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Sample records for canker fungus fusarium

  1. Visualization of wound periderm and hyphal profiles in pine stems inoculated with the pitch canker fungus Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Thoungchaleun, Vilakon; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2009-12-01

    Postpenetration behavior of Fusarium circinatum in stems of pine species was investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. Two-year-old stems of Pinus rigida and P. densiflora were wound-inoculated with the fungal conidial suspension and subjected to 25 degrees C for up to 30 days. It was common to observe the formation of wound periderm on each pine species, recovering wounded sites with newly formed tissues. The outermost thick layer of wound periderm was pink to red colored with the phloroglucinol-EtOH staining, indicating heavy deposition of lignin in wound periderm. The cork layers in the wound periderm of the two pine species consisted of cells that were mostly devoid of cellular contents in cytoplasm. The cork cells showed convoluted cell walls with different electron density (lamellations), which was seemingly more prevalent in P. densiflora than P. rigida. Hyphae of F. circinatum appeared normal with typical eucaryotic cytoplasm in P. rigida on ultrathin sections. Meanwhile, hyphae in P. densiflora were found to possess highly vacuolated cytoplasm, implying hyphal weakening and disintegration. Hyphal cytoplasm appeared to be a thin layer between the vacuole and the plasma membrane surrounded by cell wall. In addition, intrahyphal hyphae and concentric bodies were observed in hyphal cytoplasm. These results suggest that the architecture of wound periderm may be responsible for different responses of pine species to the invasion of F. circinatum. PMID:19484779

  2. Reclassification of the butternut canker fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, into the genus Ophiognomonia.

    PubMed

    Broders, K D; Boland, G J

    2011-01-01

    Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Sc-j), which causes a canker disease on butternut, is largely responsible for the decline of this tree in the United States and Canada. The original description of the species was based on anamorphic characters because the teleomorph is unknown. Recent phylogenetic investigations have found that Sc-j is not a member of the genus Sirococcus, and accurate taxonomic classification is required. The objective of this study is to use sequence data to determine the phylogenetic placement of Sc-j within the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales. Isolates were recovered from infected Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis (heartnut), Juglans cinerea (butternut), and Juglans nigra (black walnut) in Ontario and the eastern United States. The genes coding for β-tubulin, actin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha from 28 isolates of Sc-j and representatives of the major lineages within the Gnomoniaceae were evaluated. There was no difference in the sequences of the five genes among the isolates of Sc-j studied, indicating a recent introduction followed by asexual reproduction and spread via conidia. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrate this fungus does not belong to the genus Sirococcus, and provides strong support (99% MP and 100% NJ bootstrap values, and 100% Bayesian posterior probabilities) for its inclusion in the genus Ophiognomonia, thereby supporting a reclassification of the butternut canker fungus to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum. PMID:21215957

  3. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  4. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  5. A novel Fusarium species causes a canker disease of the critically endangered conifer, Torreya taxifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A canker disease of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia), here designated CDFT, has been implicated in the decline of this critically endangered species in its native range of northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. In our current surveys of eight Florida torreya sites, cankers were present on all...

  6. Population structure of the butternut canker fungus, Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, in North American forests.

    PubMed

    Broders, K D; Boraks, A; Sanchez, A M; Boland, G J

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of multiple introduction events, or sudden emergence from a host jump, of forest pathogens may be an important factor in successful establishment in a novel environment or on a new host; however, few studies have focused on the introduction and emergence of fungal pathogens in forest ecosystems. While Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the butternut canker fungus, has caused range-wide mortality of butternut trees in North America since its first observation in 1967, the history of its emergence and spread across the United States and Canada remains unresolved. Using 17 single nucleotide polymorphic loci, we investigated the genetic population structure of 101 isolates of Oc-j from across North America. Clustering analysis revealed that the Oc-j population in North America is made up of three differentiated genetic clusters of isolates, and these genetic clusters were found to have a strong clonal structure. These results, in combination with the geographic distribution of the populations, suggest that Oc-j was introduced or has emerged in North America on more than one occasion, and these clonal lineages have since proliferated across much of the range of butternut. No evidence of genetic recombination was observed in the linkage analysis, and conservation of the distinct genetic clusters in regions where isolates from two or more genetic clusters are present, would indicate a very minimal or non-existent role of sexual recombination in populations of Oc-j in North America. PMID:23139872

  7. Population structure of the butternut canker fungus, Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, in North American forests

    PubMed Central

    Broders, K D; Boraks, A; Sanchez, A M; Boland, G J

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple introduction events, or sudden emergence from a host jump, of forest pathogens may be an important factor in successful establishment in a novel environment or on a new host; however, few studies have focused on the introduction and emergence of fungal pathogens in forest ecosystems. While Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the butternut canker fungus, has caused range-wide mortality of butternut trees in North America since its first observation in 1967, the history of its emergence and spread across the United States and Canada remains unresolved. Using 17 single nucleotide polymorphic loci, we investigated the genetic population structure of 101 isolates of Oc-j from across North America. Clustering analysis revealed that the Oc-j population in North America is made up of three differentiated genetic clusters of isolates, and these genetic clusters were found to have a strong clonal structure. These results, in combination with the geographic distribution of the populations, suggest that Oc-j was introduced or has emerged in North America on more than one occasion, and these clonal lineages have since proliferated across much of the range of butternut. No evidence of genetic recombination was observed in the linkage analysis, and conservation of the distinct genetic clusters in regions where isolates from two or more genetic clusters are present, would indicate a very minimal or non-existent role of sexual recombination in populations of Oc-j in North America. PMID:23139872

  8. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  9. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  10. Conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kye-Yong; Zhao, Xinhua; Xu, Jin-Rong; Güldener, Ulrich; Kistler, H Corby

    2008-04-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These events, recorded after suspension of spores in liquid germination medium, included spore swelling at 2h, germination tube emergence and elongation from conidia at 8h and hyphal branching at 24h. To understand changes in gene expression during these developmental changes, RNA was isolated from spores and used to interrogate the F. graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip. RNAs corresponding to 5813 genes were detected in fresh spores and 5146, 5249 and 5993, respectively, in spores incubated in germination medium after 2, 8 or 24h (P<0.001). Gene expression data were used to predict the cellular and physiological state of each developmental stage for known processes. Predictions were confirmed microscopically for several previously unreported developmental events such as manifestation of peroxisomes in fresh spores and nuclear division resulting in binuclear cells within macroconidia prior to spore germination. Knowledge of stage-specific gene expression and changes in gene expression levels between developmental stages are an important first step to understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for spore germination and development. PMID:17950638

  11. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  12. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  13. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  14. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes canker sores. Mouth injuries, stress, poor nutrition, food allergies and menstrual periods are some of the things that may increase your chances of getting a canker sore. Treatment How are canker sores treated? There is no cure for canker sores, but they usually go away ...

  15. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is a major limiting factor of wheat production with both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. Here we report a model for global Fg gene regulatory networks (GRNs) inferred from a large collection of transcriptomic data using a machine-learning appro...

  16. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  17. Draft genome sequence of diaporthe aspalathi isolate ms-ssc91 a fungus causing stem canker in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaporthe aspalathi (formerly D. phaseolorum var. meridionalis) is the causal agent of the southern stem canker disease in soybean. This disease can kill plants from the middle to the end of the growing season resulting in severe yield loss. The mechanisms of disease development and pathogen invasi...

  18. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Guoyi; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kistler, H Corby; Gao, Lixin; Ma, Li-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum threatens world-wide wheat production, resulting in both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. We reconstructed the global F. graminearum gene regulatory network (GRN) from a large collection of transcriptomic data using Bayesian network inference, a machine-learning algorithm. This GRN reveals connectivity between key regulators and their target genes. Focusing on key regulators, this network contains eight distinct but interwoven modules. Enriched for unique functions, such as cell cycle, DNA replication, transcription, translation and stress responses, each module exhibits distinct expression profiles. Evolutionarily, the F. graminearum genome can be divided into core regions shared with closely related species and variable regions harboring genes that are unique to F. graminearum and perform species-specific functions. Interestingly, the inferred top regulators regulate genes that are significantly enriched from the same genomic regions (P < 0.05), revealing a compartmentalized network structure that may reflect network rewiring related to specific adaptation of this plant pathogen. This first-ever reconstructed filamentous fungal GRN primes our understanding of pathogenicity at the systems biology level and provides enticing prospects for novel disease control strategies involving the targeting of master regulators in pathogens. The program can be used to construct GRNs of other plant pathogens. PMID:26990214

  19. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  20. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  1. Fusagerins A-F, New Alkaloids from the Fungus Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hao; Li, Yan; Liu, Xingzhong; Ye, Wencai; Yao, Xinsheng; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-08-01

    Fusagerins A-F (1-6), six new alkaloids including a unique one with the rare a-(N-formyl)carboxamide moiety (1), a hydantoin (imidazolidin-2,4-dione) derivative (2), and four fungerin analogues (3-6), were isolated from the crude extract of the fungus Fusarium sp., together with the known compound fungerin (7). Compound 2 was isolated as a racemate and further separated into two enantiomers on a chiral HPLC column. The structures of 1-6 were determined mainly by NMR experiments, and the absolute configuration of 1 and 2 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 7 showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and weak cytotoxicity against the T24 cells. PMID:26329590

  2. Ginkgolide B produced endophytic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum) isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuna; Yi, Dawei; Bai, Xiufeng; Sun, Baoshan; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhang, Yixuan

    2012-07-01

    To screen the presence of ginkgolide B-producing endophytic fungi from the root bark of Ginkgo biloba, a total of 27 fungal isolates, belonging to 6 different genus, were isolated from the internal root bark of the plant Ginkgo biloba. The fungal isolates were fermented on solid media and their metabolites were analyzed by TLC. The obtained potential ginkgolides-producing fungus, the isolate SYP0056 which was identified as Fusarium oxysporum, was successively cultured in the liquid fermentation media, and its metabolite was analyzed by HPLC. The ginkgolide B was successfully isolated from the metabolite and identified by HPLC/ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. The current research provides a new method to produce ginkgolide B by fungal fermentation, which could overcome the natural resource limitation of isolating from the leaves and barks of the plant Ginkgo biloba. PMID:22537641

  3. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle . Some research suggests that using products containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) can be associated with canker sores. SLS ... with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain sodium lauryl sulfate. And avoid brushing the sore itself with a ...

  4. Acanthamoebicidal activity of Fusarium sp. Tlau3, an endophytic fungus from Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.

    PubMed

    Boonman, Narumon; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Dharmkrong-at Chusattayanond, Araya

    2008-10-01

    A fungal endophyte identified as Fusarium sp. Tlau3 was isolated from fresh twig of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., a Thai medicinal plant collected from the forest of Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. The fungus was grown on a medium containing yeast extracts and sucrose. The fungal metabolites were isolated from the culture broth by dichloromethane extraction, isooctane/methanol then n-butanol/water partitions, and fractionation with Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography. Acanthamoebicidal fractions were found to induce the formation of large contractile vacuole (LCV) in trophozoites of an Acanthamoeba clinical isolate, leading to cell lysis under isotonic and hypotonic conditions within 1 h. In hypertonic condition, LCV formation was also induced but without cell lysis. Acridine orange staining of the treated cells revealed increased intracellular acidity, implying an increased proton pumping or a vacuolar proton-ATPase (V-ATPase) stimulation. Scanning electron microscopy showed cell membrane damage with intact cytoplasmic organelles. Our finding has indicated that contractile vacuoles of Acanthamoeba trophozoites are the primary target of the amoebicidal substance(s) from this endophytic fungus. PMID:18633646

  5. The Transcription Factor FgStuA Influences Spore Development, Pathogenicity and Secondary Metabolism in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes extensive losses on cereals world-wide and contaminates harvested grain with mycotoxins, whose levels in the food supply are strictly regulated. We deleted the FgStuA gene in Fusarium graminearum and demonstrate its involvement in several different ...

  6. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... most cases, the canker sores go away without treatment. Try not to eat hot or spicy foods, which can cause pain. Use over-the-counter medicines that ease pain in the area. Rinse your mouth with salt water or mild, over-the-counter mouthwashes. (DO NOT ...

  7. Integracides H-J: New tetracyclic triterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Ross, Samir A

    2016-07-01

    Three new tetracyclic triterpenoids namely, integracides H (1), I (4), and J (5), along with integracides B (3) and F (2) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia L. (Labiatae) growing in Saudi Arabia. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was achieved by spectroscopic analysis including UV, IR, 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D ((1)H(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) NMR as well as HRESIMS and comparison with literature data. Integracides H (1) and J (5) showed significant anti-leishmanial activity towards Leishmania donovani with IC50 values of 4.75 and 3.29μM, respectively compared to pentamidine (IC50 6.35μM). Moreover, they displayed potent cytotoxic activity towards BT-549, SKOV-3, and KB cell lines with IC50 values of 1.82, 1.32, and 0.18μM and 2.46, 3.01, and 2.54μM, respectively. PMID:27282207

  8. Periodic selection in longterm continuous-flow cultures of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, M G; Robson, G D; Cunliffe, B; Oliver, S G; Trinci, A P

    1993-11-01

    By monitoring increases and decreases in the proportion of cycloheximide-resistant macroconidia, periodic selection was observed in populations of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. The results indicated that periodic selection of advantageous mutants of F. graminearum occurred at intervals of about 124 h at both high (D = 0.19 h-1, approximately 34 generations) and low (D = 0.06 h-1, approximately 11 generations) dilution rates. Several 'adaptive' peaks (each indicating the appearance of an advantageous mutation) were observed before morphological (highly branched) mutants appeared in the populations; these mutants have previously been observed to have a selective advantage over the parental strain. At intervals, macroconidia harvested from the chemostat were used to inoculate plates of non-antibiotic-containing agar medium, and it was possible to monitor periodic selection in the original chemostat culture using second generation macroconidia harvested from these cultures. The proportion of cycloheximide-, potassium chlorate-, and p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine-resistant macroconidia in these second generation macroconidia changed in a pattern similar to that observed when monitoring the proportion of cycloheximide-resistant macroconidia in the first generation population harvested directly from the chemostat. The experiments demonstrated that populations of filamentous fungi are heterogeneous and that much of this heterogeneity may already be present at the end of batch growth, i.e., before the onset of continuous cultivation. PMID:8277261

  9. Taxol production by an endophytic fungus, Fusarium redolens, isolated from Himalayan yew.

    PubMed

    Garyali, Sanjog; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-10-28

    Different endophytic fungi isolated from Himalayan Yew plants were tested for their ability to produce taxol. The BAPT gene (C-13 phenylpropanoid side chain-CoA acetyl transferase) involved in the taxol biosynthetic pathway was used as a molecular marker to screen taxol-producing endophytic fungi. Taxol extracted from fungal strain TBPJ-B was identified by HPLC and MS analysis. Strain TBPJ-B was identified as Fusarium redolens based on the morphology and internal transcribed spacer region of nrDNA analysis. HPLC quantification of fungal taxol showed that F. redolens was capable of producing 66 μg/l of taxol in fermentation broth. The antitumour activity of the fungal taxol was tested by potato disc tumor induction assay using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the tumor induction agent. The present study results showed that PCR amplification of genes involved in taxol biosynthesis is an efficient and reliable method for prescreening taxol-producing fungi. We are reporting for the first time the production of taxol by F. redolens from Taxus baccata L. subsp. wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger. This study offers important information and a new source for the production of the important anticancer drug taxol by endophytic fungus fermentation. PMID:23801250

  10. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) in northern China form a novel clade with F. torreyae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China over the past twenty-five years. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal strains were isolated from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provi...

  11. The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2012-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in the development of visible disease symptoms. Since the original genome annotation analysis was done in 2007, which predicted the secretome using TargetP, the F. graminearum gene call has changed considerably through the combined efforts of the BROAD and MIPS institutes. As a result of the modifications to the genome and the recent findings that suggested a role for secreted proteins in virulence, the F. graminearum secretome was revisited. In the current study, a refined F. graminearum secretome was predicted by combining several bioinformatic approaches. This strategy increased the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins. A secretome of 574 proteins was predicted of which 99% was supported by transcriptional evidence. The function of the annotated and unannotated secreted proteins was explored. The potential role(s) of the annotated proteins including, putative enzymes, phytotoxins and antifungals are discussed. Characterisation of the unannotated proteins included the analysis of Pfam domains and features associated with known fungal effectors, for example, small size, cysteine-rich and containing internal amino acid repeats. A comprehensive comparative genomic analysis involving 57 fungal and oomycete genomes revealed that only a small number of the predicted F. graminearum secreted proteins can be considered to be either species or sequenced strain specific. PMID:22493673

  12. Characterization of RNA silencing components in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Gao, Qixun; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Ye; Liu, Zunyong; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) plays a critical role in gene regulation in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the role of RNAi remains largely unclear in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we explored the roles of core components of the RNAi pathway in Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of wheat head blight. Our results demonstrated that the hairpin RNA (hpRNA) can efficiently silence the expression level of target gene, and the argonaute protein FgAgo1 and dicer protein FgDicer2 are important in this silencing process. RNAi machinery was not involved in growth, abiotic stress and pathogenesis in F. graminearum under tested conditions. We firstly applied high-throughput sequencing technology to elucidate small RNA (17–40 nucleotides) (sRNA) transcriptome in F. graminearum, and found that a total of forty-nine micro-like-RNA (milRNA) candidates were identified in the wild-type and ∆FgDICER2, and twenty-four of them were FgDicer2-dependent. Fg-milRNA-4 negatively regulated expression of its target gene. Taken together, our results indicated that the hpRNA-induced gene silencing was a valuable genetic tool for exploring gene function in F. graminearum. FgAgo1 and FgDicer2 proteins played a critical role in the hpRNA mediated gene silencing process. In addition, FgDicer2 was involved in sRNA transcription and milRNA generation in this fungus. PMID:26212591

  13. Characterization of RNA silencing components in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Gao, Qixun; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Ye; Liu, Zunyong; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) plays a critical role in gene regulation in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the role of RNAi remains largely unclear in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we explored the roles of core components of the RNAi pathway in Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of wheat head blight. Our results demonstrated that the hairpin RNA (hpRNA) can efficiently silence the expression level of target gene, and the argonaute protein FgAgo1 and dicer protein FgDicer2 are important in this silencing process. RNAi machinery was not involved in growth, abiotic stress and pathogenesis in F. graminearum under tested conditions. We firstly applied high-throughput sequencing technology to elucidate small RNA (17-40 nucleotides) (sRNA) transcriptome in F. graminearum, and found that a total of forty-nine micro-like-RNA (milRNA) candidates were identified in the wild-type and ∆FgDICER2, and twenty-four of them were FgDicer2-dependent. Fg-milRNA-4 negatively regulated expression of its target gene. Taken together, our results indicated that the hpRNA-induced gene silencing was a valuable genetic tool for exploring gene function in F. graminearum. FgAgo1 and FgDicer2 proteins played a critical role in the hpRNA mediated gene silencing process. In addition, FgDicer2 was involved in sRNA transcription and milRNA generation in this fungus. PMID:26212591

  14. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates, and comparing...

  15. Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

  16. A Phenome-Based Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors in the Cereal Head Blight Fungus, Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyunghun; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Jungkwan; Jin, Jian-Ming; Lin, Yang; Cao, Peijian; Hong, Sae-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Ho; Cho, Aram; Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Myung-Gu; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Choi, Gyung Ja; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Minkyun; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Yang-Do; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen that causes head blight of major cereal crops. The fungus produces mycotoxins that are harmful to animal and human. In this study, a systematic analysis of 17 phenotypes of the mutants in 657 Fusarium graminearum genes encoding putative transcription factors (TFs) resulted in a database of over 11,000 phenotypes (phenome). This database provides comprehensive insights into how this cereal pathogen of global significance regulates traits important for growth, development, stress response, pathogenesis, and toxin production and how transcriptional regulations of these traits are interconnected. In-depth analysis of TFs involved in sexual development revealed that mutations causing defects in perithecia development frequently affect multiple other phenotypes, and the TFs associated with sexual development tend to be highly conserved in the fungal kingdom. Besides providing many new insights into understanding the function of F. graminearum TFs, this mutant library and phenome will be a valuable resource for characterizing the gene expression network in this fungus and serve as a reference for studying how different fungi have evolved to control various cellular processes at the transcriptional level. PMID:22028654

  17. The genome of the of the generalist plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium avenaceum is enriched with genes involved in redox, signaling and secondary metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium avenaceum is a fungus commonly isolated from soil and with a wide range of host plants. We present here three genome sequences of F. avenaceum, one isolated from barley in Finland and two from spring and winter wheat in Canada. The physical sizes of the three genomes range from 41.6-43.2 MB...

  18. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  19. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  20. The fibrinolytic activity of a novel protease derived from a tempeh producing fungus, Fusarium sp. BLB.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fujii, Tadashi; Morimiya, Tatsuo; Johdo, Osamu; Nakamura, Takumi

    2007-09-01

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian soybean-fermented food produced by filamentous fungi, Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. We isolated and sequenced the genomic gene and a cDNA clone encoding a novel protease (FP) from Fusarium sp. BLB. The genomic gene was 856 bp in length and contained two introns. An isolated cDNA clone encoded a protein of 250 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence of FP showed highest homology, of 76%, with that of trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum. The hydrolysis activity of FP toward synthetic peptide was higher than that of any other protease tested, including Nattokinases. Furthermore, the thrombolytic activity of FP was about 2.1-fold higher than that of Nattokinase when the concentration of plasminogen was 24 units/ml. These results suggest that FP is superior to Nattokinases in dissolving fibrin when absorbed into the blood. PMID:17827689

  1. Botryosphaeria Cane Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more serious cane canker diseases of thornless blackberry plants in the eastern U.S. is caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Cane canker disease is highly destructive, often killing canes and reducing fruit yields to uneconomic levels. Cankers generally develop around one or more buds on th...

  2. Insights into the evolution of toxin biosynthesis in the fungus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional characterization of mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clusters has provided insights into genetic bases for variation in production of Fusarium mycotoxins. For example, production of B versus C fumonisin mycotoxins results from sequence variation in the FUM8 gene of the fumonisin biosynthetic g...

  3. Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  4. Genome sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  5. Detoxification of the fusarium toxin fusaric acid by the soil fungus aspergillus tubingensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) causes cotton wilt and produces the toxin fusaric acid (FA). Previous research indicates that in the high producing strains of F.o.v., FA plays an important role in virulence. To address the problems of emerging virulent isolates su...

  6. Cloning and expression of a beta-xylosidase from the fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In silico analysis of the genome of Fusarium verticillioides, an endophyte and pathogen of maize, revealed several genes with potential use in the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. We have cloned a gene, FVEG_05677.3, with putative xylosidase and arabinofuranosidase activities. The gene was expressed ...

  7. Insights into the evolution of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the fungus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collectively species of Fusarium are pathogens of almost all economically important plants and produce over 50 structurally distinct families of secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins (e.g. fumonisins and trichothecenes) of greatest concern to food and feed safety. In fungi, g...

  8. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi. PMID:25277408

  9. Fusarium circinatum isolates from northern Spain are commonly infected by three distinct mitoviruses.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Eeva J; Martínez-Álvarez, Pablo; Bezos, Diana; Hantula, Jarkko; Diez, Julio J

    2015-08-01

    Pitch canker is a serious disease of pines caused by the ascomycete fungus Gibberella circinata (anamorph = Fusarium circinatum). Three distinct mitovirus strains have been described in this fungus: Fusarium circinatum mitovirus 1 (FcMV1), FcMV2-1 and FcMV2-2. Here, we investigated the frequency and population variation of these viruses and closely related sequence variants in northern Spain using RT-PCR and sequencing. Each virus strain and similar sequence variants shared >95 % sequence identity and were collectively designated as virus types. All virus types were relatively common in Spain, with estimated prevalence of 18.5 %, 8.9 % and 16.3 % for FcMV1, FcMV2-1 and FcMV2-2, respectively. PMID:26025157

  10. Hop, an active Mutator-like element in the genome of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, Fabienne; Grimaldi, Christine; Kaper, Fiona; Langin, Thierry; Daboussi, Marie-Josée

    2003-08-01

    A new type of active DNA transposon has been identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum by its transposition into the niaD target gene. Two insertions within the final exon, in opposite orientations at the same nucleotide site, have been characterized. These elements, called Hop, are 3,299 bp long, with perfect terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of 99 bp. The sequencing of genomic copies reveals a 9-bp target site duplication and no apparent sequence specificity at the insertion sites. The sequencing of a cDNA indicates that Hop does not contain an intron and encodes a putative transposase of 836 amino acids. The structural features (length, TIRs size, and 9-bp duplication), together with the presence of conserved domains in the transposase, strongly suggest that Hop is a Mutator-like element (MULE). Hop is thus the first active member of this family found beyond plants. The high rate of excision observed indicates that Hop is very active and thus represents a promising efficient tagging system for the isolation of fungal genes. The distribution of Hop elements within the Fusarium genus revealed that they are present in different species, suggesting that related elements could be present in other fungal genomes. In fact, Hop-related sequences have been identified in the survey of the entire genome sequence of three other ascomycetes, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa, and Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:12777515

  11. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Vinblastine and Vincristine from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Patil, Deepak; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and 1H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. PMID:24066024

  12. Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmüller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ≤ 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus . PMID:24714966

  13. Extracellular biosynthesis of CdTe quantum dots by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and their anti-bacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Asad; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-04-01

    The growing demand for semiconductor [quantum dots (Q-dots)] nanoparticles has fuelled significant research in developing strategies for their synthesis and characterization. They are extensively investigated by the chemical route; on the other hand, use of microbial sources for biosynthesis witnessed the highly stable, water dispersible nanoparticles formation. Here we report, for the first time, an efficient fungal-mediated synthesis of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots at ambient conditions by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum when reacted with a mixture of CdCl2 and TeCl4. Characterization of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was carried out by different techniques such as Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. CdTe nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fungal based fabrication provides an economical, green chemistry approach for production of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots.

  14. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 is a mycoparasitic fungus capable of controlling mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, including F. graminearum and F. culmorum, known to produce Zearalenone (ZEA) and Deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a type B trichothecene known to interfere with protein synthesis in eukaryotes. ZEA is a estrogenic-mimicing mycotoxin that exhibits antifungal growth. C. rosea produces the enzyme zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101), which degrades ZEA. However, the molecular basis of resistance to DON in C. rosea is not understood. We have exploited a genome-wide transcriptomic approach to identify genes induced by DON and ZEA in order to investigate the molecular basis of mycotoxin resistance C. rosea. Results We generated DON- and ZEA-induced cDNA libraries based on suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 443 and 446 sequenced clones (corresponding to 58 and 65 genes) from the DON- and ZEA-induced library, respectively, were analysed. DON-induced transcripts represented genes encoding metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450, cytochrome c oxidase and stress response proteins. In contrast, transcripts encoding the ZEA-detoxifying enzyme ZHD101 and those encoding a number of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter transcripts were highly frequent in the ZEA-induced library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis predicted that all transcripts with similarity to ABC transporters could be ascribed to only 2 ABC transporters genes, and phylogenetic analysis of the predicted ABC transporters suggested that they belong to group G (pleiotropic drug transporters) of the fungal ABC transporter gene family. This is the first report suggesting involvement of ABC transporters in ZEA tolerance. Expression patterns of a selected set of DON- and ZEA-induced genes were validated by the use of quantitative RT-PCR after exposure to the toxins. The qRT-PCR results obtained confirm the expression patterns suggested from the EST redundancy data. Conclusion The

  15. Mechanistic Characterisation of Two Sesquiterpene Cyclases from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Immo; Siemon, Thomas; Henrot, Matthias; Studt, Lena; Rösler, Sarah; Tudzynski, Bettina; Christmann, Mathias; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-07-18

    Two sesquiterpene cyclases from Fusarium fujikuroi were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The first enzyme was inactive because of a critical mutation, but activity was restored by sequence correction through site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated enzyme and two naturally functional homologues from other fusaria converted farnesyl diphosphate into guaia-6,10(14)-diene. The second enzyme produced eremophilene. The absolute configuration of guaia-6,10(14)-diene was elucidated by enantioselective synthesis, while that of eremophilene was evident from the sign of its optical rotation and is opposite to that in plants but the same as in Sorangium cellulosum. The mechanisms of both terpene cyclases were studied with various (13) C- and (2) H-labelled FPP isotopomers. PMID:27294564

  16. Characterization of species of Diaporthe from wood cankers of grape in eastern North American vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eastern North American vineyards, Phomopsis cane and leaf spot (causal fungus Phomopsis viticola) is a destructive foliar disease, but is also associated with wood cankers, along with other fungi. To determine the association between foliar and wood-canker symptoms, we recovered Phomopsis isolate...

  17. Functional Analysis of the Polyketide Synthase Genes in the Filamentous Fungus Gibberella zeae (Anamorph Fusarium graminearum)

    PubMed Central

    Gaffoor, Iffa; Brown, Daren W.; Plattner, Ron; Proctor, Robert H.; Qi, Weihong; Trail, Frances

    2005-01-01

    Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites that exhibit a vast diversity of form and function. In fungi, these compounds are produced by large, multidomain enzymes classified as type I polyketide synthases (PKSs). In this study we identified and functionally disrupted 15 PKS genes from the genome of the filamentous fungus Gibberella zeae. Five of these genes are responsible for producing the mycotoxins zearalenone, aurofusarin, and fusarin C and the black perithecial pigment. A comprehensive expression analysis of the 15 genes revealed diverse expression patterns during grain colonization, plant colonization, sexual development, and mycelial growth. Expression of one of the PKS genes was not detected under any of 18 conditions tested. This is the first study to genetically characterize a complete set of PKS genes from a single organism. PMID:16278459

  18. Genomic clustering and co-regulation of transcriptional networks in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genes for the production of a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites are frequently colinear. The prevalence of such gene clusters was systematically examined across the genome of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The topological structure of transcriptional networks was also examined to investigate control mechanisms for mycotoxin biosynthesis and other processes. Results The genes associated with transcriptional processes were identified, and the genomic location of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs) analyzed in conjunction with the locations of genes exhibiting similar expression patterns. Highly conserved TAPs reside in regions of chromosomes with very low or no recombination, contrasting with putative regulator genes. Co-expression group profiles were used to define positionally clustered genes and a number of members of these clusters encode proteins participating in secondary metabolism. Gene expression profiles suggest there is an abundance of condition-specific transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the promoter regions of co-expressed genes showed enrichment for conserved DNA-sequence motifs. Potential global transcription factors recognising these motifs contain distinct sets of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from those present in local regulators. Conclusions Proteins associated with basal transcriptional functions are encoded by genes enriched in regions of the genome with low recombination. Systematic searches revealed dispersed and compact clusters of co-expressed genes, often containing a transcription factor, and typically containing genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. Transcriptional networks exhibit a layered structure in which the position in the hierarchy of a regulator is closely linked to the DBD structural class. PMID:23805903

  19. WetA is required for conidiogenesis and conidium maturation in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

  20. How Phytohormones Shape Interactions between Plants and the Soil-Borne Fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Di, Xiaotang; Takken, Frank L W; Tintor, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Plants interact with a huge variety of soil microbes, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex consists of ubiquitous soil inhabiting fungi that can infect and cause disease in over 120 different plant species including tomato, banana, cotton, and Arabidopsis. However, in many cases Fo colonization remains symptomless or even has beneficial effects on plant growth and/or stress tolerance. Also in pathogenic interactions a lengthy asymptomatic phase usually precedes disease development. All this indicates a sophisticated and fine-tuned interaction between Fo and its host. The molecular mechanisms underlying this balance are poorly understood. Plant hormone signaling networks emerge as key regulators of plant-microbe interactions in general. In this review we summarize the effects of the major phytohormones on the interaction between Fo and its diverse hosts. Generally, Salicylic Acid (SA) signaling reduces plant susceptibility, whereas Jasmonic Acid (JA), Ethylene (ET), Abscisic Acid (ABA), and auxin have complex effects, and are potentially hijacked by Fo for host manipulation. Finally, we discuss how plant hormones and Fo effectors balance the interaction from beneficial to pathogenic and vice versa. PMID:26909099

  1. How Phytohormones Shape Interactions between Plants and the Soil-Borne Fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Di, Xiaotang; Takken, Frank L. W.; Tintor, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Plants interact with a huge variety of soil microbes, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex consists of ubiquitous soil inhabiting fungi that can infect and cause disease in over 120 different plant species including tomato, banana, cotton, and Arabidopsis. However, in many cases Fo colonization remains symptomless or even has beneficial effects on plant growth and/or stress tolerance. Also in pathogenic interactions a lengthy asymptomatic phase usually precedes disease development. All this indicates a sophisticated and fine-tuned interaction between Fo and its host. The molecular mechanisms underlying this balance are poorly understood. Plant hormone signaling networks emerge as key regulators of plant-microbe interactions in general. In this review we summarize the effects of the major phytohormones on the interaction between Fo and its diverse hosts. Generally, Salicylic Acid (SA) signaling reduces plant susceptibility, whereas Jasmonic Acid (JA), Ethylene (ET), Abscisic Acid (ABA), and auxin have complex effects, and are potentially hijacked by Fo for host manipulation. Finally, we discuss how plant hormones and Fo effectors balance the interaction from beneficial to pathogenic and vice versa. PMID:26909099

  2. Linear plasmidlike DNA in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans.

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, H C; Leong, S A

    1986-01-01

    Double-stranded, 1.9-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA molecules were found in 18 strains representing three pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The DNA element (pFOXC1) from a race 1 strain and the DNA element (pFOXC2) from a race 2 strain were shown by restriction endonuclease mapping to be linear. pFOXC2 was found in mitochondrial preparations and appears to have blocked 5' termini, as it was sensitive to 3'----5' exonuclease III but insensitive to 5'----3' lambda exonuclease. The major 1.8-kbp BglII restriction endonuclease fragment of pFOXC2 was cloned in plasmid pUC12. The recombinant plasmid (pCK1) was not homologous to the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. This suggests that pFOXC2 is self-replicating. pCK1 was homologous to all 1.9-kbp DNA elements of race 2 but was not homologous to those of race 1 or race 5. All race 1 and 5 elements were also shown to share common DNA sequences. Images PMID:3015880

  3. WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

  4. AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we firstly identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. Results from RNA-sequencing analysis suggest that AbaA plays a pivotal role in conidiation by regulating cell cycle pathways and other conidiation-related genes. Thus, the conserved roles of the AbaA ortholog in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum give new insight into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24039821

  5. Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

  6. Absolute configuration of fusarone, a new azaphilone from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from Melia azedarach, and of related azaphilones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tian, Jun-Mian; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2012-08-01

    A new azaphilone derivative, named fusarone (1), has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble extract of the fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. LN-12, isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach Linn. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR ((1) H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. The absolute configurations of fusarone (1) and of a second related azaphilone were determined by means of electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy and optical rotation calculations. PMID:22678988

  7. Host extract modulates metabolism and fumonisin biosynthesis by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wilman, Karolina

    2015-01-16

    Fusarium proliferatum is a common pathogen able to infect a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Recently, some evidence for genetic variance among the species genotypes in relation to their plant origin has been reported. Mycotoxin contamination of plant tissues is the most important threat caused by F. proliferatum and fumonisins B (FBs) are the principal mycotoxins synthesized. The toxigenic potential of the pathogen genotypes is variable and also the reaction of different host plant species on the infection by pathogen is different. The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of the extracts on the growth and fumonisin biosynthesis by 32 F. proliferatum strains originating from different host species (A-asparagus, M-maize, G-garlic, PS-pea and P-pineapple), and how it changes the secondary metabolism measured by fumonisin biosynthesis. The average strain dry weight was 65.2 mg for control conditions and it reached 180.7 mg, 100.5 mg, 76.6 mg, 126.2 mg and 51.1 mg when pineapple, asparagus, maize, garlic and pea extracts were added, respectively. In the second experiment the extracts were added after 5 days of culturing of the representative group of strains, displaying diverse reaction to the extract presence. Also, the influence of stationary vs. shaken culture was examined. Mean biomass amounts for shaken cultures of 15 chosen strains were as follows: 37.4 mg of dry weight for control culture (C), 219.6 mg (P), 113 mg (A), 93.6 mg (M), 62 mg (G) and 48 mg (PS), respectively. For stationary cultures, the means were as follows: C-57.4 mg, P-355.6 mg, A-291.6 mg, M-191.1 mg, G-171.1 mg and PS-58.9 mg. Few strains showed differential growth when stationary/shaken culture conditions were applied. Almost all strains synthesized moderate amounts of fumonisins in control conditions-less than 10 ng/μL, regardless of the origin and host species. Few strains were able to produce over 100 ng/μL of FBs when pineapple extract was added, twelve

  8. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  9. One Fungus, One Name: Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that preserves longstanding use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine and basic research. This phylogenetically-guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation to...

  10. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R.; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance. PMID:26508775

  11. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Perochon, Alexandre; Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-12-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance. PMID:26508775

  12. Evidence that a secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene cluster has grown by gene relocation during evolution of the filamentous fungus Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert H; McCormick, Susan P; Alexander, Nancy J; Desjardins, Anne E

    2009-12-01

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis of Fusarium on some crop species. Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides have trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI) at three loci: a 12-gene TRI cluster and two smaller TRI loci that consist of one or two genes. Here, comparisons of additional Fusarium species have provided evidence that TRI loci have a complex evolutionary history that has included loss, non-functionalization and rearrangement of genes as well as trans-species polymorphism. The results also indicate that the TRI cluster has expanded in some species by relocation of two genes into it from the smaller loci. Thus, evolutionary forces have driven consolidation of TRI genes into fewer loci in some fusaria but have maintained three distinct TRI loci in others. PMID:19843228

  13. Widespread Occurrence of Diverse Human Pathogenic Types of the Fungus Fusarium Detected in Plumbing Drains ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Short, Dylan P. G.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H.; Geiser, David M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  14. Canker Sores (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the sores appear more than two or three times a year. Diagnosis Tests are usually not done to diagnose canker sores, as a doctor can identify them based on medical history and physical exam alone. If your child has very frequent or severe bouts of recurrent ...

  15. Evidence that a Secondary Metabolic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster has Grown by Gene Relocation During Evolution of the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of medical and agricultural interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis ...

  16. MICROARRAY EVIDENCE FOR GENE CLUSTERS INVOLVED IN POLYKETIDE BIOSYNTHESIS IN THE FUMONISIN-PRODUCING FUNGUS FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides can cause stalk and ear rot of maize, and can produce the polyketide-derived mycotoxins fumonisins in infected kernels. Although the genetics and biochemistry of fumonisin biosynthesis is relatively well understood in F. verticillioides, little is known about the biosynthes...

  17. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  18. The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is also required for pathogenicity and expression of plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an imp...

  19. GENOME-WIDE RNA EXPRESSION ANALYSIS DURING CONIDIAL MATURATION AND GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS, FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal plant pathogen, F. graminearum, causes Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand the early infection cycle of this organism, we monitored the RNA expression profiles in newly formed spores (macroconidia), in maturing spores and during the early stages of spore germin...

  20. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus irregulare, controls the mycotoxin production of Fusarium sambucinum in the pathogenesis of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are an important family of mycotoxins produced by several species of the genus Fusarium. These fungi cause serious disease on infected plants and postharvest storage of crops and the toxins can cause health problems for humans and animals. Unfortunately, there are few methods for cont...

  1. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  2. Tomato I2 Immune Receptor Can Be Engineered to Confer Partial Resistance to the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans in Addition to the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Artemis; Steele, John F C; Segretin, Maria Eugenia; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Zhou, Ji; Robatzek, Silke; Banfield, Mark J; Pais, Marina; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-12-01

    Plants and animals rely on immune receptors, known as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing proteins, to defend against invading pathogens and activate immune responses. How NLR receptors respond to pathogens is inadequately understood. We previously reported single-residue mutations that expand the response of the potato immune receptor R3a to AVR3a(EM), a stealthy effector from the late blight oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. I2, another NLR that mediates resistance to the will-causing fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is the tomato ortholog of R3a. We transferred previously identified R3a mutations to I2 to assess the degree to which the resulting I2 mutants have an altered response. We discovered that wild-type I2 protein responds weakly to AVR3a. One mutant in the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, I2(I141N), appeared sensitized and displayed markedly increased response to AVR3a. Remarkably, I2(I141N) conferred partial resistance to P. infestans. Further, I2(I141N) has an expanded response spectrum to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici effectors compared with the wild-type I2 protein. Our results suggest that synthetic immune receptors can be engineered to confer resistance to phylogenetically divergent pathogens and indicate that knowledge gathered for one NLR could be exploited to improve NLR from other plant species. PMID:26367241

  3. REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Toshiaki; Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Tsuge, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum. PMID:15020411

  4. The CarO rhodopsin of the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is a light-driven proton pump that retards spore germination

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, Jorge; Brunk, Michael; Avalos, Javier; Terpitz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsins are membrane-embedded photoreceptors found in all major taxonomic kingdoms using retinal as their chromophore. They play well-known functions in different biological systems, but their roles in fungi remain unknown. The filamentous fungus Fusarium fujikuroi contains two putative rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. The gene carO is light-regulated, and the predicted polypeptide contains all conserved residues required for proton pumping. We aimed to elucidate the expression and cellular location of the fungal rhodopsin CarO, its presumed proton-pumping activity and the possible effect of such function on F. fujikuroi growth. In electrophysiology experiments we confirmed that CarO is a green-light driven proton pump. Visualization of fluorescent CarO-YFP expressed in F. fujikuroi under control of its native promoter revealed higher accumulation in spores (conidia) produced by light-exposed mycelia. Germination analyses of conidia from carO− mutant and carO+ control strains showed a faster development of light-exposed carO− germlings. In conclusion, CarO is an active proton pump, abundant in light-formed conidia, whose activity slows down early hyphal development under light. Interestingly, CarO-related rhodopsins are typically found in plant-associated fungi, where green light dominates the phyllosphere. Our data provide the first reliable clue on a possible biological role of a fungal rhodopsin. PMID:25589426

  5. The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

  6. Antifungal efficiency of a lipopeptide biosurfactant derived from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 versus the phytopathogenic fungus, Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ines; Hammami, Ines; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Azabou, Manel Cheffi; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptides were evaluated as a natural antifungal agent against Fusarium solani infestation. In vitro antifungal assay showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of about 3 mg/ml with a fungicidal mode of action. In fact, treatment of F. solani by SPB1 lipopeptides generated excessive lyses of the mycelium and caused polynucleation and destruction of the related spores together with a total inhibition of spore production. Furthermore, an inhibition of germination potency accompanied with a high spore blowing was observed. Moreover, in order to be applied in agricultural field, in vivo antifungal activity was proved against the dry rot potato tubers caused by F. solani. Preventive treatment appeared as the most promising as after 20 days of fungi inoculation, rot invasion was reduced by almost 78%, in comparison to that of non-treated one. When treating infected tomato plants, disease symptoms were reduced by almost 100% when applying the curative method. Results of this study are very promising as it enables the use of the crude lipopeptide preparation of B. subtilis SPB1 as a potent natural fungicide that could effectively control the infection of F. solani in tomato and potato tubers at a concentration similar to the commercial fungicide hymexazol and therefore prevent the damage of olive tree. PMID:26178831

  7. Class V chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Martan P; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2003-01-01

    Chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse N-acetylglucosamine polymerization. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class V chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The chsV gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. ChsV has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain characteristic of class V chitin synthases. The chsV insertional mutant and a gene replacement mutant of F. oxysporum display morphological abnormalities such as hyphal swellings that are indicative of alterations in cell wall structure and can be partially restored by osmotic stabilizer. The mutants are unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or to grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. They are also hypersensitive to plant antimicrobial defence compounds such as the tomato phytoanticipin alpha-tomatine or H2O2. Reintroduction of a functional chsV copy into the mutant restored the growth phenotype of the wild-type strain. These data suggest that F. oxysporum requires a specific class V chitin synthase for pathogenesis, most probably to protect itself against plant defence mechanisms. PMID:12492869

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the fungus Arthroderma fulvum and its antifungal activity against genera of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Baiji; He, Dan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongyang; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find one or more fungal strains that could be utilized to biosynthesize antifungal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Using morphological and molecular methods, Arthroderma fulvum was identified as the most effective fungal strain for synthesizing AgNPs. The UV–visible range showed a single peak at 420 nm, which corresponded to the surface plasmon absorbance of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the biosynthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature with an average diameter of 15.5±2.5 nm. Numerous factors could potentially affect the process of biosynthesis, and the main factors are discussed here. Optimization results showed that substrate concentration of 1.5 mM, alkaline pH, reaction temperature of 55°C, and reaction time of 10 hours were the optimum conditions for AgNP biosynthesis. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed considerable activity against the tested fungal strains, including Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp., especially Candida spp. PMID:27217752

  9. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the anthracene-degrading fungus Fusarium solani MAS2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Rui; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Kwok-Kei Chow, R; Vrijmoed, L L P

    2010-12-01

    An extracellular laccase was purified from the culture medium of the non-white rot, anthracene-degrading fungal strain Fusarium solani MAS2. Both native PAGE and SDS-PAGE revealed one single band corresponding to a molecular weight of about 72 kDa. Treatment with endoglycosidase H reduced the molecular weight by 12%. The purified laccase maintained stable at pH 3-11 and up to 50 degrees C. The highest activity was detected at pH 3.0 and at 70 degrees C. The enzyme retained 46.2-97.2% of it activity in the presence of 20mM Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), and its activity was enhanced in the presence of 20mM Hg(2+). The laccase retained more than 50% of its activity in the presence of 5% acetone, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), ethanol and methanol. The kinetic constants (K(m) and k(cat)) showed that 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMOP) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) were the more effective substrates rather than catechol and guaiacol. The novel properties of this laccase suggest its potential for biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:20716485

  10. New Phomopsis species identified from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...

  11. Effect of Selected Volatiles on Two Stored Pests: The Fungus Fusarium verticillioides and the Maize Weevil Sithophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Zunino, María P; Herrera, Jimena M; Pizzolitto, Romina P; Rubinstein, Héctor R; Zygadlo, Julio A; Dambolena, José S

    2015-09-01

    New agronomic practices and technology enabled Argentina a larger production of cereal grains, reaching a harvest yield of 26.5 million metric tons of maize, of which, about 40% was exported. However, much of the maize production is lost annually by the attack of fungi and insects (2.6 million tons). In this study, the antifungal effect of selected volatiles on Fusarium verticillioides, its mycotoxin production, and the repellent and insecticidal activities against the weevill Sithophilus zeamais, an insect vector of F. verticillioides, were evaluated. The compounds tested were (2E)-2-hexenal, (2E)-2-nonenal, (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, pentanal, 2-decanone, and 3-decanone, which occur in the blend of volatile compounds emitted by various cereal grains. The most active antifungals were the aldehydes (2E)-2-nonenal, (2E)-2-hexenal, and (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal (minimum inhibitory concentration values of <0.03, 0.06, and 0.06 mM, respectively). The occurrence of fumonisin B1 also was prevented because these compounds completely inhibited fungal growth. The best insecticidal fumigant activities against the maize weevil were shown by 2-decanone and 3-decanone (lethal concentration ≤ 54.6 μL/L (<0.28 mM)). Although, all tested compounds showed repellent activity against S. zeamais at a concentration of 4 μL/L, (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal was the most active repellent compound. These results demonstrate the potential of (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal to be used as a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides on F. verticillioides and S. zeamais. PMID:26257042

  12. Widespread Distribution of Fungivorus Aphelenchoides spp. in Blight Cankers on American Chestnut Trees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J; Eisenback, J D; Oldham, K

    2012-12-01

    Previously we showed in laboratory studies that the fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchoides hylurgi, was attracted to and fed upon the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, from American chestnut bark cankers and was a carrier of biocontrol, white hypovirulent C. parasitica strains. In the present field study, we recovered Aphelenchoides spp. in almost all (97.0 %) of 133 blight canker tissue assays (three 5-g samples each) from four eastern states. High mean population densities (227 to 474 nematodes per 5 g tissue) of Aphelenchoides spp. were recovered from cankers in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee but not from New Hampshire (mean = 75 nematodes per 5 g tissue). Overall, most canker assays yielded population densities less than 200 nematodes per 5 g tissue. All of 12 very small or young cankers yielded a few to many Aphelenchoides spp. Regression analysis indicated greatest recovery of Aphelenchoides spp. occurred in the month of May (r = 0.94). The results indicate that Aphelenchoides spp. appear to be widespread in blight cankers on American chestnut trees and could play a role in biocontrol of chestnut blight. PMID:23482428

  13. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  14. Fusarium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  15. Genetic Variability Among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Yellows, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), can lead to significant yield losses for sugar beet growers. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range, and symptoms; and, it is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 – 2003, 8...

  16. Discovery of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] is a soil-inhabiting fungus that can survive for long periods in the absence of a host, making it impractical to eradicate from infested fields. This cotton host specific forms of the fungus is comprised of different genotyp...

  17. Cross Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae on Sugar Beet and Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, also known as Fusarium yellows, is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Fusarium oxysporum is a vascular pathogen with a broad host range including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with formae speciales (f. sp.) defined by the ability to cause ...

  18. An Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus and its novel symbiotic fungus Fusarium sp. pose a serious threat to the Israeli avocado industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus Einchoff was first recorded in Israel in 2009. A novel unnamed symbiotic species within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex, carried in the mandibular mycangia of the beetle, is responsible for the typical wilt symptoms inflicted on avocado (Perse...

  19. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

  20. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Gold, S E; Blacutt, A A; Meinersmann, R J; Bacon, C W

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

  1. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the ...

  2. CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

  3. Genetic diversity in the fungus Fusarium solani f.sp. cucurbitae race 1, the casual agent of root and crown rot of cucurbits in Iran, using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Alymanesh, M R; Falahatirastegar, M; Jafarpour, B; Mahdikhanimoghadam, E

    2009-06-01

    Fusarium solani f.sp. cucurbitae race 1 is a pathogen on cucurbit plants. In this study genetic diversity among 26 isolates of Fusarium solani f.sp. cucurbitae race 1 was studied using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of ITS (Interal Transcribed Spacer) regions and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) markers. Outcome of digestion with six restriction enzymes including EcoR I, Rsa I, Bme 181, Msp I, Hae III and Hind III, together with the patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS regions divided the isolates into two groups. Deoxy Ribonuckin Acid DNA pattern was obtained for the isolates using 12 random primers and genetic distance between them was calculated and relationships (by cluster analysis) determined. Among the primers used, seven primers showed polymorphism. Genetic distance between isolate pairs ranged from 0.03 to 0.48. Genetic diversity was high (e.g., the isolates were distributed into 10 genetic groups at a similarity percentage of 75). The lowest distance was observed between isolates 50 and 73 and the highest distance observed between isolates 50 and 73 with isolate 102. Restriction fragment length polymorphism results show diversity in ITS regions, without any correlation to geographic origin and RAPD. However, this genomic regions usually have high constancy in species, but in this study diversity was shown in ITS regions even for race 1. The data suggest that taxonomical situation of Foc race 1 probably needs revision. PMID:19803117

  4. Rapid detection method for fusaric acid-producing species of Fusarium by PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin produced by species of the fungus Fusarium and can act synergistically with other Fusarium toxins. In order to develop a specific detection method for fusaric acid-producing fungus, PCR prim¬ers were designed to amplify FUB10, a transcription factor gene in fusaric acid ...

  5. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  6. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated... European larch canker to include additional areas in Maine. We are also correcting some misidentifications... of European larch canker from infested areas to noninfested areas. DATES: This interim rule...

  7. Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

  8. Fusarium Mycotoxins: Biosynthetic Pathways and Role in Virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley is a devastating disease that has reached global proportions. Not only does this disease result in lower yields, but the mycotoxins produced by the fungus affect the quality of the grain. Fusarium sp. can produce a number of mycotoxins, including tric...

  9. Involvement of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in the systemic resistance induced in Arabidopsis by plant growth-promoting fungus Fusarium equiseti GF19-1.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hanae; Hossain, Md Motaher; Kubota, Mayumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) are effective biocontrol agents for a number of soil-borne diseases and are known for their ability to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms triggered by PGPF Fusarium equiseti GF19-1, which is known to increase pathogen resistance in plants, by using GF19-1 spores and the culture filtrate (CF) to treat the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, the leaves were challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) bacteria. Arabidopsis plants treated with GF19-1 spores or the CF elicited ISR against the Pst pathogen, resulting in a restriction of disease severity and suppression of pathogen proliferation. Examination of ISR in various signaling mutants and transgenic plants showed that GF19-1-induced protection was observed in the jasmonate response mutant jar1 and the ethylene response mutant etr1, whereas it was blocked in Arabidopsis plants expressing the NahG transgene or demonstrating a disruption of the NPR1 gene (npr1). Analysis of systemic gene expression revealed that GF19-1 modulates the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5 genes. Moreover, transient accumulation of SA was observed in GF19-1-treated plant, whereas the level was further enhanced after Pst infection of GF19-1-pretreated plants, indicating that accumulation of SA was potentiated when Arabidopsis plants were primed for disease resistance by GF19-1. In conclusion, these findings imply that the induced protective effect conferred by F. equiseti GF19-1 against the leaf pathogen Pst requires responsiveness to an SA-dependent pathway. PMID:23728333

  10. Disseminated Fusarium solani infection with cutaneous nodules in a bone marrow transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, D N; Paller, A S; Nelson, P E; Kaplan, R L

    1988-12-01

    Fusarium is a ubiquitous fungus that commonly colonizes ulcerated, burned, or traumatized skin and may cause keratitis and onychomycosis in healthy hosts. Serious disseminated infection due to Fusarium has been reported with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients. We describe a bone marrow transplant patient who developed fungal septicemia and disseminated skin nodules due to Fusarium solani. Fusarium should be recognized as a potential cause of deep fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:3069758

  11. Research progress for integrated canker management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2013, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  12. Reasons for inconsistent citrus canker control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses from citrus canker in 2014 for Hamlin due to premature fruit drop, or for grapefruit from unacceptable severity of fruit lesions, were highly variable due to periodic rains that in certain locations were coincident with grapefruit flushes in February-March or with early Hamlin fruit deve...

  13. Fusarium Pathogenomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed compartmentalization of genomes into regions responsible for metabolism and reproduction (core genome) and p...

  14. [Fusarium graminearum presence in wheat samples for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Mauro; Castañares, Eliana; Dinolfo, María I; Pacheco, Walter G; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastián A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important diseases in cereal crops is Fusarium head blight, being Fusarium graminearum the main etiological agent. This fungus has the ability to produce a wide spectrum and quantity of toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). During the last crop season (2012-2013) the climatic conditions favored Fusarium colonization. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of this fungus as well as the DON content in 50 wheat grain samples. Our results showed that 80% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium graminearum. Twenty four percent (24%) of the samples contained ≥ 1μg/g DON, 26% ranged from 0,5 and 0,99μg/g, and the remaining 50% had values lower than 0,5μg/g. Correlation was found between the presence of Fusarium graminearum and DON. It is necessary to establish DON limit values in wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:24721273

  15. Fusarium verticillioides: Talking to Friends and Enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is both a symptomless endophyte and a pathogen of maize. At some point, the fungus may synthesize fumonisins which have been linked to a variety of animal diseases including cancer in some animals. In order to minimize losses due to contaminated food or feed, we are workin...

  16. Biological and Chemical Complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the fungus Fusarium proliferatum has been confused with morphologically similar species. Today, F. proliferatum is well defined by morphology, its teleomorphic state (Gibberella intermedia), and DNA-based analyses. F. proliferatum has a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad ho...

  17. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  18. Managing citrus canker for the fresh fruit industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of citrus canker in Florida changed the way the $400 million dollar industry grows, packs ships and stores fruit. Canker regulations have become less strict, but there is still a requirement for compliance for growers and packers to move fruit from Florida to other areas. The comp...

  19. Research promises earlier warning for grapevine canker diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When it comes to detecting and treating vineyards for grapevine canker diseases (also called trunk diseases), like Botryosphaeria dieback (Bot canker), Esca, Eutypa dieback and Phomopsis dieback, the earlier the better, says plant pathologist Kendra Baumgartner, with the USDA’s Agricultural Research...

  20. Characteristics of Multi-rater Estimates of Citrus Canker Severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) was under eradication for 10 y in Florida. A total of 28 CC surveyors and plant pathologists rated severity of CC symptoms on 200 images to investigate the range of abilities and some factors that influence canker severity estimation. Actual dis...

  1. Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F

    1977-01-01

    Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was found to be the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. The fungus pathogenicity could be correlated with the increase in its mycelial growth and conidial germination under the influence of the host root exudates, volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots, and the content of the host seedlings. Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid. Benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene, in addition to carbon dioxide, were among the volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots of the host. PMID:878711

  2. Effect of Lime on Criconemella xenoplax and Bacterial Canker in Two California Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, T.; Jaffee, B. A.; Verdegaal, P.; Norton, M. V. K.; Asai, W. K.; Muldoon, A. E.; McKenry, M. V.; Ferris, H.

    1994-01-01

    In a peach orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of Criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. Liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by the sixth year after planting. Four years after planting, numbers of C. xenoplax exceeded 400/100 cm³ soil, regardless of treatment. Trees with higher densities of C. xenoplax had a higher incidence of canker. The nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was not detected until the fourth year. Thereafter, the incidence of H. rhossiliensis and percentage C. xenoplax parasitized by H. rhossiliensis increased, but the increases lagged behind increases in numbers of nematodes. In an almond orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.6, preplant application of 0, 6.4, 12.8, or 25.0 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.7-7.1). Numbers of C. xenoplax remained low (<20/100 cm³ soil), whereas numbers of Paratylenchus sp. increased to high levels (>500/100 cm³ soil), regardless of treatment. Low levels (<20/100 cm³ soil) of H. rhossiliensis -parasitized Paratylenchus sp. were detected. No bacterial canker occurred, but tree circumference was greater after 6 years if soil pH was intermediate (6.0-7.0). PMID:19279934

  3. DGE-1, a durum alien disomic addition line with resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab or Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe., is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) and current durum cultivars have almost no FHB resistance. Because diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14; EE...

  4. Fusarium verticillioides: Managing the Endophytic Association with Maize for Reduced Fumonisins Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a very important fungus from the aspects of plant disease, cereal production and food safety, particularly as it relates to corn. A major concern of this species is the fumonisin toxins that are harmful to humans and animals ingesting Fusarium-contaminated food or feed p...

  5. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  6. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  7. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  8. Frequency of the nivalenol mycotoxin genotype in Fusarium graminearum sampled from North Carolina wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., Fusarium head blight (or scab) is caused primarily by F. graminearum. Fusarium mycotoxins in small grain heads can render the crop unsuitable for human or animal consumption. In livestock, scabby grain can lead to feed refusal and/or poor weight gain. Although this fungus produces var...

  9. Insights into natural products biosynthesis from analysis of 490 polyketide synthases from Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the fungus Fusarium collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agriculture. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases, large multi-domain enzymes that catalyze sequ...

  10. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  11. The role of trichothecenes in the Triticeae-Fusarium graminearum interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem for the small grain crops wheat and barley. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) that increase the aggressiveness of the fungus and reduces grain quality....

  12. New tricks of an old enemy: Isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  13. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  14. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood. PMID:27165533

  15. A comparison of culture and bioassay for detecting citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) causes serious crop losses in tropical and subtropical citrus production regions. Detecting Xcc is important for quarantine purposes, research and disease management. Although PCR methods are available for detecting and quantifying viable bacteria,...

  16. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea. PMID:26190927

  17. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea. PMID:26190927

  18. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium globosum Strains from South African Maize and Japanese Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium globosum was first isolated from maize in South Africa and subsequently from wheat in Japan. Here, multiple analyses revealed that, despite morphological similarities, South African maize and Japanese wheat isolates of the fungus exhibit multiple differences. An AFLP-based simi...

  19. Fusarium damage assessment in wheat kernels by Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight is a fungal disease that affects the world's small grains, such as wheat and barley. Attacking the spikelets during development, the fungus causes a reduction of yield and grain of poorer processing quality. Secondary metabolites that often accompany the fungus, such as deoxyn...

  20. Case of Keratitis Caused by an Uncommon Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Rubio, Carmen; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Gil, Joaquina; Benito, Rafael; Moranderia, M. José; Miguez, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium polyphialidicum caused a corneal ulcer in a Spanish man. Diagnosis was established by a histopathological study and repeated cultures. The isolate was clearly resistant in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. This is the first case of human or animal mycosis by this rare fungus. PMID:14662993

  1. Effector profiles distinguish formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formae speciales (ff. spp.) of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum are often polyphyletic in their origin, meaning that strains that infect a particular plant species are not necessarily more closely related to each other than to strains that cause disease in another host. Nevertheless, since strains of t...

  2. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  3. Gene Deletion and Functional Analysis of Fusarium verticillioides Trehalose Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a species of fungus that causes stalk, ear, and kernel rot of corn and produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that have dangerous health effects. We have observed previously that the intracellular concentration of trehalose, a disaccharide involved in resistance to st...

  4. Genome distribution and validation of novel microsatellite markers of Fusarium verticillioides and their transferability to other Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Madrigal, Karla Y; Larralde-Corona, Claudia P; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos L; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E

    2014-06-01

    Improved population studies in the fungus Fusarium verticillioides require the development of reliable microsatellite markers. Here we report a set of ten microsatellite loci that can be used for genetic diversity analyses in F. verticillioides, and are equally applicable to other fungi, especially those belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi clade. PMID:24704573

  5. Analyses of the Xylem Sap Proteomes Identified Candidate Fusarium virguliforme Proteinacious Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Abeysekara, Nilwala S.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by the ascomycete fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, exhibits root necrosis and leaf scorch or foliar SDS. The pathogen has never been identified from the above ground diseased foliar tissues. Foliar SDS is believed to be caused by host selective toxins, including FvTox1, secreted by the fungus. This study investigated if the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants contains secreted F. virguliforme-proteins, some of which could cause foliar SDS development. Results Xylem sap samples were collected from five biological replications of F. virguliforme-infected and uninfected soybean plants under controlled conditions. We identified five F. virguliforme proteins from the xylem sap of the F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants by conducting LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These five proteins were also present in the excreted proteome of the pathogen in culture filtrates. One of these proteins showed high sequence identity to cerato-platanin, a phytotoxin produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani to cause canker stain disease in the plane tree. Of over 500 soybean proteins identified in this study, 112 were present in at least 80% of the sap samples collected from F. virguliforme-infected and -uninfected control plants. We have identified four soybean defense proteins from the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000873. Conclusion This study confirms that a few F. virguliforme proteins travel through the xylem, some of which could be involved in foliar SDS development. We have identified five candidate proteinaceous toxins, one of which showed high similarity to a previously characterized phytotoxin. We have also shown the presence of four soybean defense proteins in the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. This study laid the foundation for studying the molecular basis of foliar SDS development in soybean and

  6. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  7. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection

    PubMed Central

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  8. BIOCONTROL AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM-INDUCED CHANGES IN PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN TOMATO LEAVES AND ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biocontrol fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 was previously shown to reduce incidence of Fusarium wilt of tomato through an uncharacterized host-mediated response. Since phenolic compounds are involved in the defense response of tomato to pathogens and other stressors, this work was undert...

  9. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of Durum Alien Disomic Addition Line with Enhanced Tolerance to Fusarium Head Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes). Current durum cultivars have very little or no FHB resistance. A wild relative, diploid wheatgrass Lophopyrum elongatum (Hos...

  10. Inhibition of Fusarium graminiarum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum) while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical c...

  11. Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

  12. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit From Quarantined Areas... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We will... from citrus canker quarantined areas, contact Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Policy Manager, PHP,...

  13. Horsfall-Barratt recalibration and replicated severity estimates of citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is a serious disease of citrus in tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate and precise assessment of citrus canker and other plant pathogens is needed to obtain good quality data. Citrus canker assessment data were used to ascertain some of the mechanics of the Horsfal...

  14. Ethanol attracts scolytid beetles to Phytophthora ramorum cankers on coast live oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 ti...

  15. Fusarium MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre’s Fusarium MLST website (http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/Fusarium), and the corresponding Fusarium-ID site hosted at the Pennsylvania State University (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org; Geiser et al. 2004, Park et al. 2010) were constructed to facilitate identification of...

  16. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  17. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Fusarium dimerum species group.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Hans-Josef; O'Donnell, Kerry; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Kammeyer, Patricia L; Johnson, Stuart; Sutton, Deanna A; Rinaldi, Michael G; Geiser, David M; Summerbell, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    The morphospecies Fusarium dimerum, known only from its anamorph, comprises at least 12 phylogenetically distinct species. Analyses of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) show they are taxa of the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales), related to F. domesticum and form a phylogenetically distinct clade within Fusarium. Fusarium dimerum, for which no herbarium material could be located, is characterized by macroconidia with a single, median septum, according to the original description and illustration. Fusarium lunatum (= F. dimerum var. violaceum) forms similar but longer macroconidia and purple, catenate or clustered chlamydospores. Fusarium delphinoides sp. nov., F. biseptatum sp. nov., F. penzigii sp. nov., F. nectrioides comb. nov. (= F. dimerum var. nectrioides) and two unnamed Fusarium spp. produce macroconidia with mostly two or rarely three septa. The name F. dimerum, which originally was applied to a fungus from a citron, is used for a taxon including isolates causing infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Fusarium nectrioides, F. delphinoides, F. penzigii and F. biseptatum are known from soil and dead plant substrata or rarely as agents of trauma-related eye infections of humans. Fusarium lunatum is an inhabitant of the cladodes of species within the cactus genera Opuntia and Gymnocalycium. Its unnamed closest sister taxon, which also forms 1-septate macroconidia and purple, clustered chlamydospores, was isolated from a human sinus. Fusarium delphinoides is a pathogen of the cactus-like African species Hoodia gordonii (Apocynaceae). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, LSU rDNA and partial sequences of the elongation factor 1-alpha and beta-tubulin genes identified a clade of several species producing predominately 2-septate macroconidia as the reciprocally monophyletic sister of F. dimerum. The basal sister group of the two aforementioned clades includes Fusarium lunatum and two

  18. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Hattori, N; Shirai, A; Sugiura, Y; Li, W; Yokoyama, K; Misawa, Y; Okuzumi, K; Tamaki, K

    2005-09-01

    Fusarium infections in humans are usually opportunistic, but the fungus sometimes infects healthy persons, causing keratomycosis or onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is usually caused by F. solani or F. oxysporum. We report the first two cases of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum, and discuss methods of diagnosis and effective treatment. Nail samples from the two patients were examined by direct microscopy, cultured, and identified morphologically and genetically as F. proliferatum. Both patients were treated successfully with oral itraconazole, even though the minimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole was relatively high in Patient 1. This is the first report of F. proliferatum as an agent of onychomycosis. Itraconazole may be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum. PMID:16120158

  19. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  20. A meiotic drive element is located within a 130-kb region of chromosome V of the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize worldwide and produces carcinogenic mycotoxins known as fumonisins. Natural populations of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element called Spore killer, abbreviated as FvSkK. Only FvSkK progeny survive in a cross between an FvSkK strain and...

  1. Soybean root defense responses to Fusarium virguliforme infection reveals a role of defense related genes during resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome of soybean is an important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium virguliforme. This fungus colonizes soybean roots causing rot, and releases a phytotoxin that is translocated to leaves causing interveinal chlorosis and possible defoliation. In this study, we re...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Fusarium virguliforme provides additional evidence of toxins that contribute to foliar symptoms of soybean sudden death syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxins produced by the soil-borne fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, cause foliar symptoms in soybean. The disease in soybean is referred to as soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). Three toxins produced by the fungus were reported to be associated with SDS foliar symptoms, but none produced identical S...

  3. A meiotic drive element in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides is located within a 102-kb region of chromosome V

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (SkK) that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny f...

  4. Pruning for prevention and management of canker diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trunk diseases (wood-canker diseases) threaten all California vineyards due to widespread distribution of the fungal pathogens. The infections are chronic and occur each year. Trunk diseases in mature vineyards reduce yields and increase management costs to the point where the vineyard is no longer ...

  5. Detection of fluorescent compounds in citrus leaf cankers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker caused by the pathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), poses a serious threat to citrus production in Florida, especially for the fresh fruit market. Xcc causes severe damage to fruit, stem, and leaf tissues, and although much has been learned about the complex inter...

  6. Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

  7. Automating the assessment of citrus canker symptoms with image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease of citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing regions. Severity of symptoms can be estimated by visual rating, but there is inter- and intra-rater variation. Automated image analysis (IA) may offer a way of reducing some of ...

  8. Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

  9. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  10. Packingline sanitizers for use against canker and decay pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in general sanitation in citrus packinghouses has turned to specific reduction of the canker organism from post harvest fruit and packinglines. Existing methods are not efficient and reduction of the bacterial colonies is not sufficient to allow transport and sale of fruit outside the quara...

  11. Distribution of canker lesions on grapefruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is an important disease of grapefruit in Florida. To establish disease distribution on fruit, six samples of 24 diseased grapefruit were collected from two groves in east Florida. A plane was sliced through ...

  12. PROSPECTS FOR CONTROL OF CITRUS CANKER WITH NOVEL CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials conducted in Brazil demonstrate that copper formulations (copper hydroxide, CH; copper oxychloride, COC) even at reduced rates are consistently effective for control of canker on moderately susceptible orange varieties. Contact activity to replace and/or reduce copper could minimize po...

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Dai, Qingqing; Liu, Yangyang; Yang, Zhe; Song, Na; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf Thomas; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), which is the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree, causes heavy damage to apple production in eastern Asia. In this article, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) of Vmm and expression of gfp (green fluorescent protein) in this fungus. The transformation system was optimized to a transformation efficiency of approximately 150 transformants/10(6) conidia, and a library containing over 4,000 transformants was generated. The tested transformants were mitotically stable. One hundred percent hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) integration into Vmm was identified by PCR and five single-copy integration of T-DNA was detected in the eighteen transformants by Southern blot. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ATMT of Vmm. Furthermore, this library has been used to identify genes involved in the virulence of the pathogen, and the transformation system may also be useful to the transformation of other species of the genus Valsa. PMID:24554343

  14. Dynamic regions within and horizontal transfer of an otherwise stable gene cluster responsible for synthesis of the Fusarium mycotoxin fusaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium mycotoxin fusaric acid is toxic to plants as well as animals, but its function in the biology of the fungus is not known. Here, we used genome sequencing to survey multiple species in 18 lineages (species complexes) of Fusarium for the presence of the fusaric acid biosynthetic gene (FUB...

  15. Disruption of ceramide biosynthesis and accumulation of sphingoid bases and sphingoid base 1-phosphates: A mechanism for Fusarium verticillioides effects in maize-seedling disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sweet corn at the seedling and seed maturation stages, Fusarium can be a serious field problem. The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize and produces fumonisins, inhibitors of ceramide synthase. To determine the role of fumonisins in maize seedling disease, seeds were inoculated with fu...

  16. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  17. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  18. Evaluation of two methods for direct detection of Fusarium spp. in water.

    PubMed

    Graça, Mariana G; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Perdigão, Lauro; Taira, Cleison; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium is a waterborne fungus that causes severe infections especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Traditionally, the detection of Fusarium in water is done by culturing which is difficult and time consuming. A faster method is necessary to prevent exposure of susceptible patients to contaminated water. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular technique for direct detection of Fusarium in water. A direct DNA extraction method from water was developed and coupled to a genus-specific PCR, to detect 3 species of Fusarium (verticillioides, oxysporum and solani). The detection limits were 10cells/L and 1cell/L for the molecular and culture methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first method developed to detect Fusarium directly from water. PMID:26844885

  19. Fusarium Wilt of Orchids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of orchids is highly destructive and economically limiting to the production of quality orchids that has steadily increased in many production facilities. Important crops such as phalaenopsis, cattleyas, and oncidiums appear to be especially susceptible to certain Fusarium species. Fu...

  20. Summer heat and low soil organic matter influence severity of hazelnut Cytospora canker.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2014-04-01

    Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora corylicola, is present in hazelnut production areas worldwide. The disease is widespread throughout the main production areas of Italy. The causal agent is considered to be a secondary invader of damaged tissue that attacks mainly stressed plants. However, little is known of disease severity and stress factors that predispose plants to infection. In particular, the role of pedoclimatic factors was investigated. Direct survey indicated that disease severity varied across several study sites. Geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation between disease severity index and summer heat (r = 0.80 and 0.91 for July and August, respectively) and strong negative correlation between disease severity index and soil organic matter (r = -0.78). A moderate positive correlation between disease severity index and magnesium/potassium ratio (r = 0.58) and moderate negative correlations between disease severity index and total soil nitrogen (r = -0.53), thermal shock (r = -0.46), and rainfall (r = -0.53) were determined. No significant correlation between disease severity index and soil aluminum (r = -0.35), soil pH (r = -0.01), and plant age (r = -0.38) was found. PMID:24168042

  1. Endophytic Cryphonectriaceae on native Myrtales: Possible origin of Chrysoporthe canker on plantation-grown Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Mausse-Sitoe, Silvia N D; Rodas, Carlos A; Wingfield, Michael J; Chen, ShuaiFei; Roux, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    Chrysoporthe austroafricana (Cryphonectriaceae) is a damaging canker pathogen on Eucalyptus species in Southern Africa. Recent studies have shown that the fungus occurs on native Syzygium species and that it has apparently undergone a host range expansion from these native trees to infect non-native Eucalyptus. The aim of this study was to consider whether Chr. austroafricana and other Cryphonectriaceae might exist as endophytes in native Myrtaceae, providing a source of inoculum to infect non-native Myrtales. Healthy branches were collected from Myrtaceae in Mozambique, incubated in florist foam, allowed to dry gradually and monitored for the appearance of fruiting bodies resembling species in the Cryphonectriaceae. Isolates were identified based on DNA sequence data. Two species in the Cryphonectriaceae were obtained, representing the first evidence that species in the Cryphonectriaceae occur as endophytes on native Myrtales, thus providing a source of inoculum to infect non-native and susceptible trees. This has important implications regarding the movement of planting stock used by ornamental tree and forestry enterprises. PMID:27268243

  2. Insights into natural products biosynthesis from analysis of 490 polyketide synthases from Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daren W; Proctor, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Species of the fungus Fusarium collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agriculture. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases (PKSs), large multi-domain enzymes that catalyze sequential condensation of simple carboxylic acids to form polyketides. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of polyketide-derived NPs in Fusarium, we retrieved 488 PKS gene sequences from genome sequences of 31 species of the fungus. In addition to these apparently functional PKS genes, the genomes collectively included 81 pseudogenized PKS genes. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the PKS genes into 67 clades, and based on multiple lines of evidence, we propose that homologs in each clade are responsible for synthesis of a polyketide that is distinct from those synthesized by PKSs in other clades. The presence and absence of PKS genes among the species examined indicated marked differences in distribution of PKS homologs. Comparisons of Fusarium PKS genes and genes flanking them to those from other Ascomycetes provided evidence that Fusarium has the genetic potential to synthesize multiple NPs that are the same or similar to those reported in other fungi, but that have not yet been reported in Fusarium. The results also highlight ways in which such analyses can help guide identification of novel Fusarium NPs and differences in NP biosynthetic capabilities that exist among fungi. PMID:26826610

  3. Adhesive tablet effective for treating canker sores in humans.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Boaz; Golenser, Jacob; Wolnerman, Joseph S; Domb, Abraham J

    2004-12-01

    A new mucoadhesive tablet, which releases natural active agents for pain reduction and rapid healing of canker sores, has been prepared and characterized. Adhesive tablets were prepared by compression molding of mixed powders of crosslinked polyacrylic acid and hydroxypropyl cellulose, absorbed with citrus oil and magnesium salt. The rate of tablet erosion and the rates of citrus oil and magnesium release were determined as well as the adhesiveness of the tablet using bovine gingival tissue and an Instron tensiometer. A clinical trial was conducted on 248 volunteers who had canker sores. Tablets adhere well to the mucosal tissue and gradually erode for 8 h releasing the citrus oil in a zero-order pattern whereas the magnesium is released during a period of 2 h. Both experimental and plain tablets were effective in reducing pain and decreasing healing time (p < 0.05) without adverse side effects. However, the tablets loaded with active agents were more effective. PMID:15459950

  4. Deciphering the cryptic genome: Genome-wide analyses of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi reveal complex regulation of secondary metabolism and novel metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is agriculturally important because it produces the phytohormones gibberellic acids (GAs) and causes bakanae (“foolish seedling”) disease of rice. The fungus also produces multiple other secondary metabolites, including pigments and mycotoxins. Here, we present a high-q...

  5. Identification of multiple phytotoxins produced by Fusarium virguliforme including a phytotoxic effector (FvNIS1) associated with soybean sudden death syndrome foliar symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxins produced by the soil-borne fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, cause foliar symptoms in soybean. The disease in soybean is referred to as soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). Three toxins produced by the fungus were reported to be associated with SDS foliar symptoms, but none produced identical S...

  6. BARK CANKER OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY DEVELOPING ON PECAN CARYA ILLINOENSIS TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan trees in a five-year-old orchard of 17 cultivars had symptoms of an unusual bark canker first noticed in October, 2002. Symptoms appeared from ground line up to 3 meters on the central leader and most likely were initiated during the summer of 2002. Cankers developed around buds of the trunk...

  7. ENHANCED DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF THE WALNUT PATHOGEN BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS: CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on younger trees, ...

  8. Detecting citrus canker by hyperspectral reflectance imaging and PCA-based image classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Burks, Thomas F.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Ritenour, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten citrus crops. Technologies that can efficiently identify citrus canker would assure fruit quality and safety and enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. A portable hyperspectral imaging system consisting of an automatic sample handling unit, a light source, and a hyperspectral imaging unit was developed for citrus canker detection. The imaging system was used to acquire reflectance images from citrus samples in the wavelength range between 400 nm and 900 nm. Ruby Red grapefruits with normal and various diseased skin conditions including canker, copper burn, greasy spot, wind scar, cake melanose, and specular melanose were tested. Hyperspectral reflectance images were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to compress the 3-D hyperspectral image data and extract useful image features that could be used to discriminate cankerous samples from normal and other diseased samples. Image processing and classification algorithms were developed based upon the transformed images of PCA. The overall accuracy for canker detection was 92.7%. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used for discriminating citrus canker from other confounding diseases.

  9. First report of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri in Somalia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri, causal agent of citrus canker, has been reported in several countries in Africa, but not Somalia. During 2006 and 2007, hyperplasia-type lesions, often surrounded by a water-soaked margin and yellow halo, typical of citrus canker caused by X. citri, were found on 8-10 year-old gr...

  10. Automated image analysis of the severity of foliar citrus canker symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...

  11. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  12. Genes, Gene Clusters, and Biosynthesis of Trichothecenes and Fumonisins in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes and fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, a filamentous fungus that can cause disease on some crop plants, including corn, rice, and wheat. Research on the genetics and biochemistry of trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis has provided important insights into the genetic...

  13. Identification and analysis of Fusarium verticillioides genes differentially expressed during conidiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides, an endophytic maize pathogen, is the causal agent of diseases such as ear rot, seedling blight, and stalk rot, resulting in major economic losses in maize production. This fungus can also cause certain diseases in animals due to consumption of feed contaminated with fumonis...

  14. Seed treatment with live or dead Fusarium verticillioides equivalently reduces the severity of subsequent stalk rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widely distributed fungus that can associate with maize as a deleterious pathogen and an advantageous endophyte. Here, we show that seed treatment with live F.verticillioides enhances maize resistance to secondary stalk rot infection, and demonstrate that dead F.vertici...

  15. Identification and analysis of Fusarium verticillioides genes differentially expressed during conidiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides, an endophytic maize pathogen, is the causal agent of diseases, such as ear rot, seedling blight, and stalk rot, resulting in major economic losses in maize production. This fungus can also cause certain diseases in animals due to consumption of feed contaminated with fumoni...

  16. EBR1 genomic expansion and its role in virulence of Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing of Fusarium oxysporum revealed that pathogenic forms of this fungus harbor supernumerary chromosomes with a wide variety of genes, many of which likely encode traits required for pathogenicity or niche specialization. Specific transcription factor (TF) gene families are expanded on...

  17. Food Fight: Fungal Foe Frustration (Fusarium verticillioides vs. the world of xenobiotics)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides infects maize and produces the fumonisin mycotoxins. The genome of the fungus encodes approximately 30 proteins containing beta-lactamase domains that are roughly evenly split between two families, metallo beta-lactamases and cephalosporinases. In bacteria beta-lactamases ar...

  18. Transcriptional analysis of soybean roots response to Fusarium virguliforme, the causal agent of sudden death syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean can be caused by any of four distinct Fusarium species, with F. virguliforme and F. tucumaniae being the main casual agents in North and South America, respectively. Although the fungal tissue is largely confined to the root, the fungus releases a toxin that is...

  19. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major destructive pathogen of cultivated cereals. We have sequenced and annotated the F. graminearum genome, and found it includes very few repetitive sequences. We experimentally demonstrate that repeats are mutated by the process of repeat-induced p...

  20. Nitric oxide detoxification by Fusarium verticillioides flavohemoglobin and role in pathogenicity of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a non-obligate plant pathogen of maize causing a number of specific diseases, including root rot, kernel rot, seed rot, stalk rot, and seedling blight. The saprophytic nature of this fungus, its production of the mycotoxin fumonisin, and complex relationship maize puts t...

  1. Natural and introduced Fusarium verticillioides populations in ears of field-grown corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn may be colonized by the fungus, Fusarium verticillioides, resulting in both plant disease and mycotoxin contamination. The purpose of the current research was to compare frequencies of three F. verticillioides populations in kernels of corn grown under field conditions. The populations assess...

  2. Exploring the role of trehalose metabolism in resistance to oxidative and desiccation stress in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogenic filamentous fungus that primarily affects maize. We are exploring stress response mechanisms in F. verticillioides, particularly the role of trehalose, a disaccharide known to be involved in the ability of several organisms to withstand desiccation or drought...

  3. LAE1 regulates expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium verticillioides can cause disease of maize and is capable of producing the polyketide derived mycotoxins called fumonisins. Fumonisin contamination of maize kernels is a food safety concern. Fumonisins have been implicated in human esophageal cancer as well as in cau...

  4. Effects of Fusarium virguliforme phytotoxin on soybean gene expression suggests a multi-dimensional defense approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the most important diseases of soybean worldwide is the disease called Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme. This soil-borne fungus colonizes soybean roots causing root rot, and also releases a phytotoxin that is translocated to leaves causing interveinal chlorosis and n...

  5. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF, and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex.

    PubMed

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh; Hagen, Ferry; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Stielow, J Benjamin; Karami-Osbo, Rouhollah; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common groups of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxin production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from contaminated fig fruits in Iran. Initially this species was identified as Fusarium andiyazi by morphology. In the present study the species was studied by multilocus sequence analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and phenotypic characters. Multilocus analyses were based on translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1), RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (BT2) and proved F. ficicrescens as a member of the FFSC. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the fungus is closely related to Fusarium lactis, Fusarium ramigenum, and Fusarium napiforme; known plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and occasionally occurring multidrug resistant opportunists. The new species differed by being able to grow at 37 °C and by the absence of mycotoxin production. TEF1 was confirmed as an essential barcode for identifying Fusarium species. In addition to TEF1, we evaluated BT2 and RPB2 in order to provide sufficient genetic and species boundaries information for recognition of the novel species. PMID:26781381

  6. Genomic analysis of Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Brown, D W; Butchko, R A E; Proctor, R H

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen-causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the sphingolipid sphinganine. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been associated with a number of animal diseases, including cancer in rodents, and exposure has been correlated with human oesophageal cancer in some regions of the world, and some evidence suggests that fumonisins are a risk factor for neural tube defects. A primary goal of the authors' laboratory is to eliminate fumonisin contamination of maize and maize products. Understanding how and why these toxins are made and the F. verticillioides-maize disease process will allow one to develop novel strategies to limit tissue destruction (rot) and fumonisin production. To meet this goal, genomic sequence data, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarrays are being used to identify F. verticillioides genes involved in the biosynthesis of toxins and plant pathogenesis. This paper describes the current status of F. verticillioides genomic resources and three approaches being used to mine microarray data from a wild-type strain cultured in liquid fumonisin production medium for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. Taken together, these approaches demonstrate the power of microarray technology to provide information on different biological processes. PMID:19238625

  7. A major QTL associated with Fusarium oxysporum race 1 resistance identified in genetic populations derived from closely related watermelon lines using selective genotyping and genotyping-by-sequencing for SNP discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major soil-borne disease of watermelon caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). In this study, a genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous distribution for Fon race ...

  8. Molecular Biology of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the 20th century ended, Fusarium mycotoxicology entered the age of genomics. With complete genomes of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and several Fusarium gene expression sequence databases on hand, researchers worldwide are working at a rapid pace to identify mycotoxin biosynthetic ...

  9. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  10. Molecular biology of Fusarium mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the 20th century ended, Fusarium mycotoxicology entered the age of genomics. With complete genomes of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides, and several Fusarium gene expression sequence databases on hand, researchers worldwide are working at a rapid pace to identify mycotoxin biosynthetic...

  11. Interactions between root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium wilt disease, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Melonis in different varieties of melon.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, E; Kheiri, A; Etebarian, H R; Roostaei, A

    2004-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) are destructive pathogens on cucurbits in Varamin area of Iran. The interaction between two pathogens was studied on local melon cultivars, Garmsar and Sooski. Inoculum of Meloidogyne javanica was prepared on susceptible cultivar, Rutgers using single egg mass method in greenhouse. Inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (race 1) was prepared using Richard solution. A concentration of 2 x 10(5) micro conidia of fungus and 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 eggs of nematode was used in 1 kg of autoclaved soil. Plants were inoculated with nematode at 2-3 leave stage then with fungus 2 weeks after nematode inoculation. The experiment was conducted in factoriel design based on CRD with 20 treatments, including varieties in 2 levels (Garmsar and Sooski), nematode in 5 levels (0, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 eggs) and fungus in 2 levels (presence and absence) and 3 replicates. The index that evaluated were growth index including fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, height, Fusarium wilt index and root gall index. Results of this experiment showed that all of treatments comparison to control were significantly different (p = 0.05) in growth index. Combination of fungus and nematode (5000 eggs) caused the most decrease in growth index on Garmsar and Sooski. PMID:15759439

  12. Characterization of Five Novel Mitoviruses in the White Pine Blister Rust Fungus Cronartium ribicola.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Chan, Danelle; Xiang, Yu; Williams, Holly; Li, Xiao-Rui; Sniezko, Richard A; Sturrock, Rona N

    2016-01-01

    The white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.) is an exotic invasive forest pathogen causing severe stem canker disease of native white pine trees (subgenus Strobus) in North America. The present study reports discovery of five novel mitoviruses in C. ribicola by deep RNA sequencing. The complete genome of each mitovirus was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was detected in each of the viral genomes using mitochondrial genetic codes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the C. ribicola mitoviruses (CrMV1 to CrMV5) are new putative species of the genus Mitovirus. qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses revealed that viral RNAs were significantly increased in fungal mycelia in cankered pine stems compared to expression during two different stages of spore development, suggesting that viral genome replication and transcription benefit from active growth of the host fungus. CrMVs were widespread with relatively high levels of minor allele frequency (MAF) in western North America. As the first report of mitoviruses in the Class Pucciniomycetes, this work allows further investigation of the dynamics of a viral community in the WPBR pathosystem, including potential impacts that may affect pathogenicity and virulence of the host fungus. PMID:27196406

  13. Characterization of Five Novel Mitoviruses in the White Pine Blister Rust Fungus Cronartium ribicola

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Chan, Danelle; Xiang, Yu; Williams, Holly; Li, Xiao-Rui; Sniezko, Richard A.; Sturrock, Rona N.

    2016-01-01

    The white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.) is an exotic invasive forest pathogen causing severe stem canker disease of native white pine trees (subgenus Strobus) in North America. The present study reports discovery of five novel mitoviruses in C. ribicola by deep RNA sequencing. The complete genome of each mitovirus was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was detected in each of the viral genomes using mitochondrial genetic codes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the C. ribicola mitoviruses (CrMV1 to CrMV5) are new putative species of the genus Mitovirus. qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses revealed that viral RNAs were significantly increased in fungal mycelia in cankered pine stems compared to expression during two different stages of spore development, suggesting that viral genome replication and transcription benefit from active growth of the host fungus. CrMVs were widespread with relatively high levels of minor allele frequency (MAF) in western North America. As the first report of mitoviruses in the Class Pucciniomycetes, this work allows further investigation of the dynamics of a viral community in the WPBR pathosystem, including potential impacts that may affect pathogenicity and virulence of the host fungus. PMID:27196406

  14. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  15. Development of a qPCR technique to screen for resistance to Asiatic citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (Acc) (causal organism Xanthomonas citri subspc. citri (Xcc) is threatening sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Resistant cultivars, whether developed through conventional breeding or genetic transformation, will be he best solution for dealint with Acc. In Florida...

  16. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition. PMID:22186063

  17. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; De Souza, Gabriel IH; Esposito, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material. PMID:16014167

  18. Relationship of substrate and surfactin production by Bacillus mojavensis strains and their antagonistical response to Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, RRC 101 controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. An antifungal lipopeptide produced by B. mojavensi...

  19. Global Gene Regulation by Fusarium Transcription Factors Tri6 and Tri10 Reveals Adaptations for Toxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are isoprenoid mycotoxins and harmful contaminants of wheat infected with the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. The expression of some fungal genes for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri genes) are known to be under control of transcription factors encoded by the genes Tri6 and Tr...

  20. mRNA isoforms in the maize endophyte/pathogen Fusarium verticillioides: And a little story about KP4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen and endophyte of maize. At some stages of its life, it may synthesize a family of mycotoxins called fumonisins that may contaminate maize products. Ingestion of fumonisin is linked to a variety of animal diseases including cancer in som...

  1. Genome-wide analysis and functional characterization of candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pathogens often produce certain small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) during pathogenesis that may function in triggering resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. We have identified a total of 190 SSCPs encoded in the genome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum a...

  2. Surfactin A production and isoforms characterizations in strains of Bacillus mojavensis for control of a maize pathogen, Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, RRC 101 controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. An antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by B. moj...

  3. Global Gene Regulation by Fusarium Transcription Factors Tri6 and Tri10 Reveals Adaptations for Toxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are isoprenoid mycotoxins in wheat infected with the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. Some fungal genes for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri genes) are known to be under control of transcription factors encoded by Tri6 and Tri10. Tri6 and Tri10 deletion mutants were constructed...

  4. Survey of mRNA isoforms in Fusarium verticillioides by ESTs: Alternative splicing is part of the story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize and synthesizes a number of economically important toxins including fumonisins. Fumonisins cause a variety of animal diseases and have been shown to cause cancer in some animals. Contaminated maize and maize products lead to su...

  5. FVVE1 REGULATES FILAMENTOUS GROWTH, THE RATIO OF MICROCONIDIA TO MACROCONIDIA AND CELL WALL FORMATION IN FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene, veA, coordinates asexual and sexual sporulation in the fungal species Aspergillus nidulans. Whether veA has the same role in morphogenesis in other fungi has not been investigated. In this work, we studied the role of the veA homolog, FvVEA, in the fungus Fusarium verticillioides. Delet...

  6. The transcription factor FgStuAp influences spore development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important plant-pathogenic fungus and the major cause of cereal head blight. Here, we report the functional analysis of FgStuA, the gene for a transcription factor with homology to key developmental regulators in fungi. The deletion mutant was greatly reduced in pathogenic...

  7. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  8. He said, she said: mRNA sequencing identifies specificity in metabolic response to Bacillus mojavensis lipopeptides in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a mycotoxigenic fungus capable of both pathogenic and asymptomatic endophytic lifestyles in maize; such intimate association renders efficient chemical control cost-prohibitive. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101 is a maize endophyte demonstrating both in vitro antagonism of F. v...

  9. Discovery and toxicity assessment of a novel type A trichothecene produced by US isolates of Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum shows a widespread occurrence across temperate regions of the world and can produce several mycotoxins on almost every cereal. A large-scale survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in the northern United States was conducted to investigate the po...

  10. Ligninolytic Activity of Fusarium virguliforme (SYN. F. solani f. sp. glycines), the Causal Agent of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium virguliforme (syn. F. solani f. sp. glycines), a soil-borne fungus, is the causal agent of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation is not common in most soilborne fungi which are considered to be cellulose degraders only. In thi...

  11. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra).

    PubMed

    Hadziabdic, Denita; Vito, Lisa M; Windham, Mark T; Pscheidt, Jay W; Trigiano, Robert N; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic composition of Geosmithia morbida populations in the native range of black walnut and provide a better understanding regarding demography of the pathogen. The fungus G. morbida, and the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, have been associated with a disease complex of black walnut (Juglans nigra) known as thousand cankers disease (TCD). The disease is manifested as branch dieback and canopy loss, eventually resulting in tree death. In 2010, the disease was detected in black walnut in Tennessee, and subsequently in Virginia and Pennsylvania in 2011 and North Carolina in 2012. These were the first incidences of TCD east of Colorado, where the disease has been established for more than a decade on indigenous walnut species. A genetic diversity and population structure study of 62 G. morbida isolates from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Oregon was completed using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The results revealed high haploid genetic diversity among seven G. morbida populations with evidence of gene flow, and significant differentiation among two identified genetic clusters. There was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Understanding the genetic composition and demography of G. morbida can provide valuable insight into recognizing factors affecting the persistence and spread of an invasive pathogen, disease progression, and future infestation predictions. Overall, these data support the hypotheses of two separate, highly diverse pathogen introductions into the native range of black walnut. PMID:24177436

  12. Oak tree canker disease supports arthropod diversity in a natural ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-03-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

  13. Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

  14. Development and validation of standard area diagrams as assessment aids for estimating the severity of citrus canker on unripe oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...

  15. REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOASSAY FOR THE DEEP BARK CANKER PATHOGEN, BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep Bark Canker (DBC), caused by the bacterium Brennaria rubrifaciens afflicts English walnut cultivars and is characterized by late onset of symptoms in trees greater than 15 years old. These symptoms include deep bleeding vertical cankers along the trunk and larger branches that exude a bacteria...

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial properties of ultraviolet A/riboflavin mediated crosslinking on Candida albicans and Fusarium solani

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing; Li, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Hai-Qun; Tao, Xiang-Chen; Zhang, Yong; Mu, Guo-Ying

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of ultraviolet A (UVA) (365 nm)/riboflavin against Candida albicans and Fusarium solani. METHODS Two fungus isolates were cultured in vitro and prepared with 10-fold serial PBS dilutions of cell concentration. For each dilution of fungus suspension, the concentration (colony-forming units/mL, CFU/mL) and the inactivation ratio of fungal cells were evaluated under 4 conditions: no treatment (control), UVA (365 nm)/riboflavin, riboflavin, and UVA (365 nm). RESULTS The cell concentration decreased in UVA (365 nm)/riboflavin group for Candida albicans at each dilution and Fusarium solani at dilutions of 104, 103, 102 CFU/mL, when compared with that in control, riboflavin, and UVA (365 nm) groups (P<0.01). No difference of cell concentration was detected amongst the culture of control, riboflavin, and UVA (365 nm) groups for the two fungus. There is a negative correlation between suspension concentration (log-transformed) and the inactivation ratio in UVA (365 nm)/riboflavin group for Candida albicans and Fusarium solani (P<0.01). CONCLUSION According to the standard protocol of corneal collagen cross-linking, UVA (365 nm)/riboflavin combination treatment is found to moderately inactivate the viability of Candida albicans and Fusarium solani in vitro. The inactivation ratio was found to increase with the decrease of cell concentration under UVA (365 nm)/riboflavin condition. PMID:24790859

  17. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    PubMed

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms. PMID:26835778

  18. Cloning and targeted disruption of enpg-1, encoding the major in vitro extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed

    Gao, S; Choi, G H; Shain, L; Nuss, D L

    1996-06-01

    The gene enpg-1, encoding the major extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) purified from culture filtrates of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, was cloned and characterized. The deduced mature enpg-1 protein product, ENPG-1, had a calculated molecular mass of 34.5 kDa and a pI of 7.2, consistent with empirically derived values for the purified enzyme, and had 66% identity with an endoPG from the maize pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum. Targeted disruption of enpg-1 was accomplished by homologous recombination with a cloned copy of the gene that contained the Escherichia coli hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) inserted into exon 1. enpg-1 disruption resulted in no reduction in canker formation on dormant American chestnut stems. Unexpectedly, the level of polygalacturonase (PG) activity measured in cankered bark tissue infected with enpg-1 disruptants was indistinguishable from that found in canker tissue infected with virulent strain EP155. Isoelectric focusing and activity gel analysis of PG activity extracted from canker bark tissue revealed ENPG-1 to be a minor (less than 5%) activity component in tissue infected with the virulent strain and to be absent in tissue infected with the disruption mutants. The predominant activity in both canker samples consisted of two previously undetected acidic PG forms that appear absent in C. parasitica culture filtrates. We conclude from these results that the major C. parasitica extracellular endoPG produced in culture, ENPG-1, does not play a significant role in fungal virulence. However, the identification of two acidic PG activities expressed predominantly, if not exclusively, in planta provides new opportunities for examining the importance of PGs in C. parasitica pathogenesis. PMID:8787397

  19. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  20. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  1. Regulation by light in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

    2010-11-01

    The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. PMID:20460165

  2. Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Cuero, R G

    1980-01-01

    Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977. Nonfarming areas and urban sites were also air sampled, but only a few (less than 1%) colonies of F. solani were isolated at one of four sites. A preliminary attempt to identify the physiologically active substance of the fungus was carried out through chemical extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis. Images PMID:7217337

  3. A fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium oxysporum strain O-1890 and the genetic basis of B versus C fumonisin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium. Most species, including F. verticillioides, produce predominantly B fumonisins (FBs), but F. oxysporum strain O-1890 produces predominantly C fumonisins (FCs), which differ from FBs by the absence of...

  4. Isolation and characterization of Leu[7]-Surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance ...

  5. Expression of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, D4E1, in Gladiolus plants for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main pathogen of Gladiolus plants is Fusarium oxysporum, a soilborne fungus that infects roots and corms and kills the plant. Purified D4E1, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, was found to effectively inhibit 100% of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli germinated spores from forming a mycelial mass in ...

  6. Optimizing conditions of a cell-free toxic filtrate stem cutting assay to evaluate soybean genotype responses to Fusarium species that cause sudden death syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell-free toxic culture filtrates from Fusarium virguliforme, the causal fungus of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), cause foliar symptoms on soybean stem-cuttings similar to those obtained from root inoculations in whole plants and those observed in production fields. The objectives of this stud...

  7. Microarray analysis of soybean treated with Fusarium virguliforme filtrate suggests a role of genes related to cell-wall modification and detoxification during resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the four economically most important diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] worldwide is the disease called Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme (FV), formally known as F. solani f.sp glycines. This soil borne fungus colonizes soybean roots causing root rot, and ...

  8. Registration of five pima cotton germplasm lines (SJ-FR05 - FR09) with improved resistance to fusarium wilt race 4 and good lint yield and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton breeders continue to need alternative sources of cotton breeding lines for improving Fusarium wilt (FOV race 4) resistance in Pima cotton in California. FOV race 4 is a fungus that has impacted cotton yields in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) for the last 12 years. For this purpose, the Agricult...

  9. Phylogeography of the Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the Vector of Thousand Cankers Disease in North American Walnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Seybold, Steven J.; Graves, Andrew D.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico), but the species has now (2014) invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion) native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD are discussed

  10. Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future. PMID:22848606

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process. PMID:27323127

  12. New canker disease of Incense-cedar in Oregon caused by Phaeobotryon cupressi.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a native tree occurring in Oregon and California. Since the early 2000’s, a new canker disease has been observed with increasing frequency on ornamental and windbreak trees planted in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Symptoms appear as dead, flagging, small-di...

  13. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease. PMID:26121367

  14. Characterization of Pear Blister Canker Viroid Isolates from Australian Pome Fruit Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) was detected in pear (Pyrus sp.), nashi (Pyrus serotina) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) trees from various pome fruit growing regions of Australia using dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. Characteristic symptoms of PBCVd infection were not observed on the...

  15. Wind speed and wind-associated leaf injury affect severity of citrus canker on Swingle citrumelo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) can cause severe damage to citrus. It is endemic in Florida, and occurs in other citrus growing regions. The bacterium is dispersed predominantly in rain splash. To simulate dispersal in splash, and to investigate t...

  16. Complete DNA Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the Causal Agent of Kiwifruit Canker Disease.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Matthew D; Warren, Benjamin A; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. We have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid DNA from P. syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 using the PacBio RS II platform. PMID:26383666

  17. Rapid screening for citrus canker resistance employing pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of d...

  18. Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

  19. Exacerbation of citrus canker by citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is an important bacterial disease of citrus that is spread naturally by rain and wind. Damage to citrus leaves by the citrus leafminer (CLM) , Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), has been shown to promote infect...

  20. Production of transgenic citrus resistant to citrus canker and Huanglongbing diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the U.S. citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivars identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically import...

  1. Update on packing line protocols for citrus canker and their effects on bacterial survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Markets for Florida citrus are severely restricted by regulations in place to minimize the spread of citrus canker to citrus producing areas. Included in these regulations are accepted protocols for sanitation and coating of fruit. However, these measures do not eradicate all the living bacterial ce...

  2. Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described str...

  3. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... published an interim rule \\1\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048) that... 7 CFR part 301 that was published at 76 FR 23449-23459 on April 27, 2011, is adopted as a final rule... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD29 Citrus Canker, Citrus...

  4. ANNUAL AND POLYETIC PROGRESSION OF CITRUS CANKER ON TREES PROTECTED WITH COPPER SPRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Mathematical models are important tools for comparative analysis of epidemics. In this paper, parameters obtained from the mathematical model that best fitted to the annual progress curves of citrus canker incidence were used to evaluate the effect of copper sprays and windbreaks on the annual and...

  5. Optimal strategies for the eradication of Asiatic citrus canker in heterogeneous host landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eradication of non-native plant pathogens is a key challenge in plant disease epidemiology. Asiatic citrus canker is an economically significant disease of citrus caused by the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. The pathogen is a major exotic disease problem in many citru...

  6. Prevalence, distribution and identification of Phytophthora species from bleeding canker on European beech

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While bleeding canker of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) has long been recognized as a problem, the cause in the northeastern United States has not been clear. To resolve this, we surveyed for disease prevalence, identified the pathogens involved, proved their pathogenicity, compared protocols for ...

  7. Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

  8. First report of Phaeobotryon cupressi causing canker of Calocedrus decurrens in Oregon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 2000’s a canker disease has been noticed with increasing frequency on landscape specimens of native incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) planted throughout the Willamette Valley (from Portland south to Eugene) in western Oregon. Symptoms initially appear as dead and flagging small-di...

  9. Hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detecting citrus canker based on dual-band ratio image classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangbo; Rao, Xiuqin; Guo, Junxian; Ying, Yibin

    2010-10-01

    Citrus are one of the major fruit produced in China. Most of this production is exported to Europe for fresh consumption, where consumers increasingly demand best quality. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten peel of most commercial citrus varieties. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. Navel oranges with cankerous, normal and various common diseased skin conditions including wind scar, thrips scarring, scale insect, dehiscent fruit, phytotoxicity, heterochromatic stripe, and insect damage were studied. The imaging system (400-1000 nm) was established to acquire reflectance images from samples. Region of interest (ROI) spectral feature of various diseased peel areas was analyzed and characteristic wavebands (630, 685, and 720 nm) were extracted. The dual-band reflectance ratio (such as Q720/685) algorithm was performed on the hyperspectral images of navel oranges for differentiating canker from normal fruit skin and other surface diseases. The overall classification success rate was 96.84% regardless of the presence of other confounding diseases. The presented processing approach overcame the presence of stem/navel on navel oranges that typically has been a problematic source for false positives in the detection of defects. Because of the limited sample size, delineation of an optimal detection scheme is beyond the scope of the current study. However, the results showed that two-band ratio (Q685/630) along with the use of a simple threshold value segmentation method for discriminating canker on navel oranges from other peel diseases may be feasible.

  10. Fusarium subglutinans: A new eumycetoma agent☆

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Macías, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by Madurella spp. Fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. We report a case of eumycetoma by F. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by PCR sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by Fusarium subglutinans. PMID:24432236

  11. Coniochaetones E-I, new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives from the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lianwu; Niu, Shubing; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng; Li, Erwei

    2013-09-01

    Five new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives coniochaetones E-I (1-5), along with the known compounds coniochaetones B (6) and A (7) have been isolated from solid cultures of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were assigned using the modified Mosher's method. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 72.8 μM. The co-isolated known compound 6 showed modest inhibitory effects against Aspergilus fumigates, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium nivale. PMID:23685047

  12. Screening antimicrobial peptides in-vitro for use in developing transgenic citrus resistant to huanglongbing and citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB, associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp.) and Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, causal organism Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC)) are bacterial diseases that seriously threaten sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Sweet orange and grapefruit are highly susceptible to A...

  13. Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of eucalypts to cankers caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis

    SciTech Connect

    Old, K.M.; Gibbs, R.; Craig, I.; Myers, B.J. ); Yuan, Z.Q. )

    1990-01-01

    Seedlings, saplings and mature eucalypts were susceptible to infection by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis were more susceptible than E. grandis and E. saligna. In trees not subjected to stress, cankers were limited in extent and often healed. When trees were defoliated, either manually or by severe insect attack, stem concentrations of both starch and soluble carbohydrates were reduced and canker development in some pathogen/host combinations was increased. Seedlings subjected to water stress were not predisposed to canker formation. The association of E. gyrosa with branch dieback of rural eucalypts suffering from chronic defoliation suggests that canker fungi contribute to the crown dieback syndrome in south-eastern Australia.

  14. Deoxynivalenol: A Major Player in the Multifaceted Response of Fusarium to Its Environment

    PubMed Central

    Audenaert, Kris; Vanheule, Adriaan; Höfte, Monica; Haesaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by several Fusarium spp., acts as a virulence factor and is essential for symptom development after initial wheat infection. Accumulating evidence shows that the production of this secondary metabolite can be triggered by diverse environmental and cellular signals, implying that it might have additional roles during the life cycle of the fungus. Here, we review data that position DON in the saprophytic fitness of Fusarium, in defense and in the primary C and N metabolism of the plant and the fungus. We combine the available information in speculative models on the role of DON throughout the interaction with the host, providing working hypotheses that await experimental validation. We also highlight the possible impact of control measures in the field on DON production and summarize the influence of abiotic factors during processing and storage of food and feed matrices. Altogether, we can conclude that DON is a very important compound for Fusarium to cope with a changing environment and to assure its growth, survival, and production of toxic metabolites in diverse situations. PMID:24451843

  15. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for discrimination among isolates of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, I; Garzon, C; Marek, S; Stack, J; Gamliel, A; Garrido, P; Proaño, F; Gard, M; Dehne, H; Fletcher, J

    2016-07-01

    The plant pathogen Fusarium proliferatum has a wide host range and occurs worldwide. Many isolates of the fungus produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, which, if ingested, can cause harm to animals and humans. In 2008, an outbreak of salmon blotch of onions, caused by F. proliferatum, was detected in southern Israel. The source and distribution of the fungus in Israel were unknown. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used to identify repetitive motifs present in seven isolates of F. proliferatum from Israel, Germany and Austria. ISSR repeat motifs were, used to develop 17 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Six of these SSR markers were polymorphic in and consistently amplified from ten isolates collected in Israel, Germany, Austria and North America, from cucumber, onion, garlic, maize, and asparagus. These six polymorphic SSR alleles included 5 to 12 copies of di-, tri, and pentanucleotide motifs and yielded six to 9 alleles each. Sixteen of the SSR loci were amplified at least one of the seven Fusarium species, F. verticillioides, F. thapsinum, F. subglutinans, F. andiyazi, F. globosum, F. fujikoroi and F. oxysporum. The data demonstrate that these SSRs can be used for characterization of F. proliferatum isolates from diverse hosts and geographic locations and that they are transferable to other species of Fusarium. PMID:27021663

  16. Co-infection of Wilt-Resistant Chickpeas by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, T. Uma; Sharma, S. B.; Reddy, D. D. R.; Haware, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica are important pathogens of chickpea. Interrelationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and M. javanica were investigated on 53 Fusarium wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes in pot experiments. All of the genotypes were susceptible to M. javanica. Fusarium wilt resistance in one genotype (ICC 12275) was ineffective in the presence of M. javanica, and all the plants completely wilted. Resistance in four genotypes (ICCs 11319, 11322, 12254, 12272) was reduced in the presence of the nematode. Vascular discoloration above the collar region of the plants, an indication of susceptibility to the fungus, was observed. Wilt resistance in 48 genotypes was not modified by M. javanica. The effects of interactions between the pathogens on shoot and root weights, gall index, and galled area of root were significant only on 10-28% of the genotypes. Presence of the fungus reduced the adverse effects of nematodes on growth of 15% of the genotypes. Appraisal of wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes for their reactions to combinations of the two pathogens would help to identify and develop chickpea cultivars with wilt resistance stable in presence of M. javanica. PMID:19277336

  17. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Ling, Kai-Shu; Levi, Amnon; Sun, Yuyan; Fan, Min

    2016-01-01

    When infecting a host plant, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes several effector proteins into the xylem tissue to promote virulence. However, in a host plant with an innate immune system involving analogous resistance proteins, the fungus effector proteins may trigger resistance, rather than promoting virulence. Identity of the effector genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) races that affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) are currently unknown. In this study, the SIX6 (secreted in xylem protein 6) gene was identified in Fon races 0 and 1 but not in the more virulent Fon race 2. Disrupting the FonSIX6 gene in Fon race 1 did not affect the sporulation or growth rate of the fungus but significantly enhanced Fon virulence in watermelon, suggesting that the mutant ΔFon1SIX6 protein allowed evasion of R protein-mediated host resistance. Complementation of the wild-type race 2 (which lacks FonSIX6) with FonSIX6 reduced its virulence. These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that FonSIX6 is an avirulence gene. The identification of FonSix6 as an avirulence factor may be a first step in understanding the mechanisms of Fon virulence and resistance in watermelon and further elucidating the role of Six6 in Fusarium-plant interactions. PMID:27320044

  18. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Ling, Kai-Shu; Levi, Amnon; Sun, Yuyan; Fan, Min

    2016-01-01

    When infecting a host plant, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes several effector proteins into the xylem tissue to promote virulence. However, in a host plant with an innate immune system involving analogous resistance proteins, the fungus effector proteins may trigger resistance, rather than promoting virulence. Identity of the effector genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) races that affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) are currently unknown. In this study, the SIX6 (secreted in xylem protein 6) gene was identified in Fon races 0 and 1 but not in the more virulent Fon race 2. Disrupting the FonSIX6 gene in Fon race 1 did not affect the sporulation or growth rate of the fungus but significantly enhanced Fon virulence in watermelon, suggesting that the mutant ΔFon1SIX6 protein allowed evasion of R protein-mediated host resistance. Complementation of the wild-type race 2 (which lacks FonSIX6) with FonSIX6 reduced its virulence. These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that FonSIX6 is an avirulence gene. The identification of FonSix6 as an avirulence factor may be a first step in understanding the mechanisms of Fon virulence and resistance in watermelon and further elucidating the role of Six6 in Fusarium-plant interactions. PMID:27320044

  19. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ΔTRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ΔTRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more complex than postulated to

  20. Acanthamoeba and Fusarium interactions: A possible problem in keratitis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Thais Esther Teixeira; Brazil, Nathalya Tesch; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of Acanthamoeba and Fusarium species has increased in contact lens-related infectious keratitis. They share several environments and cases of co-infection have been reported. The interaction between the amoebae and other microorganisms may result in significant changes for both, like increased virulence in mammalian hosts. In this study, we evaluated the interaction of three Acanthamoeba castellanii strains with Fusarium conidia and the possible implications on keratitis. F. conidia were internalized by A. castellanii strains and were able to germinate inside the amoebae. The co-culture with the live amoebae, as well as the amoebal culture supernatant and lysate, increased the fungal growth significantly. Moreover, live F. solani and its culture supernatant enhanced the survival of amoebae, but in a different way in each amoebal strain. The encystment of the A. castellanii strain re-isolated from rat lung was increased by the fungus. These results show that A. castellanii and F. solani interaction may have an important influence on survival of both, and specially indicate a possible effect on virulence characteristics of these microorganisms. These data suggest that the A. castellanii-F. solani interaction may cause severe impacts on keratitis. PMID:26851515

  1. Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    PubMed

    Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

    2004-01-01

    A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and β-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

  2. Maize leaf trichomes represent an entry point of infection for Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Steiner, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    Fifteen day old maize seedlings were inoculated with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides. More than 90 % F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides conidia and 50 % of F. graminearum formed one germ tube whereas the other 50 % of F. graminearum conidia formed two to three germ tubes. The germ tubes of F. graminearum conidia were longer than those of F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. The three species of Fusarium infected bi-cellular trichomes by adhering and growing along the trichomes or by attaching to the cap cell of the trichomes 48 h after inoculation. Hyphae penetrated into the trichomes at the base, the side or at the top of the cap cells. The hyphae colonized the cap cells and then spread to base cells. Prickle trichomes were infected 72 h after inoculation. The hyphae either wrapped around prickle trichomes or formed a mass of hyphae around the top of prickle trichomes or formed appressorium. Macro trichomes were infected by F. graminearum 7 d after inoculation. Following penetration, the fungus spread to adjacent epidermal cells and to the subcuticle. This investigation provides the first assessment of F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides infection via trichomes of maize leaves. PMID:27521623

  3. First Report and Characterization of Pestalotiopsis ellipsospora Causing Canker on Acanthopanax divaricatus

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran

    2015-01-01

    Acanthopanax divaricatus, a member of the Araliaceae family, has been used as an invigorant in traditional Korean medicine. During disease monitoring, a stem with small, irregular, brown lesions was sampled at a farm in Cheonan in 2011. The symptoms seen were sunken cankers and reddish-brown needles on the infected twig. The isolated fungal colonies were whitish, having crenated edges and aerial mycelium on the surface, and with black gregarious fruiting bodies. The reverse plate was creamy white. Conidia were 17~22 × 3.5~4.2 µm, fusiform, 4-septate, and straight to slightly curved. The nucleotide sequence of the partial translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene of the fungal isolate, shares 99% sequence identity with that of known Pestalotiopsis ellipsospora. Based on the results of the morphological and molecular analyses, the fungal isolate was identified as P. ellipsospora. In Korea, this is the first report of canker on A. divaricatus. PMID:26539058

  4. Current status of the taxonomic position of Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense within the Fusarium oxysporum complex.

    PubMed

    Fourie, G; Steenkamp, E T; Ploetz, R C; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

    2011-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungal species that includes human and animal pathogens and a diverse range of nonpathogens. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of this species can be distinguished from each other with pathogenicity tests, but not with morphological analysis or sexual compatibility studies. Substantial genetic diversity among isolates has led to the realization that F. oxysporum represents a complex of cryptic species. F. oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc), causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, is one of the more than 150 plant pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum. Multi-gene phylogenetic studies of Foc revealed at least eight phylogenetic lineages, a finding that was supported by random amplified polymorphic DNAs, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Most of these lineages consist of isolates in closely related vegetative compatibility groups, some of which possess opposite mating type alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2; thus, the evolutionary history of this fungus may have included recent sexual reproduction. The ability to cause disease on all or some of the current race differential cultivars has evolved convergently in the taxon, as members of some races appear in different phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, various factors including co-evolution the plant host and horizontal gene transfer are thought to have shaped the evolutionary history of Foc. This review discusses the evolution of Foc as a model formae specialis in F. oxysporum in relation to recent research findings involving DNA-based studies. PMID:21256980

  5. Structural dynamics of Fusarium genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi in the genus Fusarium have a great negative impact on the world economy, yet also hold great potential for answering many fundamental biological questions. The advance of sequencing technologies has made possible the connection between phenotypes and genetic mechanisms underlying the acquisiti...

  6. Fusarium Keratitis - Multiple States, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated an outbreak of corneal infections caused by Fusarium involving at least 17 states as of April, 2006. Initial outbreak reports were from Singapore and Hong Kong. Preliminary results suggest that these outbreaks may be linked ...

  7. Grower Recommendations: Fusarium Race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium, particularly race 4, has become a significant management issue in the San Joaquin Valley cotton production area of California. Recommendations for limiting spread of inoculum of this fungal disease have been modified somewhat over the approximately 10 years of experience with this disease,...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, Isolated from a Pear Tree Canker

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jeannie M.; Bennett, Rhett W.; MacFarland, Logan; Abranches Da Silva, Megan E.; Meza-Turner, Britney M.; Dark, Phillip M.; Frey, Mackenzie E.; Wellappili, Dulani P.; Beugli, Aron D.; Jue, Holman J.; Mellander, Joshua M.; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plant-associated Erwinia include pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. We report the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, isolated from a canker on a pear tree inoculated with Erwinia amylovora. OSU19-1 and a closely related European isolate, E. billingiae Eb661T, share many similarities including 40 kb of plasmid sequence. PMID:26430039

  9. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  10. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  11. Chemical constituents of the mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. A new eremophilane sesquiterpene.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Zhongjun; Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, capnodiumone (1), along with five known eremophilane sesquiterpenes (2-6) and eight other compounds (7-14), have been isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The broth extract of the fungus exhibited a good inhibitory effect on the mycelium growth against Fusarium graminearum at 100 μg/mL, however, all the 14 compounds showed no expected antifungal activity. The probable reasons were discussed. PMID:26615670

  12. A novel case of Fusarium oxysporum infection in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Staggs, Lydia; St Leger, Judy; Bossart, Gregory; Townsend, Forrest I; Hicks, Christie; Rinaldi, Michael

    2010-06-01

    A necropsy was performed on a captive-born, 10-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after it died acutely. Gross necropsy findings revealed hemorrhage within the right cerebrum, right cerebellum, and right eye. Histopathologic findings revealed a moderate multifocal acute necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intralesional fungal hyphae. Several pieces of cerebrum and cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid were sent to the Fungus Testing Laboratory in San Antonio, Texas (U.S.A.). The culture yielded Fusarium oxysporum, which was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer and D1-D2 sequencing. Fusarium oxysporum infection has been reported in marine mammals. No cases of noncutaneous F. oxysporum infection in a cetacean that was not on long-term antimicrobials have been reported in the literature. PMID:20597220

  13. Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

    2010-12-01

    Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

  14. Biofilm formation, epiphytic fitness, and canker development in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Luciano A; Siciliano, Florencia; Enrique, Ramón; Sendín, Lorena; Filippone, Paula; Torres, Pablo S; Qüesta, Julia; Dow, J Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Vojnov, Adrián A; Marano, María Rosa

    2007-10-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is responsible for the canker disease affecting citrus plants throughout the world. Here, we have evaluated the role of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in leaf colonization during canker development on lemon leaves. Crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of X. axonopodis pv. citri strains expressing the green fluorescent protein were used to evaluate attachment and biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic (leaf) surfaces. Wild-type X. axonopodis pv. citri attached to and formed a complex, structured biofilm on glass in minimal medium containing glucose. Similar attachment and structured biofilm formation also were seen on lemon leaves. An X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB mutant strain, defective in production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan, did not form a structured biofilm on either abiotic or biotic surfaces. In addition, the X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB showed reduced growth and survival on leaf surfaces and reduced disease symptoms. These findings suggest an important role for formation of biofilms in the epiphytic survival of X. axonopodis pv. citri prior to development of canker disease. PMID:17918624

  15. Rapid screening for citrus canker resistance employing pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity responses

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of disease management, the ability to screen for resistant seedlings plays a key role in the production of a long-term solution to canker. Here, an inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the plant and the ability of Xcc to grow and form lesions on infected plants is reported. Based on this information, a novel screening method that can rapidly identify citrus seedlings that are less susceptible to early infection by Xcc was devised by measuring ROS accumulation triggered by a 22-amino acid sequence of the conserved N-terminal part of flagellin (flg22) from X. citri ssp. citri (Xcc-flg22). In addition to limiting disease symptoms, ROS production was also correlated with the expression of basal defense-related genes such as the pattern recognition receptors LRR8 and FLS2, the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein RLP12, and the defense-related gene PR1, indicating an important role for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in determining resistance to citrus canker. Moreover, the differential expression patterns observed amongst the citrus seedlings demonstrated the existence of genetic variations in the PTI response among citrus species/varieties. PMID:26504581

  16. Wheat kernel black point and fumonisin contamination by Fusarium Proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by several Fusarium species, especially Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides, which are common pathogens of maize worldwide. Consumption of fumonisins has been shown to cause a number of mycotoxicoses, including leucoencephalomalacia in horses, pulmon...

  17. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis. PMID:26966007

  18. Analysis of carbohydrates in Fusarium verticillioides using size-exclusion HPLC – DRI and direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and size-exclusion HPLC – DRI are used, respectively, to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the carbohydrates extracted from the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides. In situ permethylation in the DART...

  19. Fumonisin production is necessary for development of the full spectrum of symptoms indicative of Fusarium verticillioides maize-seedling disease and evidence for disruption of sphingolipid metabolism as the proximate cause.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize and produces fumonisins, inhibitors of ceramide synthase. To determine the role of fumonisins in maize seedling disease, seeds were inoculated with fumonisin producing or non-producing strains of F. verticillioides. Seedlings grown from seeds inocul...

  20. Constitutive Expression of Enniatin Synthetase during Fermentative Growth of Fusarium scirpi

    PubMed Central

    Billich, Andreas; Zocher, Rainer

    1988-01-01

    The production of enniatins by Fusarium scirpi during fermentative growth in submerged cultures was measured. The fungus produced the antibiotic during mycelial growth, but not during the stationary phase of cultivation. By contrast, enniatin synthetase, the enzyme responsible for enniatin synthesis, was present during growth, during the stationary phase, and even in spores. Similarly, the enniatin synthetase mRNA was present at every stage of the cultivation of the fungus. Therefore, this multifunctional peptide synthetase is a constitutive enzyme, the expression of which is not regulated by any specific mechanism. The findings stand in contrast to the common assumption that production of secondary metabolites underlies regulatory control, leading to separation of the trophophase and the idiophase. Images PMID:16347758

  1. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Christina A; Güldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin-Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, B Gillian; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D; Ma, Li-Jun; Baker, Scott E; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh-Long; Decaprio, David; Gale, Liane R; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harris, Linda J; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Münsterkötter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Thérèse; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M Isabel G; Seong, Kye-Yong; Tetko, Igor V; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W; Kistler, H Corby

    2007-09-01

    We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts. PMID:17823352

  2. Bioconversion of olive-mill dry residue by Fusarium lateritium and subsequent impact on its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, I; D'Annibale, A; Ocampo, J A; Stazi, S R; García-Romera, I

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the ability of the non-pathogenic fungus Fusarium lateritium to either degrade or modify aromatic substances in olive-mill dry residue (DOR) and to reduce its phytotoxicity. The 80% reduction of ethylacetate extractable phenols in DOR colonized by the fungus for 20 weeks appeared to be due to polymerization reactions of phenol molecules as suggested by mass-balance ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography experiments. Several lignin-modifying oxidases, including laccase, Mn-peroxidase and Mn-inhibited peroxidase were detected in F. lateritium solid-state cultures. Tests performed with tomato seedlings in soils containing 6% (w/w) sterilized non-inoculated DOR showed that the waste was highly phytotoxic. By contract, F. lateritium growth on DOR for 20 weeks led to a complete removal of the waste toxicity and to a higher shoot dry weight of tomato plants than that obtained in the absence of DOR. PMID:16054908

  3. The Nuclear Protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum Is Required for Parasitic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M. M.; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth. PMID:19851506

  4. The Fusarium Graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, Christina A.; Guldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Johnathan D.; Ma, Li Jun; Baker, Scott E.; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh Long; DeCaprio, David; Gale, Liane R.; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S.; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Harris, Linda J.; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C.; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K.; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Munsterkotter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'Donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Therese; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M. Isabel; Seong, Kye Yong; Tetko, Igor V.; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J.; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W.; Kistler, H. Corby

    2007-09-07

    We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.

  5. Short distance dispersal of splashed bacteria of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri from canker-infected grapefruit tree canopies in turbulent wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp citri [Xcc]) can result in yield loss and market restrictions. The pathogen is dispersed in rain splash and spread is promoted by wind. The goal of this study was to gain some insight into the behavior of the downwind plume of Xcc from ~1.5 m-tall canker-affect...

  6. Activity of citrus canker lesions on leaves, shoots and fruit of grapefruit in a Florida orchard from June 2010 to January 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesions of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), on citrus fruit preclude export to certain markets. Characterizing the population dynamics of bacteria in canker lesions in commercial orchards can help gauge risk associated with diseased fruit entering fresh markets. The aim...

  7. The effect of wind on dispersal of splash-borne Xanthomonas citri subsp citri at different heights and distances downwind of canker-infected grapefruit trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (Xcc), which causes citrus canker, is a major pathogen of grapefruit and other canker-susceptible citrus species and cultivars grown in Florida and elsewhere. It is dispersed by rain splash, and wind promotes the dispersal of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to e...

  8. Proteomic analysis of conidia germination in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 reveals new targets in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway for controlling Fusarium wilt of banana.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Ming; Yang, Qiao-Song; He, Wei-Di; Li, Chun-Yu; Yang, Jing; Zuo, Cun-Wu; Gao, Jie; Sheng, Ou; Lu, Shao-Yun; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Conidial germination is a crucial step of the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), a most important lethal disease of banana. In this study, a total of 3659 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based comparative proteomic approach, of which 1009 were differentially expressed during conidial germination of the fungus at 0, 3, 7, and 11 h. Functional classification and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins are involved in six metabolic pathways. Particularly, all differential proteins involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway to the conidial germination of Foc TR4. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and in vitro growth inhibition assay by several categories of fungicides on the Foc TR4 were used to validate the proteomics results. Four enzymes, C-24 sterol methyltransferase (ERG6), cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14α-demethylase (EGR11), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (ERG13), and C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (ERG25), in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were identified and verified, and they hold great promise as new targets for effective inhibition of Foc TR4 early growth in controlling Fusarium wilt of banana. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the first comprehensive study on proteomics profiling of conidia germination in Foc TR4. It provides new insights into a better understanding of the developmental processes of Foc TR4 spores. More importantly, by host plant-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology, the new targets reported in this work allow us to develop novel transgenic banana leading to high protection from Fusarium wilt and to explore more effective antifungal drugs against either individual or multiple target proteins of Foc TR4. PMID:26129952

  9. Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

  10. Biological and chemical complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

  11. Fusarium-Resistant Barley Through Genetic Transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation with antifungal genes could provide barley with the resistance to Fusarium graminearum (F.g.). More molecular studies are needed to 1) identify effective anti-Fusarium genes, 2) develop more tissue-specific gene promoters to target expression to the path of infection, and 3) ...

  12. Diversity of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can produce a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities, including pigmentation, plant growth regulation, and toxicity to humans and other animals. Contamination of grain-based food and feed with toxic SMs produced by Fusarium is associa...

  13. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), is a destructive disease and is distributed in almost all chickpea producing regions of the world. Foc has eight physiological races designated as 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The races are different...

  14. Amplification of DNA of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from historic citrus canker herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

    2006-05-01

    Herbaria are important resources for the study of the origins and dispersal of plant pathogens, particularly bacterial plant pathogens that incite local lesions in which large numbers of pathogen genomes are concentrated. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease, is a notable example of such a pathogen. The appearance of novel strains of the pathogen in Florida and elsewhere make it increasingly important to understand the relationships among strains of this pathogen. USDA-ARS at Beltsville, Maryland maintains approximately 700 herbarium specimens with citrus canker disease lesions up to 90 years old, originally collected from all over the world, and so is an important resource for phytogeographic studies of this bacterium. Unfortunately, DNA in herbarium specimens is degraded and may contain high levels of inhibitors of PCR. In this study, we compared a total of 23 DNA isolation techniques in combination with 31 novel primer pairs in order to develop an efficient protocol for the analysis of Xac DNA in herbarium specimens. We identified the most reliable extraction method, identified in terms of successful amplification by our panel of 31 primer pairs. We also identified the most robust primer pairs, identified as successful in the largest number of extracts prepared by different methods. We amplified Xac genomic sequences up to 542 bp long from herbarium samples up to 89 years old. Primers varied in effectiveness, with some primer pairs amplifying Xac DNA from a 1/10,000 dilution of extract from a single lesion from a citrus canker herbarium specimen. Our methodology will be useful to identify pathogens and perform molecular analyses of bacterial and possibly fungal genomes from herbarium specimens. PMID:16099061

  15. Positive selection is the main driving force for evolution of citrus canker-causing Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Jalan, Neha; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Goss, Erica; Jones, Jeffrey B; Setubal, João C; Deng, Xiaoling; Wang, Nian

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history and potential of bacterial pathogens is critical to prevent the emergence of new infectious bacterial diseases. Xanthomonas axonopodis subsp. citri (Xac) (synonym X. citri subsp. citri), which causes citrus canker, is one of the hardest-fought plant bacterial pathogens in US history. Here, we sequenced 21 Xac strains (14 XacA, 3 XacA* and 4 XacA(w)) with different host ranges from North America and Asia and conducted comparative genomic and evolutionary analyses. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of beneficial genes and loss of detrimental genes most likely allowed XacA to infect a broader range of hosts as compared with XacA(w) and XacA*. Recombination was found to have occurred frequently on the relative ancient branches, but rarely on the young branches of the clonal genealogy. The ratio of recombination/mutation ρ/θ was 0.0790±0.0005, implying that the Xac population was clonal in structure. Positive selection has affected 14% (395 out of 2822) of core genes of the citrus canker-causing Xanthomonas. The genes affected are enriched in 'carbohydrate transport and metabolism' and 'DNA replication, recombination and repair' genes (P<0.05). Many genes related to virulence, especially genes involved in the type III secretion system and effectors, are affected by positive selection, further highlighting the contribution of positive selection to the evolution of citrus canker-causing Xanthomonas. Our results suggest that both metabolism and virulence genes provide advantages to endow XacA with higher virulence and a wider host range. Our analysis advances our understanding of the genomic basis of specialization by positive selection in bacterial evolution. PMID:25689023

  16. Systemic ketoconazole treatment for Fusarium leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Landau, M; Srebrnik, A; Wolf, R; Bashi, E; Brenner, S

    1992-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a large foot ulcer in an otherwise healthy 69-year-old man. Although tissue invasion could not be proven histologically, systemic antifungal treatment was administered with satisfactory response. Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. In humans, Fusarium is considered an opportunistic agent in skin ulcers, interdigital spaces, and burned skin, but can also cause mycotic keratitis, onychomycosis, and rarely deep-seated or disseminated infections, especially in an immunocompromised host. The distinction between skin infection and saprophytic growth, as well as optimal treatment regimens for the two types of infection, have not been clearly defined. We describe a case of leg ulcers caused by Fusarium oxysporum in a 69-year-old man treated successfully with oral ketoconazole. "Silent" immunologic disturbances were found in this apparently healthy patient. The case illustrates a relatively benign infection caused by Fusarium that responded to systemic antifungal drug treatment. PMID:1500248

  17. Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).

    PubMed

    Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted. PMID:24389085

  18. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters. PMID:25823882

  19. Draft genome sequence and chemical profiling of Fusarium langsethiae, an emerging producer of type A trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Lysøe, Erik; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Divon, Hege H; Terzi, Valeria; Orrù, Luigi; Lamontanara, Antonella; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Nielsen, Kristian F; Thrane, Ulf

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium langsethiae is a widespread pathogen of small grain cereals, causing problems with T-2 and HT-2 toxin contamination in grains every year. In an effort to better understand the biology of this fungus, we present a draft genome sequence of F. langsethiae Fl201059 isolated from oats in Norway. The assembly was fragmented, but reveals a genome of approximately 37.5 Mb, with a GC content around 48%, and 12,232 predicted protein-coding genes. Focusing on secondary metabolism we identified candidate genes for 12 polyketide synthases, 13 non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and 22 genes for terpene/isoprenoid biosynthesis. Some of these were found to be unique compared to sequence databases. The identified putative Tri5 cluster was highly syntenic to the cluster reported in F. sporotrichioides. Fusarium langsethiae Fl201059 produces a high number of secondary metabolites on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar medium, dominated by type A trichothecenes. Interestingly we found production of glucosylated HT-2 toxin (Glu-HT-2), previously suggested to be formed by the host plant and not by the fungus itself. In greenhouse inoculations of F. langsethiae Fl201059 on barley and oats, we detected the type A trichothecenes: neosolaniol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, Glu-HT-2 and numerous derivatives of these. PMID:26803271

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid in Fusarium graminearum: Identification of biosynthetic pathways and characterization of physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Rocheleau, Hélène; Qi, Peng-Fei; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a devastating pathogenic fungus causing fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat. This fungus can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a very large amount of IAA accumulates in wheat head tissues during the first few days of infection by F. graminearum. Using liquid culture conditions, we have determined that F. graminearum can use tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as biosynthetic intermediates to produce IAA. It is the first time that F. graminearum is shown to use the l-tryptophan-dependent TAM and IAN pathways rather than the indole-3-acetamide or indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways to produce IAA. Our experiments also showed that exogenous IAA was metabolized by F. graminearum. Exogenous IAA, TAM, and IAN inhibited mycelial growth; IAA and IAN also affected the hyphae branching pattern and delayed macroconidium germination. IAA and TAM had a small positive effect on the production of the mycotoxin 15-ADON while IAN inhibited its production. Our results showed that IAA and biosynthetic intermediates had a significant effect on F. graminearum physiology and suggested a new area of exploration for fungicidal compounds. PMID:27567719

  1. Fusarium solani onychomycosis of the thumbnail coinfected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Seok; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Shin, Min-Kyung; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

    2011-03-01

    Fusarium species are non-dermatophytic moulds, which are commonly known soil saprophytes and important plant pathogens, and have been frequently reported to be aetiological agents of opportunistic infections in humans. The prevalence of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium species varies in the literature because of geographical differences in mould distribution and diagnostic methods. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium species is considered rare in Korea, and only four cases have been described to date. Pseudomonas aeruginosa also can infect nails and cause green nail syndrome, and recent research has shown that fungal infection may potentiate the colonisation or growth of P. aeruginosa within a nail. Furthermore, such coinfection with P. aeruginosa can prevent the isolation of the fungus because of bacterial overgrowth in culture. The authors report the cases of two immunocompetent patients with F. solani onychomycosis coinfected with P. aeruginosa. Both presented with a greenish/yellowish discolouration and thickening of a thumbnail, and were treated with systemic ciprofloxacin in combination with itraconazole or terbinafine. PMID:19751392

  2. Identification and characterization of gushing-active hydrophobins from Fusarium graminearum and related species.

    PubMed

    Sarlin, Tuija; Kivioja, Teemu; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Linder, Markus B; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina

    2012-04-01

    Fungal infection of barley and malt, particularly by the Fusarium species, is a direct cause of spontaneous overfoaming of beer, referred to as gushing. We have shown previously that small fungal proteins, hydrophobins, act as gushing-inducing factors in beer. The aim of our present study was to isolate and characterize hydrophobins from a gushing-active fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) and related species. We generated profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) for the hydrophobin classes Ia, Ib and II from the multiple sequence alignments of their known members available in public domain databases. We searched the published Fusarium graminearum genome with the Markov models. The best matching sequences and the corresponding genes were isolated from F. graminearum and the related species F. culmorum and F. poae by PCR and characterized. One each of the putative F. graminearum and F. poae hydrophobin genes were expressed in the heterologous host Trichoderma reesei. The proteins corresponding to the genes were purified and identified as hydrophobins and named GzHYD5 and FpHYD5, respectively. Concentrations of 0.003 ppm of these hydrophobins were observed to induce vigorous beer gushing. PMID:21780148

  3. Diplopyrone, a new phytotoxic tetrahydropyranpyran-2-one produced by Diplodia mutila, a fungus pathogen of cork oak.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Maddau, Lucia; Spanu, Emanuela; Franceschini, Antonio; Lazzaroni, Silvia; Motta, Andrea

    2003-02-01

    A new phytotoxic monosubstituted tetrahydropyranpyran-2-one, named diplopyrone (1), was isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of Diplodia mutila, a plant pathogenic fungus causing a form of canker disease of cork oak (Quercus suber). Diplopyrone was characterized, using spectroscopic and chemical methods, as 6-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2,4a,6,8a-tetrahydropyran[3,2-b]pyran-2-one. The absolute stereochemistry of the chiral secondary hydroxylated carbon (C-9), determined by application of Mosher's method, proved to be S. Diplopyrone assayed at a 0.01-0.1 mg/mL concentration range caused necrosis and wilting on cork oak cuttings. On a nonhost plant, tomato, diplopyrone caused brown discoloration or stewing on the stem. PMID:12608876

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits. PMID:26628254

  5. Genome sequence of Valsa canker pathogens uncovers a potential adaptation of colonization of woody bark.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Zhengpeng; Ke, Xiwang; Dou, Daolong; Gao, Xiaoning; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-12-01

    Canker caused by ascomycetous Valsa species are among the most destructive diseases of woody plants worldwide. These pathogens are distinct from other pathogens because they only effectively attack tree bark in the field. To unravel the potential adaptation mechanism of bark colonization, we examined the genomes of Valsa mali and Valsa pyri that preferentially infect apple and pear, respectively. We reported the 44.7 and 35.7 Mb genomes of V. mali and V. pyri, respectively. We also identified the potential genomic determinants of wood colonization by comparing them with related cereal pathogens. Both genomes encode a plethora of pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In order to adapt to the nutrient limitation and low pH environment in bark, they seem to employ membrane transporters associated with nitrogen uptake and secrete proteases predominantly with acidic pH optima. Remarkably, both Valsa genomes are especially suited for pectin decomposition, but are limited in lignocellulose and cutin degradation. Besides many similarities, the two genomes show distinct variations in many secondary metabolism gene clusters. Our results show a potential adaptation of Valsa canker pathogens to colonize woody bark. Secondary metabolism gene clusters are probably responsible for this host specificity. PMID:26137988

  6. Diversity of Diaporthe species associated with wood cankers of fruit and nut crops in northern California.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Daniel P; Travadon, Renaud; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina, causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is isolated frequently from grapevine wood cankers, causing Phomopsis dieback. The latter disease is associated with four other Diaporthe species, three of which also are reported from hosts other than grape. To better understand the role of this Diaporthe community in Phomopsis dieback of grapevine and the potential for infection routes among alternate hosts, 76 Diaporthe isolates were recovered from wood cankers of cultivated grape, pear, apricot, almond and the wild host willow in four California counties. Isolates were characterized morphologically and assigned to species based on multigene sequence analyses. This study identified eight Diaporthe species from grapevine and one novel taxon from willow, D. benedicti. We report the first findings of D. australafricana and D. novem in North America. Our findings also expand the host ranges of D. ambigua to apricot and willow, D. australafricana to almond and willow, D. chamaeropis to grapevine and willow, D. foeniculina to willow and D. novem to almond. The generalists D. ambigua and D. eres were the most genetically diverse species, based on high nucleotide and haplotypic diversity, followed by the grapevine specialist D. ampelina. Analyses based on multilocus linkage disequilibrium could not reject the hypothesis of random mating for D. ambigua, which is further supported by relatively high haplotypic diversity, reports of both mating types and reports of successful matings in vitro. Pathogenicity assays revealed that D. ampelina was the most pathogenic species to grapevine wood. PMID:26240309

  7. Fusaric acid and pathogenic interactions of corn and non-corn isolates of Fusarium moniliforme, a nonobligate pathogen of corn.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Hinton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliform is a nonobligate parasite of corn, which exists as a complex of closely related fungi from different mating population or biological species. Strains of this fungus isolated from corn, have been determined to belong to mating populations A, although other populations have been isolated from corn. The ultrastructural association of the fungus with corn during growth, and the effects of the host on suppression of disease suppression are reviewed. This fungus enters a relationship with corn cultivars that is not always pathogenic. Pathogenesis is delayed, if it ever occurs. F. moniliforme can exist entirely as an endophyte, systemically colonizing kernels, remaining there until germination upon which the fungus infects the emerging seedlings. The symptomless association persists during the growth cycle of corn, and the resulting endophytic hyphae may be the source of mycotoxin production. The host's ability to suppress the fungus appears to be related to one class of compounds, the cyclic hydroxamic acids and their decomposition products, which can be catabolized by the fungi of mating population A but not C. PMID:8850616

  8. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis. PMID:25375334

  9. The Efficacy and Underlying Mechanism of Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole on Citrus Canker.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Ma, Yuhua; Zhou, Junliang; Luo, Hui; Yan, Jiawen; Mao, Yongya; Wang, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to isolate and identify the pathogen responsible for citrus canker and investigate the efficacy of sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety on controlling citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) under in vitro and field conditions. In an in vitro study, we tested eight sulfone derivatives against Xcc and the results demonstrated that compound 3 exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Xcc, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 1.23 μg/mL, which was even better than those of commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 (58.21 μg/mL) and Thiodiazole copper (77.04 μg/mL), respectively. Meanwhile, under field experiments, compound 3 treatments demonstrated the highest ability to reduce the disease of citrus canker in leaves and fruits in two different places relative to an untreated control as well as the commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 and Thiodiazole copper. Meanwhile, compound 3 could stimulate the increase in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities in the navel orange leaves, causing marked enhancement of plant resistance against citrus canker. Moreover, compound 3 could damage the cell membranes, destruct the biofilm formation, inhibit the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), and affect the cell membrane permeability to restrain the growth of the bacteria. PMID:26247929

  10. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized e...

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Canker-Resistant Transgenic Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Constitutively Overexpressing a Spermidine Synthase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT) and the transgenic line (TG9) by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO) annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease. PMID:23509803

  12. Effect of the duration of inoculum exposure on development of citrus canker symptoms on seedlings of Swingle citrumelo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is one of the most serious diseases citrus in Florida, and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes yield loss and some fresh fruit trade restrictions may apply. Cultural management techniques such as windbreaks may work by not only reducing wind...

  13. Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

    2014-02-01

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides. PMID:23901828

  14. Under severe HLB and citrus canker pressure, 'Triumph' and 'Jackson' perform better than 'Flame' and 'Marsh' grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. ‘Triumph’ (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. ‘Jackson’ (J) is a low-seeded budsport of ‘Triumph’. Tree h...

  15. The HPLC-Fluorescence Detection of Coumarins in ‘Hamlin’ Sweet Orange and ‘Marsh’ Grapefruit Leaf Cankers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker is a devastating disease for the citrus fresh fruit market and is caused by the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri var. citri (Xcc). Infection occurs by bacterial penetration through physical damage of leaves, peel and stems, and also by bacterial entry through the stomates of these photo...

  16. Under severe citrus canker and HLB (Huanglongbing) pressure, Triumph and Jackson perform better than Flame and Marsh grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. Triumph (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. Jackson (J) is a low-seeded budsport of Triumph. Tree health ...

  17. Characteristics of the perception of different severity measures of citrus canker and the relations between the various symptom types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). Ways of managing the disease are being sought, and accurate, precise, reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  18. Visual rating and the use of image analysis for assessing different symptoms of citrus canker on grapefruit leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) and infects several citrus species in wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate, precise and reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics and disease response in breeding...

  19. Incidence and severity of Asiatic citrus canker on citrus and citrus–related germplasm in a Florida field planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Hasse), is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), a commercially important disease in Florida citrus, as well as in many other regions. In this study we evaluated occurrence of foliar lesions from ACC on progenies of 94 seed-source genotypes (hereafter called ...

  20. Introductory biology of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme is a name that has been applied to any of six biological species (or mating populations) that share the teleomorph (sexual stage) Gibberella fujikuroi. Two of these six biological species, termed "A" and "D", are known to produce fumonisin mycotoxins. Strains from the "A" biological species grow as endophytes on maize and often comprise 90+% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from healthy maize seed. It is possible to distinguish all six biological species using sexual fertility and isozymes. Other attributes, such as morphological characters and sequences from the ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region, can be used to identify some, but not all, of the biological species. Within a biological species, genetic variability and population structure can be assessed with anonymous RFLPs and tests of vegetative compatibility. The "A" biological species is genetically diverse, and the sexual cycle appears to be important in the life cycle of field populations of this organism in the United States. PMID:8850614

  1. Fungus-Mediated Preferential Bioleaching of Waste Material Such as Fly - Ash as a Means of Producing Extracellular, Protein Capped, Fluorescent and Water Soluble Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Uddin, Imran; Moeez, Sana; Ahmad, Absar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we for the first time show the ability of the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the bioleaching of waste material such as Fly-ash for the extracellular production of highly crystalline and highly stable, protein capped, fluorescent and water soluble silica nanoparticles at ambient conditions. When the fungus Fusarium oxysporum is exposed to Fly-ash, it is capable of selectively leaching out silica nanoparticles of quasi-spherical morphology within 24 h of reaction. These silica nanoparticles have been completely characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). PMID:25244567

  2. Fungus-mediated preferential bioleaching of waste material such as fly - ash as a means of producing extracellular, protein capped, fluorescent and water soluble silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Uddin, Imran; Moeez, Sana; Ahmad, Absar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we for the first time show the ability of the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the bioleaching of waste material such as Fly-ash for the extracellular production of highly crystalline and highly stable, protein capped, fluorescent and water soluble silica nanoparticles at ambient conditions. When the fungus Fusarium oxysporum is exposed to Fly-ash, it is capable of selectively leaching out silica nanoparticles of quasi-spherical morphology within 24 h of reaction. These silica nanoparticles have been completely characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). PMID:25244567

  3. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Nunes, E; Silva, V; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Zaror, L; Fischman, O

    2004-04-01

    Fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. We report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani (4) and Fusarium oxysporum (4) in São Paulo, Brazil. These species were isolated from toenails in all cases. The infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. The clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkeratosis with yellowish brown coloration. The eight cases reported here suggest that Fusarium spp. should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of tinea unguium. PMID:15180157

  4. The cold-induced defensin TAD1 confers resistance against snow mold and Fusarium head blight in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kuwabara, Chikako; Umeki, Natsuki; Fujioka, Mari; Saburi, Wataru; Matsui, Hirokazu; Abe, Fumitaka; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-06-20

    TAD1 (Triticum aestivum defensin 1) is induced during cold acclimation in winter wheat and encodes a plant defensin with antimicrobial activity. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant TAD1 protein inhibits hyphal growth of the snow mold fungus, Typhula ishikariensis in vitro. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TAD1 were created and tested for resistance against T. ishikariensis. Leaf inoculation assays revealed that overexpression of TAD1 confers resistance against the snow mold. In addition, the TAD1-overexpressors showed resistance against Fusarium graminearum, which causes Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease in wheat and barley. These results indicate that TAD1 is a candidate gene to improve resistance against multiple fungal diseases in cereal crops. PMID:27080445

  5. Occurrence of fungi and fungus-like organisms in the Horodnianka River in the vicinity of Białystok, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Zdrojkowska, Ewa; Gajo, Bernadetta; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2011-01-01

    Studies of fungi and fungus- like organisms in the northeastern Poland have mainly concentrated on running waters in the vicinity of Białystok, including the Horodnianka River. The main objective was to investigate biodiversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms which take part in decomposition of organic matter commonly found in inland waters. To obtain a complete picture of species composition of fungi and fungus-like organisms in running waters we decided to explore representative sites of the Horodnianka River such as Olmonty, Hryniewicze and Horodniany with close localization of landfill. Fungal species were isolated using baiting technique. Baits of onion skin (Alium cepa), hemp-seeds (Cannabis sativa), impregnated cellophane and snake skin (Natrix natrix) were applied to isolate fungi from water of the Horodnianka River. The fungal community consists of 26 species, 10 species of fungi belonging to class Chytridiomycetes (3), anamorphic fungi (6), and Zygomycetes (1). 16 species belong to fungus-like organisms from class Oomycetes. Most of the recognized species have already been found in other running waters. From all the examined habitats the fungi belonging to 26 species of 18 genera Achlya, Alternaria, Aphanomyces, Aspergillus, Catenophlyctis, Dictyuchus, Fusarium, Karlingia, Lagenidium, Leptomitus, Olpidiopsis, Penicillium, Phlyctochytrium, Pythium, Saprolegnia, Scoliognia, Thraustotheca and Zoophagus were obtained. Certain fungal species like Aphanomyces laevis, Fusarium aqueductum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, Leptomitus lacteus, Saprolegnia feax and S. parasitica were found at all the study sites. Among fungi potentially pathogenic and allergogenic for humans the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lagenidium and Penicillium have already been described. However, the species Lagenidium giganteum and Achlya androgyna are new in the fungal biota of Poland. The greatest number of fungal species occurred in Olmonty (24), the smallest in Horodniany

  6. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rohan G. T.; McCorkelle, Owen; Bleackley, Mark; Collins, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Mathivanan, Suresh; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr) creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab) of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality, and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviors. A high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis defined the extracellular proteases secreted by F. graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases. PMID:26635820

  7. Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, K.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-08-01

    The development of eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanomaterial shape and size is an important area of research in the field of nanotechnology. The present investigation deals with the extracellular rapid biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani culture filtrate. The UV-vis spectra of the fungal culture filtrate medium containing gold ion showed peak at 527 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of gold nanoparticles. FTIR spectra provide an evidence for the presence of heterocyclic compound in the culture filtrate, which increases the stability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The X-ray analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles. AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (41 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical in shape with the size range from 20 to 50 nm. The use of F. solani will offer several advantages since it is considered as a non-human pathogenic organism. The fungus F. solani has a fast growth rate, rapid capacity of metallic ions reduction, NPs stabilization and facile and economical biomass handling. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles could be highly advantageous from the point of view of synthesis in large quantities, time consumption, eco-friendly, non-toxic and easy downstream processing.

  8. Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly. PMID:24250635

  9. Host-induced silencing of Fusarium culmorum genes protects wheat from infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanxin; Kastner, Christine; Nowara, Daniela; Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Rutten, Twan; Zhao, Yusheng; Deising, Holger B; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Plants producing antisense or double-stranded RNA molecules that target specific genes of eukaryotic pests or pathogens can become protected from their attack. This beneficial effect was also reported for plant-fungus interactions and is believed to reflect uptake of the RNAs by the fungus via an as yet unknown mechanism, followed by target gene silencing. Here we report that wheat plants pre-infected with Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) strains containing antisense sequences against target genes of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) fungus F. culmorum caused a reduction of corresponding transcript levels in the pathogen and reduced disease symptoms. Stable transgenic wheat plants carrying an RNAi hairpin construct against the β-1, 3-glucan synthase gene FcGls1 of F. culmorum or a triple combination of FcGls1 with two additional, pre-tested target genes also showed enhanced FHB resistance in leaf and spike inoculation assays under greenhouse and near-field conditions, respectively. Microscopic evaluation of F. culmorum development in plants transiently or stably expressing FcGls1 silencing constructs revealed aberrant, swollen fungal hyphae, indicating severe hyphal cell wall defects. The results lead us to propose host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) as a plant protection approach that may also be applicable to highly FHB-susceptible wheat genotypes. PMID:27540093

  10. Host-induced silencing of Fusarium culmorum genes protects wheat from infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanxin; Kastner, Christine; Nowara, Daniela; Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Rutten, Twan; Zhao, Yusheng; Deising, Holger B.; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Plants producing antisense or double-stranded RNA molecules that target specific genes of eukaryotic pests or pathogens can become protected from their attack. This beneficial effect was also reported for plant–fungus interactions and is believed to reflect uptake of the RNAs by the fungus via an as yet unknown mechanism, followed by target gene silencing. Here we report that wheat plants pre-infected with Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) strains containing antisense sequences against target genes of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) fungus F. culmorum caused a reduction of corresponding transcript levels in the pathogen and reduced disease symptoms. Stable transgenic wheat plants carrying an RNAi hairpin construct against the β-1, 3-glucan synthase gene FcGls1 of F. culmorum or a triple combination of FcGls1 with two additional, pre-tested target genes also showed enhanced FHB resistance in leaf and spike inoculation assays under greenhouse and near-field conditions, respectively. Microscopic evaluation of F. culmorum development in plants transiently or stably expressing FcGls1 silencing constructs revealed aberrant, swollen fungal hyphae, indicating severe hyphal cell wall defects. The results lead us to propose host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) as a plant protection approach that may also be applicable to highly FHB-susceptible wheat genotypes. PMID:27540093

  11. Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control. PMID:20388224

  12. Transgenic sweet orange plants expressing a dermaseptin coding sequence show reduced symptoms of citrus canker disease.

    PubMed

    Furman, Nicolás; Kobayashi, Ken; Zanek, Maria Cecilia; Calcagno, Javier; Garcia, Maria Laura; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2013-09-20

    Citrus canker provoked by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a bacterial disease causing severe losses in all citrus-producing areas around the world. Xanthomonas infection is considered as an endemic disease in Northeast and Northwest Argentina, affecting as much as 10% of commercial citrus plantations. There is not known natural resistance neither in orange varieties nor in rootstocks used for grafting of commercial cultivars. To introduce resistance to this disease, plants of Pineapple sweet orange were transformed with a genetic construct allowing constitutive accumulation of dermaseptin. In comparison with non-transformed plants, transgenic plants showed symptom reduction levels of up to 50% in in planta assays performed under controlled conditions. PMID:23896218

  13. Tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of a fusion protein containing a Fusarium-specific antibody and a fungal chitinase protects wheat against Fusarium pathogens and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Du, Hong-Jie; Wei, Qi-Yong; Huang, Tao; Yang, Peng; Kong, Xian-Wei; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other small grain cereals is a globally devastating disease caused by toxigenic Fusarium pathogens. Controlling FHB is a challenge because germplasm that is naturally resistant against these pathogens is inadequate. Current control measures rely on fungicides. Here, an antibody fusion comprised of the Fusarium spp.-specific recombinant antibody gene CWP2 derived from chicken, and the endochitinase gene Ech42 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride was introduced into the elite wheat cultivar Zhengmai9023 by particle bombardment. Expression of this fusion gene was regulated by the lemma/palea-specific promoter Lem2 derived from barley; its expression was confirmed as lemma/palea-specific in transgenic wheat. Single-floret inoculation of independent transgenic wheat lines of the T3 to T6 generations revealed significant resistance (type II) to fungal spreading, and natural infection assays in the field showed significant resistance (type I) to initial infection. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed marked reduction of mycotoxins in the grains of the transgenic wheat lines. Progenies of crosses between the transgenic lines and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Huamai13 also showed significantly enhanced FHB resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the tissue-specific expression of the antibody fusion was induced by salicylic acid drenching and induced to a greater extent by F. graminearum infection. Histochemical analysis showed substantial restriction of mycelial growth in the lemma tissues of the transgenic plants. Thus, the combined tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of this Fusarium-specific antibody fusion can effectively protect wheat against Fusarium pathogens and reduce mycotoxin content in grain. PMID:25418882

  14. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... with salt water or mild, over-the-counter mouthwashes. (DO NOT use mouthwashes that contain alcohol which can irritate the area ... needed for severe cases. These may include: Chlorhexidine mouthwash Stronger medicines called corticosteroids that are placed on ...

  15. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners Membership Membership Categories Renew Your Membership Login Fellowship Academic Fellowship Affiliate Fellowship (AFAOM) Application Process Fellowship Study ...

  16. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... be triggered by stress, food allergies, lack of vitamins and minerals, hormonal changes or menstrual periods. In some cases the cause is unknown. In most cases, the sores go away by themselves. Some ointments, creams or rinses may help with the pain. Avoiding ...

  17. The HEX1 gene of Fusarium graminearum is required for fungal asexual reproduction and pathogenesis and for efficient viral RNA accumulation of Fusarium graminearum virus 1.

    PubMed

    Son, Moonil; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yu, Jisuk; Kang, Minji; Park, Jin Man; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-09-01

    The accumulation of viral RNA depends on many host cellular factors. The hexagonal peroxisome (Hex1) protein is a fungal protein that is highly expressed when the DK21 strain of Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1) infects its host, and Hex1 affects the accumulation of FgV1 RNA. The Hex1 protein is the major constituent of the Woronin body (WB), which is a peroxisome-derived electron-dense core organelle that seals the septal pore in response to hyphal wounding. To clarify the role of Hex1 and the WB in the relationship between FgV1 and Fusarium graminearum, we generated targeted gene deletion and overexpression mutants. Although neither HEX1 gene deletion nor overexpression substantially affected vegetative growth, both changes reduced the production of asexual spores and reduced virulence on wheat spikelets in the absence of FgV1 infection. However, the vegetative growth of deletion and overexpression mutants was increased and decreased, respectively, upon FgV1 infection compared to that of an FgV1-infected wild-type isolate. Viral RNA accumulation was significantly decreased in deletion mutants but was significantly increased in overexpression mutants compared to the viral RNA accumulation in the virus-infected wild-type control. Overall, these data indicate that the HEX1 gene plays a direct role in the asexual reproduction and virulence of F. graminearum and facilitates viral RNA accumulation in the FgV1-infected host fungus. PMID:23864619

  18. TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

  19. Diversity of the Fusarium complex on French maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear rot caused by Fusarium species is a major threat to maize production worldwide, causing yield reduction and poor grain quality. In addition, various species of the genus Fusarium can produce mycotoxins, which accumulate in the grain. The distribution and predominance of the different Fusarium sp...

  20. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  1. Assessing Quantitative Resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma Stem Canker) in Brassica napus (Oilseed Rape) in Young Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J.; Fitt, Bruce D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker

    PubMed Central

    Fopa Fomeju, Berline; Falentin, Cyril; Lassalle, Gilles; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J.; Delourme, Régine

    2015-01-01

    All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U, and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling, or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the resistance phenotype

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker.

    PubMed

    Fopa Fomeju, Berline; Falentin, Cyril; Lassalle, Gilles; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Delourme, Régine

    2015-01-01

    All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U, and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling, or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the resistance phenotype

  4. Temperature effects on the interactions of sugar beet Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, causes a significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. The environmental or agronomic factors that contribute to development and severity of Fusarium yellows have not been desc...

  5. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-A; Park, Jae Sin; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×107 cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D10 value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits. PMID:26672670

  6. The complete mitogenome of Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tomasz; Brankovics, Balazs; Sawicki, Jakub; van Diepeningen, Anne

    2016-07-01

    The structure of the Fusarium culmorum mitogenome is similar to that of closely related Fusarium spp.: it has a total length of 103,844 bp, the base composition of the genome is the following: A (35.4%), T (32.9%), C (14.6%), and G (17.1%). The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 28 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, all coded on the same strand of DNA. The gene order is identical to that of the other Fusarium and Hypocreales mitogenomes. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis based on the concatenated amino acid dataset of mitochondrial protein-coding genes confirmed close genetic relationship of F. culmorum to the other type B trichothecene producers F. graminearum and F. gerlachii. PMID:26016874

  7. [Development and relations of Fusarium culmorum and Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil].

    PubMed

    Strunnikova, O K; Shakhnazarova, V Iu; Vishnevskaia, N A; Chebotar', V K; Tikhonovich, I A

    2007-01-01

    The development of Fusarium culmorum and Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil, and the relations between them, were studied using membrane filters containing the fungus, the bacterium, or both microorganisms; the filters were incubated in soil. F. culmorum was identified by indirect immunofluorescence: the GUS-labeled strain was used to visualize P. fluorescens. It was found that F. culmorum introduced in soil can develop as a saprotroph, with the formation of mycelium, macroconidia, and a small amount of chlamydospores. Introduction of glucose and cellulose resulted in increased density of the F. culmorum mycelium and macroconidia. P. fluorescens suppressed development of F. culmorum mycelium in soil but stimulated formation of fungal chlamydospores. Decreased mycelial density in the presence of P. fluorescens was more pronounced in unsupplemented soil and less pronounced when glucose or cellulose was intiodaced. F. culmorum had no significant effect on P. fluorescens growth in soil. PMID:18069329

  8. A PR-1-like protein of Fusarium oxysporum functions in virulence on mammalian hosts.

    PubMed

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Roldán-Rodríguez, Raquel; Serena, Carolina; López-Berges, Manuel S; Guarro, Josep; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2012-06-22

    The pathogenesis-related PR-1-like protein family comprises secreted proteins from the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms whose biological function remains poorly understood. Here we have characterized a PR-1-like protein, Fpr1, from Fusarium oxysporum, an ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease on a wide range of plant species and can produce life-threatening infections in immunocompromised humans. Fpr1 is secreted and proteolytically processed by the fungus. The fpr1 gene is required for virulence in a disseminated immunodepressed mouse model, and its function depends on the integrity of the proposed active site of PR-1-like proteins. Fpr1 belongs to a gene family that has expanded in plant pathogenic Sordariomycetes. These results suggest that secreted PR-1-like proteins play important roles in fungal pathogenicity. PMID:22553200

  9. Cloning and characterization of the gene cluster required for beauvericin biosynthesis in Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhuo, Ying; Jia, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jintao; Gao, Hong; Song, Fuhang; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    Beauvericin, a cyclohexadepsipeptide-possessing natural product with synergistic antifungal, insecticidal, and cytotoxic activities. We isolated and characterized the fpBeas gene cluster, devoted to beauvericin biosynthesis, from the filamentous fungus Fusarium proliferatum LF061. Targeted inactivation of the F. proliferatum genomic copy of fpBeas abolished the production of beauvericin. Comparative sequence analysis of the FpBEAS showed 74% similarity with the BbBEAS that synthesizes the cyclic trimeric ester beauvericin in Beauveria bassiana, which assembles N-methyl-dipeptidol monomer intermediates by the programmed iterative use of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules. Differences between the organization of the beauvericin loci in F. proliferaturm and B. bassiana revealed the mechanism for high production of beauvericin in F. proliferatum. Our work provides new insights into beauvericin biosynthesis, and may lead to beauvericin overproduction and creation of new analogs via synthetic biology approaches. PMID:23832252

  10. Interplay between pathway-specific and global regulation of the fumonisin gene cluster in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Sarah M; Sieber, Christian M K; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-07-01

    The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology to the FUM cluster of the main fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides, a pathogen of maize. Despite the high level of cluster gene conservation, total fumonisin FB1 and FB2 levels (FBx) produced by F. fujikuroi were only 1-10 % compared to F. verticillioides under inducing conditions. Nitrogen repression was found to be relevant for wild-type strains of both species. However, addition of germinated maize kernels activated the FBx production only in F. verticillioides, reflecting the different host specificity of both wild-type strains. Over-expression of the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 in F. fujikuroi strongly activated the FUM cluster genes leading to 1000-fold elevated FBx levels. To gain further insights into the nitrogen metabolite repression of FBx biosynthesis, we studied the impact of the global nitrogen regulators AreA and AreB and demonstrated that both GATA-type transcription factors are essential for full activation of the FUM gene cluster. Loss of one of them obstructs the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 to fully activate expression of FUM cluster genes. PMID:26966024

  11. Analysis of fumonisin contamination and the presence of Fusarium in wheat with kernel black point disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Busman, M; Desjardins, A E; Proctor, R H

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the fungus Fusarium proliferatum to cause kernel black point disease in wheat was previously established, but natural contamination of black point wheat with both F. proliferatum and fumonisin mycotoxins has not been studied in the United States. Low levels of fumonisins were detected in nine of 43 wheat samples with kernel black point disease that were obtained from across the United States. A subset of samples was contaminated with F. proliferatum as well as with F. fujikuroi, F. nygamai, F. thapsinum and F. verticillioides, species closely related to F. proliferatum and morphologically similar to it in that they produce chains of asexual spores, or conidia. Nevertheless, of conidial chain-forming fusaria isolated from symptomatic wheat, F. proliferatum dominated. In greenhouse tests, isolates of F. proliferatum and the other species recovered from wheat samples were able to cause symptoms of kernel black point and, in some cases, low levels of fumonisin contamination of wheat. These data add to the understanding of the risk of fumonisin contamination of wheat and the potential for Fusarium species to cause kernel black point disease and fumonisin contamination of wheat. Further, the results of this study indicate that while US-grown wheat can sporadically be contaminated by fumonisins, the natural contamination levels seem to be low. The observations made provide evidence that fumonisins are not likely to be a factor contributing to the ability of Fusarium to cause kernel black point disease. PMID:22494515

  12. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, B V; Poornachandra Rao, K; Chennapa, G; Naik, M K; Chandrashekara, K T; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production. PMID:27285317

  13. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, B. V.; Poornachandra Rao, K.; Chennapa, G.; Naik, M. K.; Chandrashekara, K. T.; Sreenivasa, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production. PMID:27285317

  14. A Brachypodium UDP-Glycosyltransferase Confers Root Tolerance to Deoxynivalenol and Resistance to Fusarium Infection.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Jean-Claude; Changenet, Valentin; Macadré, Catherine; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Soulhat, Camille; Bouchabké-Coussa, Oumaya; Dalmais, Marion; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Saindrenan, Patrick; Dufresne, Marie

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a cereal disease caused by Fusarium graminearum, a fungus able to produce type B trichothecenes on cereals, including deoxynivalenol (DON), which is harmful for humans and animals. Resistance to FHB is quantitative, and the mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. Resistance has been related to the ability to conjugate DON into a glucosylated form, deoxynivalenol-3-O-glucose (D3G), by secondary metabolism UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs). However, functional analyses have never been performed within a single host species. Here, using the model cereal species Brachypodium distachyon, we show that the Bradi5g03300 UGT converts DON into D3G in planta. We present evidence that a mutation in Bradi5g03300 increases root sensitivity to DON and the susceptibility of spikes to F. graminearum, while overexpression confers increased root tolerance to the mycotoxin and spike resistance to the fungus. The dynamics of expression and conjugation suggest that the speed of DON conjugation rather than the increase of D3G per se is a critical factor explaining the higher resistance of the overexpressing lines. A detached glumes assay showed that overexpression but not mutation of the Bradi5g03300 gene alters primary infection by F. graminearum, highlighting the involvement of DON in early steps of infection. Together, these results indicate that early and efficient UGT-mediated conjugation of DON is necessary and sufficient to establish resistance to primary infection by F. graminearum and highlight a novel strategy to promote FHB resistance in cereals. PMID:27378816

  15. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites. PMID:23606046

  16. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. PMID:25841054

  17. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4). PMID:26132832

  18. Identification and characterization of non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum capable of increasing and decreasing Fusarium wilt severity.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Leanne M; Smith, Linda J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B

    2006-08-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana is a potentially devastating disease throughout the world. Options for control of the causal organism, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) are limited. Suppressive soil sites have previously been identified where, despite the presence of Foc, Fusarium wilt does not develop. In order to understand some aspects of this disease suppression, endophytic Fusarium oxysporum isolates were obtained from banana roots. These isolates were genetically characterized and compared with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum previously identified as being capable of suppressing Fusarium wilt of banana in glasshouse trials. Three additional isolates were selected for glasshouse trials to assess suppression of Fusarium wilt in two different cultivars of banana, Cavendish and Lady Finger. One isolate (BRIP 29089) was identified as a potential biocontrol organism, reducing the disease severity of Fusarium wilt in Lady Finger and Cavendish cultivars. Interestingly, one isolate (BRIP 45952) increased Fusarium wilt disease severity on Cavendish. The implications of an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum, non-pathogenic on banana, increasing disease severity and the potential role of non-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum in disease complexes are discussed. PMID:16891106

  19. Genome-Based Selection and Characterization of Fusarium circinatum-Specific Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Maphosa, Mkhululi N.; Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium circinatum is an important pathogen of pine trees and its management in the commercial forestry environment relies largely on early detection, particularly in seedling nurseries. The fact that the entire genome of this pathogen is available opens new avenues for the development of diagnostic tools for this fungus. In this study we identified open reading frames (ORFs) unique to F. circinatum and determined that they were specific to the pathogen. The ORF identification process involved bioinformatics-based screening of all the putative F. circinatum ORFs against public databases. This was followed by functional characterization of ORFs found to be unique to F. circinatum. We used PCR- and hybridization-based approaches to confirm the presence of selected unique genes in different strains of F. circinatum and their absence from other Fusarium species for which genome sequence data are not yet available. These included species that are closely related to F. circinatum as well as those that are commonly encountered in the forestry environment. Thirty-six ORFs were identified as potentially unique to F. circinatum. Nineteen of these encode proteins with known domains while the other 17 encode proteins of unknown function. The results of our PCR analyses and hybridization assays showed that three of the selected genes were present in all of the strains of F. circinatum tested and absent from the other Fusarium species screened. These data thus indicate that the selected genes are common and unique to F. circinatum. These genes thus could be good candidates for use in rapid, in-the-field diagnostic assays specific to F. circinatum. Our study further demonstrates how genome sequence information can be mined for the identification of new diagnostic markers for the detection of plant pathogens. PMID:26888868

  20. Two Novel Relative Double-Stranded RNA Mycoviruses Infecting Fusarium poae Strain SX63

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luan; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Hailong; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Two novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses, termed Fusarium poae dsRNA virus 2 (FpV2) and Fusarium poae dsRNA virus 3 (FpV3), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium poae strain SX63, and molecularly characterized. FpV2 and FpV3, with respective genome sequences of 9518 and 9419 base pairs (bps), are both predicted to contain two discontinuous open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. A hypothetical polypeptide (P1) and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are encoded by ORF1 and ORF2, respectively. Phytoreo_S7 domain (pfam07236) homologs were detected downstream of the RdRp domain (RdRp_4; pfam02123) of the ORF2-coded proteins of both FpV2 and FpV3. The same shifty heptamers (GGAAAAC) were both found immediately before the stop codon UAG of ORF1 in FpV2 and FpV3, which could mediate programmed –1 ribosomal frameshifting (–1 PRF). Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp sequences clearly place FpV2 and FpV3 in a taxonomically unassigned dsRNA mycovirus group. Together, with a comparison of genome organization, a new taxonomic family termed Fusagraviridae is proposed to be created to include FpV2- and FpV3-related dsRNA mycoviruses, within which FpV2 and FpV3 would represent two distinct virus species. PMID:27144564

  1. Genome-Based Selection and Characterization of Fusarium circinatum-Specific Sequences.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Mkhululi N; Steenkamp, Emma T; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium circinatum is an important pathogen of pine trees and its management in the commercial forestry environment relies largely on early detection, particularly in seedling nurseries. The fact that the entire genome of this pathogen is available opens new avenues for the development of diagnostic tools for this fungus. In this study we identified open reading frames (ORFs) unique to F. circinatum and determined that they were specific to the pathogen. The ORF identification process involved bioinformatics-based screening of all the putative F. circinatum ORFs against public databases. This was followed by functional characterization of ORFs found to be unique to F. circinatum. We used PCR- and hybridization-based approaches to confirm the presence of selected unique genes in different strains of F. circinatum and their absence from other Fusarium species for which genome sequence data are not yet available. These included species that are closely related to F. circinatum as well as those that are commonly encountered in the forestry environment. Thirty-six ORFs were identified as potentially unique to F. circinatum. Nineteen of these encode proteins with known domains while the other 17 encode proteins of unknown function. The results of our PCR analyses and hybridization assays showed that three of the selected genes were present in all of the strains of F. circinatum tested and absent from the other Fusarium species screened. These data thus indicate that the selected genes are common and unique to F. circinatum. These genes thus could be good candidates for use in rapid, in-the-field diagnostic assays specific to F. circinatum. Our study further demonstrates how genome sequence information can be mined for the identification of new diagnostic markers for the detection of plant pathogens. PMID:26888868

  2. Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants. PMID:23922960

  3. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sun; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-06-01

    Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this issue, these methods require complicated PCR steps or are frequently inefficient. Here, we introduce a cloning system that utilizes multi-fragment assembly by In-Fusion to generate a gene disruption construct. This method utilizes DNA fragment fusion and requires only one PCR step and one reaction for construction. Using this strategy, a gene disruption construct for Fusarium cyclin C1 (FCC1 ), which is associated with fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was successfully created and used for fungal transformation. In vivo and in vitro experiments using confirmed fcc1 mutants suggest that fumonisin production is closely related to disease symptoms exhibited by F. fujikuroi strain B14. Taken together, this multi-fragment assembly method represents a simpler and a more convenient process for targeted gene disruption in fungi. PMID:27298592

  4. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Hametner, Christian; Ward, Todd J; Dong, Yanhong; Schöfbeck, Denise; McCormick, Susan; Broz, Karen; Stückler, Romana; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Kistler, H Corby; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX-2) was characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX-2 as 3α-acetoxy-7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene. Compared with the well-known 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), it lacks the keto group at C-8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10-fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX-3, (up to 540 mg kg(-1) ) compared with NX-2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX-3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX-2 is far less toxic, similar to 3-ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI1 allele in the N-isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C-8. PMID:25403493

  5. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Two Races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans that Differ in Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erfeng; Ling, Jian; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Jiling; Yang, Yuhong; Mao, Zhenchuan; Wang, Xuchu; Xie, Bingyan

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-inhabiting fungus that induces vascular wilt and root rot in a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc), which comprises two races, can cause wilt disease in cabbage. Compared with race 1 (52557−TM, R1), race 2 (58385−TM, R2) exhibits much stronger pathogenicity. Here, we provide the first proteome reference maps for Foc mycelium and conidia and identify 145 proteins with different abundances among the two races. Of these proteins, most of the high-abundance proteins in the R2 mycelium and conidia are involved in carbohydrate, amino acid and ion metabolism, which indicates that these proteins may play important roles in isolate R2’s stronger pathogenicity. The expression levels of 20 typical genes demonstrate similarly altered patterns compared to the proteomic analysis. The protein glucanosyltransferase, which is involved in carbohydrate metabolism, was selected for research. We knocked out the corresponding gene (gas1) and found that Foc-∆gas1 significantly reduced growth rate and virulence compared with wild type isolates. These results deepened our understanding of the proteins related to F. oxysporum pathogenicity in cabbage Fusarium wilt and provided new opportunities to control this disease. PMID:26333982

  6. Keratitis due to Fusarium langsethiae: clinical profile, molecular identification, and susceptibility to antifungals.

    PubMed

    Vasantha Ruban, Vasanthakumar; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Kaliamurthy, Jayaraman; Jesudasan, Christadoss Arul Nelson; Thomas, Philip Aloysius

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of keratitis due to Fusarium langsethiae in a 56-year-old man. The patient presented with pain and tearing of 10 days duration in the right eye, which had sustained a paddy stalk injury. On examination, a hypopyon corneal ulcer was noted in the right eye. Multiple scrapings were obtained from the affected part of the cornea. A lactophenol cotton blue wet mount and a Gram-stained smear of scrapings were made. Scrapings were also inoculated on various culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). A fungal etiology was sought by conventional microbiological techniques and polymerase chain reaction. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by an agar dilution method. Direct microscopy of corneal scrapings revealed septate hyphae, leading to initiation of intensive topical therapy with natamycin (5 %). However, the keratitis progressed, necessitating therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. White, powdery-like colonies, with abundant aerial mycelium, were recovered on SDA from corneal scrape material. Based on macroscopic and microscopic morphological features, the isolated fungus was initially identified as a Fusarium species. Sequence analysis of the 28S rRNA region of the fungal genome led to a specific identification of F. langsethiae. Antifungal susceptibility testing results suggested that the strain isolated was susceptible to voriconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of keratitis due to F. langsethiae; attention is drawn to the unique characteristics of the fungal isolate, difficulties in identification and non-responsiveness to medical therapy. PMID:25645251

  7. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death. PMID:24313955

  8. Fusarium oxysporum evades I-3-mediated resistance without altering the matching avirulence gene.

    PubMed

    Rep, M; Meijer, M; Houterman, P M; van der Does, H C; Cornelissen, B J C

    2005-01-01

    I-3-Mediated resistance of tomato against Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici depends on Six1, a protein that is secreted by the fungus during colonization of the xylem. Among natural isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are several that are virulent on a tomato line carrying only the I-3 resistance gene. However, evasion of I-3-mediated resistance by these isolates is not correlated with mutation of the SIX1 gene. Moreover, the SIX1 gene of an I-3-virulent isolate was shown to be fully functional in that i) the gene product is secreted in xylem sap, ii) deletion leads to a further increase in virulence on the I-3 line as well as reduced virulence on susceptible lines, and iii) the gene confers full avirulence on the I-3 line when transferred to another genetic background. Remarkably, all I-3-virulent isolates were of race 1, suggesting a link between the presence of AVR1 and evasion of I-3-mediated resistance. PMID:15672814

  9. Involvement of Fungal Pectin Methylesterase Activity in the Interaction Between Fusarium graminearum and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Sella, Luca; Castiglioni, Carla; Paccanaro, Maria Chiara; Janni, Michela; Schäfer, Wilhelm; D'Ovidio, Renato; Favaron, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The genome of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, contains two putative pectin methylesterase (PME)-encoding genes. However, when grown in liquid culture containing pectin, F. graminearum produces only a single PME, which was purified and identified. Its encoding gene, expressed during wheat spike infection, was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination. Two Δpme mutant strains lacked PME activity but were still able to grow on highly methyl-esterified pectin even though their polygalacturonase (PG) activity showed a reduced capacity to depolymerize this substrate. The enzymatic assays performed with purified F. graminearum PG and PME demonstrated an increase in PG activity in the presence of PME on highly methyl-esterified pectin. The virulence of the mutant strains was tested on Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum spikes, and a significant reduction in the percentage of symptomatic spikelets was observed between 7 and 12 days postinfection compared with wild type, demonstrating that the F. graminearum PME contributes to fungal virulence on wheat by promoting spike colonization in the initial and middle stages of infection. In contrast, transgenic wheat plants with increased levels of pectin methyl esterification did not show any increase in resistance to the Δpme mutant, indicating that the infectivity of the fungus relies only to a certain degree on pectin degradation. PMID:26713352

  10. Facilitation of Fusarium graminearum Infection by 9-Lipoxygenases in Arabidopsis and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Nalam, Vamsi J; Alam, Syeda; Keereetaweep, Jantana; Venables, Barney; Burdan, Dehlia; Lee, Hyeonju; Trick, Harold N; Sarowar, Sujon; Makandar, Ragiba; Shah, Jyoti

    2015-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight, an important disease of wheat. F. graminearum can also cause disease in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis LOX1 and LOX5 genes, which encode 9-lipoxygenases (9-LOXs), are targeted during this interaction to facilitate infection. LOX1 and LOX5 expression were upregulated in F. graminearum-inoculated plants and loss of LOX1 or LOX5 function resulted in enhanced disease resistance in the corresponding mutant plants. The enhanced resistance to F. graminearum infection in the lox1 and lox5 mutants was accompanied by more robust induction of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and signaling and attenuation of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in response to infection. The lox1- and lox5-conferred resistance was diminished in plants expressing the SA-degrading salicylate hydroxylase or by the application of methyl-JA. Results presented here suggest that plant 9-LOXs are engaged during infection to control the balance between SA and JA signaling to facilitate infection. Furthermore, since silencing of TaLpx-1 encoding a 9-LOX with homology to LOX1 and LOX5, resulted in enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in wheat, we suggest that 9-LOXs have a conserved role as susceptibility factors in disease caused by this important fungus in Arabidopsis and wheat. PMID:26075826

  11. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  12. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Sun; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-01-01

    Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this issue, these methods require complicated PCR steps or are frequently inefficient. Here, we introduce a cloning system that utilizes multi-fragment assembly by In-Fusion to generate a gene disruption construct. This method utilizes DNA fragment fusion and requires only one PCR step and one reaction for construction. Using this strategy, a gene disruption construct for Fusarium cyclin C1 (FCC1 ), which is associated with fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was successfully created and used for fungal transformation. In vivo and in vitro experiments using confirmed fcc1 mutants suggest that fumonisin production is closely related to disease symptoms exhibited by F. fujikuroi strain B14. Taken together, this multi-fragment assembly method represents a simpler and a more convenient process for targeted gene disruption in fungi. PMID:27298592

  13. Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castañares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 μg/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

  14. The Sch9 Kinase Regulates Conidium Size, Stress Responses, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study on functional characterization of the F. graminearum kinome, one protein kinase gene important for virulence is orthologous to SCH9 that is functionally related to the cAMP-PKA and TOR pathways in the budding yeast. In this study, we further characterized the functions of FgSCH9 in F. graminearum and its ortholog in Magnaporthe oryzae. The ΔFgsch9 mutant was slightly reduced in growth rate but significantly reduced in conidiation, DON production, and virulence on wheat heads and corn silks. It had increased tolerance to elevated temperatures but became hypersensitive to oxidative, hyperosmotic, cell wall, and membrane stresses. The ΔFgsch9 deletion also had conidium morphology defects and produced smaller conidia. These results suggest that FgSCH9 is important for stress responses, DON production, conidiogenesis, and pathogenesis in F. graminearum. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the ΔMosch9 mutant also was defective in conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. Interestingly, it also produced smaller conidia and appressoria. Taken together, our data indicate that the SCH9 kinase gene may have a conserved role in regulating conidium size and plant infection in phytopathogenic ascomycetes. PMID:25144230

  15. Joint Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Changes in the Primary Metabolism and Imbalances in the Subgenome Orchestration in the Bread Wheat Molecular Response to Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Warth, Benedikt; Sharma, Sapna; Ametz, Christian; Bueschl, Christoph; Parich, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Matthias; Siegwart, Gerald; Steiner, Barbara; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Buerstmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Kugler, Karl G.; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which leads to considerable losses in yield and quality. Quantitative resistance to the causative fungus Fusarium graminearum is poorly understood. We integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics data to dissect the molecular response to the fungus and its main virulence factor, the toxin deoxynivalenol in near-isogenic lines segregating for two resistance quantitative trait loci, Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A. The data sets portrait rearrangements in the primary metabolism and the translational machinery to counter the fungus and the effects of the toxin and highlight distinct changes in the metabolism of glutamate in lines carrying Qfhs.ifa-5A. These observations are possibly due to the activity of two amino acid permeases located in the quantitative trait locus confidence interval, which may contribute to increased pathogen endurance. Mapping to the highly resolved region of Fhb1 reduced the list of candidates to few genes that are specifically expressed in presence of the quantitative trait loci and in response to the pathogen, which include a receptor-like protein kinase, a protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. On a genome-scale level, the individual subgenomes of hexaploid wheat contribute differentially to defense. In particular, the D subgenome exhibited a pronounced response to the pathogen and contributed significantly to the overall defense response. PMID:26438291

  16. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  17. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  18. Quambalaria species, including Q. coyrecup sp. nov., implicated in canker and shoot blight diseases causing decline of Corymbia species in the southwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Paap, Trudy; Burgess, Treena I; McComb, Jennifer A; Shearer, Bryan L; St J Hardy, Giles E

    2008-01-01

    A severe canker disease has been causing decline and death of Corymbia calophylla in the southwest of Western Australia (WA) for some years, but the causal agent has never been investigated. However, there have been historical reports dating back to the 1920s of a canker disease of amenity planted C. ficifolia caused by 'Sporotrichum destructor', though the description and Latin diagnosis were never published. It has been suggested that there may be links between this species and the genus Quambalaria, a group containing leaf and shoot pathogens of species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia. The aim of this study was to investigate the identity of the pathogen historically attributed to canker disease of C. ficifolia, determine whether this pathogen is responsible for the current epidemic of C. calophylla canker, and whether it is synonymous with Quambalaria. Surveys examined the range of Quambalaria spp. on Corymbia spp. endemic to southwest WA. Their phylogenetic relationship to Q. cyanescens, Q. eucalypti, and Q. pitereka was examined using rLSU and ITS sequence data. Morphological characters were also compared. Sequences confirmed that Q. cyanescens and Q. pitereka are present in southwest WA, with the latter associated with leaf and shoot disease. A third group isolated from cankers represent a new species of Quambalaria. Comparisons of disease symptoms and conidiogenesis indicate this species is synonymous with 'S. destructor'. The species is formally described here as Q. coyrecup sp. nov. PMID:18222081

  19. The Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri flagellum is required for mature biofilm and canker development.

    PubMed

    Malamud, Florencia; Torres, Pablo S; Roeschlin, Roxana; Rigano, Luciano A; Enrique, Ramón; Bonomi, Hernán R; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Marano, María Rosa; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2011-03-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causative agent of citrus canker. This bacterium develops a characteristic biofilm on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. To evaluate the participation of the single flagellum of Xac in biofilm formation, mutants in the fliC (flagellin) and the flgE (hook) genes were generated. Swimming motility, assessed on 0.25 % agar plates, was markedly reduced in fliC and flgE mutants. However, the fliC and flgE mutants exhibited a flagellar-independent surface translocation on 0.5 % agar plates. Mutation of either the rpfF or the rpfC gene, which both encode proteins involved in cell-cell signalling mediated by diffusible signal factor (DSF), led to a reduction in both flagellar-dependent and flagellar-independent surface translocation, indicating a regulatory role for DSF in both types of motility. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms produced in static culture demonstrated that the flagellum is also involved in the formation of mushroom-shaped structures and water channels, and in the dispersion of biofilms. The presence of the flagellum was required for mature biofilm development on lemon leaf surfaces. The absence of flagellin produced a slight reduction in Xac pathogenicity and this reduction was more severe when the complete flagellum structure was absent. PMID:21109564

  20. Genome analysis of the kiwifruit canker pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a destructive pathogen of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease, causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit industry worldwide. Biovar 5 is the most recently reported biovar of Psa, and is found in only a local area of Japan at present. There is not much information of genetic characteristics of biovar 5. Thus, the genome of biovar 5 was sequenced and analyzed to clarify its detailed genetic characteristics. Here, the genomes of strain MAFF 212056 and MAFF 212061 of biovar 5 were estimated to be about 6.3 Mbp and 6.5 Mbp, respectively, and their phylogenetic positions were proved to be near that of biovar 2 in the phylogenetic tree. However, it was confirmed that biovar 5 had neither the coronatine biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 2, its phylogenetic neighbor, nor the phaseolotoxin biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 1, Japanese native pathogen. In addition, 45 genes of type III secreted effectors were identified in biovar 5 genomes, showing that their composition is different from that in the other biovars. Moreover, some biovar 5-specific regions were identified. Then, biovar 5-specific PCR primers for targeting these regions were designed, and proved to be applicable for detecting biovar 5 specifically. PMID:26891997

  1. De novo genome assembly of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Anthony; Woeste, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Geosmithia morbida is a filamentous ascomycete that causes thousand cankers disease in the eastern black walnut tree. This pathogen is commonly found in the western U.S.; however, recently the disease was also detected in several eastern states where the black walnut lumber industry is concentrated. G. morbida is one of two known phytopathogens within the genus Geosmithia, and it is vectored into the host tree via the walnut twig beetle. We present the first de novo draft genome of G. morbida. It is 26.5 Mbp in length and contains less than 1% repetitive elements. The genome possesses an estimated 6,273 genes, 277 of which are predicted to encode proteins with unknown functions. Approximately 31.5% of the proteins in G. morbida are homologous to proteins involved in pathogenicity, and 5.6% of the proteins contain signal peptides that indicate these proteins are secreted. Several studies have investigated the evolution of pathogenicity in pathogens of agricultural crops; forest fungal pathogens are often neglected because research efforts are focused on food crops. G. morbida is one of the few tree phytopathogens to be sequenced, assembled and annotated. The first draft genome of G. morbida serves as a valuable tool for comprehending the underlying molecular and evolutionary mechanisms behind pathogenesis within the Geosmithia genus. PMID:27168971

  2. De novo genome assembly of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease.

    PubMed

    Schuelke, Taruna A; Westbrook, Anthony; Broders, Kirk; Woeste, Keith; MacManes, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Geosmithia morbida is a filamentous ascomycete that causes thousand cankers disease in the eastern black walnut tree. This pathogen is commonly found in the western U.S.; however, recently the disease was also detected in several eastern states where the black walnut lumber industry is concentrated. G. morbida is one of two known phytopathogens within the genus Geosmithia, and it is vectored into the host tree via the walnut twig beetle. We present the first de novo draft genome of G. morbida. It is 26.5 Mbp in length and contains less than 1% repetitive elements. The genome possesses an estimated 6,273 genes, 277 of which are predicted to encode proteins with unknown functions. Approximately 31.5% of the proteins in G. morbida are homologous to proteins involved in pathogenicity, and 5.6% of the proteins contain signal peptides that indicate these proteins are secreted. Several studies have investigated the evolution of pathogenicity in pathogens of agricultural crops; forest fungal pathogens are often neglected because research efforts are focused on food crops. G. morbida is one of the few tree phytopathogens to be sequenced, assembled and annotated. The first draft genome of G. morbida serves as a valuable tool for comprehending the underlying molecular and evolutionary mechanisms behind pathogenesis within the Geosmithia genus. PMID:27168971

  3. Genome analysis of the kiwifruit canker pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a destructive pathogen of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease, causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit industry worldwide. Biovar 5 is the most recently reported biovar of Psa, and is found in only a local area of Japan at present. There is not much information of genetic characteristics of biovar 5. Thus, the genome of biovar 5 was sequenced and analyzed to clarify its detailed genetic characteristics. Here, the genomes of strain MAFF 212056 and MAFF 212061 of biovar 5 were estimated to be about 6.3 Mbp and 6.5 Mbp, respectively, and their phylogenetic positions were proved to be near that of biovar 2 in the phylogenetic tree. However, it was confirmed that biovar 5 had neither the coronatine biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 2, its phylogenetic neighbor, nor the phaseolotoxin biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 1, Japanese native pathogen. In addition, 45 genes of type III secreted effectors were identified in biovar 5 genomes, showing that their composition is different from that in the other biovars. Moreover, some biovar 5-specific regions were identified. Then, biovar 5-specific PCR primers for targeting these regions were designed, and proved to be applicable for detecting biovar 5 specifically. PMID:26891997

  4. Molecular Identification and Databases in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence-based methods for identifying pathogenic and mycotoxigenic Fusarium isolates have become the gold standard worldwide. Moreover, fusarial DNA sequence data are increasing rapidly in several web-accessible databases for comparative purposes. Unfortunately, the use of Basic Alignment Sea...

  5. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  6. Toxicity of fumonisins, mycotoxins from Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, predominantly F. verticillioides. They are present in variable amounts in corn and corn-based feeds and food products. They are suspected risk factors for esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations depending on corn as a diet s...

  7. Investigating Spore killer of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. Fusarium verticillioides may colonize maize as an endophyte or as a pathogen, causing disease at any life stage of the plant. During growth on maize, F. verticillioides can synthesis a number of mycotoxins including fumonisins, which have been l...

  8. Update: Fusarium Keratitis - United States, 2005 - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the results of a Fusarium keratitis outbreak investigation being conducted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological data indicate that the 2005-2006 outbreaks of corneal infections within the United States are linked to the use of on...

  9. HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

  10. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are among the most studied plant pathogenic fungi, with several species causing diseases on corn, wheat, barley, and other food and feed grains. Decreased yield, as well as diminished quality and value of the grain, results in significant worldwide economic losses. Additionally, ...

  11. Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Porter, J K; Norred, W P; Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity, which is of concern since it might be synergistic with other cooccurring mycotoxins. Fusaric acid is widespread on corn and corn-based food and feeds and is frequently found in grain, where Fusarium spp. are also isolated. We surveyed 78 strains of Fusarium moniliforme, F. crookwellense, F. subglutinans, F. sambucinum, F. napiforme, F. heterosporum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. proliferatum for their ability to produce fusaric acid. Strains in Fusarium section Liseola also were assigned to mating population of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. The fungi could be divided into three classes, low (< 100 micrograms/g), moderate (100 to 500 micrograms/g), and high (> 500 micrograms/g), based on the amounts of this mycotoxin produced in culture on autoclaved corn. Strains of mating populations C from rice consistently produced moderate to high concentrations of fusaric acid. Two isolates, one each from mating populations C and D, produced fusaric acid in excess of 1,000 micrograms/g of corn. No isolates of any of the Fusarium species examined were negative for the production of fusaric acid on autoclaved corn. PMID:8899996

  12. Precocene II, a Trichothecene Production Inhibitor, Binds to Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel and Increases the Superoxide Level in Mitochondria of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Sakamoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Michio; Kimura, Makoto; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2015-01-01

    Precocene II, a constituent of essential oils, shows antijuvenile hormone activity in insects and inhibits trichothecene production in fungi. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which precocene II inhibits trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum, the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight and trichothecene contamination in grains. Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, was identified as the precocene II-binding protein by an affinity magnetic bead method. Precocene II increased the superoxide level in mitochondria as well as the amount of oxidized mitochondrial proteins. Ascorbic acid, glutathione, and α-tocopherol promoted trichothecene production by the fungus. These antioxidants compensated for the inhibitory activity of precocene II on trichothecene production. These results suggest that the binding of precocene II to VDAC may cause high superoxide levels in mitochondria, which leads to stopping of trichothecene production. PMID:26248339

  13. Precocene II, a Trichothecene Production Inhibitor, Binds to Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel and Increases the Superoxide Level in Mitochondria of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Sakamoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Michio; Kimura, Makoto; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2015-01-01

    Precocene II, a constituent of essential oils, shows antijuvenile hormone activity in insects and inhibits trichothecene production in fungi. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which precocene II inhibits trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum, the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight and trichothecene contamination in grains. Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, was identified as the precocene II-binding protein by an affinity magnetic bead method. Precocene II increased the superoxide level in mitochondria as well as the amount of oxidized mitochondrial proteins. Ascorbic acid, glutathione, and α-tocopherol promoted trichothecene production by the fungus. These antioxidants compensated for the inhibitory activity of precocene II on trichothecene production. These results suggest that the binding of precocene II to VDAC may cause high superoxide levels in mitochondria, which leads to stopping of trichothecene production. PMID:26248339

  14. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  15. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Tan, Deguan; Fu, Lili; Han, Bingyin; Sun, Xuepiao; Zheng, Peng; Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the FOC4 mycelium close to the co-cultured bacterium was partially decomposed, and the conidial formation was prohibited. The inhibition ratio of the culture fluid of ITBB B5-1 against the pathogenic fungus was 95.4% as estimated by tip culture assay. Chitinase and glucanase activity was detected in the culture fluid, and the highest activity was obtained at Day 2 and Day 3 of incubation for chitinase and glucanase, respectively. The filtrated cell-free culture fluid degraded the cell wall of FOC4 mycelium. These results indicated that chitinase and glucanase were involved in the antifungal mechanism of ITBB B5-1. The potted banana plants that were inoculated with ITBB B5-1 before infection with FOC4 showed 78.7% reduction in the disease severity index in the green house experiments. In the field trials, ITBB B5-1 showed a control effect of approximately 70.0% against the disease. Therefore, the endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 could be applied in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. PMID:26133557

  16. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuepiao; Zheng, Peng; Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the FOC4 mycelium close to the co-cultured bacterium was partially decomposed, and the conidial formation was prohibited. The inhibition ratio of the culture fluid of ITBB B5-1 against the pathogenic fungus was 95.4% as estimated by tip culture assay. Chitinase and glucanase activity was detected in the culture fluid, and the highest activity was obtained at Day 2 and Day 3 of incubation for chitinase and glucanase, respectively. The filtrated cell-free culture fluid degraded the cell wall of FOC4 mycelium. These results indicated that chitinase and glucanase were involved in the antifungal mechanism of ITBB B5-1. The potted banana plants that were inoculated with ITBB B5-1 before infection with FOC4 showed 78.7% reduction in the disease severity index in the green house experiments. In the field trials, ITBB B5-1 showed a control effect of approximately 70.0% against the disease. Therefore, the endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 could be applied in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. PMID:26133557

  17. Distribution of disease symptoms and mycotoxins in maize ears infected by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season. PMID:25904523

  18. In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.

    PubMed

    Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

    2011-12-01

    Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E.; Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Villas-Boâs, Silas G.; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used—namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses—two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast—its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity—hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration. PMID:27199958

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability.

    PubMed

    Anasontzis, George E; Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Villas-Boâs, Silas G; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used-namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses-two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast-its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity-hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration. PMID:27199958

  1. Utilization of a Conidia-Deficient Mutant to Study Sexual Development in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Lim, Jae Yun; Lee, Yoonji; Lee, Yin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis is a widely used approach to study the molecular mechanisms underlying development and the responses of fungi to environmental cues. However, it is difficult to obtain cells with a homogeneous status from the sexually-induced culture of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we provided phenotypic and genetic evidence to show that the current conditions applied for perithecia induction inevitably highly induced asexual sporulation in this fungus. We also found that hundreds of genes under the control of the conidiation-specific gene ABAA were unnecessarily upregulated after perithecia induction. Deletion of ABAA specifically blocked conidia production in both the wild-type strain and sexually-defective mutants during sexual development. Taken together, our results suggest that the abaA strain could be used as a background strain for studies of the initial stages of perithecia production in F. graminearum. Further comparative transcriptome analysis between the abaA mutant and the sexually-defective transcription factor mutant carrying the ABAA deletion would contribute to the construction of the genetic networks involved in perithecia development in F. graminearum. PMID:27175901

  2. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  3. A framework to gauge the epidemic potential of plant pathogens in environmental reservoirs: the example of kiwifruit canker.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Claudia; Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Berge, Odile; Guilbaud, Caroline; Varvaro, Leonardo; Balestra, Giorgio M; Vinatzer, Boris A; Morris, Cindy E

    2015-02-01

    New economically important diseases on crops and forest trees emerge recurrently. An understanding of where new pathogenic lines come from and how they evolve is fundamental for the deployment of accurate surveillance methods. We used kiwifruit bacterial canker as a model to assess the importance of potential reservoirs of new pathogenic lineages. The current kiwifruit canker epidemic is at least the fourth outbreak of the disease on kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae in the mere 50 years in which this crop has been cultivated worldwide, with each outbreak being caused by different genetic lines of the bacterium. Here, we ask whether strains in natural (non-agricultural) environments could cause future epidemics of canker on kiwifruit. To answer this question, we evaluated the pathogenicity, endophytic colonization capacity and competitiveness on kiwifruit of P. syringae strains genetically similar to epidemic strains and originally isolated from aquatic and subalpine habitats. All environmental strains possessing an operon involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds via the catechol pathway grew endophytically and caused symptoms in kiwifruit vascular tissue. Environmental and epidemic strains showed a wide host range, revealing their potential as future pathogens of a variety of hosts. Environmental strains co-existed endophytically with CFBP 7286, an epidemic strain, and shared about 20 virulence genes, but were missing six virulence genes found in all epidemic strains. By identifying the specific gene content in genetic backgrounds similar to known epidemic strains, we developed criteria to assess the epidemic potential and to survey for such strains as a means of forecasting and managing disease emergence. PMID:24986268

  4. DNA polymorphisms and biocontrol of Bacillus antagonistic to citrus bacterial canker with indication of the interference of phyllosphere biofilms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Pi; Tzeng, Dean Der-Syh; Wong, Amy C L; Chen, Chun-Han; Lu, Kuan-Min; Lee, Ya-Huei; Huang, Wen-Di; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Tzeng, Kuo-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease. PMID:22848728

  5. Structural and functional characterization of the TRI101 trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: kinetic insights to combating fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. It is caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium and the mycotoxins they produce. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction o...

  6. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality. PMID:26813702

  7. Rapid and sensitive detection of Citrus Bacterial Canker by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with simple visual evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) is a major, highly contagious disease of citrus plants present in many countries in Asia, Africa and America, but not in the Mediterranean area. There are three types of Citrus Bacterial Canker, named A, B, and C that have different genotypes and posses variation in host range within citrus species. The causative agent for type A CBC is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, while Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii, strain B causes type B CBC and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes CBC type C. The early and accurate identification of those bacteria is essential for the protection of the citrus industry. Detection methods based on bacterial isolation, antibodies or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed previously; however, these approaches may be time consuming, laborious and, in the case of PCR, it requires expensive laboratory equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique, is sensitive, specific, fast and requires no specialized laboratory equipment. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC-LAMP) was developed and evaluated. DNA samples were obtained from infected plants or cultured bacteria. A typical ladder-like pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed in all positive samples in contrast to the negative controls. In addition, amplification products were detected by visual inspection using SYBRGreen and using a lateral flow dipstick, eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated in different conditions and using several sample sources which included purified DNA, bacterium culture and infected plant tissue. The sensitivity of the CBC-LAMP was 10 fg of pure Xcc DNA, 5 CFU in culture samples and 18 CFU in samples of infected plant tissue. No cross reaction was observed with DNA of other phytopathogenic

  8. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding

  9. [Cutaneous mold fungus granuloma from Ulocladium chartarum].

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, P; Schon, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) are described in a 58 year old woman. This fungus is usually harmless for mammalian. It is thought that a consisting immunosuppression (Brill-Symmer's disease, therapy with corticosteroids) was a priming condition for the infection. The route of infection in this patient described is unknown. PMID:7194869

  10. Isolation, partial characterization, and cloning of an extracellular chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Xie, L Q; Li, J T; Sun, X H; Zhang, H; Du, Q; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S H; Pan, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii is a well-known biocontrol agent of fungal phytopathogens, as well as insect pests. A 42-kDa chitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases was isolated and partially characterized. Chitinase was purified using successive column chromatography on phenyl-sepharose, DEAE-sepharose, and CM-sepharose. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 40°C and pH 4.6. Enzyme activity was strongly activated in the presence of Mg(2+). The purified enzyme showed inhibitory activity of spore germination against several plant pathogens, particularly Fusarium moniliforme. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were resolved by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Protein modeling and comparative investigation of different chitinase amino acids showed that chitinases are conserved in parasitic fungi. PMID:25867374

  11. Eugenol oil nanoemulsion: antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and phytotoxicity on cottonseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2015-02-01

    The current research deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil-in-water nanoemulsion. The formulated eugenol oil nanoemulsion was characterized by dynamic light scattering, stability test, transmission electron microscopy and thin layer chromatography. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 80 nm and TEM study reveals the spherical shape of eugenol oil nanoemulsion (EON). The size of the nanoemulsion was found to be physically stable up to more than 1-month when it was kept at room temperature (25 °C). The TEM micrograph showed that the EON was spherical in shape and moderately mono or di-dispersed and was in the range of 50-110 nm. Three concentrations of the nanoformulation were used to evalute the anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. SDS-PAGE results of total protein from the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) isolate before and after treatment with eugenol oil nanoemulsion indicate that the content of extra cellular soluble small molecular proteins decreased significantly in EON-treated fungus. Light micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with EON showed the disruption of the fungal structures. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Fusarium wilt incidence indicated highly significant ( p = 0.000) effects of concentration, genotype, and their interaction. The difference in wilt incidence between concentrations and control was not the same for each genotype, that is, the genotypes responded differently to concentrations. Effects of three EON concentration on germination percentage, and radicle length, were determined in the laboratory. One very interesting finding in the current study is that cotton genotypes was the most important factors in determining wilt incidence as it accounted for 93.18 % of the explained (model) variation. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential phytotoxic effect of three EON concentrations. Concentration, genotype and

  12. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo. PMID:24779930

  13. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-28

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  14. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B.; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccAw, induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  15. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria. PMID:25403594

  16. Field performance of maize grown from Fusarium verticillioides-inoculated seed.

    PubMed

    Yates, I E; Widstrom, N W; Bacon, C W; Glenn, A; Hinton, D M; Sparks, D; Jaworski, A J

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungus occupying dual roles in the maize plant. The fungus functions as an endophyte, a fungal/host interaction beneficial to the growth of some plants. At other times, the fungus may function as a mycotoxin producing pathogen. The advantages and/or disadvantages of the endophytic relationship must be established in order to target appropriate sites for controlling diseases and mycotoxins in maize. One possibility could be to ensure seed maize is fungal free prior to planting. Reciprocal inoculations were made with two fungal isolates on seed of two maize genotypes. Yield was measured at harvest by ear and seed characters and vegetative growth at one-month intervals for plant survival, height, weight and stem diameter. Yield and vegetative growth differed among mature plants only once based on seed inoculation status. In 1998, plant weight was reduced and seed weight per ear was increased for the dent maize, GT-MAS: gk, grown from F. verticillioides RRC 374-inoculated seed compared to other seed treatments. Most vegetative characters were reduced at the first collection for Silver Queen plants grown from F. verticillioides-inoculated seed in 1997 and 1999, but not in 1998. However, no significant differences occurred among mature Silver Queen plants during any of the three growing seasons. In conclusion, yield and vegetative growth of mature maize plants grown from F. verticillioides-inoculated seed were equal to or greater than plants grown from non-inoculated seed under south Georgia field conditions during 1997, 1998, and 1999. PMID:15750733

  17. Molecular Characterization and Expression of a Phytase Gene from the Thermophilic Fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus

    PubMed Central

    Berka, Randy M.; Rey, Michael W.; Brown, Kimberly M.; Byun, Tony; Klotz, Alan V.

    1998-01-01

    The phyA gene encoding an extracellular phytase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus was cloned and heterologously expressed, and the recombinant gene product was biochemically characterized. The phyA gene encodes a primary translation product (PhyA) of 475 amino acids (aa) which includes a putative signal peptide (23 aa) and propeptide (10 aa). The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyA has limited sequence identity (ca. 47%) with Aspergillus niger phytase. The phyA gene was inserted into an expression vector under transcriptional control of the Fusarium oxysporum trypsin gene promoter and used to transform a Fusarium venenatum recipient strain. The secreted recombinant phytase protein was enzymatically active between pHs 3 and 7.5, with a specific activity of 110 μmol of inorganic phosphate released per min per mg of protein at pH 6 and 37°C. The Thermomyces phytase retained activity at assay temperatures up to 75°C and demonstrated superior catalytic efficiency to any known fungal phytase at 65°C (the temperature optimum). Comparison of this new Thermomyces catalyst with the well-known Aspergillus niger phytase reveals other favorable properties for the enzyme derived from the thermophilic gene donor, including catalytic activity over an expanded pH range. PMID:9797301

  18. Variables Associated with Severity of Bacterial Canker and Wilt Caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Tomato Greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Blank, L; Cohen, Y; Borenstein, M; Shulhani, R; Lofthouse, M; Sofer, M; Shtienberg, D

    2016-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker and wilt of tomato, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens worldwide. In the year 2000 there was an increase in the number of infected greenhouses and in the severity of the disease in Israel. As part of the effort to cope with the disease, a comprehensive survey was conducted. Scouts recorded disease severity monthly in 681 production units. At the end of the season the scouts met with the growers and together recorded relevant details about the crop and cultural practices employed. The results suggested an absence of anisotropy pattern in the study region. Global Moran's I analysis showed that disease severity had significant spatial autocorrelation. The strongest spatial autocorrelation occurred within a 1,500 m neighborhood, which is comparable to the distance between production units maintained by one grower (Farm). Next, we tested three groups of variables including or excluding the Farm as a variable. When the Farm was included the explained variation increased in all the studied models. Overall, results of this study demonstrate that the most influential factor on bacterial canker severity was the Farm. This variable probably encompasses variation in experience, differences in agricultural practices between growers, and the quality of implementation of management practices. PMID:26623996

  19. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates occurrence of citrus canker in susceptible navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-08-15

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H₂O₂ level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion. PMID:22658220

  20. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Rebekah A; Acedo, Elena Lopez; Young, Vivienne L; Chen, Danni; Tong, Brian; Taylor, Corinda; Easingwood, Richard A; Pitman, Andrew R; Kleffmann, Torsten; Bostina, Mihnea; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail φPsa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that φPsa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages φPSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and φPsa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that φPsa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:26114474

  1. Mycotoxin production by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium sporotrichioides isolated from Baccharis spp. from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mirocha, C J; Abbas, H K; Kommedahl, T; Jarvis, B B

    1989-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum isolated from roots of and soil around Baccharis species from Brazil produced the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and 3'-OH T-2 (TC-1), whereas Fusarium sporotrichioides from the same source produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, acetyl T-2, neosolaniol, TC-1, 3'-OH HT-2 (TC-3), iso-T-2, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, and the nontrichothecenes moniliformin and fusarin C. Several unknown toxins were found but not identified. Not found were macrocyclic trichothecenes, zearalenone, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone (TDP-1). PMID:2705770

  2. Etiology and Epidemiological Conditions Promoting Fusarium Root Rot in Sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, A C; Quesada-Ocampo, L M

    2016-08-01

    Sweetpotato production in the United States is limited by several postharvest diseases, and one of the most common is Fusarium root rot. Although Fusarium solani is believed to be the primary causal agent of disease, numerous other Fusarium spp. have been reported to infect sweetpotato. However, the diversity of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina is unknown. In addition, the lack of labeled and effective fungicides for control of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato creates the need for integrated strategies to control disease. Nonetheless, epidemiological factors that promote Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato remain unexplored. A survey of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina identified six species contributing to disease, with F. solani as the primary causal agent. The effects of storage temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, and 35°C), relative humidity (80, 90, and 100%), and initial inoculum level (3-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter mycelia plug) were examined for progression of Fusarium root rot caused by F. solani and F. proliferatum on 'Covington' sweetpotato. Fusarium root rot was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) at lower temperatures (13°C), low relative humidity levels (80%), and low initial inoculum levels for both pathogens. Sporulation of F. proliferatum was also reduced under the same conditions. Qualitative mycotoxin analysis of roots infected with one of five Fusarium spp. revealed the production of fumonisin B1 by F. proliferatum when infecting sweetpotato. This study is a step toward characterizing the etiology and epidemiology of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato, which allows for improved disease management recommendations to limit postharvest losses to this disease. PMID:27050570

  3. Effects of Mefenoxam, Phosphonate, and Paclobutrazol on In Vitro Characteristics of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola and on Canker Size of European Beech

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum cause bleeding cankers that lead to the death of mature European beech in the northeastern United States. Because of the economic value placed on these trees, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two fungicides and a plant growth regulator ...

  4. Development of consumer-friendly transgenic citrus plants with potential broad spectrum resistance to HLB, Citrus canker, Phytopthora and other exotic diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second year of this CRB funded project has started, which is focused on the development of citrus cultivars that exhibit disease resistance to multiple pathogens such as HLB, Phytophthora and citrus canker diseases. We are using precise genetic engineering to introduce into disease susceptible ...

  5. POST-HURRICANE ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER II: PREDICTIVE MODEL ESTIMATION OF DISEASE SPREAD AND AREA POTENTIALLY IMPACTED BY VARIOUS ERADICATION PROTOCOLS FOLLOWING CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The affect of 2005 Hurricane Wilma on the dissemination of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the cause of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), and subsequent disease development was examined and predictions for the areas into which Xac was likely to have spread from known sources of infection was deve...

  6. The epidemiological significance of post-packinghouse survival of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri for dissemination of Asiatic citrus canker via infected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri spp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, is assumed...

  7. A survey of survival and activity of citrus canker lesion populations on foliage, fruit and shoots in a Florida grapefruit orchard in 2009 and 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc)) can infect several species of citrus. The disease can develop on the leaves, shoots and fruit, causing erumpent lesions, that on fruit precludes sale to the fresh market. We assessed lesion activity in orchard-grown grapefruit to provide informa...

  8. Processes involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infectd citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...

  9. Processess involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infected citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with...

  10. Wind speed effects on the quantity of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri dispersed downwind from canopies of grapefruit trees infected with citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) in Florida continues to expand since termination of the eradication program in 2006. Storms are known to be associated with disease spread, but little information exists on the interaction of fundamental physical and biological proc...

  11. Fusarium seed stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can cause damage to seed stalks that can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. Fusarium oxysporum has been the reported cause of seed stalk blight, which is characterized by vascular discoloration. We sampled diseased seed stalks and examined isolates for their pathogenicity...

  12. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Fusarium dimerum Species Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphospecies Fusarium dimerum, known only from its anamorph, comprises at least 12 phylogenetically distinct species. Analyses of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) show they are taxa of the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) and form a phylogenetically distinct clade within Fusarium. Accordin...

  13. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  14. Dry heat treatment of Fusarium-infected cotton seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

  15. Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

  16. High speed sorting of Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have found that resistance to Fusarium fungal infection can be inherited in wheat from one generation to another. However, there is not yet available a cost effective method to separate Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels from undamaged kernels so that wheat breeders can take advantage of...

  17. Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, N. K.; Sahu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

  18. Fusarium Race 4: Commercial cultivar screening for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt (FOV) of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the past, damage from Fusarium has been notable only in areas with the combination of: (a) moderate to high populations of one or more sp...

  19. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief review of research on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. race 4 in California is presented. Fusarium wilt has recently emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., G. barbadense L.) growers in California. An es...

  20. Metabolomic studies for the interaction Glycine max- Fusarium tucumaniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean can be caused in Argentina by 4 different Fusarium species: F. brasiliense, F. crassistipitatum, F. tucumaniae and F. virguliforme. Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of soybean SDS in Argentina and United States, respect...

  1. Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

  2. First report of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet caused by F. oxysporum in Michigan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in the western United States, and has recently been reported in the Red River Valley. The primary causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2005, beet samples were found in Michigan with symptoms typical of Fusarium yellows. Isolates of Fusarium o...

  3. Population of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe associated with head and seedling blight in Slovakia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth of Fusarium species associated with Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) varies depending on agronomic characters and edaphic conditions. We have identified 15 Fusarium species during the 10 years of our investigations in the Slovak Republic. The most commonly identified Fusarium species involved...

  4. Use of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets to model geographic distribution of climatic risk for European canker (Neonectria galligena) of apple.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Beresford, Robert M

    2012-02-01

    A rule-based model was developed to assess climatic risk of European canker (Neonectria galligena), which is a major disease of apple in some temperate zones. A descriptive rule was derived from published observations on climatic conditions favorable for European canker development. Fuzzy set theory was used to evaluate the descriptive rule quantitatively. The amount and frequency of rainfall and the average number of hours between 11 and 16°C/day were used as input variables whose values were matched with terms in the rule, e.g., 'high' or 'low'. The degree of a term, e.g., the state of being high or low, to a given input value was determined using a membership function that converts an input value to a number between 0 and 1. The rule was evaluated by combining the degree of the terms associated with monthly climate data. Monthly risk index values derived using the rule were combined for pairs of consecutive months over 12 months. The annual risk of European canker development was represented by the maximum risk index value for 2 months combined. The membership function parameters were adjusted iteratively to achieve a specified level of risk at Talca (Chile), Loughgall (Northern Ireland), East Malling (UK), and Sebastopol (USA), where European canker risk was known. The rule-based model was validated with data collected from Canada, Ecuador, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest (USA), where European canker has been reported to occur. In these validation areas, the model's risk prediction agreed with reports of disease occurrence. The rule-based model also predicted high risk areas more reliably than the climate matching model, CLIMEX, which relies on correlations between the spatial distribution of a species and climatic conditions. The combination of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets could be used for other applications where prediction of the geographic distribution of organisms is required for

  5. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6 h and up to 72 h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120 h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (XccΔfliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker. PMID:25231217

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus-promoted accumulation of two new triterpenoids in cucumber roots.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2002-04-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots were analyzed by HPLC and TLC for their levels of secondary metabolites upon inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus caledonium. Three compounds in EtOAc extracts from the mycorrhizal roots showed significant increases six weeks after inoculation. These compounds were isolated by column chromatography and determined to be two novel triterpenes, 2beta-hydroxybryonolic acid (2beta,3beta-dihydroxy-D:C-friedoolean-8-en-29-oic acid) and 3beta-bryoferulic acid [3beta-O-trans-ferulyl-D:C-friedooleana-7,9(11)-diene-29-oic acid], and the known triterpene, bryonolic acid, by spectroscopic methods. Time-course experiments showed that the levels of the three terpenoids in cucumber roots were significantly increased by the application of a 53-microm sieving from a soil inoculum of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus containing soil microbes but no mycorrhizal fungi, and that mycorrhizal colonization further promoted the terpenoid accumulation. Inoculation with Glomus mosseae also enhanced the accumulation of the triterpenes, whereas no accumulation was observed by inoculating with the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. 2Beta-hydroxybryonolic acid was also isolated from the roots of melon and watermelon. PMID:12036048

  7. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  8. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Matthew B.; Crescencio, Juan Carlos Rico

    2015-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes. PMID:26793480

  9. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Matthew B; Crescencio, Juan Carlos Rico

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes. PMID:26793480

  10. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective. PMID:20237561

  11. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  12. First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

  13. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Fusarium ELISA compared to QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance and deoxynivalenol content in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin produced by the causal agent Fusarium graminearum have reduced barley yield and quality throughout the world. This study was conducted to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB, DON, heading date, height, and spik...

  14. Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no

  15. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-12-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  16. Isolation and identification of precocenes and piperitone from essential oils as specific inhibitors of trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Atsushi; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Tsuyuki, Rie; Takahashi, Haruo; Nakajima, Takashi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2009-02-11

    Inhibitors of deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum are useful for protecting crops from deoxynivalenol contamination. We isolated precocenes and piperitone from the essential oils of Matricaria recutita and Eucalyptus dives, respectively, as specific inhibitors of the production of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, a biosynthetic precursor of deoxynivalenol. Precocenes I and II and piperitone inhibited 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by F. graminearum in a liquid culture with IC(50) values of 16.6, 1.2, and 306 microM, respectively, without inhibiting fungal growth. Precocene II also inhibited deoxynivalenol production by the fungus in a solid culture on rice with an IC(50) value of 2.0 ppm. Precocene II and piperitone decreased the mRNA levels of Tri4, Tri5, Tri6, and Tri10 encoding proteins required for deoxynivalenol biosynthesis. PMID:19191669

  17. Molecular and pathological characterization of Fusarium solani species complex infection in the head and lateral line system of Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Pirarat, Nopadon; Sahatrakul, Komsil; Lacharoje, Sitthichok; Lombardini, Eric; Chansue, Nantarika; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2016-08-01

    A severe fungal infection affecting the head and lateral line system was diagnosed in 7 captive scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini in an aquarium in Thailand. Extensive and severe necrotizing cellulitis was consistently observed microscopically along the cephalic and lateral line canals in conjunction with positive fungal cultures for Fusarium sp. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed from 3 isolates based on the nucleotide sequences containing internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and a portion of 5.8S and 28S rDNA. The fungus was highly homologous (100%) and closely related to F. solani species complex 2 (FSSC 2), which belongs to Clade 3 of the FSSC. Our results illustrate the histopathological findings and expand upon our knowledge of the prevalence of invasive fusariosis in the head and lateral line system of hammerhead sharks. PMID:27503915

  18. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  19. Comparative genomics of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis reveals the secreted protein recognized by the Fom-2 resistance gene in melon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sarah Maria; Lukasiewicz, Joanna; Farrer, Rhys; van Dam, Peter; Bertoldo, Chiara; Rep, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Development of resistant crops is the most effective way to control plant diseases to safeguard food and feed production. Disease resistance is commonly based on resistance genes, which generally mediate the recognition of small proteins secreted by invading pathogens. These proteins secreted by pathogens are called 'avirulence' proteins. Their identification is important for being able to assess the usefulness and durability of resistance genes in agricultural settings. We have used genome sequencing of a set of strains of the melon wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom), bioinformatics-based genome comparison and genetic transformation of the fungus to identify AVRFOM2, the gene that encodes the avirulence protein recognized by the melon Fom-2 gene. Both an unbiased and a candidate gene approach identified a single candidate for the AVRFOM2 gene. Genetic complementation of AVRFOM2 in three different race 2 isolates resulted in resistance of Fom-2-harbouring melon cultivars. AvrFom2 is a small, secreted protein with two cysteine residues and weak similarity to secreted proteins of other fungi. The identification of AVRFOM2 will not only be helpful to select melon cultivars to avoid melon Fusarium wilt, but also to monitor how quickly a Fom population can adapt to deployment of Fom-2-containing cultivars in the field. PMID:26305378

  20. Regulation of Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis and Conidiation in Fusarium verticillioides by a Cyclin-Like (C-Type) Gene, FCC1†

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles P.

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins produced in corn kernels by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. A mutant of the fungus, FT536, carrying a disrupted gene named FCC1 (for Fusarium cyclin C1) resulting in altered fumonisin B1 biosynthesis was generated. FCC1 contains an open reading frame of 1,018 bp, with one intron, and encodes a putative 319-amino-acid polypeptide. This protein is similar to UME3 (also called SRB11 or SSN8), a cyclin C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains three conserved motifs: a cyclin box, a PEST-rich region, and a destruction box. Also similar to the case for C-type cyclins, FCC1 was constitutively expressed during growth. When strain FT536 was grown on corn kernels or on defined minimal medium at pH 6, conidiation was reduced and FUM5, the polyketide synthase gene involved in fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was not expressed. However, when the mutant was grown on a defined minimal medium at pH 3, conidiation was restored, and the blocks in expression of FUM5 and fumonisin B1 production were suppressed. Our data suggest that FCC1 plays an important role in signal transduction regulating secondary metabolism (fumonisin biosynthesis) and fungal development (conidiation) in F. verticillioides. PMID:11282612

  1. Variations in grain lipophilic phytochemicals, proteins and resistance to Fusarium spp. growth during grain storage as affected by biological plant protection with Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary).

    PubMed

    Wachowska, Urszula; Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona

    2016-06-16

    Modern agriculture relies on an integrated approach, where chemical treatment is reduced to a minimum and replaced by biological control that involves the use of active microorganisms. The effect of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans on proteins and bioactive compounds (alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) in winter wheat grain and on the colonization of wheat kernels by fungal microbiota, mainly Fusarium spp. pathogens, was investigated. Biological treatment contributed to a slight increase contents of tocols, alkylresorcinols and sterols in grain. At the same time, the variation of wheat grain proteins was low and not significant. Application of A. pullulans enhanced the natural yeast colonization after six months of grain storage and inhibited growth of F. culmorum pathogens penetrating wheat kernel. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach of wheat grain protection with the use of the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans reduced kernel colonization by Fusarium spp. pathogens and increased the content of nutritionally beneficial phytochemicals in wheat grain without a loss of gluten proteins responsible for baking value. PMID:27055191

  2. Detection of Fusarium graminearum DNA using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Ludwig; Vogel, Rudi F

    2010-06-15

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is a simple, cost effective, and rapid method for the specific detection of genomic DNA using a set of six oligonucleotide primers with eight binding sites hybridizing specifically to different regions of a target gene, and a thermophilic DNA polymerase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus for DNA amplification. The method has been applied in various assays for the diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections of humans and animals, sexing of bovine and swine embryos, and in the detection of bacteria from environmental samples. Only recently, first applications for fungal organisms were published. During the current study a LAMP assay was developed for the specific detection of Fusarium graminearum, the major causative agent of Fusarium head blight of small cereals and producer of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone. The assay was based on the gaoA gene (galactose oxidase) of the fungus. Amplification of DNA during the reaction was indirectly detected in situ by using calcein fluorescence as a marker without the necessity of time-consuming electrophoretic analysis. The assay was optimized for rapidness, specificity, and sensitivity and was shown to detect the presence of less than 2pg of purified target DNA per reaction within 30 min. Within 132 fungal species tested, exclusively DNA isolated from cultures of F. graminearum (lineages 1-9) resulted in a fluorescent signal after amplification with the LAMP assay. The method was demonstrated to be useful in the analysis of fungal cultures by direct analysis of surface scrapings from agar plate cultures, direct testing of single infected barley grains, and detection of F. graminearum in total genomic DNA isolated from bulk samples of ground wheat grains. Results obtained indicate that LAMP offers an interesting new assay format for the rapid and specific DNA-based detection and identification of agriculturally important toxigenic fungi in pure

  3. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  4. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days. PMID:23409841

  5. Evolutionary relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense vegetative compatibility groups.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Gerda; Steenkamp, E T; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

    2009-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp.), is one of the most destructive strains of the vascular wilt fungus F. oxysporum. Genetic relatedness among and within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied by sequencing two nuclear and two mitochondrial DNA regions in a collection of 70 F. oxysporum isolates that include representatives of 20 VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, other formae speciales, and nonpathogens. To determine the ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to sexually recombine, crosses were made between isolates of opposite mating types. Phylogenetic analysis separated the F. oxysporum isolates into two clades and eight lineages. Phylogenetic relationships between F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and other formae speciales of F. oxysporum and the relationships among VCGs and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense clearly showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense's ability to cause disease on banana has emerged multiple times, independently, and that the ability to cause disease to a specific banana cultivar is also a polyphyletic trait. These analyses further suggest that both coevolution with the host and horizontal gene transfer may have played important roles in the evolutionary history of the pathogen. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system should sexual reproduction occur. Although, no sexual structures were observed, some lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense harbored MAT-1 and MAT-2 isolates, suggesting a potential that these lineages have a sexual origin that might be more recent than initially anticipated. PMID:19482953

  6. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Walaa K; Shearer, Charles R; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  7. Risk Levels of Invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in Areas Suitable for Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivation under Various Climate Change Projections

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR) GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication. PMID:24340100

  8. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Schoffelmeer, E A; Klis, F M; Sietsma, J H; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for 50-60% of the total mass of the wall. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of alpha-1, 3-glucan in the alkali-soluble cell wall fraction and of beta-1, 3-glucan and chitin in the alkali-insoluble fraction. Electron microscopy and lectin binding studies indicated that glycoproteins form an external layer covering an inner layer composed of chitin and glucan. PMID:10441453

  9. Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides

    PubMed Central

    Freire, E. S.; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E. L.; Pfenning, L. H.; Silva, J. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

  10. Species-Specific Detection and Identification of Fusarium Species Complex, the Causal Agent of Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng in China

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Wang, Jihua; Comstock, Jack C.; Wei, Jinjin; McCord, Per H.; Chen, Baoshan; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. Methods A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. Result Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum) that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng. PMID:25141192

  11. Black perithecial pigmentation in Fusarium species is due to the accumulation of 5-deoxybostrycoidin-based melanin.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Rasmussen, Silas A; Knudsen, Peter B; Uhlig, Silvio; Petersen, Dirk; Lysøe, Erik; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Giese, Henriette; Larsen, Thomas O

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the black perithecial pigment in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is dependent on the polyketide synthase PGL1 (oPKS3). A seven-membered PGL1 gene cluster was identified by over-expression of the cluster specific transcription factor pglR. Targeted gene replacement showed that PGL1, pglJ, pglM and pglV were essential for the production of the perithecial pigment. Over-expression of PGL1 resulted in the production of 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin (1), 5-deoxybostrycoidin (2), and three novel compounds 5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (3), 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (4) and purpurfusarin (5). The novel dimeric bostrycoidin purpurfusarin (5) was found to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans with an IC50 of 8.0 +/- 1.9 μM. The results show that Fusarium species with black perithecia have a previously undescribed form of 5-deoxybostrycoidin based melanin in their fruiting bodies. PMID:27193384

  12. Influence of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on the Growth, Hyphal Morphology, and the Biosynthesis of Fumonisins in Fusarium proliferatum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Taotao; Jian, Qijie; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yong; Gong, Liang; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum as a common fungus pathogen in foods can produce toxic fumonisins, which can cause animal diseases and increase risks of human cancers. On contrary, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a synthetic antioxidant offers a clue for preventing growth of fungal species and inhibiting production of mycotoxins. Unfortunately, information of the inhibitory mechanism of BHA on Fusarium species is still limited. In this study, influence of BHA treatment on growth and inhibition of fumonisin production in relation to the expression of the fumonisin biosynthesis-related genes of the F. proliferatum ZYF was investigated, which revealed that BHA had a negative influence on growth and fumonisin production of F. proliferatum. To further elucidate the mechanism of BHA on the growth of F. proliferatum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the F. proliferatum hyphae. The BHA treatment induced the loss of cytoplasm and cellular constituents, as well as distortion of mycelia, but it did not directly degrade the fumonisin. Furthermore, the BHA treatment markedly inhibited the expressions of FUM1 (a polyketide synthase encoding gene) and FUM8 (an aminotransferase encoding gene) genes, which resulted in the depression of metabolic pathway of F. proliferatum. The transcriptional analyses of the FUM1 and FUM8 genes confirmed a correlation between the fumonisin production and its gene expression. This study provided some insights into mechanisms of production of fumonisin and feasible prevention to reduce fumonisin contamination in favor of human and animal health. PMID:27468276

  13. Black perithecial pigmentation in Fusarium species is due to the accumulation of 5-deoxybostrycoidin-based melanin

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Rasmussen, Silas A.; Knudsen, Peter B.; Uhlig, Silvio; Petersen, Dirk; Lysøe, Erik; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Giese, Henriette; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the black perithecial pigment in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is dependent on the polyketide synthase PGL1 (oPKS3). A seven-membered PGL1 gene cluster was identified by over-expression of the cluster specific transcription factor pglR. Targeted gene replacement showed that PGL1, pglJ, pglM and pglV were essential for the production of the perithecial pigment. Over-expression of PGL1 resulted in the production of 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin (1), 5-deoxybostrycoidin (2), and three novel compounds 5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (3), 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (4) and purpurfusarin (5). The novel dimeric bostrycoidin purpurfusarin (5) was found to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans with an IC50 of 8.0 +/− 1.9 μM. The results show that Fusarium species with black perithecia have a previously undescribed form of 5-deoxybostrycoidin based melanin in their fruiting bodies. PMID:27193384

  14. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4. PMID:21547366

  15. Dissection of the fusarium I2 gene cluster in tomato reveals six homologs and one active gene copy.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, G; Groenendijk, J; Wijbrandi, J; Reijans, M; Groenen, J; Diergaarde, P; Van der Lee, T; Bleeker, M; Onstenk, J; de Both, M; Haring, M; Mes, J; Cornelissen, B; Zabeau, M; Vos, P

    1998-01-01

    The I2 locus in tomato confers resistance to race 2 of the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici. The selective restriction fragment amplification (AFLP) positional cloning strategy was used to identify I2 in the tomato genome. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone covering approximately 750 kb encompassing the I2 locus was isolated, and the AFLP technique was used to derive tightly linked AFLP markers from this YAC clone. Genetic complementation analysis in transgenic R1 plants using a set of overlapping cosmids covering the I2 locus revealed three cosmids giving full resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. These cosmids shared a 7-kb DNA fragment containing an open reading frame encoding a protein with similarity to the nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat family of resistance genes. At the I2 locus, we identified six additional homologs that included the recently identified I2C-1 and I2C-2 genes. However, cosmids containing the I2C-1 or I2C-2 gene could not confer resistance to plants, indicating that these members are not the functional resistance genes. Alignments between the various members of the I2 gene family revealed two significant variable regions within the leucine-rich repeat region. They consisted of deletions or duplications of one or more leucine-rich repeats. We propose that one or both of these leucine-rich repeats are involved in Fusarium wilt resistance with I2 specificity. PMID:9634592

  16. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

  17. Influence of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on the Growth, Hyphal Morphology, and the Biosynthesis of Fumonisins in Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Taotao; Jian, Qijie; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yong; Gong, Liang; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum as a common fungus pathogen in foods can produce toxic fumonisins, which can cause animal diseases and increase risks of human cancers. On contrary, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a synthetic antioxidant offers a clue for preventing growth of fungal species and inhibiting production of mycotoxins. Unfortunately, information of the inhibitory mechanism of BHA on Fusarium species is still limited. In this study, influence of BHA treatment on growth and inhibition of fumonisin production in relation to the expression of the fumonisin biosynthesis-related genes of the F. proliferatum ZYF was investigated, which revealed that BHA had a negative influence on growth and fumonisin production of F. proliferatum. To further elucidate the mechanism of BHA on the growth of F. proliferatum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the F. proliferatum hyphae. The BHA treatment induced the loss of cytoplasm and cellular constituents, as well as distortion of mycelia, but it did not directly degrade the fumonisin. Furthermore, the BHA treatment markedly inhibited the expressions of FUM1 (a polyketide synthase encoding gene) and FUM8 (an aminotransferase encoding gene) genes, which resulted in the depression of metabolic pathway of F. proliferatum. The transcriptional analyses of the FUM1 and FUM8 genes confirmed a correlation between the fumonisin production and its gene expression. This study provided some insights into mechanisms of production of fumonisin and feasible prevention to reduce fumonisin contamination in favor of human and animal health. PMID:27468276

  18. An Evaluation Method for the Suppression of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by Soil Microorganisms Using the Dilution Plate Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Soil-borne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are one of the main factors responsible for the decline in crop yields in farmlands. Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum causes serious damage to various crops, and, thus, a feasible diagnostic method for soil-borne diseases is required. We herein examined a simple method to evaluate the suppressiveness of soil microorganisms against a pathogen by co-cultivating indigenous soil microorganisms and a pathogenic fungus (F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae). We inoculated F. oxysporum onto the center of agar medium plates mixed with a dilution series of a suspension of organic fertilizers or soil. After an approximately one-week cultivation, the growth degree of F. oxysporum was estimated based on the size of the colonies that formed on the plates. The growth degree of F. oxysporum significantly differed among the organic fertilizers tested, indicating the usefulness of the method for evaluating suppressiveness by organic fertilizers. Differences in the growth degrees of F. oxysporum were associated with the incidence of disease in spinach on soil treated with organic fertilizers and inoculated with a pathogenic F. oxysporum strain. These results suggested that this method provides some useful information on the suppressiveness of organic fertilizers and soil against Fusarium wilt. PMID:27558588

  19. Efficacy of heat treatment for the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen in small black walnut logs.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, A E; Fraedrich, S W; Taylor, A; Merten, P; Myers, S W

    2014-02-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically valuable tree species in the United States. Effective phytosanitary measures are needed to reduce the possibility of spreading this insect and pathogen through wood movement. This study evaluated the efficacy of heat treatments and debarking to eliminate P. juglandis and C. morbida in J. nigra logs 4-18 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Infested logs were steam heated until various outer sapwood temperatures (60, 65, and 70 degrees C in 2011; 36, 42, 48, 52, and 56 degrees C in 2012) were maintained or exceeded for 30-40 min. In 2011, all heat treatments eliminated G. morbida from the bark, but logs were insufficiently colonized by P. juglandis to draw conclusions about treatment effects on the beetle. Debarking did not ensure elimination of the pathogen from the sapwood surface. In 2012, there was a negative effect of increasing temperature on P. juglandis emergence and G. morbida recovery. G. morbida did not survive in logs exposed to treatments in which minimum temperatures were 48 degrees C or higher, and mean P. juglandis emergence decreased steadily to zero as treatment minimum temperature increased from 36 to 52 degrees C. A minimum outer sapwood temperature of 56 degrees C maintained for 40 min is effective for eliminating the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen from walnut logs, and the current heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer (60 degrees C core temperature for 60 min) is more than adequate for treating P. juglandis and G. morbida in walnut firewood. PMID:24665700

  20. Modifications of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri lipopolysaccharide affect the basal response and the virulence process during citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, María Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D; Orellano, Elena G

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants. PMID:22792211