01

382

Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  

PubMed

From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against CPV. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was associated with the age of the coyote, with 88%, 54%, 23%, and 0% prevalence among adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Prevalence of CDV antibodies declined over time from 100% in 1989 to 33% in 1992. The prevalence of canine infectious hepatitis (ICH) virus antibodies was 97%, 82%, 54%, and 33%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. The percentage of coyotes with ICH virus antibodies also declined over time from a high of 100% in 1989 to 31% in 1992, and 42% in 1993. Prevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 86%, 33%, 80%, and 7%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively, and changed over time from 57% in 1991 to 0% in 1993. The prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis was 21%, 17%, 10%, and 20%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. No coyotes had serologic evidence of exposure to brucellosis, either Brucella abortus or Brucella canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months of life; eight of 21 transmitted pups died of CPV infection in 1992. The potential impact of these canine pathogens on wolves (C. lupus) reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park remains to be documented. PMID:9027690

Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

1997-01-01

383

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

Dubey, J. P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N. J.; Wong, S. K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

2003-01-01

384

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT > or =1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) [corrected] 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus). PMID:14580799

Dubey, J P; Zarnke, R; Thomas, N J; Wong, S K; Van Bonn, W; Briggs, M; Davis, J W; Ewing, R; Mense, M; Kwok, O C H; Romand, S; Thulliez, P

2003-10-30

385

Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant reduction of 91.8% was achieved against C. canis on dogs. Thus, these studies demonstrated that a single topical unit dose of selamectin was highly effective against adult fleas on dogs and cats for at least 27 days. PMID:10940521

McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

2000-08-23

386

Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the isolation and characterization of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining genes Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx). Fragments of the Sxl and dsx orthologous were isolated with RT-PCR. Genomic and cDNA clones were then obtained by screening a genomic library and separate male and female cDNA adult libraries using the

Dimitrios Lagos; M. Fernanda Ruiz; Lucas Sánchez; Katia Komitopoulou

2005-01-01

387

First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

PubMed Central

Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species.

Monzon, Javier

2014-01-01

388

Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

2014-07-01

389

NO EXCESS OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE CANIS MAJOR OVERDENSITY  

SciTech Connect

Our multi-epoch survey of {approx}20 deg{sup 2} of the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity has detected only 10 RR Lyrae stars (RRLS). We show that this number is consistent with the number expected from the Galactic halo and thick disk populations alone, leaving no excess that can be attributed to the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy that some authors have proposed as the origin of the CMa overdensity. If this galaxy resembles the dSph satellites of the Milky Way (MW) and of M31 and has the putative M{sub V} {approx} -14.5, our survey should have detected several tens of RRLS. Even if M{sub V} {approx}< -12, the expected excess is {approx}>10, which is not observed. Either the old stellar population of this galaxy has unique properties or, as others have argued before, the CMa overdensity is produced by the thin and thick disk and spiral arm populations of the MW and not by a collision with a dSph satellite galaxy.

Mateu, Cecilia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Abad, Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones de AstronomIa (CIDA), Apartado Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)], E-mail: cmateu@cida.ve, E-mail: vivas@cida.ve, E-mail: abad@cida.ve, E-mail: robert.zinn@yale.edu, E-mail: miller@astro.yale.edu

2009-05-15

390

Canis lupus familiaris involved in the transmission of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in China.  

PubMed

To investigate canines carrying pathogens associated with human illness, we studied their roles in transmitting and maintaining pathogenic Yersinia spp. We examined different ecological landscapes in China for the distribution of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in Canis lupus familiaris, the domestic dog. The highest number of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was shown from the tonsils (6.30%), followed by rectal swabs (3.63%) and feces (1.23%). Strains isolated from plague free areas for C. lupus familiaris, local pig and diarrhea patients shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, indicating they may be from the same clone and the close transmission source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica infections in these areas. Among 226 dogs serum samples collected from natural plague areas of Yersinia pestis in Gansu and Qinghai Provinces, 49 were positive for F1 antibody, while the serum samples collected from plague free areas were all negative, suggested a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs. No Y. enterocolitica or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from canine rectal swabs in natural plague areas. Therefore, pathogenic Yersinia spp. may be regionally distributed in China. PMID:24861841

Wang, Xin; Liang, Junrong; Xi, Jinxiao; Yang, Jinchuan; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Li, Jicheng; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Duan, Ran; Yang, Haoshu; Li, Kewei; Cui, Zhigang; Qi, Meiying; Jing, Huaiqi

2014-08-01

391

Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.  

PubMed

To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23439290

Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-01

392

Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values obtained from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P < 0.05) lower sodium, chloride, and creatinine concentrations and significantly higher potassium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations; BUN to creatinine ratios; and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities relative to captive wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured. PMID:10065853

Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

1998-12-01

393

Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts. PMID:12790409

Federoff, N E

2001-03-01

394

Susceptibility of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) to infection with the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

Four juvenile gray wolves (Canis lupus) were inoculated with live Borrelia burgdorferi. One received an intravenous inoculum, a second was inoculated subcutaneously, and two more were fed Peromyscus maniculatus sucklings which had earlier been inoculated with B. burgdorferi. The intravenously inoculated wolf developed a generalized lymphadenopathy and a persistent serum antibody titer to the spirochete which peaked at 1:512. Borrelia burgdorferi was visualized in liver sections of this wolf using direct immunofluorescent staining. The subcutaneously inoculated wolf showed a low and transient antibody response which peaked at 1:64, and manifested no clinical or postmortem abnormalities. The wolves which were fed inoculated mice showed no detectable antibody response. They were clinically normal throughout the project, and there were no detectable lesions at necropsy. Two control wolves were inoculated intravenously with formalin killed B. burgdorferi. Serum antibody titers of these controls peaked at 1:64 and 1:32, respectively, and fell to 1:16 by day 48 postinoculation. A survey of serum samples from 78 wild-trapped wolves from Wisconsin and Minnesota revealed that one was positive and another was suspect for B. burgdorferi infection based on presence of antibody to the spirochete. We conclude that the wolf is susceptible to infection by B. burgdorferi and that wolves are being infected in the wild. PMID:3411709

Kazmierczak, J J; Burgess, E C; Amundson, T E

1988-07-01

395

Can domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use referential emotional expressions to locate hidden food?  

PubMed

Although many studies have investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) use of human communicative cues, little is known about their use of humans' emotional expressions. We conducted a study following the general paradigm of Repacholi in Dev Psychol 34:1017-1025, (1998) and tested four breeds of dogs in the laboratory and another breed in the open air. In our study, a human reacted emotionally (happy, neutral or disgust) to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the dog was then allowed to choose one of the boxes. Dogs tested in the laboratory distinguished between the most distinct of the expressed emotions (Happy-Disgust condition) by choosing appropriately, but performed at chance level when the two emotions were less distinct (Happy-Neutral condition). The breed tested in the open air passed both conditions, but this breed's differing testing setup might have been responsible for their success. Although without meaningful emotional expressions, when given a choice, these subjects chose randomly, their performance did not differ from that in the experimental conditions. Based on the findings revealed in the laboratory, we suggest that some domestic dogs recognize both the directedness and the valence of some human emotional expressions. PMID:22960805

Buttelmann, David; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

396

Hemispheric specialization in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) for processing different types of acoustic stimuli.  

PubMed

Lateralization is considered to be a fundamental feature of vertebrate brains. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of functional cerebral asymmetry on processing of auditory stimuli in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) during the orientation reaction. The experiment was conducted on 46 dogs (25 females and 21 males). Four types of auditory stimuli were used in the experiment (three meaningful stimuli: cat meowing, dog barking, the "sit" command ("siad" in Polish), and a neutral word ("wir", meaning "whirl" in Polish). It was predicted that the orientation reaction (turning the head towards the stimuli) would take place only in the case of meaningful sounds. It was also expected that dogs would show consistent lateralization. As predicted, all three meaningful stimuli elicited the orientation reaction. The response of the examined dogs to cat meowing showed significant lateralization with dominant leftwards movement, which hints towards activation of the right cerebral hemisphere and may be related to strong emotions evoked by this stimulus. Contrary to results of previous studies, dogs reacting to dog barking turned their heads leftwards more often, which suggests activation of the right cerebral hemisphere, probably related to the emotional meaning of the stimulus. The "sit" command consistently evoked the orientation reaction but there was no significant lateralization of this movement. PMID:22796515

Reinholz-Trojan, Anna; W?odarczyk, Ewelina; Trojan, Maciej; Kulczy?ski, Adam; Stefa?ska, Joanna

2012-10-01

397

The magic cup: great apes and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) individuate objects according to their properties.  

PubMed

Despite current interest in dog (Canis familiaris) cognition, very little is known about how dogs represent objects and how they compare with other species, such as the great apes. Therefore, we investigated how dogs and great apes (chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], bonobos [Pan paniscus], orangutans [Pongo pygmaeus], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla]) individuate objects in a classical violation of expectation paradigm. We used a container (magic cup) with a double bottom that allowed us to change the type of food that subjects had seen being placed in the container. Using a 2 × 2 design, we varied whether subjects received a generally preferred food and whether the food was substituted (surprise trials) or not (baseline trials). Apes showed increased begging and looking behaviors and dogs showed increased smelling behavior. Both species stayed near the experimenter more frequently in the surprise trials compared with baseline trials. Both species reacted to positive (i.e., good food substituted for bad food) and negative (i.e., bad food substituted for good food) surprises. These results suggest that apes and dogs were able to individuate objects according to their properties or type in comparable ways. In addition, we looked for frustration and elation effects, but subjects' behaviors were not influenced by the food they saw and which they received in previous trials. PMID:21574687

Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep

2011-08-01

398

Development of a non-invasive polysomnography technique for dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

Recently dogs (Canis familiaris) have been demonstrated to be a promising model species for studying human behavior as they have adapted to the human niche and developed human-like socio-cognitive skills. Research on dog behavior, however, has so far almost exclusively focused on awake functioning. Here we present a self-developed non-invasive canine polysomnography method that can easily be applied to naive pet dogs. N=22 adult pet dogs (with their owners present) and N=12 adult humans participated in Study I. From these subjects, N=7 dogs returned on two more occasions for Study II. In Study I, we give a descriptive analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram of the dog and compare it to human data. In order to validate our canine polysomnography method in Study II, we compare the sleep macrostructure and the EEG spectrum of dogs after a behaviorally active day without sleep versus passive day with sleep. In Study I, we found that dogs' sleep EEG resembled that of human subjects and was generally in accordance with previous literature using invasive technology. In Study II, we show that similarly to previous results on humans daytime load of novel experiences and sleep deprivation affects the macrostructural and spectral aspects of subsequent sleep. Our results validate the family dog as a model species for studying the effects of pre-sleep activities on the EEG pattern under natural conditions and, thus, broaden the perspectives of the rapidly growing fields of canine cognition and sleep research. PMID:24726397

Kis, Anna; Szakadát, Sára; Kovács, Enik?; Gácsi, Márta; Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám; Bódizs, Róbert

2014-05-10

399

Coordinated X-ray, optical, and radio observations of flaring activity on YZ Canis Minoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The YZ Canis Minoris (Gliese 285), a late-type dwarf star with Balmer emission (dM4.5e), is a member of the UV Ceti class of flare stars. Obtaining good X-ray observations of a dMe star flare is important not only for understanding the physics of flares but also for testing current ideas regarding the similarity between stellar and solar flares. The Einstein X-ray Observatory has made it possible to conduct X-ray observations of dMe stars with unprecedented sensitivity. A description is presented of the results of a program of ground-based optical and radio observations of YZ CMi coordinated with those of the Einstein Observatory. The observations were carried out as part of a coordinated program on October 25, 26, and 27, 1979, when YZ CMi was on the dawn side of the earth. Comprehensive observational data were obtained of an event detected in all three wavelength regions on October 25, 1979.

Kahler, S.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Liller, W.; Seward, F.; Vaiana, G.; Lovell, B.; Davis, R. J.; Spencer, R. E.; Whitehouse, D. R.

1982-01-01

400

HL Canis Majoris in preoutburst and SS Cygni - The interoutburst disk instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SS Cygni and HL Canis majoris were observed by IUE for three consecutive nights in November of 1992. During the first two nights, simultaneous photometric ground-based observations of SS Cyg were made at the Ball State University Observatory. Observations of SS Cyg and HL CMa were also obtained simultaneously with the 90-inch telescope at the Steward Observatory on the last two nights of the IUE run. These spectroscopic observations covered the wavelength range from 4100 to 5000 A, while the spectra taken with the short wavelength camera on IUE resulted in wavelength coverage from 1150 A to 1980 A. SS Cyg is a U Geminorum-type dwarf nova with an orbital period of 6.6 hr. Good simultaneous UV and optical orbital coverage was obtained for this system. HL CMa is a Z Camelopardalis-type dwarf nova with a mean outburst interval of 15 days. The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) reports that this system was in outburst 4 days after the observing run. Therefore, HL CMa may have been in a preoutburst state during these observations. Optical spectra of HL CMa indicate a warm front passed through the outer disk four days before outburst, but no changes were seen in the UV spectra. Signs of a preoutburst state were observed to develop in SS Cyg, but no outburst occurred for another 30 days.

Mansperger, C. S.; Kaitchuck, R. H.; Garnavich, P. M.; Dinshaw, N.; Zamkoff, E.

1994-01-01

401

Interactions between jaw-muscle recruitment and jaw-joint forces in Canis familiaris.  

PubMed Central

Electromyographic activity from the jaw-adductor muscles was recorded during mastication and bone crushing in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). During mastication, balancing-side temporalis electromyographic activity was