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Cannabissativa L. has two drug and nondrug varieties. Nondrug varieties of Cannabis are hemp but drug varieties commonly referred to as marijuana. Marijuana is considered nutritional and narcotic plant. Marijuana has not been studied extensively for its nutritional potential in recent years but whole hempseed typically contains over 30% oil (3%saturated, 28% unsaturated fatty acids) and about 25% protein.
Microsatellite markers were developed for Cannabissativa L. (marijuana) to be used for DNA typing (genotype identification) and to measure the genetic relationships between the different plants. Twelve different oligonucleotide probes were used to screen an enriched microsatellite library of Cannabissativa in which 49% of the clones contained microsatellite sequences. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Cannabis revealed that GA\\/CT
The modern published literature on the therapeutic potentials of cannabis has been reviewed. A pure preparation of the major active component, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Marinol(r) or dro-nabinol, is available for treating nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and as an adjunct to weight loss in patients with wasting syndrome associated with AIDS. Although such approval currently applies only to orally
A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabissativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…
|A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabissativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…
Background Cannabissativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Conclusions The availability of the Cannabissativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics.
Forensic laboratories can be called to examine illicit Cannabis samples (marijuana) to identify their geographical origin. They can also be required to compare different seizures to establish whether they were drawn from the same original lot. The quantitative determination of selected organic components is one of the criteria currently used in such investigations. This study aimed at evaluating the inorganic
Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use.
Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise
The validity and feasibility of using DNA collection cards in the field for preservation and analysis of Cannabissativa genotypes were investigated using a highly specific hexanucleotide marker. Collection cards were submitted to the National Marijuana Initiative, which selectively trained and managed the collection of specific types of samples from a variety of participating agencies. Samples collected at seizure sites included fresh marijuana leaf samples, dried "dispensary" samples, U.S. border seizures, and hashish. Using a standardized PCR kit with custom-labeled oligonucleotide primers specific to marijuana, collection cards produced eight genotypes and 13 different alleles, extremely low baselines, and no cross-reactivity with control plant species. Results were produced from all sample types with the exception of hashish. Plant DNA collection cards represent an easily implementable method for the genetic identification and relatedness of C. sativa street and grow site-seized samples with applications for databasing and market disruption. PMID:21644990
In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends. PMID:9692380
Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...
Regular users of marijuana (cannabissativa) were given smoked and orally administered marijuana, a placebo, or alcohol. They were unable to distinguish between smoked marijuana and the tetrahydrocannabinol-free placebo. The oral administration of tincture of cannabis produced primarily dysphoric symptoms and was similar to alcohol in this respect. The smoked marijuana altered pulse rate, time estimation, and EEG, but had
Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes
Humans have used the plant Cannabissativa for its intoxicating effects for thousands of years. In the United States, cannabis is the most commonly used illicit intoxicating substance among adolescents [93,175]. Marijuana and other cannabis preparations (other than synthetic pharmaceuticals) are derived from the female plant. The primary psychoactive molecule is ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC), but the plant contains approximately 60 other
Marijuana is a dry, shredded mix of flowers, stems, seeds and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis ... abused illegal drug in the United States. Abusing marijuana can result in problems with memory, learning and ...
The interest in hemp (non-drug Cannabissativa L.) for skin care and cosmetic use is due to the high content of oil, especially unsaturated fatty acids in seed with technological and therapeutic effects. In a field trial on an organic farm, seed weight and content of fatty acids of 20 hemp varieties were surveyed on three different harvest dates. The
Christian R. Vogl; Helga Mölleken; Gunilla Lissek-Wolf; Andreas Surböck; JÖRg Kobert
?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabissativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2–C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric ?+? barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.
Gagne, Steve J.; Stout, Jake M.; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.
?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabissativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric ?+? barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity. PMID:22802619
Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E
In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabissativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583
Hemp (Cannabissativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained. PMID:22075921
Cannabissativa is an annual herb with very high biomass and capability to absorb and accumulate heavy metals in roots and shoots; it is therefore a good candidate for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with metals. Copper is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, it participates as an important redox component in cellular electron transport chains; but is extremely toxic to plants at high concentrations. The aim of this work was to investigate copper effects on the root proteome of C. sativa, whose genome is still unsequenced. Copper stress induced the suppression of two proteins, the down-regulation of seven proteins, while five proteins were up-regulated. The resulting differences in protein expression pattern were indicative of a plant adaptation to chronic stress and were directed to the reestablishment of the cellular and redox homeostasis. PMID:17352425
Cannabissativa L. is an important medicinal plant. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material. PMID:21040939
Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob
Male Wistar rats injected with a Cannabissativa (marihuana) extract 3 minutes before or 30 seconds after trials, were compared to a control group for performance in a Lashley III alley maze. Animals that had received cannabis 3 minutes before trials were better performers than controls; on the other hand, posttrial injections were found to increase the running time of
CT-3, a synthetic derivative of a metabolite of marijuana, is being tested by arthritis researchers as a possible new anti-inflammatory drug. Early studies show that CT-3 may be effective without the gastric side effects of steroids and psychoactive effects of marijuana. The processes of inflammation may be important in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. Obtaining the medical benefits without the psychoactive effects of marijuana is also important, as the high associated with cannabis use can be debilitating. The drug is currently in early pre-clinical animal testing. PMID:11365002
BACKGROUND: Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (48 items) and study the cannabis expectancies according to the patterns of substance use and psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV). A sample of 263 subjects (average age 33.1 years [SD = 8.7], 56% men) consisting of cannabis users (n = 64), psychiatric inpatients (n = 175, most of whom were hospitalized for withdrawal), and a control group (n = 24) completed the questionnaire. Internal reliability was good (?= .87) and temporal reliability was satisfactory, with 24 of 48 items having a significant ? ? .41. Factor analysis showed four main factors that explained 42.1% of the total variance. The women feared Cognitive Impairment and Negative Effects, and Negative Behavioral Effects more than the men. The onset age of cannabis use, onset age of abuse, abuse and dependence were associated with fewer negative expectancies. Cannabis dependents differed from abusers by more Relaxation and Social Facilitation expectancies. Patients with major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder feared negative effects the most. Schizophrenic patients expected more Perceptual Enhancement and Craving. The French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is valid to assess cannabis expectancies in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders. PMID:21999501
Illegal cannabis (Cannabissativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648
Although the measurement of eye pupil variations is a common method in the only few cannabis effect research, there are no studies on short term effects of kif (Moroccan traditional preparation of cannabis) on eye pupil. The aim of the present paper is to present results about effect of a smoked kif preparation (Cannabissativa L.) on pupil diameter variations after 30 mn. Two examiners measured the pupil diameter variations before and after kif smoking in 34 eyes of 17 volunteer-consumers in a dark closed room. Pupil diameter was estimated by Colvard pupillometer. Results reveal a significantly increase in pupil size post kif. PMID:18511011
Merzouki, A; Molero Mesa, J; Louktibi, A; Kadiri, M; Urbano, G V
The rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) structure of Cannabissativa contains six variable repeat motifs within a locus spanning 1387 base pairs. The degree of variation of the first three motifs was examined using 77 samples from cannabis samples. The samples originated from five seizures in Taiwan and seed stocks from six different countries. The results showed that there were four types of sequences producing PCR products at either 255, 260, 264 or 265 base pairs. The data obtained indicates that this region of rDNA IGS exhibits a degree of polymorphism that while insufficient by itself can be added to a multiplex with other cannabis STR loci. PMID:15939172
Summary Cannabis and Marijuana as Multidrug Mixture in Phytotherapy. Without doubt, Cannabissativa L. is one of the oldest and best-known medical plants. Many traditional and modern ways of use potentially give hints for advantages and risks of different preparations. Several individual experiences of patients and physicians as well as some studies suggest that single substances extracted of or derived
Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh, dried and powdered forms, drew on fresh samples, obtained on the day they were harvested or immediately after preparation; that was done in order to prevent any alteration in the A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused by the oxidation that takes place as the product ages. The purpose of this study is to determine the THC level in 245 specimens obtained from 30 cannabis plots in three provinces of northern Morocco: Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen, where cannabis cultivation has a long tradition, and Larache, where cannabis cultivation has started only recently. Qualitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of both the acid and the decarboxylated form of the main cannabinoids, cannabidiol, THC and cannabinol, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the characterization of minor cannibinoids. Quantitative analysis using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry made it possible to determine the average delta-9-THC content of cannabis in its fresh form (0.5 per cent), its dry form (2.21 per cent) and its powdered form (8.3 per cent). The results show that the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation--Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen--produce cannabis with a higher delta-9-THC content than the Larache region. In addition, the present study establishes that male plants, often considered deficient in delta-9-THC, contain levels of the same order as those recorded for female plants, both in the leaves and in the tops. PMID:21338017
Stambouli, H; El Bouri, A; Bellimam, M A; Bouayoun, T; El Karni, N
Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabissativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.
Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabissativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580
Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert
The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabissativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water
Elisa K. Shibuya; Jorge E. Souza Sarkis; Osvaldo Negrini Neto; Marcelo Z. Moreira; Reynaldo L. Victoria
Marijuana (Cannabissativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women, but information is limited about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development. The present study evaluated the influence of early maternal marijuana use on fetal growth. Women electing voluntary saline-induced abortions were recruited at a mid-gestational stage of pregnancy (weeks 17–22), and detailed drug use
Y. L. Hurd; X. Wang; V. Anderson; O. Beck; H. Minkoff; D. Dow-Edwards
Cannabissativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC. PMID:20118579
Fischedick, Justin; Van Der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert
Polarised Raman micrsospectroscopy was employed to study the molecular structure within dislocations (slip planes) in the cell walls of Hemp fibre cells (Cannabissativa (L.)). It was found that the cellulose microfibrils within dislocations have a different orientation than in the surrounding cell wall, and that the cellulose in the transition zones between a large dislocation and the surrounding wall may have yet another orientation. Furthermore, cellulose orientation seemed to be less uniform within dislocations than in the surrounding cell wall. PMID:23542583
A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype\\u000a in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp (Cannabissativa L.). The primer OPA8 generates a set of bands, most of which polymorphic among all the individual plants tested, and 1 of\\u000a which, named OPA8400, present in all male
G. Mandolino; A. Carboni; S. Forapani; V. Faeti; P. Ranalli
Four populations of Cannabissativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.
Background Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area) who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.
The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABISSATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724
... and Alaskan Indians Drug Endangered Children Fact Sheets MarijuanaMarijuana places a significant strain on our health ... an average 8 point drop) later in life . Marijuana Prevalence Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit ...
A genetic database was established with the aim of documenting the genetic diversity of Cannabissativa in Australia for future utilization in forensic investigations. The database consisted of genotypes at 10 validated short tandem repeat loci for 510 plants representing drug seizures from across Australia and 57 fiber samples. A total of 106 alleles and 314 different genotypes were detected. All fiber samples exhibited unique genotypes while 55% of the drug samples shared a genotype with one or more samples. Shared genotypes were mostly found within seizures; however, some genotypes were found among seizures. Statistical analysis indicated that genotype sharing was a consequence of clonal propagation rather than a lack of genetic resolution. Thus, the finding of shared genotypes among seizures is likely due to either a common supplier, or direct links among seizures. Notwithstanding the potential intelligence information provided by genetic analysis of C. sativa, our database analysis also reveals some present limitations. PMID:19302382
Howard, Christopher; Gilmore, Simon; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod
The herb Cannabissativa (C. sativa) has been used in China and on the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a medicine. However, since it was brought to the UK and then the rest of the western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy. Indeed, its psychotropic side effects are well reported but only relatively recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components. Here, we discuss evidence describing the endocannabinoid system, its endogenous and exogenous ligands and their varied effects on feeding cycles and meal patterns. Furthermore we also critically consider the mounting evidence which suggests non-?(9) tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoids play a vital role in C. sativa-induced feeding pattern changes. Indeed, given the wide range of phytocannabinoids present in C. sativa and their equally wide range of intra-, inter- and extra-cellular mechanisms of action, we demonstrate that non-?(9) tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoids retain an important and, as yet, untapped clinical potential. PMID:21213357
Farrimond, Jonathan A; Mercier, Marion S; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M
In this study of the behaviour of the fractions of unretted and frost-retted fibre straws in damp air, a production scale method to separate fibre and shive from fibre plants was introduced and tested on bast fibre plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Cannabissativa L.). The method consists of optional drying of stalks, unloading bales, milling the straws with a
H.-R Kymäläinen; M Koivula; R Kuisma; A.-M Sjöberg; A Pehkonen
... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Marijuana and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... advice from your health care provider. What is marijuana? Marijuana, also called pot, weed, or cannabis, is ...
The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabissativa, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous
The temperature response on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of three medicinal drug type (HP Mexican, MX and W1) and four industrial fiber type (Felinq 34, Kompolty, Zolo 11 and Zolo 15) varieties of Cannabissativa, originally from different agro-climatic zones worldwide, were studied. Among the drug type varieties, optimum temperature for photosynthesis (Topt) was observed in the range of 30-35 °C in high potency Mexican HPM whereas, it was in the range of 25-30 °C in W1. A comparatively lower value (25 °C) for Topt was observed in MX. Among fiber type varieties, Topt was around 30 °C in Zolo 11 and Zolo 15 whereas, it was near 25 °C in Felinq 34 and Kompolty. Varieties having higher maximum photosynthesis (PN max) had higher chlorophyll content as compared to those having lower PN max. Differences in water use efficiency (WUE) were also observed within and among the drug and fiber type plants. However, differences became less pronounced at higher temperatures. Both stomatal and mesophyll components seem to be responsible for the temperature dependence of photosynthesis (PN) in this species, however, their magnitude varied with the variety. In general, a two fold increase in dark respiration with increase in temperature (from 20 °C to 40 °C) was observed in all the varieties. However, a greater increase was associated with the variety having higher rate of photosynthesis, indicating a strong association between photosynthetic and respiratory rates. The results provide a valuable indication regarding variations in temperature dependence of PN in different varieties of Cannabissativa L. PMID:23573022
Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A
The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high ?(9)-THC yielding varieties of Cannabissativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 ?mol mol(-1)) significantly (p?0.05) stimulated net photosynthesis (P N), water use efficiency (WUE) and internal CO2 concentration (C i), and suppressed transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g s) as compared to the ambient CO2 concentration (390 ?mol mol(-1)) in all the varieties whereas, the effect of 545 ?mol mol(-1) CO2 concentration was found insignificant (p?0.05) on these parameters in most of the cases. No significant changes (p?0.05) in the ratio of internal to the ambient CO2 concentration (C i/C a) was observed in these varieties under both the elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)). An average increase of about 48 %, 45 %, 44 % and 38 % in P N and, about 177 %, 157 %, 191 % and 182 % in WUE was observed due to elevated CO2 (700 ?mol mol(-1)) as compared to ambient CO2 concentration in HPM, K2, MX and W1 varieties, respectively. The higher WUE under elevated CO2 conditions in Cannabissativa, primarily because of decreased stomatal conductance and subsequently the transpiration rate, may enable this species to survive under expected harsh greenhouse effects including elevated CO2 concentration and drought conditions. The higher P N, WUE and nearly constant C i/C a ratio under elevated CO2 concentrations in this species reflect a close coordination between its stomatal and mesophyll functions. PMID:23573021
Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A
Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897
Effect of different photosynthetic photon flux densities (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ?mol m?2s?1), temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) and CO2 concentrations (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 ?mol mol?1) on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of Cannabissativa L. were studied to determine the suitable and efficient environmental conditions for its indoor mass
Suman Chandra; Hemant Lata; Ikhlas A. Khan; Mahmoud A. Elsohly
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Background: Although allergy to Cannabissativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant, to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved. Methods: Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test (SPT) with C. sativa leaf extract. The extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Specific IgE to C. sativa was measured in positive SPT individuals. The clinical and allergenic profiles of sensitized individuals were investigated and the most-recognized allergens sequenced and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Results: Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C. sativa (prevalence 8.1%). Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. sativa smokers (14.6%). Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. sativa. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera (65.6%) had positive specific IgE to C. sativa. Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa. Six of them recognized a 10-kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP) and 8 recognized a 38-kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. sativa leaves. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. sativa were uncommon and mild. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. sativa sensitization may be mediated by two mechanisms, i.e. cross-reactivity, mainly with LTP and thaumatin-like protein, and exposure-related 'de novo' sensitization. PMID:23921252
Larramendi, Carlos H; López-Matas, M Ángeles; Ferrer, Angel; Huertas, Angel Julio; Pagán, Juan Antonio; Navarro, Luis Ángel; García-Abujeta, José Luis; Andreu, Carmen; Carnés, Jerónimo
Experiments were performed to verify whether chronic treatment with Cannabis saliva extracts would induce dependence and\\/or abstinence symptoms in rats. In Experiment one, rats ingested cannabis extract as the only fluid for 126 days. On days 1, 43, 48, 62, 80, 92 and 119 when the animals were in abstinence from previous administration of marihuana for 0 to 96 h,
It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabissativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607
The Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007 is a national-level strategic assessment of cannabis cultivation and marijuana production in the United States. This assessment addresses major trends in domestic cannabis cultivation, both indoor and outd...
The United States currently spends in excess of seventeen billion dollars annually attempting to control the drug problem. It is estimated that the annual market for illicit drugs is fifty billion dollars, only seven of which is spent on marijuana. Nevertheless, the government continually reaffirms its position that marijuana constitutes a serious social problem. While most Americans are aware of
Cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyse the production of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins are important mediators in the inflammatory process and their production can be reduced by COX-inhibitors. Endocannabinoids, endogenous analogues of the plant derived cannabinoids, occur normally in the human body. The Endocannabinoids are structurally similar to arachidonic acid and have been suggested to interfere with the inflammatory process. They have also been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids have been observed, however the mode of action is not yet clarified. Anti-inflammatory activity (i.e., inhibition of COX-2) is proposed to play an important role in the development of colon cancer, which makes this subject interesting to study further. In the present work, the six cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (??-THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (??-THC-A), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), isolated from Cannabissativa, were evaluated for their effects on prostaglandin production. For this purpose an in vitro enzyme based COX-1/COX-2 inhibition assay and a cell based prostaglandin production radioimmunoassay were used. Cannabinoids inhibited cyclooxygenase enzyme activity with IC?? values ranging from 1.7·10?³ to 2.0·10?? M. PMID:21532172
Ruhaak, Lucia Renee; Felth, Jenny; Karlsson, Pernilla Christina; Rafter, Joseph James; Verpoorte, Robert; Bohlin, Lars
The phytoremediation, with industrial hemp (Cannabissativa), of a Hawaiian silty clay soil contaminated with two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, was studied. Hemp showed a very high tolerance to the contaminants. The growth rates of hemp, compared with control, in soils fortified with chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene at concentrations of each varying from 25 to 200 micrograms/g were consistently above 100%. The plants grew from seed for 45 days in soil fortified with PAHs at concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 micrograms/g. Controls were pots with contaminated soil but no plant. PAHs levels were significantly reduced in all pots (control and seeded pots), expect for one set at a high concentration of chrysene, which may be due to uneven spiking. A time course study over 28 days was done to monitor changes of microbial count and levels of chrysene. Little changes were observed for the total microbial count in the soil, and the concentration of chrysene in the soil decreased slightly in the pots containing plants. However, the chrysene levels in those pots were consistently lower than those in the pots without plants. PMID:12655808
Campbell, Sonia; Paquin, Daniel; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabissativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data. PMID:23812081
Pain, spasticity, tremor, spasms, poor sleep quality, and bladder and bowel dysfunction, among other symptoms, contribute significantly to the disability and impaired quality of life of many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Motor symptoms referable to the basal ganglia, especially paroxysmal dystonia, occur rarely and contribute to the experience of distress. A substantial percentage of patients with MS report subjective benefit from what is often illicit abuse of extracts of the Cannabissativa plant; the main cannabinoids include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and cannabidiol. Clinical trials of cannabis plant extracts and synthetic delta9-THC provide support for therapeutic benefit on at least some patient self-report measures. An illustrative case is presented of a 52-year-old woman with MS, paroxysmal dystonia, complex vocal tics, and marijuana dependence. The patient was started on an empirical trial of dronabinol, an encapsulated form of synthetic delta9-THC that is usually prescribed as an adjunctive medication for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. The patient reported a dramatic reduction of craving and illicit use; she did not experience the "high" on the prescribed medication. She also reported an improvement in the quality of her sleep with diminished awakenings during the night, decreased vocalizations, and the tension associated with their emission, decreased anxiety and a decreased frequency of paroxysmal dystonia. PMID:18496477
Deutsch, Stephen I; Rosse, Richard B; Connor, Julie M; Burket, Jessica A; Murphy, Mary E; Fox, Fiona J
In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabissativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined CBC, THC, and combination of both phytocannabinoids in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paw edema assay. CBC elicited activity in the tetrad that was not blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Moreover, a behaviorally inactive dose of THC augmented the effects of CBC in the tetrad that was associated with an increase in THC brain concentrations. Both CBC and THC elicited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in the LPS-induced paw edema model. The CB2 receptor, SR144528 blocked the anti-edematous actions of THC, but not those produced by CBC. Isobolographic analysis revealed that the anti-edematous effects of these cannabinoids in combination were additive. Although CBC produced pharmacological effects, unlike THC, its underlying mechanism of action did not involve CB1 or CB2 receptors. In addition, there was evidence of a possible pharmacokinetic component in which CBC dose-dependently increased THC brain levels following an i.v. injection of 0.3 mg/kg THC. In conclusion, CBC produced a subset of behavioral activity in the tetrad assay and reduced LPS-induced paw edema through a noncannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. These effects were augmented when CBC and THC were co-administered.
DeLong, Gerald T.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a common cause of death among young adults in the USA. AIDS wasting syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of AIDS. Antiretroviral drug therapy has improved the prognosis of persons with AIDS, but also contributed side effects, particularly nausea and anorexia. Case reports demonstrate persons with AIDS use cannabis as medicine tocontrol nausea, anorexia,
Short tandem repeat (STR) markers are the DNA marker of choice in forensic analysis of human DNA. Here we extend the application of STR markers to Cannabissativa and demonstrate their potential for forensic investigations. Ninety-three individual cannabis plants, representing drug and fibre accessions of widespread origin were profiled with five STR makers. A total of 79 alleles were detected across the five loci. All but four individuals from a single drug-type accession had a unique multilocus genotype. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic variation among accessions, with an average of 25% genetic differentiation. By contrast, only 6% genetic difference was detected between drug and fibre crop accessions and it was not possible to unequivocally assign plants as either drug or fibre type. However, our results suggest that drug strains may typically possess lower genetic diversity than fibre strains, which may ultimately provide a means of genetic delineation. Our findings demonstrate the promise of cannabis STR markers to provide information on: (1) agronomic type, (2) the geographical origin of drug seizures, and (3) evidence of conspiracy in production of clonally propagated drug crops. PMID:12505473
Plants are the major source of fibres for, e.g., textile and paper applications. Fibre hemp (Cannabissativa L.) can be grown under a wide variety of agro-ecological conditions, is resistant to weeds and pests and, in general, drought tolerant. Fibre length and content of cellulose and lignin are important quality parameters for raw material used in cordage, textile, paper, and
Hetty C. van den Broeck; Chris Maliepaard; Michel J. M. Ebskamp; Marcel A. J. Toonen; Andries J. Koops
Marijuana continues to garner considerable attention and is the subject of intense public debate and scientific scrutiny. It is unquestionably one of the most frequently used illicit drugs throughout the world. In Western countries, the pat- tern of use among age groups has not deviated significantly since the mid-1970s. The most prevalent use occurs in per- sons who are in
BILLY R. M ARTIN; WILLIAM L. D EWEY; VINCENZO D I M ARZO
The cannabis plant (Cannabissativa L.) and products thereof (such as marijuana, hashish and hash oil) have a long history of use both as a medicinal agent and intoxicant. Over the last few years there have been an active debate regarding the medicinal aspects of cannabis. Currently cannabis products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Controlled Substances act, which means that the drug is only available for human use as an investigational drug. In addition to the social aspects of the use of the drug and its abuse potential, the issue of approving it as a medicine is further complicated by the complexity of the chemical make up of the plant. This manuscript discusses the chemical constituents of the plant with particular emphasis on the cannabinoids as the class of compounds responsible for the drug's psychological properties. PMID:16199061
Three new cannabichromanone derivatives were isolated from high potency cannabis, along with the known cannabichromanone. Full spectroscopic data, including the use of electronic circular dichroism and Mosher ester analysis to determine the absolute configuration of these compounds, are reported. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antileishmanial and anti-oxidant activity.
Ahmed, Safwat A.; Ross, Samir A.; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.
The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabissativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water availability, factors which impact upon the isotope fractionations of these elements within plants. It was possible to differentiate samples from the dry regions (Marijuana Polygon) from those from Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará, that present heavier rainfall. The results were in agreement with the climatic conditions of the suspected regions of origin and this demonstrates that seized samples can be used to identify the isotopic signatures of marijuana from the main producing regions in Brazil. PMID:16183231
The time course of cannabinoid accumulation in the leaves of individual plants of three Cannabis accessions was determined by gas-chromatographic analysis in greenhouse-grown plants. The total amounts and the concentration\\u000a ratios of CBD, THC and CBG were determined; two accessions (an experimental hybrid, (21R × 15R) × NL, and plants from a seized\\u000a seed lot) were found chemotypically uniform, with all plants belonging to
D. Pacifico; F. Miselli; A. Carboni; A. Moschella; G. Mandolino
?1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) into THCA, the precursor of the primary psychoactive agent ?1-tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabissativa. The enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified, and crystallized in order to investigate the structure-function relationship of THCA synthase, and the tertiary structure was determined to 2.75Å resolution by X-ray crystallography (R(cryst)=19.9%). The THCA synthase enzyme is a member of the p-cresol methyl-hydroxylase superfamily, and the tertiary structure is divided into two domains (domains I and II), with a flavin adenine dinucleotide coenzyme positioned between each domain and covalently bound to His114 and Cys176 (located in domain I). The catalysis of THCA synthesis involves a hydride transfer from C3 of CBGA to N5 of flavin adenine dinucleotide and the deprotonation of O6' of CBGA. The ionized residues in the active site of THCA synthase were investigated by mutational analysis and X-ray structure. Mutational analysis indicates that the reaction does not involve the carboxyl group of Glu442 that was identified as the catalytic base in the related berberine bridge enzyme but instead involves the hydroxyl group of Tyr484. Mutations at the active-site residues His292 and Tyr417 resulted in a decrease in, but not elimination of, the enzymatic activity of THCA synthase, suggesting a key role for these residues in substrate binding and not direct catalysis. PMID:22766313
Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug. It is estimated that 4% of the global population between the ages of\\u000a 15 and 64 smoked marijuana in 2003. Despite the drug’s extreme popularity, reports of cannabis-related stroke and myocardial\\u000a infarction are so rare as to still be reportable. Cannabinoids, the active compounds contained in marijuana, interact with\\u000a cardiovascular centers in
The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of ?9-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests were used to determine antidepressant action. At doses lacking hypothermic and cataleptic effects (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), both ?9-THC and ?8-THC showed a U-shaped dose response with only ?9-THC showing significant antidepressant-like effects at 2.5 mg/kg (p < 0.05) in the FST. The cannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabinol (CBN) did not produce antidepressant-like actions up to 80 mg/kg in the mouse FST, while cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited significant effect at 20 and 200 mg/kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The antidepressant-like action of ?9-THC and CBC was further confirmed in the TST. ?9 -THC exhibited the same U-shaped dose response with significant antidepressant-like action at 2.5 mg/kg (p < 0.05) while CBC resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in immobility at 40 and 80 mg/kg doses (p < 0.01). Results of this study show that ?9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.
Cannabis - or marijuana - is one of the oldest substances known to human kind and, until quite recently, was also one of the most widely used and best understood. For millennia it was a mainstay of mainstream medicine. Only in the 20th-Century was cannabis pushed to the margins of respectability and demonized. But cannabis has made a comeback and
Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society. PMID:1181294
In Part I of this article, I examined the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in drug approval and then detailed the known risks of medical marijuana (any form of Cannabissativa used--usually by smoking--to treat a wide variety of pathologic states and diseases). Part II of the article will begin by reviewing the benefits of Cannabissativa as documented by well designed scientific studies that have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. I will then propose that ability of scientists to conduct impartial studies designed to answer the question of marijuana's role in medical therapy has been greatly hampered by political considerations. I will posit that in spite of the considerable efforts of policymakers, it is becoming apparent that marijuana's benefits should be weighed against its well-described risks. I will conclude that political advocacy is a poor substitute for dispassionate analysis and that neither popular votes nor congressional "findings" should be permitted to trump scientific evidence in deciding whether or not marijuana is an appropriate pharmaceutical agent to use in modern medical practice. Whether or not marijuana is accepted as a legitimate medical therapy should remain in the hands of the usual drug-approval process and that the statutory role of the Food and Drug Administration should be dispositive. PMID:19492213
Chronic exposure to Cannabissativa (marijuana) produced a significant down-regulation of cannabinoid receptor in the postmortem human brain. The significant decrease in maximal binding capacity was not accompanied by changes in the affinity constant. [3H]SR141716A binding was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen and in the accumbens nucleus. A significant decrease of binding sites was seen in the globus pallidus.
Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal substance in the United States and Europe. There is a dramatic increase in the demand for treatment for cannabis dependence. The majority of marijuana-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence from cannabis partly due to the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Onset of most symptoms occurs during the 1st week
Aviv Weinstein; Hila Miller; Eti Tal; Irit Ben Avi; Isachar Herman; Rachel Bar-Hamburger; Miki Bloch
The interest in hemp (non-drug Cannabissativa L.) for skin care and cosmetic use is due to the high content of oil, especially un- saturated fatty acids in seed with technological and therapeutic effects. In a field trial on an organic farm, seed weight and content of fatty acids
Christian R. Vogl; Helga Mölleken; Gunilla Lissek-Wolf; Andreas Surböck; Jörg Kobert
In this study of the behaviour of the fractions of unretted and frost-retted fibre straws in damp air, a production scale method to separate fibre and shive from fibre plants was introduced and tested on bast fibre plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Cannabissativa L.). The method consists of optional drying of stalks, unloading bales, milling the straws with a hammer mill, separating the fractions from air stream with a cyclone and finally separating fibres from shives with a screening drum. Fractions were characterized focusing on technologically indicative properties such as equilibrium moisture content, ash and microbiological quality. Unretted fractions of the bast fibre plant stem reached higher equilibrium moisture contents than the retted fractions, and hemp fibres absorbed more moisture from air than did the Linum fibres. In very humid air, all fractions began to lose weight due to moulding. The weight decrease during the first week was lower in frost-retted than in unretted fractions. The frost-retted fractions appeared to be more resistant to humidity in the short term. The total number of microbes and especially the numbers of yeasts and moulds can be used as a criterion of hygienic level. For green fractions, the mould level was similar in fibres and in shives, but frost-retted shives contained more moulds than the unretted shives. The mould content of a fraction had no direct correlation with the moulding tendency of the fraction. The ash contents of fibres were somewhat higher than those of shives, due to a probable soil contamination. Ash content did not have significant correlation with microbiological quality, although ash is a possible risk factor for hygienic quality. According to the results of this study it is highly important to study the quality of the production chain of bast fibre plants to ensure the quality of industrial products. From the producer's point of view, raw material with defined quality can be directed to the most suitable application. The behaviour of fractions in various ambient atmospheres, and other quality aspects such as hygienic level can be used as criteria for defining the most appropriate product applications. PMID:15081488
Kymäläinen, H-R; Koivula, M; Kuisma, R; Sjöberg, A-M; Pehkonen, A
Marihuana (Cannabissativa, the hemp plant) is one of the most widely used illicit drugs all over the world. Cannabis products are usually smoked. The plant contains chemicals called cannabinoids. One of these, 1-delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) is believed be responsible for most of the characteristic psychoactive (euphoria) and cardiovascular (tachycardia, conjuctivitis) effects. Although some clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marihuana (i.e. on the basis of its antiemetic, anticonvulsive and analgesic effect)--the scientific evidence is weak. Therefore the complete legalization of the drug is strongly opposed. PMID:11367861
Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to assess the chemical profile and quantification of cannabinoids to identify the differences, if existing, in the chemical constituents of in vitro propagated plants (IVP), conventionally grown plants (VP) and indoor grown mother plants (MP-Indoor) of a high THC yielding variety of Cannabissativa L. during different developmental stages of growth. In general, THC content in all groups increased with plant age up to a highest level during the budding stage where the THC content reached a plateau before the onset of senescence. The pattern of changes observed in the concentration of other cannabinoids content with plants age has followed a similar trend in all groups of plants. Qualitatively, cannabinoids profiles obtained using GC-FID, in MP-indoor, VP and IVP plants were found to be similar to each other and to that of the field grown mother plant (MP field) of C. sativa. Minor differences observed in cannabinoids concentration within and among the groups were not found to be statistically significant. Our results confirm the clonal fidelity of IVP plants of C. sativa and suggest that the biochemical mechanism used in this study to produce the micropropagated plants does not affect the metabolic content and can be used for the mass propagation of true to type plants of this species for commercial pharmaceutical use. PMID:19950050
Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A
Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabissativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.
Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabissativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk. PMID:20130780
Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638
Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E
We studied the effects of heavy metal salts (Pb(NO3)2, CuSO4, and ZnSO4) on phytohormonal status and sex expression in various cultivars of marijuana (Cannabissativa L.), a dioecious plant, grown on Knop nutrient medium. Pb(NO3)2 and ZnSO4 were added to the medium at the concentration of 10?9 M, and CuSO4, at the concentration of 10?10 M. Plant were grown under
A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates
|Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…
The scheduling of cannabis under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has established legal precedents that determine how scientific evidence affects its regulation in the United States. This background challenges three common fallacies that make it seem marijuana prohibition is the only viable policy outcome. A contemporary effort to reschedule cannabis is based on recent findings that have established that marijuana
In the last 15years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis’ and cannabinoids’ current and
Daniel W. Bowles; Cindy L. O’Bryant; D. Ross Camidge; Antonio Jimeno
Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis:
A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation. PMID:14642724
Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those who were assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to four optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. The research was conducted in high schools in Seattle, Washington. The participant s included 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. The main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to those in the DFC. The frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but it did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reductions in use and problems were sustained at 12 months, but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and did not differ by condition. Brief interventions can attract adolescent cannabis users and have positive impacts on them, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified. PMID:21688877
The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life. PMID:23909002
Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D
Cannabis, Cannabissativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence. PMID:21462790
Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a
Frances R. Levin; John J. Mariani; Daniel J. Brooks; Martina Pavlicova; Wendy Cheng; Edward V. Nunes
There is an emerging interest in the clinical use of cannabis (marijuana), but there is almost no evidence of its efficacy. The Dutch government has a policy that aims at collecting clinical data to determine whether cannabis can be used as a medicine. An Office of Medicinal Cannabis was established in March 2000. This office will act as a regulator
... recognized as an effective treatment, this kind of subjective, anecdotal reporting needs to be supported by carefully ... significantly more participants in the treatment group reported subjective improvements in spasticity and pain (but not in ...
Whether "medical marijuana" (Cannabissativa used to treat a wide variety of pathologic states) should be accorded the status of a legitimate pharmaceutical agent has long been a contentious issue. Is it a truly effective drug that is arbitrarily stigmatized by many and criminalized by the federal government? Or is it without any medical utility, its advocates hiding behind a screen of misplaced (or deliberately misleading) compassion for the ill? Should Congress repeal its declaration that smoked marijuana is without "current medical benefit"? Should cannabis be approved for medical use by a vote of the people as already has been done in 13 states? Or should medical marijuana be scientifically evaluated for safety and efficacy as any other new investigational drug? How do the competing--and sometimes antagonistic--roles of science, politics and prejudice affect society's attempts to answer this question? This article examines the legal, political, policy, and ethical problems raised by the recognition of medical marijuana by over one-fourth of our states although its use remains illegal under federal law. Although draconian punishment can be imposed for the "recreational" use of marijuana, I will not address the contentious question of whether to legalize or decriminalize the use of marijuana solely for its psychotropic effects, a fascinating and important area of law and policy that is outside the scope of this paper. Instead, the specific focus of this article will be on the conflict between the development of policies based on evidence obtained through the use of scientific methods and those grounded on ideological and political considerations that have repeatedly entered the longstanding debate regarding the legal status of medical marijuana. I will address a basic question: Should the approval of medical marijuana be governed by the same statute that applies to all other drugs or pharmaceutical agents, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), after the appropriate regulatory agency, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has evaluated its safety and efficacy? If not, should medical marijuana be exempted from scientific review and, instead, be evaluated by the Congress, state legislatures, or popular vote? I will argue that advocacy is a poor substitute for dispassionate analysis, and that popular votes should not be allowed to trump scientific evidence in deciding whether or not marijuana is an appropriate pharmaceutical agent to use in modern medical practice. PMID:19296351
Finally in the early 21 st century, medicinal cannabis is being rediscovered by physicians and patients alike. This paper discusses the current state of medicinal marijuana in the U.S. We'll look at contemporary medicinal use in the context of the 5000-year history of the therapeutic use of cannabis. This includes cannabis use in ancient times, in patent medicines, its use
|Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…
Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…
BACKGROUND: The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases
The prevalence of cannabis use is rising among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. However, clinicians who treat adolescent substance users hear frequent reports of serious cannabis-use disorders and problems. This study asked whether cannabis produced dependence and withdrawal among such patients, and whether patients' reports supported previous laboratory findings of reinforcing effects from cannabis. This was
Thomas J Crowley; Marilyn J Macdonald; Elizabeth A Whitmore; Susan K Mikulich
The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. PMID:22362625
Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users. PMID:22873011
In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other
Debra Harris; Reese T. Jones; Robin Shank; Rajneesh Nath; Emilio Fernandez; Kenneth Goldstein; John Mendelson
SummaryThe medical value of marijuana is becoming increasingly clear, as it proves to be a remarkably versatile, safe, and inexpensive drug. Arrangements now being proposed for making cannabis constituents medically available include quasi-legal buyers clubs, restrictive classification as a prescription drug, the isolation of individual cannabinoids, and the manufacture of synthetic analogs. Careful analysis potentially of this inexpensive drug shows
Drug trafficking organizations, criminal groups, and independent traffickers frequently produce and transport illicit drugs, particularly marijuana and methamphetamine, in or through federal lands. Consequently, several hundred thousand cannabis plants ar...
Much of the current confusion concerning marijuana has been caused by a lack of definition of terms. Variations in drug effect that are related to the type and potency of cannabis preparation and route of administration need clarification. When domestic strength marijuana is smoked recreationally, the subjective effects include relaxation, mild euphoria and increased sensory awareness. The objective effects include tachycardia, reddening of the conjunctivae and a distorted sense of time. Undesirable effects such as panic reactions, amotivational behavior, and acute toxic psychosis occur infrequently and are reversible with proper therapy. Other effects which have been attributed to marijuana are unsubstantiated. The recent upsurge in use of marijuana involves persons of a different type than those who used it heretofore and has greatly increased the number of people familiar with the drug. The disparity between what many people know empirically and the information disseminated through official media has lessened the credibility of physicians with many of our younger citizens. When young people recognize misinformation about marijuana, they are no longer listening when the facts are presented about more dangerous drugs, and the abuse of these drugs must be our main concern. To be considered is the potential hazard to adolescent users who may concomitantly be exposed to a subculture of experimentation with stronger drugs at a time when the opinion of a peer group is a strong factor in their behavior.
Much of the current confusion concerning marijuana has been caused by a lack of definition of terms. Variations in drug effect that are related to the type and potency of cannabis preparation and route of administration need clarification. When domestic strength marijuana is smoked recreationally, the subjective effects include relaxation, mild euphoria and increased sensory awareness. The objective effects include tachycardia, reddening of the conjunctivae and a distorted sense of time. Undesirable effects such as panic reactions, amotivational behavior, and acute toxic psychosis occur infrequently and are reversible with proper therapy. Other effects which have been attributed to marijuana are unsubstantiated. The recent upsurge in use of marijuana involves persons of a different type than those who used it heretofore and has greatly increased the number of people familiar with the drug. The disparity between what many people know empirically and the information disseminated through official media has lessened the credibility of physicians with many of our younger citizens. When young people recognize misinformation about marijuana, they are no longer listening when the facts are presented about more dangerous drugs, and the abuse of these drugs must be our main concern. To be considered is the potential hazard to adolescent users who may concomitantly be exposed to a subculture of experimentation with stronger drugs at a time when the opinion of a peer group is a strong factor in their behavior. PMID:5551311
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, especially among young women in Western societies. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy have been studied for many years. The vast majority of studies have shown a link between maternal consumption of cannabis and foetal development. Foetal growth restriction seems to be the major complication of cannabis exposure. Nevertheless, all these
C. Davitian; M. Uzan; A. Tigaizin; G. Ducarme; H. Dauphin; C. Poncelet
Despite the increasing use of cannabis among adolescents, there are little and often contradictory studies on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabis consumption in juveniles. Adolescence is a critical phase for cerebral development, where the endocannabinoid system plays an important role influencing the release and action of different neurotransmitters. Therefore, a strong stimulation by the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol
BACKGROUND: Cannabis, or Marijuana, remains one of the most universally used recreational drugs. Over the last four decades, its popularity has risen considerably as it became easily accessible and relatively affordable. Peak use is amongst the young aged 18 to 25 years, although these figures are now shifting towards earlier teens. A strongly installed culture still regards cannabis a harmless
Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes. These findings call for more extensive sampling in future research to allow for more rigorous research on the growing population of medical marijuana users and non-marijuana users who are engaged in substance abuse treatment.
Marijuana has been used for recreational, ceremonial, and medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Because marijuana is classified as an illegal drug and, little research has been done on its potential medical benefits. In May 1999, it became legal for the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the only legal source for marijuana, to sell marijuana to privately funded researchers. This move may make research on marijuana more feasible. Many people believe marijuana is effective in treating pain, AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS), and nausea and vomiting, among other ailments. However, even doctors who recommend marijuana use do not advise smoking it. Other ways of taking marijuana, as well as possible side effects of marijuana use, are discussed. PMID:11366748
Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug in the world today. Some 146 million people, or 3.7% of the population\\u000a 15–64 years of age, consumed Cannabis in 2001–2003 (1). In the United States, 95 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once. In 2002, an estimated\\u000a 15 million Americans had used the drug in
Background and Objectives Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance. Marijuana craving, anxiety, and peer marijuana use are thought to play important roles in the etiology and maintenance of marijuana use. The present study aimed to identify patterns between marijuana use and these affective and situational risk factors in the natural environment. Methods The sample consisted of 49 current marijuana users (38.8% female), 63.2% of whom evinced a current cannabis use disorder. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of marijuana craving, state anxiety, and peer marijuana use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models were used to examine within- and between-day antecedents, correlates, and consequences of marijuana use. Results Between-day analyses indicated that marijuana use days were associated with higher marijuana craving but lower state anxiety. Within-day analyses confirmed that marijuana craving was higher prior to marijuana use and lower following use. Anxiety was related to marijuana craving. Although anxiety was somewhat higher prior to marijuana use, it did not decrease significantly following use. The vast majority of marijuana use occurred when others were also using marijuana. Limitations The sample was comprised of college students, a group at particular risk for marijuana use and use-related problems. Future work is necessary to determine whether results generalize to other populations. Conclusions These data support the contention that marijuana craving, anxiety, and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of marijuana use.
Buckner, Julia D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Silgado, Jose; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Norman B.
\\u000a Cannabis has been used as a drug for thousands of years, but marijuana smoking has become prevalent in Western society only during\\u000a the last 40 years (1,2). An annual survey conducted in the United States from 1975 to 2002 documented that marijuana is now the second most commonly\\u000a smoked substance after tobacco (1,2). Marijuana smoke, like tobacco smoke, is generated
... are some of the common physical effects of marijuana: Tremors (shaking) Nausea Headache Decreased coordination Breathing problems Increased appetite Reduced blood flow to the brain Changes in the reproductive organs Like tobacco, marijuana ...
BackgroundAn oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop oral
Background An oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop
In the last 15 years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis' and cannabinoids' current and potential roles in cancer care. Specifically, we will examine five areas of cannabis medicine: (1) pharmacologic properties of cannabis; (2) its potential role in the development of human cancers, particularly smoking-related malignancies; (3) cannabinoids' potential as anti-cancer therapies; (4) cannabis and cannabinoids in the palliation of common cancer-associated symptoms; (5) current legal status of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. PMID:22019199
Bowles, Daniel W; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Camidge, D Ross; Jimeno, Antonio
In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other drugs, particularly stimulants. History of substance abuse or dependence and other psychiatric disorders was common. Those with greater past dependence on other drugs thought marijuana to be more effective but also reported worse side effects and quality of life. Quality of life was associated more with marijuana side effects rating than effectiveness. Patients reported potentially serious marijuana side effects on some questionnaires but not others. Inconsistencies in reporting made interpretation of results difficult. Physician supervision of medical marijuana use would allow more effective monitoring of therapeutic and unwanted effects, some unrecognized by patients. PMID:11076122
Goals\\/Background The cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, which is associated with chronic cannabis use, was recently reported in seven case reports\\u000a and one clinical series of ten patients from Australia. We further characterize this syndrome with eight well-documented cases\\u000a in the United States and report results of cannabis discontinuation and cannabis rechallenge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study Methods Patients were identified by the three investigators in gastroenterology clinic
Maria Soriano-Co; Mihaela Batke; Mitchell S. Cappell
The reinforcing properties of ?9 (17.5 mg), a 1 g marijuana cigarette containing 1.83% ?9-THC, a synthetic cannabis compound (Nabilone 2 mg orally), and their respective placebos were assessed with self-report and operant work-contingent choice procedures. Three groups of eight subjects were selected on the basis of a history of regular, intermittent, or occasional marijuana-smoking behavior. All subjects served as
The hazy world of “medical marijuana” continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic
This article summarizes current knowledge about the medicinal value of cannabis and its principal psychoactive ingredient, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), particularly in the control of nausea and vomiting, in glaucoma, and in reduction of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. The major issues in the controversy about marijuana and medicine, primarily moral and ethical, are discussed. PMID:2995262
Although cannabis (or marijuana) is the world's most widely-used illicit drug, there has been surprisingly little research into its effects on respiratory health. Part of the problem is the inherent difficulty of studying the long-term effects of an illegal habit. It has often been assumed that smoking cannabis will have similar long-term effects to smoking tobacco. Several recent observational studies suggest that this is not the case and that cannabis has quite different effects on the lung function. There are consistent findings that smoking cannabis is associated with large airway inflammation, symptoms of bronchitis, increased airway resistance and lung hyperinflation. The evidence that smoking cannabis leads to features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, such as airflow obstruction and emphysema is not convincing. However, there are numerous case reports of bullous emphysema among cannabis smokers. These findings have not been confirmed in systematic analytical studies and probably represent uncommon adverse effects in very heavy cannabis smokers. There is now additional controversial evidence that cannabis is at least an occasional cause of respiratory malignancies, but again the evidence is inconclusive. PMID:21859273
Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted. PMID:22629287
Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted.
Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth
Awareness of cannabis dependence as a clinically relevant issue has grown in recent years. Clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that chronic marijuana smokers can experience withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of marijuana smoking and have difficulty abstaining from marijuana use. This paper will review data implicating the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in regulating the behavioral effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, across a range of species. The behavioral effects that will be discussed include those that directly contribute to the maintenance of chronic marijuana smoking, such as reward, subjective effects, and the positive and negative reinforcing effects of marijuana, THC and synthetic cannabinoids. The role of the CB1 receptor in the development of marijuana dependence and expression of withdrawal will also be discussed. Lastly, treatment options that may alleviate withdrawal symptoms and promote marijuana abstinence will be considered. PMID:18279497
Marijuana (cannabis) is the most commonly abused drug by adolescents and young adults and also by people with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders. An increasing number of studies suggest that regular cannabis users can show psychotic episodes similar to schizophrenic disorders but it still unclear if cannabis induced psychotic disorder is a distinct entity requiring special therapy or regular cannabis use consequently leads to schizophrenia. Therefore, we retrospectively compared psychotic patients with and without cannabis use by clinical profile. Clinical data of 85 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were analyzed retrospectively. Cannabis use was not reported by 43 persons (Cnbs0 subgroup) and 42 patients used regularly cannabis during at least 1 year (Cnbs1 subgroup). Clinical data were collected from electronic medical documentation of patients concerning anamnesis, family history, socio-demographic condition, symptoms and psychiatric state, acute and long-term therapies. Men were over-represented in the cannabis abuser group while mean age was lower among them compared to the Cnbs0 subgroup. Prevalence of suicidal attempts was increased in men without cannabis use. Patients without cannabis use spent more time in hospital and smoking was more frequent among them. Positive and negative symptoms and family history did not differ significantly between the two subgroups. Dosage, intensity and length of pharmacotherapy was different between the two subgroups. These results revealed that certain clinical aspects were different in case of cannabis-related schizophrenia spectrum disorder compared to schizophrenia. PMID:21876221
Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use.
Rationale Cannabis dependence is a growing problem among individuals who use marijuana frequently, and genetic differences make some\\u000a users more liable to progress to dependence. The identification of intermediate phenotypes of cannabis dependence may aid\\u000a candidate genetic analysis. Promising intermediate phenotypes include craving for marijuana, withdrawal symptoms after abstinence,\\u000a and sensitivity to its acute effects. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in
Joseph P. Schacht; Rebecca E. Selling; Kent E. Hutchison
Literature pertaining to the effects of cannabis use and health which has been published during the past 11 years has been reviewed. Many older concerns about adverse effects on health (chromosomal damage, 'cannabinol psychosis', endocrine abnormalities, cardiac events, impaired immunity) no longer seem to elicit much interest. Continuing concerns about the adverse cognitive effects of chronic use indicate that these can be demonstrated by proper testing; some studies suggest that they may be long-lasting. Although cannabis does not produce a specific psychosis, the possibility exists that it may exacerbate schizophrenia in persons predisposed to that disorder. However, evidence from retrospective surveys must always be questioned. Tolerance and dependence have occurred in man, confirming previous findings in many other species. Addiction tends to be mild and is probably less severe than with other social drugs. Driving under the influence of cannabis is impaired acutely; how long such impairments last is still unknown. More exacting tasks, such as flying an airplane, may be impaired for as long as 24 hours. While there is no doubt that marijuana smoke contains carcinogens, an increase in cancer among users has thus far been anecdotal. Because of the long latent period between cancer induction and initiation of cigarette smoking, the full story is yet to be told. Marijuana use during pregnancy is not advised although the consequences are usually not greater than those of smoking cigarettes, and far less than those from alcohol use. Whether smoked marijuana should become a therapeutic agent requires a cost-benefit analysis of the potential benefits versus the adverse effects of such use as we now know them. PMID:11281947
Used data from Ontario Alcohol and Drug Use Among Students survey (N=4,267) to determine how reported alcohol and cannabis (marijuana) use changed with increased exposure to drug education. Concluded drug education had stronger influence on younger students and lighter drinkers but little impact on heavy drinkers. Found decrease in cannabis use…
AIMS: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT), Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM). METHODS: A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO
The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabissativa, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. There is great interest in endocannabinoids for their role in neuroplasticity as well as for therapeutic use in numerous conditions, including pain, stroke, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, fertility, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, among others. However, there has been relatively far less research on this topic in the eye and retina compared with the brain and other organ systems. The purpose of this review is to introduce the “cannabinergic” field to the retinal community. All of the fundamental work on cannabinoids has been performed in non-retinal preparations, necessitating extensive dependence on this literature for background. Happily, the retinal cannabinoid system has much in common with other regions of the central nervous system. For example, there is general agreement that cannabinoids suppress dopamine release and presynaptically reduce transmitter release from cones and bipolar cells. How these effects relate to light and dark adaptation, receptive field formation, temporal properties of ganglion cells or visual perception are unknown. The presence of multiple endocannabinoids, degradative enzymes with their bioactive metabolites, and receptors provides a broad spectrum of opportunities for basic research and to identify targets for therapeutic application to retinal diseases.
Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history. PMID:16050084
To develop and evaluate the feasibility of a cue reactivity paradigm for young marijuana smokers, the authors set up a laboratory procedure involving neutral and marijuana-related imagery, video, and in vivo cues. Fifteen adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders completed the procedure, which included continuous measurement of skin conductance and heart rate. Participants also completed questionnaires regarding marijuana craving before, during, and after cue presentations. Higher levels of craving and skin conductance were observed during marijuana cue presentations. The procedure appears to elicit cue reactivity among adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders and should be further evaluated and refined with a larger sample. Implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:19071985
Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P
In a judgment dated 11 April 20 11, the Ontario Superior Court declared that the Medical Marijuana Access Regulations (MMAR), and Sections 4 and 7 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), that prohibit the possession and production of cannabis, are unconstitutional because, in practice, they prevent effective access to marijuana for therapeutic purposes, and therefore violate Section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter). PMID:22165271
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Despite this, only a small number of studies have investigated the long-term neurotoxic consequences of cannabis use. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are powerful research tools to investigate possible cannabis-induced pathophysiological changes. A computer literature review was conducted in the MEDLINE and PsycLIT databases between 1966 and November of 2004 with the search terms 'cannabis', 'marijuana', 'neuroimaging', 'magnetic resonance', 'computed tomography', 'positron emission tomography', 'single photon emission computed tomography", 'SPET', 'MRI' and 'CT'. Structural neuroimaging studies have yielded conflicting results. Most studies report no evidence of cerebral atrophy or regional changes in tissue volumes, and one study suggested that long-term users who started regular use on early adolescence have cerebral atrophy as well as reduction in gray matter. However, several methodological shortcomings limit the interpretation of these results. Functional neuroimaging studies have reported increases in neural activity in regions that may be related with cannabis intoxication or mood-change effects (orbital and mesial frontal lobes, insula, and anterior cingulate) and decreases in activity of regions related with cognitive functions impaired during acute intoxication. The important question whether residual neurotoxic effects occur after prolonged and regular use of cannabis remains unclear, with no study addressing this question directly. Better designed neuroimaging studies, combined with cognitive evaluation, may be elucidative on this issue. PMID:15867988
Crippa, José Alexandre; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Amaro, Edson; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Bressan, Rodrigo A
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.
|Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.
The recent discovery of arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide), an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, and the synthesis of SR141716A, a cannabinoid antagonist selective for brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, have provided new tools to explore the mechanisms underlying cannabis abuse and dependence. Drug discrimination is the animal model with the most predictive validity and specificity for investigation of the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids related to their abuse potential, because, unlike many other drugs of abuse, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, is not self-administered by animals. Results of delta9-THC discrimination studies have revealed that the subjective effects of cannabis intoxication are pharmacologically selective for centrally active cannabinoid compounds, and that cannabis action at CB1 receptors is involved in medication of these effects. Less clear is the role of endogenous cannabinoid system(s) in cannabis intoxication. Anandamide, named for a Sanskrit word for "internal bliss," unreliably substitutes for delta9-THC. Further, substitution, when it is observed, occurs only at doses that also significantly decrease response rates. In contrast, delta9-THC and other structurally diverse cannabinoids fully substitute for delta9-THC at doses that do not substantially affect response rates. Attempts to train animals to discriminate anandamide (or SR141716A) have so far been unsuccessful. Preliminary evidence from drug discrimination studies with more metabolically stable anandamide analogs have suggested that these differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of delta9-THC and anandamide-like cannabinoids are not entirely due to pharmacokinetic factors, but the exact role of "internal bliss" in cannabis intoxication and dependence is still not completely understood. PMID:10515300
Marijuana and other cannabis preparations are the most widely used illicit drugs in the United States. A review of the literature reveals a number of sex differences in the epidemiology and adverse medical consequences of marijuana use. In 1995, 6.5% of females and 10.5% of males aged 12 and older reported marijuana use in the previous year. Although 4% more males than females used marijuana, the percentage of males using marijuana between 1994 and 1995 had decreased, whereas the percentage of females using marijuana during that same period had increased. Among females, the age of initiation of use is declining and the prevalence of problems with marijuana is on the rise. Both male and female marijuana users may experience adverse effects of cognitive dysfunction and airway inflammation. However, clinicians should be aware of sex-specific effects of marijuana use, including a possible increased risk of prostate cancer for male users and possible adverse effects on reproductive hormones in female users. Review of the available information on this topic indicates that we have much more to learn about the similarities and differences between males and females with respect to patterns of use, adverse consequences, and vulnerabilities to marijuana. PMID:10370436
The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives. PMID:22089341
The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas with alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.
This article examines the history of assigning a banned status to medical marijuana; describes the politics of medical marijuana research; provides evidence of the scientifically demonstrated efficacy and safety of Cannabis for certain pathologic conditions; analyzes several vaguely worded state statutes governing the recommendation, distribution, and use of "medical marijuana" that render its use open to abuse; and recommends the development and enforcement of statutory and regulatory reforms that would bring state oversight of this drug into agreement with stringent federal regulation of other controlled substances with proven medical utility. PMID:20880248
The purpose of this study was to determine whether ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), a plant cannabinoid, is a sensitive measure to detect recent marijuana use in cannabis dependent patients. It has been purported that smoking an illicit plant cannabis product will result in a positive THCV urinalysis, whereas the oral ingestion of therapeutic THC such as dronabinol will result in a negative THCV urinalysis, allowing for discrimination between pharmaceutical THC products and illicit marijuana products. In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy of dronabinol in cannabis dependence, all 117 patients produced a positive urine for the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-?9-THC-9-carboxylic acid; THC-COOH, but 50% had an undetectable (< 1 ng/ml) THCV-COOH test. This suggests that THCV may not be a sensitive enough measure to detect recent marijuana use in all heavy marijuana users or that its absence may not discriminate between illicit marijuana use and oral ingestion of THC products such as dronabinol. We propose that the lack of THCV detection may be due to the variability of available cannabis strains smoked by marijuana users in community settings.
Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Xie, Shan; Murray, Kathleen A.
While at least a dozen state legislatures are considering bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government has recently intensified its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using
Rationale Cannabis abuse and endocannabinoids are associated to schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives It is important to discern the association between schizophrenia and exogenous Cannabissativa, on one hand, and the endogenous cannabinoid system, on the other hand.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results On one hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in genetically predisposed people,\\u000a may lead to a worse outcome of
Emilio Fernandez-Espejo; Maria-Paz Viveros; Luis Núñez; Bart A. Ellenbroek; Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca
Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as ‘skunk’ in the mainstream UK media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers whether the trend reflects an increased awareness of and desire for medical marijuana. Determining whether cannabis is a drug or a medicine depends on its objective physiological effects - which may vary from one individual
In 2010, the Appeals Tribunal of the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) of Ontario held that Gary Simpson's cannabis costs should be reimbursed. Simpson sustained an acute back injury in 2000 while working as a heavy equipment mechanic. In 2003, Health Canada approved his application for medical marijuana. PMID:22165273
A spectrophotometric method used to test for paraquat in 160 confiscated marijuana samples is described. Twenty of these samples (12.5 per cent) tested positive for paraquat. Nine confiscated hash oil samples tested negative. The identification of paraquat was proven by isolation, chromatography, and spectral methods. The cannabinoids in paraquat positive Cannabis samples were analysed. PMID:258606
Turner, C E; Cheng, P C; Torres, L M; Elsohly, M A
Marijuanaoften called pot, grass, reefer, weed, herb, Mary Jane, or MJ is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis sativathe hemp plant. Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes called joints...
Cannabis displays substantial effectiveness for a variety of medical symptoms. Seventy-seven patients took part in a study in California to assess the efficacy of organically grown Cannabissativa and indica strains in treatment of various medical conditions via smoking or ingestion. HIV\\/AIDS was the most frequent condition reported, at 51%. Standardized rating forms provided 1892 records that were statistically analyzed.
Do marijuana users cut back on consumption when the price rises? To what degree is marijuana consumption related to drinking and tobacco usage? What would happen if marijuana were legalised and taxed in the same way as alcohol and tobacco? Is marijuana priced in a similar way to other goods? Economics and Marijuana deals with these and other questions by
This study examined the response to cannabis withdrawal symptoms and use of quitting strategies to maintain abstinence in people with schizophrenia. A convenience sample of 120 participants with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use and a previous quit attempt without formal treatment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire to characterize their "most serious" (self-defined) quit attempt. One hundred thirteen participants had withdrawal symptoms, of whom 104 (92.0%) took some action to relieve a symptom, most commonly nicotine use (75%). 90% of withdrawal symptoms evoked an action for relief in a majority of participants experiencing them, most frequently anxiety (95.2% of participants) and cannabis craving (94.4%). 96% of participants used one or more quitting strategies to maintain abstinence during their quit attempt, most commonly getting rid of cannabis (72%) and cannabis paraphernalia (67%). Religious support or prayer was the quitting strategy most often deemed "most helpful" (15%). Use of a self-identified most helpful quitting strategy was associated with significantly higher one-month (80.8% vs. 73.6%) and one-year (54.9% vs. 41.3%) abstinence rates. Actions to relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms in people with schizophrenia are common. Promotion of effective quitting strategies may aid relapse prevention. PMID:23969281
Koola, Maju Mathew; Boggs, Douglas Lee; Kelly, Deanna Lynn; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared Allen; Turner, Hailey Elaine; McMahon, Robert Patrick; Gorelick, David Alan
Marijuana, or cannabis, is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. Although there are some case reports of stroke associated with cannabis use, there is no information on a causal role of cannabis in stroke. We identified 14 patients admitted to St Louis University Hospital between January 2004 and July 2007 with ischemic stroke who had documented clear exposure to cannabis during or before symptom onset and a positive urine screen for cannabis. We report this series, along with 3 cases previously reported by our group, for a total of 17 patients (13 men and 4 women), with a mean age of 41 years (range, 15-63 years). Nine patients were under age 45 years, 4 had a history of hypertension, and 10 sustained stroke in the posterior circulation. Headache, dysarthria, and ataxia were the most common presenting symptoms. Five patients had recurrent stroke with reexposure to cannabis. No patient had a prothrombotic state or cardiac source of embolism. Autopsy performed in 2 patients revealed hemorrhagic infarct with no evidence of vasculitis or embolus. The absence of other vascular risk factors in most of our patients, the temporal relation of symptom onset to cannabis exposure, and the recurrence of symptoms in a few patients with reexposure suggest a causal role of cannabis in these cases of ischemic stroke. However, this causal association cannot be definitely ascertained, given the descriptive nature of our series. More research is needed to explore this possible causal association. PMID:21367621
Singh, Niranjan N; Pan, Yi; Muengtaweeponsa, Sombat; Geller, Thomas J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador
... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » MarijuanaMARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...
... reduce drug use and its consequences. October 2010 Marijuana: Know the Facts Marijuana is a common drug ... October 2010 Trends in Perceived Harmfulness of Smoking Marijuana Regularly Source: 2009 Monitoring the Future study (December ...
For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health. PMID:19837255
The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. PMID:23040955
Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed.
Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.
The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. George Sowell was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned Sowell's conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits. PMID:11366533
Both the key mechanism of action for marijuana (the endocannabinoid system) and the symptoms associated with marijuana withdrawal suggest an important link to anxiety. Despite this link, there is a dearth of research on the characteristics of heavy marijuana users with clinical-level anxiety compared to those with heavy marijuana use alone. Over 10,000 participants (friends or affiliates of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) provided data via online survey. After careful, conservative screening, anxiety, other psychopathology, other drug use, and marijuana-related problems were examined in 2567 heavy marijuana users. Subsequently, 275 heavy users with clinical-level anxiety were compared to demographically-equivalent non-anxious heavy users on psychopathology, drug use, and cannabis-related problems. Among several psychological variables (including anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and impulsivity), anxiety was most strongly predictive of amount of marijuana used and marijuana-related problems. Group comparison (n=550 total) revealed that clinically anxious heavy users exhibited more use, more non-anxiety psychopathological symptoms, and a greater number and severity of marijuana-related problems than their non-anxious peers. The findings reveal that anxiety shows an important relation to marijuana use and related problems among regular, heavy users. Further examinations of common and unique factors predisposing individuals for anxiety and marijuana abuse appear warranted. PMID:22727786
Van Dam, Nicholas T; Bedi, Gillinder; Earleywine, Mitch
One of the main problems affecting our society nowadays is drug consumption. Hemp derivatives (Cannabissativa) are the drugs most commonly abused by the young Chilean population. This product is obtained from the leaves and dried up flowers, they contains the active product, tetrahydrocannabinol, which is five to six times lower in concentration than that found in hashish (Florenzano et
Background: The effects of cannabis consumption on neurophysiological function have been a matter of considerable debate. With the legalization of medical marijuana, understanding the consequences of cannabis dependence has become extremely important. Aim: We attempted to understand the influence of cannabis on cerebral glucose metabolism in certain predetermined regions of interest (ROIs). Furthermore, we also explored inter-regional metabolic relationships between ROIs forming the “addiction” and “cognitive dysmetria” circuit. Materials and Methods: 2-fluoro, 2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scans were carried out in 16 male patients (age: 25.3±10.38 years) with cannabis dependence, 8–12 hours after the last cannabis consumption. Resting glucose uptake in 14 pre-determined ROIs was compared with glucose uptake in 16 non-drug using volunteers (age: 29.2±8.39 years). Results: The two groups differed in their lateral and medial temporal glucose uptakes by approximately 16–24%. The relationships between inter-regional glucose uptakes in the two circuits were compared using the Chow Test. Significant differences in inter-regional correlations in the medial temporo–frontal and parieto–thalamic were noted between the two groups. Conclusion: The altered metabolic relationships among various brain regions can have potentially important implications for understanding cannabis dependence and cannabis-induced psychopathology.
There has been considerable debate about the reasons for the association observed between cannabis use and psychosis in both\\u000a clinical and general population samples. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain the association are the following: 1) common\\u000a factors explain the cooccurrence; 2 cannabis causes psychosis that would not have occurred in the absence of cannabis use;\\u000a 3) cannabis precipitates psychosis
Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the
The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons. Samples of cannabis preparations from randomly selected coffee shops were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC-FID) for THC, CBD and CBN. In 2004, the average THC level of Dutch home-grown marijuana (Nederwiet) (20.4% THC) was significantly higher than that of imported marijuana (7.0% THC). Hashish derived from Dutch marijuana (Nederhasj) contained 39.3% THC in 2004, compared with 18.2% THC in imported hashish. The average THC percentage of Dutch marijuana, Dutch hashish and imported hashish was significantly higher than in previous years. It nearly doubled over 5 years. During this period, the THC percentage in imported marijuana remained unchanged. A higher price had to be paid for cannabis with higher levels of THC. Whether the increase in THC levels causes increased health risks for users can only be concluded when more data are available on adjusted patterns of use, abuse liability, bioavailability and levels of THC in the brain. PMID:16191670
Pijlman, F T A; Rigter, S M; Hoek, J; Goldschmidt, H M J; Niesink, R J M
... safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any kind ... symptoms can I get that tells me smoking marijuana is affecting my lungs? Marijuana smoke (like tobacco) ...
Observation of the real world of social marijuana use, where autotitration is the norm, renders the scare tactics of the new marijuana proponents not only inaccurate but irrelevant. There is much published evidence about the availability of highly potent varieties of cannabis from the nineteenth century through the present day. The effects attributed to the new marijuana are the same ones debated for centuries in many different cultures. The assertion that "all marijuana research to date has been done on 1 or 2 percent THC material" (Cohen 1968) ignores several thousand years of human experience with the drug. The old medical cannabis extracts were stronger than most of the forms now available, though the potency of illicit hash oils by the mid-1970's was approaching the level of medicinal preparations available before their removal from the USP. While it may be true that sinsemilla is more widely available than 10 or 15 years ago, its potency has not changed significantly from the 2.4 to 9.5 percent THC materials available in 1973-1974 (see Table I), or the five to 14 percent sinsemilla of 1975 (Perry 1977). The range of potencies available then (marijuana at 0.1% to 7.8% THC, averaging 2.0% to 5.0% THC by 1975) was approximately the same as that reported now. With such a range, the evidence simply cannot support the argument by Cohen (1986) that marijuana is "ten or more times more potent than the product smoked ten years ago." And to say that marijuana potency has increased 1,400 percent since any date in history is patent nonsense.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3292744
This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
|This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Aim of this paper is to investigate the psychobiological reactions to experimentally induced negative emotional states in active marijuana-dependent smokers and whether changes in emotional reactivity were reversed by prolonged abstinence. Twenty-eight patients were randomly included into group A (fourteen active marijuana-dependent smokers) or group B (fourteen abstinent marijuana-dependent subjects). Emotional response evaluation of group B subjects was assessed after 6 months of abstinence. Fourteen healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex, were used as controls. Psychometric and emotional response evaluations were performed by administering Symptoms Check List-90 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 (STAI). Neutral and unpleasant set of pictures selected from the international affective picture system and the Self-Assesment Manikin procedure (SAM) have been used to determine ratings of pleasure and arousal. Before and after the experimental session, blood samples were collected to determine ACTH and cortisol plasma levels. Active cannabis users displayed significantly higher levels of pleasantness SAM scores and lower levels of arousal SAM scores compared to abstinent cannabis users and controls in response to emotional task. In a close parallel with psychological data, hormonal findings indicate a persistent hyperactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in cannabis users, particularly among active marijuana smokers, and an impaired hormonal reaction to negative emotions, in comparison with healthy subjects. The capacity of the HPA axis to respond to stressful stimuli/negative emotions seems to be only partially recovered after 6 months of abstinence. Ours findings, although obtained in a small number of subjects, suggest an association between active cannabis use, subjective reduced sensitivity to negative emotions and threat and HPA axis dysfunction. PMID:21773812
Somaini, Lorenzo; Manfredini, Matteo; Amore, Mario; Zaimovic, Amir; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Leonardi, Claudio; Gerra, Maria Lidia; Donnini, Claudia; Gerra, Gilberto
The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients. PMID:17712818
... need different people around me." To stop using marijuana, Cristina is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't use marijuana. ( Photo information ) Read Cristina's story Back: Drugs of ...
The thesis was written to outline the facts and myths concerning marijuana use as described in contemporary research and literature. It also gives a limited insight into the marijuana attitudes, beliefs, experience, and knowledge of the naval officer atte...
There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.
Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh
Therapeutic cannabis use raises a number of dilemmas for nurses. This article examines the legal, political and ethical challenges raised by the use of cannabis by people with life-limiting or terminal illnesses in their own homes. (Throughout this paper, the term cannabis refers to illegal cannabis unless specified.) A literature review of databases from 1996 was conducted and internet material was also examined. Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community. PMID:22479766
Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535
Charboneau, Evonne J; Dietrich, Mary S; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M; Martin, Peter R; Buchowski, Maciej S; Cowan, Ronald L
This paper contains the first estimates of the price sensitivity of the prevalence of youth marijuana use. Survey data on marijuana use by high school seniors from the Monitoring the Future Project are combined with data on marijuana prices and potency from the Drug Enforcement Administration Office of Intelligence or Intelligence Division. Our estimates of the price elasticity of annual
Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Michael Grossman; Frank J. Chaloupka; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston; Matthew C. Farrelly
Since it became popularized in the late 1960s, marijuana use has been socially, if not legally, sanctioned. Contemporary adult culture accepts the notion that marijuana is a 'safe, recreational' drug. As marijuana became more freely available to adults, its use by adolescents soon began to increase. This trend has been monitored over the past three decades, generating numerous scientific papers
Longterm use of marijuana has been found to cause physiological changes that can alter individual reproductive potential. The effects of marijuana depend on the dose and can include death from depression of the respiratory system. Longterm effects are however particularly hard to assess. Marijuana is absorbed rapidly and eliminated very slowly. The active principle, delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), is highly liposoluble and fixes to the serum proteins, passing to the lungs and liver for metabolization and to the kidneys and liver for excretion. As with estrogens, there is an enterohepatic circuit for reabsorption and elimination. 90% is eliminated in the feces, 65% within 48 hours. Because of the enterohepatic circuit and liposolubility, elimination requires 1 week for completion. The other important biotransformation of the active principle is hydroxilation; the hydroxilated derivatives are responsible for the psychoactivity of cannabis. Cannabis affects both neuroendocrine function and the germ cells. Studies on experimental animals have indicated that THC can cause a decline in the pituitary hormones follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin, and in the steroids progesterone, estrogen, and androgens. Human studies have shown that chronic users have decreased levels of serum testosterone. Because steroidogenesis can be restimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin, it appears that THC does not directly affect steroid production by the corpus luteum, but that its action is mediated by the hypothalamus. Because of its potent antigonadotropic action, THC is under study as an anovulatory agent. The same animal studies have shown that ovulation returns to normal 6 months after termination of use. High rates of anovulation and luteal insufficiency have been observed in women smoking marijuana at least 3 times weekly. THC accumulates in the milk. Animal studies have shown that THC depresses the enzymes necessary for lactation and causes a diminution in the volume of the mammary glands. In recent studies, significant amounts of the drug have been detected in both mothers' milk and the blood of newborns. Animal studies indicate that THC crosses the placenta, achieving concentrations in the fetus as high as those in the mother. Animal studies also demonstrated increasing frequency of abortions, intrauterine death, and declines in fetal weight. The effects were probably due to an alteration in placental function. A human study likewise showed that marijuana use during pregnancy was significantly related to poor fetal development, low birth weight, diminished size, and decreased cephalic circumference. Congenital malformations have been observed in experimental animals exposed to THC. Declines in sperm volume and count and abnormal sperm motility have been observed in chronic marijuana users. In vitro studies show that THC produces a marked degeneration of human sperm. PMID:12281277
Cannabis, or ''marijuana,'' has been employed in various forms throughout the millennia for both symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of migraine. This document examines its history of medicinal use by smoking and other methods in ancient cultures, including the Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and Roman, as well as in the Islamic world, and its subsequent adoption by Renaissance and Industrial
The analysis of 35,312 cannabis preparations confiscated in the USA over a period of 18 years for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and other major cannabinoids is reported. Samples were identified as cannabis, hashish, or hash oil. Cannabis samples were further subdivided into marijuana (loose material, kilobricks and buds), sinsemilla, Thai sticks and ditchweed. The data showed that more than 82% of all confiscated samples were in the marijuana category for every year except 1980 (61%) and 1981 (75%). The potency (concentration of delta9-THC) of marijuana samples rose from less than 1.5% in 1980 to approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984, then fluctuated around 3% till 1992. Since 1992, the potency of confiscated marijuana samples has continuously risen, going from 3.1% in 1992 to 4.2% in 1997. The average concentration of delta9-THC in all cannabis samples showed a gradual rise from 3% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1997. Hashish and hash oil, on the other hand, showed no specific potency trends. Other major cannabinoids [cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichromene (CBC)] showed no significant change in their concentration over the years. PMID:10641915
ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Mehmedic, Z; Arafat, R; Yi, B; Banahan, B F
This article focuses on marijuana misuse or abuse in African states. It specifically addresses the questions concerning the origins and meanings of marijuana, the history of marijuana as a drug of misuse, legal classification, model of consumption, user inducement and motivation, relationship between marijuana use and criminality, legal status and laws governing the control of marijuana; and it surveys African
Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the period 1995-2002 were examined in three cities in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose), one city in Colorado (Denver), and one city in Oregon (Portland). Data were also analysed for juvenile arrestees in two of the California cities and Portland. Data on emergency department patients from the Drug Abuse Warning Network for the period 1994-2002 were examined in three metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco), one in Colorado (Denver), and one in Washington State (Seattle). The analysis followed an interrupted time-series design. No statistically significant pre-law versus post-law differences were found in any of the ADAM or DAWN sites. Thus, consistent with other studies of the liberalization of cannabis laws, medical cannabis laws do not appear to increase use of the drug. One reason for this might be that relatively few individuals are registered medical cannabis patients or caregivers. In addition, use of the drug by those already sick might "de-glamorise" it and thereby do little to encourage use among others. PMID:17689362
We present the course of cyclical hyperemesis most likely induced by cannabis in a young cannabis-dependent, but otherwise healthy female adult. Cyclical hyperemesis developed in parallel to increasing cannabis inhalation, and remitted completely within a few days of abstinence in a protective inpatient setting. Just as in those increasing cases which can be found in literature, the hyperemesis improved by taking a hot shower or bath at the beginning of the detoxification. This thermosensitivity, along with the detection of a central disturbance of the thyroid axis, points to the hypothalamic cannabinoid system being involved in cannabis-induced cyclical hyperemesis. The patient was followed up for 4 months without any re-occurrence of the syndrome during controlled cannabis abstinence. PMID:21692016
One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving. PMID:24018225
Cousijn, J; Watson, P; Koenders, L; Vingerhoets, W A M; Goudriaan, A E; Wiers, R W
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence.
In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. PMID:11366751
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged.
The use of Cannabis, specially in Europe, is a very interesting subject for the media today. For several decades, Cannabis pharmacognosy has been more studied and new developments have appeared specially because of the cultivation of selected plants in the greenhouse and in Holland to obtain "nederwiet". Now, new research in the area of phytobiology, analysis and pharmacology has become necessary to bring scientific results for discussion on legalization of Cannabis consumption. The conclusion we can draw is that abuse of new forms by young people is dangerous for their health and disturb their behaviour. PMID:9338996
Despite the increasing use of cannabis among adolescents, there are little and often contradictory studies on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabis consumption in juveniles. Adolescence is a critical phase for cerebral development, where the endocannabinoid system plays an important role influencing the release and action of different neurotransmitters. Therefore, a strong stimulation by the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour. The literature here summarized by use of experimental animal models, puts forward that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle changes in the adult brain circuits ending in altered emotional and cognitive performance, enhanced vulnerability for the use of more harmful drugs of abuse in selected individuals, and may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Therefore, the potential problems arising in relation to marijuana consumption in adolescence suggest that this developmental phase is a vulnerable period for persistent adverse effects of cannabinoids. PMID:18358595
ABSTRACT. Objective: Impulsivity is associated with increased marijuana use and subsequent marijuana-related problems among marijuana users. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes have been associated with cannabis-related phenotypes. This exploratory study tested whether the association between different aspects of impulsivity and the number of marijuana-related problems among users is explicated by variation in these putative cannabinoid-related genes. Method: A total of 151 young adult regular marijuana users (used on M= 41.4% of the prior 60 days, SD = 24.3%) provided DNA and completed measures of trait (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and behavioral impulsivity (Stop Signal Task and Delay Discounting Questionnaire), as well as a self-report of marijuana-related problems. Three CNR1 and five FAAH SNPs were genotyped, tested for haplotype blocks, and subsequently examined for association with phenotypes described above. Results: CNR1 variation significantly moderated the association between trait-level, but not behavioral, impulsivity and marijuana-related problems, such that the combination of higher trait impulsivity and CNR1 variation was associated with a greater number of marijuana-related problems. In contrast, there were no significant FAAH by impulsivity interactions; however, there was a main effect of FAAH on marijuana-related problems. Conclusions: These findings support an association with CNR1 and FAAH genes and marijuana-related problems among regular marijuana users. CNR1 variation emerged as a moderator of the relationship between trait impulsivity and marijuana problems, thus suggesting that marijuana users with CNR1 risk variants and a higher trait impulsivity are at greater risk for developing marijuana-related problems and supporting a role for CNR1 in a broader impulsivity phenotype. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 867-878, 2013). PMID:24172113
Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Metrik, Jane; McGeary, John; Palmer, Rohan H C; Francazio, S; Knopik, Valerie S
While the scientific and medical communities continue to be divided on the therapeutic benefits and risks of cannabis use, anecdotal evidence from medical users themselves suggests that using cannabis is indeed improving their quality of life by alleviating their pain and discomfort. Notwithstanding the benefits anecdotally claimed by these medical users and the existence of some scientific studies confirming their claims, criminal drug laws in all Australian and most United States jurisdictions continue to prohibit the possession, cultivation and supply of cannabis even for medical purposes. However, in contrast to Australia and most parts of the United States, the medical use of cannabis has been legal in Canada for about a decade. This article reviews these differing legal and regulatory approaches to accommodating the medical use of cannabis (namely, marijuana) as well as some of the challenges involved in legalising it for medical purposes. PMID:20329455
Aims To examine the relationship between cannabis use in adolescence\\/young adulthood and levels of educational attainment. Design Data were gathered over the course of a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measurements Measures analysed included (a) frequency of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood (15-25 years); (b) levels of educational achievement to age
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Annette L. Beautrais
The influence of marijuana cannabinoids on immune function has been examined extensively over the last 25 yr. Various experimental models have been used employing drug-abusing human subjects, experimental animals exposed to marijuana smoke or injected with cannabinoids, and in vitro models employing immune cell cultures treated with various cannabinoids. For the most part, these studies suggest that cannabinoids modulate the
|Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…
Smoking among teens and college students is a significant public health challenge. Tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol continue to be the most commonly abused drugs by teens and young adults. Educational efforts have resulted in increased awareness of the mortality and morbidity attributed to smoking, second-hand smoke, and prenatal exposure to tobacco. Short- and long-term consequences of marijuana use are well
Laura Michelle Tullis; Robert Dupont; Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Mark S. Gold
The assessment of knowledge of the health-related effects of marijuana is important and timely because marijuana is now the most widely used of all illicit drugs available in the United States. The scientific evidence published to date indicates that mari...
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented
Ahmed Elkashef; Frank Vocci; Marilyn Huestis; Margaret Haney; Alan Budney; Amanda Gruber; Nady el-Guebaly
... 1308.35 Section 1308.35 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED...plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such...
... 1308.35 Section 1308.35 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED...plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such...
... 1308.35 Section 1308.35 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED...plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such...
Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems. PMID:19662925
Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D
Marijuana seems firmly established as another social drug in Western countries, regardless of its current legal status. Patterns of use vary widely. As with other social drugs, the pattern of use is critical in determining adverse effects on health. Perhaps the major area of concern about marijuana use is among the very young. Using any drug on a regular basis that alters reality may be detrimental to the psychosocial maturation of young persons. Chronic use of marijuana may stunt the emotional growth of youngsters. Evidence for an amotivational syndrome is largely based on clinical reports; whether marijuana use is a cause or effect is uncertain. A marijuana psychosis, long rumored, has been difficult to prove. No one doubts that marijuana use may aggravate existing psychoses or other severe emotional disorders. Brain damage has not been proved. Physical dependence is rarely encountered in the usual patterns of social use, despite some degree of tolerance that may develop. The endocrine effects of the drug might be expected to delay puberty in prepubertal boys, but actual instances have been rare. As with any material that is smoked, chronic smoking of marijuana will produce bronchitis; emphysema or lung cancer have not yet been documented. Cardiovascular effects of the drug are harmful to those with preexisting heart disease; fortunately the number of users with such conditions is minimal. Fears that the drug might accumulate in the body to the point of toxicity have been groundless. The potential deleterious effects of marijuana use on driving ability seem to be self-evident; proof of such impairment has been more difficult. The drug is probably harmful when taken during pregnancy, but the risk is uncertain. One would be prudent to avoid marijuana during pregnancy, just as one would do with most other drugs not essential to life or well-being. No clinical consequences have been noted from the effects of the drug on immune response, chromosomes, or cell metabolites. Contamination of marijuana by spraying with defoliants has created the clearest danger to health; such attempts to control production should be abandoned. Therapeutic uses for marijuana, THC, or cannabinoid homologs are being actively explored. Only the synthetic homolog, nabilone, has been approved for use to control nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3520605
The medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has been controversial, especially in the United States. Marijuana for medicinal use is approved in 14 U.S. states and has recently been considered for legalization in several additional states. Given its demonstrated efficacy in symptom management, marijuana has a potential role in palliative care. This study utilized a 16-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, experience, and views of hospice professionals regarding the use of marijuana in terminally ill patients. The study results revealed that, like the general public, hospice health care providers are generally in favor of legalization of marijuana and, if legalized, would support its use in symptom management for their terminally ill patients. PMID:22077541
Uritsky, Tanya J; McPherson, Mary Lynn; Pradel, Françoise
Domestic cannabis cultivation is occurring at high levels and eradication is increasing across the United States, according to the most recent eradication data. Cannabis cultivation operations currently appear to be most prevalent in western states but ar...
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of marijuana use to mortality. METHODS: The study population comprised 65171 Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program enrollees, aged 15 through 49 years, who completed questionnaires about smoking habits, including marijuana use, between 1979 and 1985. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 1991. RESULTS: Compared with nonuse or experimentation (lifetime use six or fewer times), current marijuana use was not associated with a significantly increased risk of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality in men (relative risk [RR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.39) or of total mortality in women (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.48). Current marijuana use was associated with increased risk of AIDS mortality in men (RR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.33, 2.73), an association that probably was not causal but most likely represented uncontrolled confounding by male homosexual behavior. This interpretation was supported by the lack of association of marijuana use with AIDS mortality in men from a Kaiser Permanente AIDS database. Relative risks for ever use of marijuana were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Marijuana use in a prepaid health care-based study cohort had little effect on non-AIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women.
Sidney, S; Beck, J E; Tekawa, I S; Quesenberry, C P; Friedman, G D
Rationale The effects of adolescent marijuana use on the developing brain remain unclear, despite its prevalence. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive imaging technique that characterizes neurovascular status and cerebral blood flow (CBF), potentially revealing contributors to neuropathological alterations. No studies to date have looked at CBF in adolescent marijuana users. Objectives This study examined CBF in adolescent marijuana users and matched healthy controls at baseline and after 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. Methods Heavy adolescent marijuana users (n=23, >200 lifetime marijuana use days) and demographically matched controls (n=23) with limited substance exposure underwent an ASL brain scan at an initial session and after 4 weeks of sequential urine toxicology to confirm abstinence. Results Marijuana users showed reduced CBF in four cortical regions including the left superior and middle temporal gyri, left insula, left and right medial frontal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus at baseline; users showed increased CBF in the right precuneus at baseline, as compared to controls (corrected p values<0.05). No between group differences were found at follow-up. Conclusions Marijuana use may influence CBF in otherwise healthy adolescents acutely; however, group differences were not observed after several weeks of abstinence. Neurovascular alterations may contribute to or underlie changes in brain activation, neuropsychological performance, and mood observed in young cannabis users with less than a month of abstinence.
Jacobus, Joanna; Goldenberg, Diane; Wierenga, Christina E.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Liu, Thomas T.
A national survey released by the conservative Family Research Council shows a nearly equal split among American voters on the issue of medicinal use of marijuana. Forty-three percent approve the use of marijuana as medicine, even when told that the drug contains fungus and cancer-causing agents. With more balanced questions, 46 percent favored ballot initiatives to allow people to grow, possess, and use marijuana as part of medical treatments. Another survey question shows 64 percent of voters opposed to Federal funding for needle exchange programs. PMID:11366508
In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives. PMID:17976975
Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap
As documented in national surveys, for the past several years, marijuana has been the most commonly abused drug in the United States, with approximately 6% of the population 12 years and older having used the drug in the month prior to interview. The use of marijuana is not without significant health hazards. Marijuana is associated with effects on almost every organ system in the body, ranging from the central nervous system to the cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory/pulmonary, and immune systems. Research presented in this special supplement will show that in addition to marijuana abuse/dependence, marijuana use is associated in some studies with impairment of cognitive function in the young and old, fetal and developmental consequences, cardiovascular effects (heart rate and blood pressure changes), respiratory/pulmonary complications such as chronic cough and emphysema, impaired immune function leading to vulnerability to and increased infections, and the risk of developing head, neck, and/or lung cancer. In general, acute effects are better studied than those of chronic use, and more studies are needed that focus on disentangling effects of marijuana from those of other drugs and adverse environmental conditions. PMID:12412830
Khalsa, Jag H; Genser, Sander; Francis, Henry; Martin, Billy
For centuries Cannabissativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688
Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo
Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among pregnant women and adolescents, the impact of cannabis on the developing\\u000a brain is still not well understood. However, growing evidence supports that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role\\u000a in CNS patterning in structures relevant for mood, cognition, and reward, such as the mesocorticolimbic system. It is thus\\u000a clear that exposure to
Didier Jutras-Aswad; Jennifer A. DiNieri; Tibor Harkany; Yasmin L. Hurd
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), and relief from pain and spasticity\\u000a has been reported in MS patients self-medicating with marijuana. A cannabis-based medication containing ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (Sativex®) has been approved in some countries for the treatment of MS-associated pain. The effects of this pharmaceutical preparation\\u000a on other clinically relevant aspects of
Diego Centonze; Francesco Mori; Giacomo Koch; Fabio Buttari; Claudia Codecà; Silvia Rossi; Maria Teresa Cencioni; Monica Bari; Stefania Fiore; Giorgio Bernardi; Luca Battistini; Mauro Maccarrone
The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabissativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabissativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454
El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa
The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabissativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabissativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances.
El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaa; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa
The controversy concerning the taxonomic status of the genus Cannabis has now advanced to a stage where the forensic scientist has limitations to his testimony in identification of "marihuana" plant material in jurisdictions where the law defines "marihuana" as Cannabissativa L. Whether the genus Cannabis is monotypic or polytypic is as yet uncertain, but recent taxonomic reviews weigh heavily toward the existence of three or more species within the genus. The taxonomists or forensic scientists cannot, therefore, positively state for fact that C. sativa is the only species existing within the genus Cannabis. The popular concept of "marihuana" is actually based on the chemical characteristics of the plant Cannabis, rather than on the taxonomic classification. This is evident in its inclusion as a drug or hallucinogenic substance under Federal and local statutes. It is therefore proposed that "marihuana" be redefined legally to include all members belonging to the genus, in jurisdictions where legal definition warrants such an act, or that these jurisdictions follow the format set forth by Federal rulings. PMID:1176918
Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20 mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline followback method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P = .02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P= .02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions.
Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward
The report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. The major objectives of the program were to determine the dose-response relationship between delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main constituent, and objectiv...
A relatively high proportion of young adults in San Francisco have used marijuana one or more times. The proportion in this age group who have used marijuana is as great among nonstudents as among students.
Dean I. Manheimer; Glen D. Mellinger; Mitchell B. Balter
The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis samples from landraces, three different trial fields and seized marijuana were collected. 100g of each sample was dried, ground and quantitatively analyzed for THC, CBD and CBN contents by GC-FID. The results showed that cannabis grown during March-June which had longer vegetative stages and longer photoperiod exposure, had higher cannabinoids contents than those grown in August. The male plants grown in trial fields had the range of THC contents from 0.722% to 0.848% d.w. and average THC/CBD ratio of 1.9. Cannabis in landraces at traditional harvest time of 75 days had a range of THC contents from 0.874% to 1.480% d.w. and an average THC/CBD ratio of 2.6. The THC contents and THC/CBD ratios of cannabis in second generation crops grown in the same growing season were found to be lower than those grown in the first generation, unless fairly high temperatures and a lesser amount of rainfall were present. The average THC content in seized fresh marijuana was 2.068% d.w. while THC/CBD ratios were between 12.6 and 84.09, which is 10-45 times greater than those of similar studied cannabis samples from the previous study. However, most Thai cannabis in landraces and in trial fields giving a low log(10) value of THC/CBD ratio at below 1 may be classified as intermediate type, whereas seized marijuana giving a higher log(10) value at above 1 could be classified as drug type. Therefore, the expanded information provided by the current study will assist in the development of criteria for regulation of hemp cultivation in Thailand. PMID:21636228
The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:22545056
Kothadia, Jiten P; Chhabra, Saurabh; Marcus, Alan; May, Michael; Saraiya, Biren; Jabbour, Salma K
Although many cocaine users initiated marijuana prior to cocaine, no formal evidence exists that marijuana consumption causes, or is a gateway to, cocaine consumption. This paper employs a two-stage instrumental variable procedure to estimate a structural effect of past marijuana demand on current cocaine demand using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Extensive specification testing verifies that the
In economic terms, marijuana is an important, yet little understood and controversial commodity. According to our estimates, spending on marijuana in Australia is about twice that on wine. But this commodity, which has been used by about one-third of the population, generates no tax revenue. This paper explores economic aspects by marijuana consumption, concentrating on the estimation of the amount
Australians are among the largest consumers of marijuana in the world, and estimates show that their expenditure on marijuana is approximately twice that on wine. In the present paper, the evolution of Australian marijuana prices over the last decade is analysed, and a decline in real terms by almost 40 per cent is shown. This decline is far above that
The effects of acute marijuana intoxication on remote memory and new learning were assessed. To test for the effects of marijuana on remote memory, titles of oneseason television shows, aired up to 14 years previously, were used in three tests measuring recognition, temporal judgement and detailed recall of facts from the shows. Marijuana did not affect remote memory in comparison
C. Douglas Wetzel; David S. Janowsky; Paul L. Clopton
In several anonymous questionnaire studies of college students, marijuana use has been reported to affect sexual behavior. In general, these studies show that marijuana smoking enhances sexual pleasure and increases sexual desire. Marijuana use has also been associated with more frequent sexual activity and an increased number of sexual partners. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived
The increasing use of marijuana in the United States despite the harsh penalties for violation of anti-marijuana laws suggests the need for a reassessment of our present policies. Are the effects of the use of the marijuana drug sufficiently injurious to either the individual or society to warrant such severe legal intervention by the government? What are the social consequences
Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist\\u000a after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting\\u000a to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be understood to properly evaluate\\u000a available studies. At present, it appears safe
Harrison G. Pope Jr; Amanda J. Gruber; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD); the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine.
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance among youths and recent epidemiological data indicate that rates of marijuana use are on the rise. The purpose of this study was to examine marijuana craving trajectories among adolescents in an eight-week, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial targeting marijuana cessation. All participants received contingency management and cessation counseling, and were randomized to either N-acetylcysteine (1200mg NAC twice daily; n=45) or placebo (n=44). Craving for marijuana was measured using the short-form of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Results demonstrated a significant decrease in MCQ scores over time for the total sample, but no significant differential change in scores between the NAC and placebo groups. This lack of significant difference is in the setting of NAC participants submitting significantly more negative urine cannabinoid tests as compared to placebo participants. This suggests that cessation effects associated with NAC may be mediated by effects other than marijuana craving. PMID:23261493
Roten, Amanda T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M
The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder.
OBJECTIVE To describe medical marijuana use from the perspectives of patients with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Participants discussed their medicinal marijuana use in one-to-one, semistructured interviews. SETTING Interviews were conducted at a time and place convenient to participants. PARTICIPANTS Six men and eight women with multiple sclerosis participated. METHOD Potential participants identified themselves to the researcher after receiving an invitation in a mailed survey. Eligibility was confirmed, and purposive sampling was used to recruit subjects. A range of issues emerged from the interviews. Interviews and data analysis continued until saturation occurred. MAIN FINDINGS Descriptions fell into three broad areas: patterns of use, legal or social concerns, and perceived effects. Consumption patterns ranged from very infrequent to very regular and were influenced by symptoms, social factors, and supply. Legal concerns expressed by most respondents were negligible. Social concerns centred on to whom use was revealed. The perceived benefits of use were consistent with previous reports in the literature: reduction in pain, spasms, tremors, nausea, numbness, sleep problems, bladder and bowel problems, and fatigue and improved mood, ability to eat and drink, ability to write, and sexual functioning. Adverse effects included problems with cognition, balance, and fatigue and the feeling of being high. Although participants described risks associated with using marijuana, the benefits they derived made the risks acceptable. CONCLUSION Further research is needed to clarify the safety and efficacy of marijuana use by patients with multiple sclerosis. If evidence of benefit is seen, medicinal marijuana should be made available to patients who could benefit from it. Until then, discussing medicinal marijuana use with patients will be awkward for health professionals.
The effects of acute marijuana intoxication on remote memory and new learning were assessed. To test for the effects of marijuana on remote memory, titles of one-season television shows, aired up to 14 years previously, were used in three tests measuring recognition, temporal judgement and detailed recall of facts from the shows. Marijuana did not affect remote memory in comparison to placebo. The effects of marijuana on the learning of a word list were also tested. Marijuana significantly impaired new learning at the same time that remote memory was unaffected. PMID:6808550
Cannabissativa L. is possibly one of the oldest plants cultivated by man, but has remained a source of controversy throughout its history. Whether pariah or panacea, this most versatile botanical has provided a mirror to medicine and has pointed the way in the last two decades toward a host of medical challenges from analgesia to weight loss through the discovery of its myriad biochemical attributes and the endocannabinoid system wherein many of its components operate. This study surveys the history of cannabis, its genetics and preparations. A review of cannabis usage in Ancient Egypt will serve as an archetype, while examining first mentions from various Old World cultures and their pertinence for contemporary scientific investigation. Cannabis historians of the past have provided promising clues to potential treatments for a wide array of currently puzzling medical syndromes including chronic pain, spasticity, cancer, seizure disorders, nausea, anorexia, and infectious disease that remain challenges for 21st century medicine. Information gleaned from the history of cannabis administration in its various forms may provide useful points of departure for research into novel delivery techniques and standardization of cannabis-based medicines that will allow their prescription for treatment of these intractable medical conditions. PMID:17712811
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance by adolescents in the United States. According to a 2009 survey conducted by Monitoring the Future, there were about 11.8% of 8th graders, 26.7% of 10th graders and 32.8% of 12th graders who had abused marijuana at least once in the year (Johnston L.D., Bachman J.G., O'Malley P.M., Schulenberg J.E. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2009 [Computer file]. ICPSR28401-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-10-27. doi:10.3886/ICPSR28401). A retrospective review of published literature disclosed case reports of marijuana-induced mania in adult patients with no prior psychiatric history (Bonnet U., Chang D.I., Wiltfang J., Scherbaum N., Weber R. A case of cannabis-induced mania. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010 Apr; 78(4):223-5. Epub 2010 Feb3; Henquet C., Krabbendam L., de Graaf R., ten Have M., van Os J. Cannabis use and expression of mania in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):103-10. Epub 2006 Jun 21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document that marijuana induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with no known prior psychiatric history. PMID:21749837
Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sharma, Taral
Cannabissativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817
Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…
|Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the level of cannabis use in psychotic patients admitted to two acute admission wards in New Zealand. Symptomatology was investigated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).Method: During a 1-month period, all acute admissions to Tokanui Hospital with psychosis were interviewed and symptoms rated on the BPRS (n = 35). Cannabis
Cannabis use by people suffering from schizophrenia increase relapse rate and reduce adhesion to treatment. Motivational interventions could reduce cannabis misuse. The motivational interviewing principles and techniques are presented in a concrete way as well as the required adaptations to bypass cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. PMID:20141773
Fibre hemp may yield up to 25 t above ground dry matter per hectare (20 t stem dry matter ha?1) which may contain as much as 12 t ha?1 cellulose, depending on environmental conditions and agronomy. Its performance is affected by the onset of flowering and seed development. Effects of cultivar and management on yield and quality were tested at
P. C. Struik; S. Amaducci; M. J. Bullard; N. C. Stutterheim; G. Venturi; H. T. H. Cromack
The objective of this review is to describe self-administration procedures for modeling addiction to cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory, the benefits and pitfalls of the approach, and the methodological issues unique to each drug. In addition, the predictive validity of the model for testing treatment medications will be addressed. The results show that all three drugs of abuse are reliably and robustly self-administered by non-treatment-seeking research volunteers. In terms of pharmacotherapies, cocaine use is extraordinarily difficult to disrupt either in the laboratory or in the clinic. A range of medications has been shown to significantly decrease cocaine's subjective effects and craving without decreasing either cocaine self-administration or cocaine abuse by patients. These negative data combined with recent positive findings with modafinil suggest that self-administration procedures are an important intermediary step between pre-clinical and clinical studies. In terms of cannabis, a recent study suggests that medications that improve sleep and mood during cannabis withdrawal decrease the resumption of marijuana self-administration in abstinent volunteers. Clinical data on patients seeking treatment for their marijuana use are needed to validate these laboratory findings. Finally, in contrast to cannabis or cocaine dependence, there are three efficacious Food and Drug Administration-approved medications to treat opioid dependence, all of which decrease both heroin self-administration and subjective effects in the human laboratory. In summary, self-administration procedures provide meaningful behavioral data in a small number of individuals. These studies contribute to our understanding of the variables maintaining cocaine, marijuana and heroin intake, and are important in guiding the development of more effective drug treatment programs. PMID:18855806
This review covers published information on psychoactive drugs, particularly cannabis, in Papua New Guinea. Legal drugs are mentioned to place the illegal drugs into a broader public health context. Although a number of psychoactive drugs were used traditionally (and are used now), cannabis is the only illicit drug for which prevalence of use is currently not negligible. Very little epidemiology research on cannabis use and its individual and public health sequelae has been conducted, although a fuller criminology literature on the topic exists. The published cannabis use prevalence studies are limited in scope, and the most-cited one is of questionable accuracy. The complex interactions between the health of individuals and their social environments are highlighted by the destructive impacts that cannabis cultivation, trafficking and use are having in contemporary PNG. PMID:18181450
Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among pregnant women and adolescents, the impact of cannabis on the developing brain is still not well understood. However, growing evidence supports that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in CNS patterning in structures relevant for mood, cognition, and reward, such as the mesocorticolimbic system. It is thus clear that exposure to cannabis during early ontogeny is not benign and potential compensatory mechanisms that might be expected to occur during neurodevelopment appear insufficient to eliminate vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in certain individuals. Both human longitudinal cohort studies and animal models strongly emphasize the long-term influence of prenatal cannabinoid exposure on behavior and mental health. This review provides an overview of the endocannabinoid system and examines the neurobiological consequences of cannabis exposure in pregnancy and early life by addressing its impact on the development of neurotransmitters systems relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders and its association with these disorders later in life. It posits that studying in utero cannabis exposure in association with genetic mutations of neural systems that have strong relationships to endocannabinoid function, such as the dopamine, opioid, glutamate, and GABA, might help to identify individuals at risk. Such data could add to existing knowledge to guide public health platform in regard to the use of cannabis and its derivatives during pregnancy. PMID:19568685
Jutras-Aswad, Didier; DiNieri, Jennifer A; Harkany, Tibor; Hurd, Yasmin L
It has been asserted that there are legal species of marihuana plants, and this contention has generated frequent court challenges of criminal prosecutions involving marihuana. Invariably the claim is made that the name C. sativa used in legislation is insufficiently comprehensive to proscribe all forms of marihuana. The maneuver being used, alarmingly, is potentially applicable to innumerable other materials, but its success is based on a failure to appreciate the subjective nature of taxonomy and the little-known but critical ambiguities which are inherent in scientific names. The complex principles and operational conventions of biological nomenclature are presented in elementary fashion. Despite important technical constraints on the use of scientific names, some facts are clear: these names are used subjectively, they may be highly ambiguous, the consensus on use of these names is liable to change with time and, most important, quite permissibly they may have substantially different meanings to different users. The claim that there are legal species of Cannabis merely amounts to a semantic ploy in which certain of the variants of Cannabis that have customarily been understood to be denoted by the species name C. sativa, and which are clearly understood to be proscribed, are simply arbitrarily redefined as different species. This ploy has proven unsuccessful in all cases where scientific evidence was adequately presented by the state and in all important court cases where the issue was critically examined. PMID:1262824
Approximately 80 volunteers male marijuana and alcohol users received one of four experimental treatments: (1) marijuana, (2) alcohol, (3) marijuana and alcohol, or (4) double placebo. After consumption, each subject drove a vehicle over a test course whi...
A. A. Biasotti P. Boland C. Mallory R. Peck V. C. Reeve
Marijuana Info To learn more about marijuana or obtain referrals to programs in your community, contact one ... ica l u ses . 11 The Truth About Marijuana Slang — Weed, Pot, Grass, Reefer, Ganja, Mary Jane, ...
It is intriguing that during human cultural evolution man has detected plant natural products that appear to target key protein receptors of important physiological systems rather selectively. Plants containing such secondary metabolites usually belong to unique chemotaxa, induce potent pharmacological effects and have typically been used for recreational and medicinal purposes or as poisons. Cannabissativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The major psychoactive Cannabis constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) potently activates the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor CB(1) and also modulates the cannabinoid receptor CB(2). In the last few years, several other non-cannabinoid plant constituents have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors. Moreover, certain plant natural products, from both Cannabis and other plants, also target other proteins of the endocannabinoid system, such as hydrolytic enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this commentary we summarize and critically discuss recent findings. PMID:20590562
Gertsch, Jürg; Pertwee, Roger G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo
Neuropsychological investigations of substance abusers have reported impairments on tasks mediated by the frontal executive system, including functions associated with behavioral inhibition and decision making. The higher order or executive components which are involved in decision making include selective attention and short term storage of information, inhibition of response to irrelevant information, initiation of response to relevant information, self-monitoring of performance, and changing internal and external contingencies in order to "stay the course" towards the ultimate goal. Given the hypothesized role of frontal systems in decision making and the previous evidence that executive dysfunctions and structural brain changes exist in subjects who use illicit drugs, we applied fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques in a pilot investigation of heavy cannabis smokers and matched control subjects while performing a modification of the classic Stroop task. Marijuana smokers demonstrated significantly lower anterior cingulate activity in focal areas of the anterior cingulate cortex and higher midcingulate activity relative to controls, although both groups were able to perform the task within normal limits. Normal controls also demonstrated increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the interference condition, while marijuana smokers demonstrated a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of DLPFC activation. Similarly, although both groups performed the task well, marijuana smokers made more errors of commission than controls during the interference condition, which were associated with different brain regions than control subjects. These findings suggest that marijuana smokers exhibit different patterns of BOLD response and error response during the Stroop interference condition compared to normal controls despite similar task performance. Furthermore, DTI measures in frontal regions, which include the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral anterior cingulate white matter regions, showed no between group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of directional coherence within white matter fiber tracts, but a notable increase in trace, a measure of overall isotropic diffusivity in marijuana smokers compared to controls. Overall, results from the present study indicate significant differences in the magnitude and pattern of signal intensity change within the anterior cingulate and the DLPFC during the Stroop interference subtest in chronic marijuana smokers compared to normal controls. Furthermore, although chronic marijuana smokers were able to perform the task reasonably well, the functional activation findings suggest they utilize different cortical processes from the control subjects in order to do so. Findings from this study are consistent with the notion that substance abusers demonstrate evidence of altered frontal neural function during the performance of tasks that involve inhibition and performance monitoring, which may affect the ability to make decisions. PMID:15795138
The aim of this study is to determine delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9 THC) content in 5227 seizures of cannabis products over the period 1997-2004 (first four months). The products were seized in Modena country (Italy). The samples were classified as marijuana and hashish and divided into subgroups. The following results show an increase in the potency (concentration of delta9 THC) of these products. PMID:16569917
Licata, Manuela; Verri, Patrizia; Beduschi, Giovanni
In this paper the results of a multidisciplinary long term and controlled study on chronic cannabis use are critically reviewed. The first part of the study consisted of: (a) standardization of methods and identification of the experimental sample of chronic cannabis users and matched controls; (b) comparison of the two groups on a number of variables following administration of a battery of medical, psychiatric, neurophysiologic, and psychologic tests; (c) acute cannabis inhalation experiments during which the effect of cannabis preparations of various strengths and of THC-delta-9 were studied in relation to behavioral, psychologic, neurophysiologic, and psychophysiologic responses; (d) identificaiton of possible withdrawal symptoms during a 3-day abstinence period and reintroduction of hashish use. The second part of the study consisted of: (a) a controlled histochemical and electron-microscopic investigation of blood cells and sperm, aimed at revealing changes produced by cannabis at the molecular level, particularly in the cell-nuclear area; (b) a biochemical investigation of changes in biogenic amines and substances related to their metabolism and function during cannabis pre-smoking and postsmoking periods. Our findings from the first part of the study failed to distinguish users from nonusers on most of the investigated parameters. However, they provided useful information on a variety of controversial issues and revealed methodological limitations which should guide future research. Our findings from the second part of the study, although still preliminary, clearly indicate that cannabis use affects cell-nuclear metabolism and produces changes on the molecular level potentially significant for man's biologic functioning. Furthermore findings from this part of this study indicated that cannabis' acute effects in man are correlated with changes in metabolism directly related to biogenic amine biosynthesis and function. It is concluded that despite advances in recent years cannabis research has still a long way to go before providing the definitive answers to the very important questions arising from its habitual use by man. PMID:34102
Male volunteer subjects smoked one marijuana cigarette containing 100, 200, or 250 µg\\/kg ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and were tested on three perceptual-motor performance measures related to driving. Performance was measured and blood samples were collected for 24 h after smoking. The covariation between phamacodynamics of performance and pharmacokinetics of THC in plasma was investigated for decrement in performance as the response
Globally, suicide has emerged as the second leading cause of death among youth aged 10-24 years old. In order to better understand the causes of this phenomenon, we investigate the relationship between suicidal ideation and cannabis use. Our empirical analysis is based on a 30-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort. We find that intensive cannabis use - at least several times per week - leads to a higher transition rate into suicidal ideation for males. We find no evidence that suicidal ideation leads to cannabis use for either males or females. PMID:23518573
van Ours, Jan C; Williams, Jenny; Fergusson, David; Horwood, L John
There is a high comorbidity between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Several factors contribute to this comorbidity: secondary development of addiction, cannabis-related induction of psychosis and shared neurobiological alterations. Meanwhile, there is evidence that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that a frequent cannabis use doubles the risk for schizophrenia. Interestingly, schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis use often show significantly better performances in neuropsychological tests than patients without cannabis use. This is nevertheless not due to a positive effect of cannabis, but a sign of cannabis-related psychosis induction in subjects with a higher level of function and less cognitive impairment. Whether cannabis use leads to schizophrenia is determined by the individual vulnerability. PMID:22048912
As previous work has highlighted the significance of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes with respect to cannabis dependence (CD), this study sought to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie these genetic effects. To this end, we collected DNA samples and fMRI data using a cue-elicited craving paradigm in thirty-seven 3-day-abstinent regular marijuana users.
Francesca M Filbey; Joseph P Schacht; Ursula S Myers; Robert S Chavez; Kent E Hutchison
In 1985 approximately 120,000 American high school seniors smoked marijuana daily. We interviewed 35 middle-class, cannabis-dependent adolescents with a mean age of 16 years who were patients in a drug treatment program. The patients also completed a lengthy self-assessment questionnaire designed to elicit information on drug-related problems. Our results show that family harmony, school attendance, and school achievement deteriorated once
Richard H. Schwartz; Norman G. Hoffmann; Richard Jones
Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT's) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations toward cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies toward cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users. PMID:23801968
Beraha, Esther M; Cousijn, Janna; Hermanides, Elisa; Goudriaan, Anna E; Wiers, Reinout W
The alarming increase in cannabis abuse has triggered a renewed interest in the neurobiological mechanisms which underlie its effects, particularly as regards its addictive properties either intrinsic or when crossed with other narcotics as well as its subsequent damage. We here report an evaluation of experimental data which reveal in animals a psychological dependence, common to all addictive drugs; a physical dependence, which is considered up to now as the characteristic of "hard addictive drugs"; the incentive effect that cannabis should exert on the inclination to abuse other addictive drugs, especially heroin; and finally the close relationships which seem to exist between cannabis and schizophrenia. Most of these recent data are far from reassuring as regards cannabis psychotoxicity. Furthermore they underline its potential danger and prompt increased caution. PMID:12145839
This paper examines some of the key points relevant to the debate about cannabis policy in New Zealand. It provides a brief overview of cannabis use patterns, the cannabis market and the public health implications of use. It describes the various strategies which comprise our current cannabis policy and the context of and primary concerns relating to it. Several alternative policy options are explained and in each case some evaluative comments are made. These alternatives are: total prohibition with an expediency principle; prohibition with civil penalties, partial prohibition, and regulation of private enterprise producers/distributors. From a public health perspective none of these options is unproblematic but each has the potential to overcome some of the disadvantages of the current policy and each needs to be further evaluated. PMID:11039824
The current investigation uses a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate college students (N=189) to investigate schizotypal traits among cannabis and non-cannabis users, as well as the temporal order of the onset of these traits and cannabis use. Findings suggest that regular cannabis users are significantly more prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions as well as disorganization, but not interpersonal deficits, than non-regular users and those who have never used. Additionally, the onset of schizotypal symptoms generally precedes the onset of cannabis use. The findings do not support a causal link between cannabis use and schizotypal traits. PMID:15808288
Schiffman, Jason; Nakamura, Brad; Earleywine, Mitchell; LaBrie, Joseph
This research examined the relationships among perceived social norms, social outcome expectancies, and marijuana use and related consequences among entering college freshman marijuana users. Students (N = 312, 55% female) completed online assessments of their marijuana use, related consequences, perceived norms, and social expectancies related to marijuana use. Results suggested that perceptions of friends' marijuana use were most strongly associated
Clayton Neighbors; Irene M. Geisner; Christine M. Lee
The debate concerning the legalisation of marijuana is intensifying. As the price of marijuana would most likely decrease following legalisation, the law of demand implies that consumption would rise. But by how much? This paper analyses the effect of legalisation on consumption by using data from a specifically- conducted survey of first-year students at The University of Western Australia. The
The Anger Expression Scale and a questionnaire regarding marijuana usage were administered to 497 undergraduate college students enrolled at a rural university in the midwestern United States. Four levels of marijuana use were defined by the questionnaire: nonuser, occasional user, frequent user, and daily user. No significant main effect was found on the Anger-In or Total Anger Expression scales, but
Over 4400 adult internet users completed The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and measures of marijuana use. We employed an internet survey in an effort to recruit the most depressed and marijuana-involved participants, including those who might prove unwilling to travel to the laboratory or discuss drug use on the phone or in person. We compared those who consumed
The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use. Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered. Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD-10 system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted. Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed.
This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
|This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
BackgroundRates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of
David J. Allsop; Melissa M. Norberg; Jan Copeland; Shanlin Fu; Alan J. Budney
Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs among adolescents, and most users first experiment with it in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical phase for brain development, characterized by neuronal maturation and rearrangement processes, such as myelination, synaptic pruning and dendritic plasticity. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in fundamental brain developmental processes such as neuronal cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Therefore changes in endocannabinoid activity during this specific developmental phase, induced by the psychoactive component of marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect brain functions and behaviour. In this review, we outline recent research into the endocannabinoid system focusing on the relationships between adolescent exposure to cannabinoids and increased risk for certain neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, as highlighted by both human and animal studies. Particular emphasis will be given to the possible mechanisms by which adolescent cannabis consumption could render a person more susceptible to developing psychoses such as schizophrenia. PMID:20590561
Malone, Daniel T; Hill, Matthew N; Rubino, Tiziana
Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs among adolescents, and most users first experiment with it in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical phase for brain development, characterized by neuronal maturation and rearrangement processes, such as myelination, synaptic pruning and dendritic plasticity. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in fundamental brain developmental processes such as neuronal cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Therefore changes in endocannabinoid activity during this specific developmental phase, induced by the psychoactive component of marijuana, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect brain functions and behaviour. In this review, we outline recent research into the endocannabinoid system focusing on the relationships between adolescent exposure to cannabinoids and increased risk for certain neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, as highlighted by both human and animal studies. Particular emphasis will be given to the possible mechanisms by which adolescent cannabis consumption could render a person more susceptible to developing psychoses such as schizophrenia. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x
Malone, Daniel T; Hill, Matthew N; Rubino, Tiziana
The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases
Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies. PMID:9692375
|Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…
The author first describes the history of medical use of cannabis and its revival in the 1990s. He then provides an overview of the legal situation and how this affects doctors and patients if cannabis is prescribed or recommended as treatment. Subsequently, the state of the art of cannabis medication research is described and analyzed. Finally, the public and political
The author provides a personal account of her sojourn with multiple sclerosis and its treatment with smoked and oral preparations of cannabis.Additional information is provided as to the effects, dosing and delivery of cannabis employed by 250 members of the Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics.
Aims. Koro, an acute panic reaction related to the perception of penile retraction, was once considered limited to specié c cultures. The disorder has appeared as part of a panic response to cannabis, but only in citizens of India. This study looked for cannabis-induced Koro in Americans. Design. Given the relative rarity of cannabis-induced Koro, this work focused on individual
This paper uses individual level data from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys to estimate the price responsiveness of participation in cannabis, alcohol and cigarette use. In addition to own price effects, we estimate cross price effects and the impact of decriminalizing cannabis use. We find that participation is responsive to own prices. There is some evidence that cannabis is
SummaryThe Effects of Cannabis and THC Cannabis and THC exert manifold actions on a number of organ systems. A lethal dose of THC in humans is unknown. Above the psychotropic threshold, ingestion of cannabis causes an enhanced well-being and relaxation with an intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. The most important unwanted acute psychical effects are anxiety and panic attacks. Acute
Over the past several years, there is an increased demand and use of medical grade cannabis (MGC) in Israel and around the world. Regulation of cannabis growth, use and distribution has been a subject for many discussions in the Israeli medical system, parliament and the media. The increased demand for this kind of treatment, which is considered to be safe and effective in various indications, caused increased interest in the MGC approval mechanisms. Some countries have created regulation and control mechanisms for MGC. The United Nation convention of 1961 defines the medical legal use of narcotic substances. The convention demands full governmental control of the stock of narcotic substances, including cannabis and a governmental mechanism which will license, supervise, control, document and report the yield and consumption. In the Netherlands there is full accordance with the United Nations requirements and there is a special office for MGC which approves growth, production and marketing. MGC is prescribed in the Netherlands and supplied by a pharmacist as a regular drug. In Canada, after a long legal struggle, patients pressured the government to begin a federal program of MGC. In the U.S.A there are differences in cannabis authorization policy between some of the states and the federal government, which opposes MGC use and therefore, places numerous obstacles. Currently in Israel, the Director General of the Ministry of Health, appoints a representative to certify MGC and approve marijuana growers. MGC is directly supplied by the marijuana growers. This is a problematic model which lacks separation between the growers and the patients. Another problem is that the United Nations requirements are not fulfilled. In this review we present the advantages and drawbacks of the current model and propositions for future models for control and regulation of MGC. PMID:22352285
Background There is growing evidence that adolescence is a key period for neuronal maturation. Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and young adults in the United States and internationally, very little is known about its impact on the developing brain. Based on neuroimaging literature on normal brain developmental during adolescence, we hypothesized that individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) would have brain structure abnormalities in similar brain regions that undergo development during late adolescence, particularly the fronto-temporal connection. Method Fourteen young adult males in residential treatment for cannabis dependence and 14 age-matched healthy male control subjects were recruited. Patients had a history of HCU throughout adolescence; 5 had concurrent alcohol abuse. Subjects underwent structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. White matter integrity was compared between subject groups using voxelwise and fiber tractography analysis. Results Voxelwise and tractography analyses revealed that adolescents with HCU had reduced fractional anisotropy, increased radial diffusivity, and increased trace in the homologous areas known to be involved in ongoing development during late adolescence, particularly in the fronto-temporal connection via arcuate fasciculus. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use during adolescence may affect the trajectory of normal brain maturation. Due to concurrent alcohol consumption in five HCU subjects, conclusions from this study should be considered preliminary, as the DTI findings reported here may be reflective of the combination of alcohol and marijuana use. Further research in larger samples, longitudinal in nature, and controlling for alcohol consumption is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of the effect of cannabis on the developing brain.
The Dutch depenalization and subsequent de facto legalization of cannabis since 1976 is used here to highlight the strengths and limitations of reasoning by analogy as a guide for projecting the effects of relaxing drug prohibitions. While the Dutch case and other analogies have flaws, they appear to converge in suggesting that reductions in criminal penalties have limited effects on drug use-at least for marijuana-but that commercial access is associated with growth in the drug-using population. PMID:9311925
A non-invasive saliva sample delta 9-THC radioimmunoassay has been applied to 352 samples from 25 male and 10 female marijuana users after administration of one-half to two standard cigarettes (27 mg delta 9-THC/cigarette) and 72 control negative subjects who ingested a large variety of foods, condiments, or medications in an attempt to demonstrate interferences. The shortest duration of a positive was 2 hrs and the longest was 5 hrs after administration of the cannabis. No positives occurred in control subjects. PMID:2984463
Gross, S J; Worthy, T E; Nerder, L; Zimmermann, E G; Soares, J R; Lomax, P
Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology.
Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier
Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana including attention, cognitive flexibility, time estimation, and visuospatial processing. As expected, acute marijuana use impaired performance on selective and divided attention, time estimation, and cognitive flexibility. While there did not appear to be sex differences in marijuana's effects on cognition, women requested to discontinue the smoking session more often than men likely leading to an underestimation of differences. Further study of psychological differences in marijuana's effects on men and women following both acute and residual effects of marijuana is warranted.
Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.
The initial clinical symptoms of 25 consecutive cases of cannabis psychosis of the paranoid type and 25 consecutive cases of paranoid schizophrenia were studied and compared, in order to delineate features that would enable a differentiation of the two conditions. It was observed that the patients with cannabis psychosis substantially differed in terms of behavioral manifestations. Most of these patients were violent and panicky and demonstrated bizzare behavior, but they possessed some insight into the nature of their illness. Schizophrenic patients manifested these disturbances and characteristics less frequently. Subjects with cannabis psychosis showed rapid ideation and flight of ideas, whereas the characteristic schizophrenic thought-disorder was found mostly in schizophrenic patients. PMID:1259526
Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M age = 18.74, SD = 1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interestingly, social anxiety was not related to marijuana use frequency. Also consistent with prediction, social anxiety was a significant predictor of coping and conformity motives for marijuana use above and beyond relevant variables. Finally, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between social anxiety and marijuana use problems. These data provide novel evidence for the unique effects of coping-motivated marijuana use in the link between marijuana-related impairment and social anxiety.
Buckner, Julia D.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)
\\u000a Marijuana has been used by humans for thousands of years1 for a variety of social, religious, and medical purposes.2–6 Although used medicinally in the United States since the middle of the 19th century,7–12the nonmedicinal use of marijuana was made illegal in 1937; since then, concern over its possible toxicological effects has\\u000a a risen cyclically. A series of studies undertaken in
We present the case of a 15-year-old with a cerebellar infarct that involved multiple arterial territories. It was temporally related to, and probably caused by, heavy marijuana use. While the mechanism of marijuana-associated stroke is unclear, the drug is known to cause hypotension and to impair peripheral vasomotor reflexes. We suspect that the child had diminished cerebral autoregulatory capacity and
Daniel White; David Martin; Thomas Geller; Thomas Pittman
Study Objective: To determine if recently abstinent, heavy marijuana (MJ) users show differences in polysomnographic (PSG) measures compared with a drug-free control group. Design: A group of carefully selected heavy MJ users were chosen for study inclusion and matched to a drug-free control group. Questionnaire data were collected prior to cessation of MJ use. PSG studies were conducted during 2 consecutive nights after discontinuation of MJ use in our core sleep laboratory. Setting: Baltimore Maryland, General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) core sleep lab. Participants: 17 heavy MJ users discontinuing MJ use and 14 drug-free controls. Men and women were studied, 18 to 30 years. The MJ users reported no other drug use and alcohol use was negligible in both groups. Urine was positive for metabolites of cannabis only. Measurements and Results: The MJ users showed differences in PSG measures (lower total sleep times, and less slow wave sleep than the control group) on both nights; they also showed worse sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset, and shorter REM latency than the control group on Night 2. More sleep continuity parameters were significantly worse for the MJ group than the control group on Night 2 versus Night 1, indicating that sleep in the MJ group was relatively worse on Night 2 compared to Night 1. The MJ group did not show improved sleep after an adaptation night as expected. Withdrawal symptoms, craving, and depression did not appear to influence these findings. Conclusions: During discontinuation of heavy MJ use, PSG measures of sleep disturbance were detected in MJ users compared with a drug-free control group. While this preliminary study cannot identify the extent to which these group differences were present before abstinence, poor sleep quality either prior to or after MJ discontinuation could result in treatment failure for MJ users. Further investigation is necessary to determine the association between the use and cessation of MJ and sleep disturbance. Citation: Bolla KI; Lesage SR; Gamaldo CR; Neubauer DN; Funderburk FR; Cadet JL; David PM; Verdejo-Garcia A; Benbrook AR. Sleep disturbance in heavy marijuana users. SLEEP 2008;31(6):901-908.
Bolla, Karen I.; Lesage, Suzanne R.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Neubauer, David N.; Funderburk, Frank R.; Cadet, Jean Lud; David, Paula M.; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Benbrook, Amy R.
Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior to using opioids. This harm reduction strategy may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated with prescription pain medications.
Marijuana use was assessed in 186 people seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. Comparisons were made between clients who did and did not report using marijuana and between marijuana users who did and did not meet diagnostic criteria for marijuana dependence. The relationship between marijuana use and treatment outcome was also explored. A high rate of current marijuana use (59%) was
Alan J. Budney; Stephen T. Higgins; Conrad J. Wong
Cannabinoids are the constituents of the marijuana plant (cannabissativa) of which the major active ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC). Rapid progress has been achieved in marijuana research in the last five years than in the thousands of years that marijuana has been used in human history. For many decades therefore, research on the molecular and neurobiological bases of the physiological
Emmanuel S. Onaivi; Amitabha Chakrabarti; Gautam Chaudhuri
In recent years, cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabissativa linnaeus (marijuana) and their derivatives are drawing renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacological activities such as cell growth inhibition and tumor regression. We ha...
...drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabissativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and...
Background: Although withdrawal symptoms are com- monly reported by persons seeking treatment for mari- juana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been es- tablished. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that oc- cur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Methods: Twelve daily marijuana smokers
Alan J. Budney; John R. Hughes; Brent A. Moore; Pam L. Novy
High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to Negative Expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment was associated with
Despite the widespread abuse of marijuana, knowledge about its effects in the human brain is limited. Brain glucose metabolism with and without ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (main psychoactive component of marijuana) was evaluated in eight normal subjects and eight chronic marijuana abusers with positron emission tomography. At baseline, marijuana abusers showed lower relative cerebellar metabolism than normal subjects. THC increased relative cerebellar
Nora D. Volkow; Hampton Gillespie; Nizar Mullani; Lawrence Tancredi; Cathel Grant; Allan Valentine; Leo Hollister
annabis is one of the oldest, and one of the most widely abused substances. It is available in all parts of the world where it is used commonly as a recreational drug when smoked or consumed in some other ways. It also has some medicinal potential, the reason for which some are calling for its legalization. Cannabis has been associated
Background: In the paper, the authors deal with memory functions in cannabis users, which were examined using the Wechsler Memory Scales - Third Edition (WMS-III), as part of a pro- ject implemented by the Department of Psychology at the Philosophical Faculty of Palacky University in Olomouc in partnership with the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Science and
Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319
Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel
High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to Negative Expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Negative Expectancies mediated the social anxiety-marijuana problems link. These data provide new insight into problematic marijuana use among this high-risk group. PMID:18694625
The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects. PMID:10220811
Marijuana use impairs physical and mental health, cognitive abilities, career status, and social life. Heavy marijuana use critically lowers learning skills, and daily use may result in overall reduced intellectual functioning. The National Survey on Drug...
... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Marijuana and Glaucoma: Separating Fact from Fiction Tweet Eye ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Medical marijuana is promoted as a treatment for many diseases, ...
Socially anxious individuals appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems. However, the nature of the social anxiety-cannabis relation remains unclear. The present study examined the timing and specificity of cannabis craving in response to a social anxiety induction task among 82 (71% female) cannabis users randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. Participants completed ratings of substance (cannabis, alcohol, cigarette) craving at baseline (prior to being informed of task assignment), before, during, and after task. The Time × Condition interaction was significant such that cannabis craving increased from before to during the task among participants in the social interaction condition, but not among those in the reading condition. This effect was specific to cannabis craving and was not observed for craving for alcohol or cigarettes. Data suggest that increases in state social anxiety may play a role in cannabis use behaviors. PMID:23002698
Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Vinci, Christine
|A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.|
Based on a survey of 1,704 suburban adolescents and guided by Sutherland's theory of differential association, this paper focuses on the peer group and marijuana use. The peer group is said to be particularly influential in the initial and continued use of marijuana.This paper tests the following two hypotheses as they relate to marijuana use, defined here as a deviant
In their criticism of the criminal justice system, marijuana legalizers claim that thousands of people are imprisoned for marijuana possession, or,as they sometimes phrase it,for marijuana. The implication is that these inmates are otherwise law abiding i...
Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes
Don R Cherek; Oleg V Tcheremissine; Lori M Lieving; Cythia J Pietras
A 6-year-old boy accidentally became intoxicated with marijuana secondary to ingesting cookies laced with marijuana. He presented with retentive memory deficit of sudden onset that was later diagnosed as transient global amnesia. Transient global amnesia as a result of marijuana intoxication is an extremely rare event. PMID:15352678
|Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)|
Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.
Nearly half of 12th graders have tried marijuana, and 6% use daily. This paper reviews studies on neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, brain function, and subjective and objective measures of sleep in relation to adolescent marijuana use. Adolescents who use marijuana heavily tend to show disadvantaged attention, learning, and processing speed; subtle abnormalities in brain structure; increased activation during cognitive tasks
J. Jacobus; S. Bava; M. Cohen-Zion; O. Mahmood; S. F. Tapert
Though marijuana has been reported to stimulate appetite, we searched for a correlation between obesity and decreased marijuana use. We examined charts of all females referred for morbid obesity\\/weight management in a 12-month period. BMI and substance use data were collected from 297 charts. While 29% of the sample with BMI < 30 (n = 7) used marijuana in the
Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal\\/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were significant predictors of 30-day marijuana use. Furthermore, this model explained over half of
Julie K. Bates; Michael P. Accordino; Robert L. Hewes
:Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal\\/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were significant predictors of 30-day marijuana use. Furthermore, this model explained over half of
Julie K. Bates; Michael P. Accordino; Robert L. Hewes
Two experiments tested whether laboratory stressors induce greater or more variable anxiety in marijuana-intoxicated subjects. In experiment 1, marijuana and placebo subjects were shown a motion picture film depicting dental procedures. In experiment 2, they were subjected to the stress of giving a short videotaped speach. We found no significant difference between marijuana and placebo subjects in anxiety response to
Richard C. Pillard; Douglas M. McNair; Seymour Fisher
This analysis examines the use of marijuana by 458 adolescents in Dade County, Florida public schools in 1992. Statistically significant factors which tended to increase the probability of marijuana use by adolescents include: the fact that their peers were using marijuana, the fact that they were white, male, and their ready access to the substance. Although not statistically significant, adolescents
This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:15173547
Rationale and objective Studies in laboratory animals strongly suggest reciprocal modulation of the opioidergic and endocannabinoid systems, a relationship\\u000a that has not been demonstrated in humans. This study sought to clarify this interaction by assessing how a range of naltrexone\\u000a doses altered the subjective, cognitive, and cardiovascular effects of marijuana.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods Daily marijuana smokers (n?=?29) participated in this within-subject, randomized,
Aims Although previous twin studies have modelled the association between drug initiation and abuse, none has included the obvious risk factor of drug availability. Our aim is to determine whether the genetic and environmental risk factors for cannabis availability also generate variation in cannabis initiation and/or progression to DSM-IV symptoms of abuse. Design We used multi-stage modelling, also known as causal-common-contingent (CCC) analysis, to partition the genetic and environmental factors into common and stage-specific components. Participants This report is based on data collected from 1767 adult males from the Mid Atlantic Twin Registry. Measurements The twins participated in two structured interviews which included clinical and non-clinical measures of cannabis abuse as well as retrospective assessments of perceived cannabis availability between ages 8 and 25. Findings Cannabis availability explained almost all of the shared environmental risks in cannabis initiation and abuse. The influence of availability on the symptoms of abuse was indirect and mediated entirely by cannabis initiatio Conclusion These findings have begun to elucidate the causal processes underlying the liability to drug use and abuse in terms of putative risk factors. Specifically, our results show that the latent shared environmental factors in cannabis initiation and abuse can be explained by measured aspects of the shared environment - those responsible for variation in cannabis availability.
Gillespie, Nathan A; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S
Cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, but the exact biological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to understand the neurobiological pathways that link cannabis use to schizophrenia. This has been an area of great debate; despite similarities between cannabis users and schizophrenia patients, the evidence is not sufficient to establish cause-and-effect. There have been advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of cannabis dependence as well as the role of the cannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms associated with the development of psychosis and effects from cannabis use may be similar but remains elusive.. In order to better understand these associations, this paper will show common neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes as well as common cognitive dysfunction in cannabis users and patients of schizophrenia.. We conclude that epidemiologic evidence highlights potential causal links; however neurobiological evidence for causality remains weak. PMID:23491968
Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances in patients with a psychotic disorder and is associated with a higher risk of psychotic relapses. Identifying reasons for cannabis use and subjective effects in patients with psychotic disorders can provide insight into the functions of cannabis use, and this may lead to targeted interventions. Methods: A literature search of
The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority (64.1%) of patients reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44% used cannabis for >/=5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild. PMID:15753439
Gorter, Robert W; Butorac, Mario; Cobian, Eloy Pulido; van der Sluis, Willem
Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls on P50 measures, prolonged duration of regular use was associated with greater impairment in sensory gating as indexed by both P50 ratio and difference scores (including after controlling for tobacco use). Long-term cannabis users were found to have worse sensory gating ratios and difference scores compared to short-term users and controls. P50 metrics did not correlate significantly with any measure of psychotic-like symptoms in cannabis users. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to cannabis results in impaired P50 sensory-gating in long-term cannabis users. While it is possible that these deficits may have pre-dated cannabis use and reflect a vulnerability to cannabis use, their association with increasing years of cannabis use suggests that this is not the case. Impaired P50 sensory-gating ratios have also been reported in patients with schizophrenia and may indicate a similar underlying pathology. PMID:23628289
Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. A small, high-quality literature supports the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The smoked botanical product, however, is associated with a number of adverse medical and psychiatric consequences. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that acute use of cannabis results in impairment of every important metric related to the safe operation of a motor vehicle. Epidemiological data show associations between recent cannabis use and both psychomotor impairment and motor vehicle crashes, associations that are strengthened by the concomitant use of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Finally, data from pain clinics reveals an unusually high prevalence of cannabis use in nearly all age groups and an association between cannabis use and opioid and other substance misuse. Based on available data and expert opinion, concomitant use of cannabis and opioids is an absolute contraindication to the operation of a motor vehicle. In patients who use cannabis and are prescribed opioids, heightened vigilance for opioid- and other substance-related problems is warranted. It is appropriate to refrain from prescribing opioids to individuals using medical cannabis if there is reasonable suspicion that the combination will pose a risk to the patient or others. PMID:21133743
We report a confirmed case of cannabis exposure in an Omani female child with developmental delay. Cannabis exposure in children can lead to many consequences; for example, chronic use can result in developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, and hyperactivity while there is a risk of coma with acute exposure. It is important for clinicians to consider substance abuse as a differential diagnosis for similar presentations in paediatric patients, noting that children are at risk of cannabis exposure if their parents/caregivers are cannabis users.
There is evidence that the use of cannabis is increasing in Australia, with stable black-market prices, despite the 9-year National Campaign Against Drug Abuse, increasing expenditure to enforce the laws against cannabis use, and the seizure of large plantations of cannabis plants. Recent government data are used to estimate the conservative cost of drug-law enforcement against cannabis use as being $329m in 1991-92. Alternatives to the existing regime are examined, including expiation, decriminalization, and legalization. PMID:16818347
People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patient group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.
In contemporary societies, risk culture and risk profiling lead to the stigmatization of unhealthy behaviours as 'risky'. Risk denial theory refers to a cognitive way to deal with risky behaviours and can be considered as an updated variant of Sykes and Matza's neutralization theory. People neutralize the 'risky' label using specific techniques that must be added to those previously enlisted by Sykes and Matza. This paper introduces and discusses three techniques of risk denial: scapegoating, self-confidence and comparison between risks. As it is usually defined and studied as a 'risky behaviour', cannabis use provides a relevant example to illustrate these types of risk denial, thanks to various ethnographic studies (including Becker's seminal work on marijuana smokers) and quantitative French data from the 1999 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). In order to deny the 'risky' label, cannabis users scapegoat 'hard drugs' users, they emphasize their own ability to control their consumption personally, or they compare cannabis and alcohol risks. The paper concludes with suggestions for further analyses of risk denial. PMID:12745817
Legalization of cannabis use in Switzerland has recently been debated by the Swiss Parliament. Although legalization has not yet been decided upon, it is still the subject of impassioned public discussion. If cannabis use is legalized, an increase in consumption is to be expected. One of the manifold negative consequences for mental health will probably be an increase in the prevalence of psychoses -- not only acute, toxic psychosis but also chronic psychoses. Schizophrenic psychoses are expected to be triggered at an earlier age and to be negatively influenced in their course. This eventuality could have deleterious consequences not only for many currently healthy individuals predisposed to psychosis, but also for the disability pension. PMID:15611887
Objective and Method: The acute effects of delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) were studied in human subjects. Regional CBF was measured with 15O-water and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in 32 volunteers with a history of exposure to marijuana. Scans were performed before and after intravenous (IV) infusion of either of two doses of THC or a placebo,
Roy J. Mathew; William H. Wilson; R. Edward Coleman; Timothy G. Turkington; Timothy R. DeGrado
Data sourcesMedline and the Cochrane Central register of controlled trails (CENTRAL).Study selectionRandomised Controlled Trials, Controlled Clinical Trials and Cohort Studies conducted on humans investigating cannabis usage were included. Screening was performed independently by two reviewers. Only English language studies were included. Case reports, letters and historical reviews were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisA narrative synthesis was conducted.ResultsSeven studies were included and
To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were
Cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, are the most important active constituents of the cannabis plant. Over recent years, cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have become increasingly available to patients in many countries, both as pharmaceutical products and as herbal cannabis (marijuana). While there seems to be a demand for multiple cannabinoid-based therapeutic products, specifically for symptomatic amelioration in chronic diseases, therapeutic effects of different CBMs have only been directly compared in a few clinical studies. The survey presented here was performed by the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines (IACM), and is meant to contribute to the understanding of cannabinoid-based medicine by asking patients who used cannabis or cannabinoids detailed questions about their experiences with different methods of intake. The survey was completed by 953 participants from 31 countries, making this the largest international survey on a wide variety of users of cannabinoid-based medicine performed so far. In general, herbal non-pharmaceutical CBMs received higher appreciation scores by participants than pharmaceutical products containing cannabinoids. However, the number of patients who reported experience with pharmaceutical products was low, limiting conclusions on preferences. Nevertheless, the reported data may be useful for further development of safe and effective medications based on cannabis and single cannabinoids. PMID:24175484
Hazekamp, Arno; Ware, Mark A; Muller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Abrams, Donald; Grotenhermen, Franjo
|A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug by adolescents and young adults, with more males than females reporting marijuana use. The adolescent and young adult years represent a critical period for interventions to prevent marijuana use and abuse. This article reviews relevant literature, including trends in young males’ marijuana use and health effects of marijuana use. By most measures,
This report from a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure investigates whether these drugs affect neuropsychological development at 10 years of age. Women were recruited from a medical assistance prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10,
Gale A Richardson; Christopher Ryan; Jennifer Willford; Nancy L Day; Lidush Goldschmidt
Given the very limited toxicity of marijuana and the growing appreciation of its therapeutic value, it will undoubtedly find increasing application as a medicine in the coming years. But there is uncertainty about the forms in which it will be made available. Governments are hesitant to approve it because of concern about its use for nonmedical purposes and the difficulties
Objective: To determine the antiemetic drug preferences of practicing adult oncologists and to estimate the frequency of use of marijuana smoke as an antiemetic agent. Design: Identical mailed questionnaire surveys on antiemetic preferences, distributed prior to approval of ondansetron. Sample: Two groups of practicing clinical adult oncologists were surveyed. The first group (N = 120) consisted of every twentieth board-certified,
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted. PMID:6978606
Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit substance used among schizophrenia patients. The effects of cannabis are mediated through the endocannabinoid system, which is a major regulator of neurotransmission and may be disturbed in schizophrenia. Though cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is well established, the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia patients are still unclear. This paper reviews 19 studies that examine the cognitive effects of cannabis on schizophrenia by comparing cognitive functioning of cannabis-using and non-using schizophrenia patients across a vast range of domains (memory, attention and processing speed, executive functions, visuospatial, psychomotor and language). Of the studies included in the review, 11 reported better cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users, 5 found minimal or no difference between the groups and 3 found poorer cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users. The inconsistencies in the studies reviewed may stem from significant methodological variance between the studies regarding patient selection, adequate controls, cognitive measures used, measures of cannabis use, additional drugs used, and clinical aspects of schizophrenia. These methodological issues are discussed, as well as possible explanations for the results presented and suggestions for future research in this field. PMID:22716156
n this issue, Louisa Degenhardt and Wayne Hall provide an insightful and accessible overview of the literature on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis. They also present some of the policy implications of this relation. The first paper reviews the evidence for a causal relation between cannabis use during adolescence and early adulthood and subsequent diagnosis of a psychotic
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Over the last thirty years, the age at which it is first used has fallen and lifetime prevalence has risen in most developed countries. Cannabis' popularity is derived from the mild euphoria associated with its consumption and from the generally held belief that its health consequences are rather benign. However, there is
Cannabis is widely smoked in Europe and its increasing use is becoming a major public health problem. Adulterating cannabis with glass beads or sand is a new trick used by dealers to increase the weight and boost profits. These recent practices are not without danger. We report two cases of respiratory symptoms related to the use of this kind of adulterated cannabis. The first case is a 33 year-old patient admitted for an acute inhalation pneumonitis secondary to smoking cannabis adulterated with grit sand. The CT scan showed patchy ground-glass opacities, mainly in the upper lobes. A broncho-alveolar lavage, examined under polarized light, revealed birefringent intracellular particles, identified as silica, in alveolar macrophages. Spontaneously clinical and radiological improvements were observed after stopping the use of contaminated cannabis. The second patient, who smoked cannabis mixed with glass beads, described epistaxis, mouth ulcers, sore throats and cough. CT scan and BAL were normal. Adulteration of cannabis with microscopic glass beads, alone or mixed with sand, is a recent and widespread practice in Europe. These anecdotal reports prompted the French Department of Health to advise cannabis smokers of the harmfulness of these contaminants. PMID:19543175
Delourme, J; Delattre, C; Godard, P; Steenhouwer, F; Just, N
The current study examines the patterns of youth participation in cannabis cultivation by developing a typology among a sample of young offenders (n=175) in a rural region of Quebec, Canada known for its extensive outdoor cultivation industry. A hierarchical cluster analysis approach is used to group participants on various dimensions: motivation, substance use, delinquency and type of participation in cannabis
Acute pancreatitis has a large number of causes. Major causes are alcohol and gallstones. Toxic causes, mainly represented by medication-induced pancreatitis account for less than 2% of the cases. Cannabis is an anecdotally reported cause of acute pancreatitis. Six cases have previously been reported. Herein we report a new case of cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:23402090
This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…
The possible medicinal uses of cannabis are growing, yet research on how patients use medical cannabis facility services remains scarce. This article reports on the Cannabis Care Study, in which 130 medical cannabis patients at seven facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area were surveyed to gather information about demographics, personal health practices, health outcomes, service use, and satisfaction with
Conflicting predictions have been made to the influence of decriminalization on cannabis use. Prohibitionists forecast that decriminalization will lead to an increase in consumption of cannabis, while their opponents hypothesise that cannabis use will decline after decriminalization. Most probably cannabis use in the Netherlands so far evolved in two waves, with a first peak around 1970, a low during the
|This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…
BackgroundThe prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known.
Christian Thurstone; Shane A. Lieberman; Sarah J. Schmiege
Social anxiety appears to be especially related to cannabis-related problems, yet the nature of this association remains unclear. Some data suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to problematic cannabis use. The current study examined the relations between social anxiety, cannabis use and use-related problems, and motives for cannabis use by gender among 174 (42.5% female) current (past-month) cannabis users. Among men, social anxiety was significantly, positively related to the number of cannabis-related problems and coping and conformity motives. Coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems. Among women, social anxiety was significantly related only to social motives, and was unrelated to cannabis-related problems. These findings suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to using cannabis as a means of avoidance coping (avoiding scrutiny and negative affect), which may contribute to the high rates of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:22766487
Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B
Few studies have investigated the association between the social context of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). This longitudinal study of college students aimed to: develop a social context measure of cannabis use; examine the degree to which social context is associated with the transition from non-problematic cannabis use to CUD; and, examine the association between social context of
Kenneth H. Beck; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O'Grady; Eric D. Wish; Amelia M. Arria
Objectives: Individuals with HIV constitute the largest group using cannabinoids for medicinal reasons; yet, no studies have directly compared the tolerability and efficacy of smoked marijuana and oral dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. This placebo-controlled within-subjects study evaluated marijuana and dronabinol across a range of behaviors: eating topography, mood, cognitive performance, physiologic measures, and sleep. Methods: HIV-positive marijuana smokers
Margaret Haney; Erik W. Gunderson; Judith Rabkin; Carl L. Hart; Suzanne K. Vosburg; Sandra D. Comer; Richard W. Foltin
Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (Mage=18.74, SD=1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity),
Julia D. Buckner; Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Michael J. Zvolensky; Norman B. Schmidt
Cannabissativa is one of the oldest herbal remedies known to man. Over the past four thousand years, it has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases but due to its psychoactive properties, its current medicinal usage is highly restricted. In this review, we seek to highlight advances made over the last forty years in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cannabis on the human body and how these can potentially be utilized in clinical practice. During this time, the primary active ingredients in cannabis have been isolated, specific cannabinoid receptors have been discovered and at least five endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) have been identified. Together, these form the framework of a complex endocannabinoid signalling system that has widespread distribution in the body and plays a role in regulating numerous physiological processes within the body. Cannabinoid ligands are therefore thought to display considerable therapeutic potential and the drive to develop compounds that can be targeted to specific neuronal systems at low enough doses so as to eliminate cognitive side effects remains the 'holy grail' of endocannabinoid research. PMID:23155985
Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana. PMID:23577899
As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. PMID:15173518
The plant Cannabissativa has a long history of medical use in the treatment of pain and spasms, the promotion of sleep, and the suppression of nausea and vomiting. However, in the early 70s cannabis was classified in the Narcotic Acts in countries all over the world as having no therapeutic benefit; therefore, it cannot be prescribed by physicians or dispensed by pharmacists. In the light of this contradictory situation an increasing number of patients practices a self-prescription with cannabis products for relieving a variety of symptoms. An anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted by the Association for Cannabis as Medicine (Cologne, Germany). During about one year 170 subjects participated in this survey; questionnaires of 128 patients could be included into the evaluation. 68% of these participants were males, 32% females, with a total mean age of 37.5 (+/- 9.6) years. The most frequently mentioned indications for medicinal cannabis use were depression (12.0%), multiple sclerosis (10.8%), HIV-infection (9.0%), migraine (6.6%), asthma (6.0%), back pain (5.4%), hepatitis C (4. 8%), sleeping disorders (4.8%), epilepsy (3.6%), spasticity (3.6%), headache (3.6%), alcoholism (3.0%), glaucoma (3.0%), nausea (3.0%), disk prolapse (2.4%), and spinal cord injury (2.4%). The majority of patients used natural cannabis products such as marihuana, hashish and an alcoholic tincture; in just 5 cases dronabinol (Marinol) was taken by prescription. About half of the 128 participants of the survey (52.4%) had used cannabis as a recreational drug before the onset of their illness. To date 14.3% took cannabis orally, 49.2% by inhalation and in 36.5% of cases both application modes were used. 72.2% of the patients stated the symptoms of their illness to have 'much improved' after cannabis ingestion, 23.4% stated to have 'slightly improved', 4.8% experienced 'no change' and 1.6% described that their symptoms got 'worse'. Being asked for the satisfaction with their therapeutic use of cannabis 60.8% stated to be 'very satisfied', 24.0% 'satisfied', 11.2% 'partly satisfied' and 4.0% were 'not satisfied'. 70.8% experienced no side effects, 26.4% described 'moderate' and 3.3% 'strong' side effects. 84.1% of patients have not felt any need for dose escalation during the last 3 months, 11.0% had to increase their cannabis dose 'moderately' and 4.8% 'strongly' in order to maintain the therapeutic effects. Thus, this survey demonstrates a successful use of cannabis products for the treatment of a multitude of various illnesses and symptoms. This use was usually accompanied only by slight and in general acceptable side effects. Because the patient group responding to this survey is presumably highly selected, no conclusions can be drawn about the quantity of wanted and unwanted effects of the medicinal use of the hemp plant for particular indications. PMID:10575286
Schnelle, M; Grotenhermen, F; Reif, M; Gorter, R W
Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems. PMID:19783385
The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified version of the Contemplation Ladder, a measure of motivation to change marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents (Marijuana Ladder; ML), was related to marijuana use and treatment engagement. Participants (N=122) in this study were all incarcerated at a state juvenile correctional facility in the Northeast. Adolescents were assessed at the
James D. Slavet; L. A. R. Stein; Suzanne M. Colby; Nancy P. Barnett; Peter M. Monti; Charles Golembeske; Rebecca Lebeau-Craven
BackgroundThere is growing recognition that marijuana use among college students is associated with marijuana-related problems. Yet little work has examined whether use is associated with mental health problems and whether there is a dose effect such that individuals engaging in more frequent use evince relatively greater psychiatric impairments. Further, little is known about factors related to interest in marijuana treatment
Acute pancreatitis is a common disease. Despite the frequent use of cannabis worldwide, only six reports have described cases of acute pancreatitis secondary to the use of tetrahydrocannabinoid (THC). Here we describe two cases of THC-induced pancreatitis. The first case occurred in a 38-year-old man with multiple admissions for THC-induced pancreatitis; the second case involved a 22-year-old man with no previous medical history. In both cases, other possible causes of acute pancreatitis were ruled out. Key words: common disease, tetrahydrocannabinoid, etiology. PMID:23892868
Many people have used medical marijuana to manage symptoms of HIV infection and side effects of therapies. Medical marijuana users assert that the drug is useful in treating nausea, increasing appetite or as a mild analgesic (to help with headaches or mild pain). However, people living with HIV have been left with unclear information as to the risks and benefits of medical marijuana use. PMID:12171024
The use of herbal marijuana as a medicine is here to stay. Both its safety and efficacy have been well established through much anecdotal and clinical experience. Pharmaceutical cannabinoid pro- ducts will be developed, some of which may successfully compete with the de facto gold standard, legally available herbal marijuana.
BackgroundMarijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence.
QUESTION: I am treating a 27-year-old woman who is now in her 10th week of pregnancy. She smokes marijuana two to three times a week, but does not use other drugs. She also smokes 20 cigarettes a day. I am concerned about the effects of marijuana exposure on her baby. ANSWER: It is not always possible to isolate the effect of marijuana exposure from other possible confounders on pregnancy outcome. Although marijuana is not an established human teratogen, recent well conducted studies suggest it might have subtle negative effects on neurobehavioural outcomes, including sleep disturbances, impaired visual problem solving, hyperactivity, impassivity, inattention, and increased delinquency.
The incidence of tuberculosis in the non-indigenous Australian population is low. However, in this paper we report on three cases of cavitating disease, which seem to be associated with a common illicit drug habit namely smoking marijuana using a makeshift pipe or bong. There was a total of 34 positive contacts of these cases and among the contacts sharing a bong with an index case was associated with a sixfold risk of transmission (odds ratio 6.5, confidence interval 1.4-30.4, P = 0.016). When cavitating tuberculosis is detected in a young non-indigenous native born Australian, marijuana use should be considered as a possible risk factor. PMID:23551310
Better scientific understanding of cannabis effects and the development of treatments for cannabis dependence require clinical studies involving cannabis administration. Cannabis can be administered by smoking a plant-derived cigarette or by oral or intravenous administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive chemical in cannabis. The smoked route is most commonly used outside the laboratory, but is subject to wide variation in absorbed dose. Oral synthetic THC is a legally marketed medication (dronabinol), also subject to wide pharmacokinetic variation, but offering a greater safety margin because of slower onset of action and lower potency. Intravenous THC offers precise investigator control of dose and timing. Acute adverse effects of cannabis administration include tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, pulmonary irritation (if smoked), motor incoordination, cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis. Screening of research subjects should identify and exclude those with risk factors for such events, e.g., a history of significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, or psychiatric disorders. Monitoring of subjects during cannabis administration should include heart rate, blood pressure, and mental status. Subjects should not be discharged from research participation until reevaluation has shown that they have returned to baseline status. PMID:16506412
The main active cannabis (Marijuana and hashish) derivative ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol is, in vivo, transformed and excreted mainly as 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) and its glucuronide. The method presented here allows the confirmation of the presence of THC-COOH by means of a basic hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction clean-up on reversed-phase (RP) disposable cartridges followed by analysis on a C8 RP column and UV detection;
Widespread use of smoked marijuana in the San Francisco Bay Area as a treatment for HIV-related anorexia and weight loss, as well as nausea related to prescribed therapy, prompted the design of a clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this controlled substance. The Community Consortium—the Bay Area's community-based HIV clinical trials organization—designed a first pilot evaluation of
The debate regarding therapeutic use of cannabis is being confused by a lack of distinction between therapeutic and social use of cannabis. Separate consideration of therapeutic and social use would enable strategies to minimise any negative social impact of therapeutic use. For therapeutic use of cannabis to be considered on its own merits, greater emphasis needs to be placed on scientific evidence of therapeutic efficacy. At present the evidence is limited, it mostly relates to the use of synthetic cannabinoids, and much of it fails to compare cannabis with the best therapies available for the conditions of interest. Claims of therapeutic efficacy tend to be based on opinion and anecdote rather than the results of controlled studies. Further research is needed to clarify the potential therapeutic benefits, to enable claims of therapeutic use to be objectively assessed and to enable informed decisions to be made about the relative risks and benefits for any individual using cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Further research is required to clarify the efficacy of pure, synthetic cannabinoids compared to cannabis, the most effective route of administration, and the importance of delivering a known dose. The most likely value of cannabis is as an adjunct, rather than a replacement for, current medical approaches. The potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis will be greatest for those conditions where long-term cannabis use, with its attendant health risks, is not an issue and where the patient has the capacity to titrate dose against symptoms. There is sufficient evidence of potential therapeutic benefit to justify the facilitation of further research. PMID:16203511
Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospective study of a birth cohort of 1,037 individuals followed from birth (1972/1973) to age 38 y. Cannabis use was ascertained in interviews at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 y. Neuropsychological testing was conducted at age 13 y, before initiation of cannabis use, and again at age 38 y, after a pattern of persistent cannabis use had developed. Persistent cannabis use was associated with neuropsychological decline broadly across domains of functioning, even after controlling for years of education. Informants also reported noticing more cognitive problems for persistent cannabis users. Impairment was concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users, with more persistent use associated with greater decline. Further, cessation of cannabis use did not fully restore neuropsychological functioning among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Findings are suggestive of a neurotoxic effect of cannabis on the adolescent brain and highlight the importance of prevention and policy efforts targeting adolescents. PMID:22927402
Meier, Madeline H; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S E; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129
Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose
Objective: This paper evaluates evidence for two hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis: (i) that heavy cannabis use causes a ‘cannabis psychosis’, i.e. a psychotic disorder that would not have occurred in the absence of cannabis use and which can be recognised by its pattern of symptoms and their relationship to cannabis use; and (ii) that cannabis
Marijuana users are a distinct class, even among drug users. They tend to be more intelligent and come from more affluent and more stable families than users of other drugs do. If these differences are not recognized, certain problems arise when mari juana offenders are sentenced to probation. The failure to de velop a typology of marijuana users precludes adequate
Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912
|Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…
Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.
|This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…
Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.
The case histories are presented of four men with multiple large upper zone lung bullae but otherwise relatively preserved lung parenchyma. Each had a history of significant exposure to marijuana. In three of the four cases the tobacco smoking load had been relatively small, suggesting a possible causal role for marijuana in the pathogenesis of this unusual pattern of bullous
Martin K Johnson; Robin P Smith; Douglas Morrison; Gabriel Laszlo; Roger J White
It is vital to ask about illicit drug smoking in the respiratory history as marijuana smoking augments the detrimental effects of tobacco. We describe the case of a 28 year old marijuana smoker who developed a pneumothorax during a breath-holding competition. Pneumothorax is a common clinical entity that every physician should be aware of how to manage and lifetime risk
This paper examines characteristics that distinguish heavy and occasional cigarette and marijuana use among U.S. high school seniors. High school seniors who completed the 1994 Monitoring the Future survey (N = 15,929) were classified as nonusers, occasional users, and heavy users of cigarettes and marijuana. Level of use was examined with regard to degree of perceived risk of regular use,
Ken Resnicow; Matt Smith; Lana Harrison; Ernest Drucker
The case histories are presented of four men with multiple large upper zone lung bullae but otherwise relatively preserved lung parenchyma. Each had a history of significant exposure to marijuana. In three of the four cases the tobacco smoking load had been relatively small, suggesting a possible causal role for marijuana in the pathogenesis of this unusual pattern of bullous emphysema.??
Johnson, M.; Smith, R.; Morrison, D.; Laszlo, G.; White, R.
Investigating the effects of marijuana on human psychological functioning, this study differs from previous research in two ways: 1) it is concerned with relatively complex cognitive processes; 2) it has a theoretical rationale. The general hypothesis of the study states that marijuana will impair its user's ability to form and use abstract…
IT is well established that the use of marijuana by young people is positively correlated with at least the experimental use of other drugs1. The probability that an individual uses the strong hallucinogens such as LSD and other drugs rises sharply with increasing frequency of marijuana use2. Such associations are not, of course, sufficient to establish causal relationships between the
William McGlothlin; Kay Jamison; Steven Rosenblatt
In this paper we examine the relationship between marijuana use and human capital formation by examining performance on standardized tests among a nationally representative sample of youths from the National Education Longitudinal Survey. We find that much of the negative association between cross-sectional measures of marijuana use and cognitive ability appears to be attenuated by individual differences in school attachment
|It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…
Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.
Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…
Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.
Research on adolescent marijuana abuse has given insufficient attention to understanding the relationship of this behavior to family psychodynamics. This research focused on 17 white, marijuana-abusing adolescents from intact working and middle class families who were selected according to the \\
HERBERT HENDIN; ANN POLLINGER; RICHARD B. ULMAN; ARTHUR C. CARR
The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.
Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), and relief from pain and spasticity has been reported in MS patients self-medicating with marijuana. A cannabis-based medication containing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (Sativex) has been approved in some countries for the treatment of MS-associated pain. The effects of this pharmaceutical preparation on other clinically relevant aspects of MS pathophysiology, however, are still unclear. In 20 MS patients, we measured the effects of Sativex on clinically measured spasticity and on neurophysiological and laboratory parameters that correlate with spasticity severity or with the modulation of the ECS. Sativex failed to affect spasticity and stretch reflex excitability. This compound also failed to affect the synthesis and the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as the expression of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in various subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes. PMID:19768368
To estimate the patterns and prevalence of cannabis use among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 220 patients were surveyed in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Seventy-two subjects (36%) reported ever having used cannabis for any purpose; 29 respondents (14%) reported continuing use of cannabis for symptom treatment. Medical cannabis use was associated with male gender, tobacco use, and recreational cannabis use. The symptoms reported by medical cannabis users to be most effectively relieved were stress, sleep, mood, stiffness/spasm, and pain. PMID:15184623
Clark, A J; Ware, M A; Yazer, E; Murray, T J; Lynch, M E
In a study of 471 bipolar disorder (BD) cases and 1761 controls, individuals with BD were 6.8 times more likely to report a lifetime history of cannabis use. Rates of DSM-IV cannabis use disorders in those with BD were 29.4% and were independently and significantly associated with increased suicide attempts, greater likelihood of mixed episodes and greater disability attributable to BD. PMID:20674039
Agrawal, Arpana; Nurnberger, John I; Lynskey, Michael T
The gateway hypothesis proposes that use of cannabis directly increases the risk of consuming hard drugs. We test this controversial,\\u000a but influential, hypothesis on a sample of cannabis users, exploiting a unique set of drug price data. A flexible approach\\u000a is developed to identify the causal gateway effect using a bivariate survival model with shared frailty estimated using a\\u000a latent
Hans Olav Melberg; Andrew M. Jones; Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
Experiments were done with 75 healthy young adults to explore the neurophysiological basis of the acute marijuana intoxication state. Tests included recording the scalp EEG, visual and auditory cerebral evoked-potentials, the CNV, cerebral slow potentials related to certainty of response correctness in auditory discrimination tasks, heart rate, respiration and the galvanic skin response. All variables were recorded over 45 minutes before and 45 minutes after smoking a marijuana cigarette containing either 4.8, 9.1 or less than 0.01 mg. ?9-THC. High doses of marijuana induced a significant decrease in the peak power of the alpha rhythm and an increase in auditory evoked-response latency. The CNV increased in ampiitude after smoking marijuana in low doses and sequential CNVs showed changes consistent with sustained attention but decreased certainty about performance following either low or high dose. Marijuana interfered significantly with performance of the discrimination task itself.
Nearly half of 12th graders have tried marijuana, and 6% use daily. This paper reviews studies on neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, brain function, and subjective and objective measures of sleep in relation to adolescent marijuana use. Adolescents who use marijuana heavily tend to show disadvantaged attention, learning, and processing speed; subtle abnormalities in brain structure; increased activation during cognitive tasks despite intact performance; and compromised objective indicators of sleep quality. Some abnormalities appear to persist beyond a month of abstinence, but may resolve within three months if cessation is maintained. Recommendations for future studies include characterizing these indices in youth prior to the onset of marijuana use then examining change after chronic use has started, and using large samples of youth with varying degrees of involvement with marijuana as well as alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs to characterize the interactive influences on neurocognition and neural health.
Jacobus, J.; Bava, S.; Cohen-Zion, M.; Mahmood, O.; Tapert, S. F.
This article explores the rural Kentucky marijuana industry, arguing that it is a form of organized crime. The article focuses on marijuana growers and the communities in which they live. Rural culture is shown both to nurture and to protect those who engage in growing and distributing marijuana. Socioeconomic factors play a role in the continuing existence of the marijuana
Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not
|Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the…
Marijuana use is common in adolescence, yet neural consequences have not been well delineated. This review seeks to ascertain whether heavy marijuana use in adolescence is associated with persistent neurocognitive abnormalities, and whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the impact of chronic marijuana use than adults. Among heavy marijuana using adults, neurocognitive deficits are apparent for several days following use,
Alecia D. Schweinsburg; Sandra A. Brown; Susan F. Tapert
Marijuana is complex chemically and not yet fully understood, but it is not a narcotic. Like alcohol, marijuana acts as both stimulant and depressant, but it lingers in body organs longer than alcohol. Smoking marijuana can injure mucosal tissue and may have more carcinogenic potential than tobacco. Research has indicated that marijuana intoxication definitely hinders attention, long-term memory storage, and
The “amotivational syndrome” which has been associated with marijuana use has not been examined systematically in relation to marijuana use and mental health. Light and heavy users were solicited by personal contact. They were asked to complete anonymous questionnaires which measured marijuana, alcohol and cocaine use, perceived states during marijuana intoxication, depressive symptoms in the last year, the Orientation to
To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent
Cannabis dependence is fast becoming a public health problem in Nigeria. Prevalent studies indicate that up to 9% of secondary school students and 33% of University undergraduates (i.e., one in every three students) abuse cannabis. Cases of cannabis dependence seen in hospital practise in Nigeria are usually associated with psychotic illness and there is a strong feeling among psychiatrists in the country that the cannabis abuse is contributory to the precipitation of the psychosis. If this is true, then abstinence from cannabis abuse is necessary in order to reduce the possibility of relapse of the psychotic illness when this has been treated. The paper to be presented describes a method of treatment which has been developed and tried in an Ife University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This treatment is a form of behaviour therapy and its cost has been estimated at about US+12, which was found to be within reach of most patients. Patients who have undergone a course of this treatment (one course of 3 treatments) have abstained from cannabis for an average period of 9 months. A single treatment administered within this period further prolongs the period of abstinence. Further work is recommended to explore the range of application of this method of treatment, for example, the personality types for whom it is most suitable and those in whom it would contraindicated. PMID:6606553
Cannabis remains the most widely used illegal drug in the United States. This update examines the available literature on neuroimaging studies of the brains of cannabis users. The majority of studies examining the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration used PET methods and concluded that administration of THC leads to increased activation in frontal and paralimbic regions and the cerebellum. These increases in activation are broadly consistent with the behavioral effects of the drug. Although there is only equivocal evidence that chronic cannabis use might result in structural brain changes, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-fMRI studies in chronic users consistently show alterations, or neuroadaptation, in the activation of brain networks responsible for higher cognitive functions. It is not yet certain whether these changes are reversible with abstinence. Given the high prevalence of cannabis use among adolescents, studies are needed to evaluate whether cannabis use might affect the developing brain. Considerable further work, employing longitudinal designs, is also required to determine whether cannabis use causes permanent functional alterations in the brains of adults. PMID:17901252
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that cannabis consumption is a risk factor for the development of psychotic symptoms. Nonetheless, controversy remains about the causal nature of the association. This review takes the debate further through a critical appraisal of the evidence. An electronic search was performed, allowing to identify 622 studies published until June 1st 2005. Longitudinal studies and literature reviews were selected if they addressed specifically the issues of the cannabis/psychosis relationship or possible mechanisms involved. Ten epidemiological studies were relevant: three supported a causal relationship between cannabis use and diagnosed psychosis; five suggested that chronic cannabis intake increases the frequency of psychotic symptoms, but not of diagnosed psychosis; and two showed no causal relationship. Potential neurobiological mechanisms were also identified, involving dopamine, endocannabinoids, and brain growth factors. Although there is evidence that cannabis use increases the risk of developing psychotic symptoms, the causal nature of this association remains unclear. Contributing factors include heavy consumption, length and early age of exposure, and psychotic vulnerability. This conclusion should be mitigated by uncertainty arising from cannabis use assessment, psychosis measurement, reverse causality and control of residual confounding. PMID:17703707
Chronic cannabis use is associated with residual negative effects on measures of executive functioning. However, little previous work has focused specifically on executive processes involved in performance monitoring in frequent cannabis users. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of performance monitoring in chronic cannabis users. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs sensitive to performance monitoring, were recorded from 30 frequent cannabis users (mean usage=5.52 days/week) and 32 cannabis-naïve control participants during a speeded stimulus discrimination task. The "oddball" P3 ERP was recorded as well. Users and controls did not differ on the amplitude or latency of the ERN; however, Pe amplitude was larger among users. Users also showed increased amplitude and reduced latency of the P3 in response to infrequent stimuli presented during the task. Among users, urinary cannabinoid metabolite levels at testing were unrelated to ERP outcomes. However, total years of cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 latency and positively with P3 amplitude, and age of first cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 amplitude. The results of this study suggest that chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in neural activity related to the processing of motivationally-relevant stimuli (P3) and errors (Pe). PMID:23427191
Fridberg, Daniel J; Skosnik, Patrick D; Hetrick, William P; O'Donnell, Brian F
|At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people.…
Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8?mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2-8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8?mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule 'liking' or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment. PMID:23443718
Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W
Little is known about adolescents' interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smokers, the 58.8% who endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs took their first puff of marijuana at a younger age than those who did not endorse the need. Those who were willing to participate in a marijuana treatment program were more likely African American and took their first marijuana puff at a younger age than those not interested in treatment. These findings suggest that most adolescent marijuana smokers endorse the need for and are willing to attend marijuana treatment programs. PMID:19556094
Sheer, Amy J; Gorelick, David A; Collins, Charles C; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T
Little is known about adolescents’ interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smokers, the 58.8% who endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs took their first puff of marijuana at a younger age than those who did not endorse the need. Those who were willing to participate in a marijuana treatment program were more likely African American and took their first marijuana puff at a younger age than those not interested in treatment. These findings suggest that most adolescent marijuana smokers endorse the need for and are willing to attend marijuana treatment programs.
Sheer, Amy J.; Gorelick, David A.; Collins, Charles C.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Leff, Michelle K.; Moolchan, Eric T.
Synthetic cannabinoids, the psychoactive components of the Cannabissativa (marijuana) and their endogenous counterparts, act through two G protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2. The endocannabinoids are metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Previous research has described the impact of cannabis consumption on pregnancy, potential roles of endocannabinoids and abnormalities of FAAH expression in recurrent miscarriage and pregnancy. However, the
Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in preparations of Cannabissativa (marijuana, hashish), elicits central nervous system (CNS) responses, including congnitive alterations and euphoria. These responses account for the abuse potential of cannabis, while other effects such as analgesia suggest potential medicinal applications. To study the role of the major known target of cannabinoids in the CNS, the
Andreas Zimmer; Anne M. Zimmer; Andrea G. Hohmann; Miles Herkenham; Tom I. Bonner
This paper shows that active police enforcement of civic norms against marijuana smok- ing in public settings has influenced the locations where marijuana is smoked. It has subtly influenced the various marijuana etiquettes observed in both public and pri- vate settings. The ethnographic data reveal the importance of informal sanctions; most marijuana consumers report compliance with etiquettes mainly to avoid
BRUCE D. JOHNSON; GEOFFREY L. REAM; ELOISE DUNLAP; STEPHEN J. SIFANECK
Twelve regular marijuana smokers participated in a study designed to detect possible after-effects associated with marijuana smoking. Each subject was evaluated for two weekends - during one weekend they received only placebo marijuana (0.0% THC); the other weekend they received active marijuana (2.1% THC). Each weekend subjects received a total of 40 standardized puffs of marijuana smoke, administered during five
The role of marijuana delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in controlling marijuana smoking behavior was examined in ten regular marijuana smokers. Each subject was allowed to self-administer marijuana of low, medium or high THC content freely over a 30-min period. Each potency of marijuana was color coded, and subjects smoked each potency on five separate occasions to provide the opportunity for them
The active constituents of Cannabissativa have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. Today, marijuana is the most prevalent drug of abuse in the United States and, conversely, therapeutic use of marijuana constituents are gaining mainstream clinical and political acceptance. Given the documented contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to a range of physiological systems, including cognitive function,
The ability of Cannabissativa (marijuana) to increase hunger has been noticed for centuries, although intensive research on its molecular mode of action started only after the characterization of its main psychoactive component ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the late 1960s. Despite the public concern related to the abuse of marijuana and its derivatives, scientific studies have pointed to the therapeutic potentials of
D Cota; G Marsicano; B Lutz; V Vicennati; G K Stalla; R Pasquali; U Pagotto
Marijuana (Cannabissativa) remains one of the most widely used illegal drugs, with adolescents being particularly vulnerable to its use and abuse. In spite of this, most studies are conducted in adult animals even though the effects might be quite different in adolescents. Additionally, the use of marijuana often precedes the use of other psychoactive drugs including cocaine, especially when
Cannabis acutely increases schizotypy and chronic use is associated with elevated rates of psychosis. Creative individuals have higher levels of schizotypy, however links between cannabis use, schizotypy and creativity have not been investigated. We investigated the effects of cannabis smoked naturalistically on schizotypy and divergent thinking, a measure of creativity. One hundred and sixty cannabis users were tested on 1 day when sober and another day when intoxicated with cannabis. State and trait measures of both schizotypy and creativity were administered. Quartile splits compared those lowest (n=47) and highest (n=43) in trait creativity. Cannabis increased verbal fluency in low creatives to the same level as that of high creatives. Cannabis increased state psychosis-like symptoms in both groups and the high creativity group were significantly higher in trait schizotypy, but this does not appear to be linked to the verbal fluency change. Acute cannabis use increases divergent thinking as indexed by verbal fluency in low creatives. PMID:22230356
Schafer, Gráinne; Feilding, Amanda; Morgan, Celia J A; Agathangelou, Maria; Freeman, Tom P; Valerie Curran, H
At present the only information available on the effectiveness of the cannabis crop eradication programme in New Zealand is the total number of cannabis plants destroyed each year. These figures can only provide a very crude measure of the effectiveness of these operations. A better measure would be the percentage of total cannabis production destroyed--known as the drug seizure rate. This paper calculates the seizure rate of the cannabis crop eradication programme in New Zealand using the amount of cannabis reported consumed in the Alcohol and Public Health Research Unit's (APHRU) National Drug Survey. The seizure rate for the 1998 programme is calculated to be 26-31%. This compares favourably with drug seizure rates reported in other countries. The effectiveness of the cannabis crop eradication programme, and its apparent modest share of the total cannabis control budget, raises some intriguing questions about the role an expanded crop eradication programme could play in a future cannabis control strategy. PMID:12537707
The present investigation examined the relationships between motives for cannabis use and negative consequences associated with cannabis use following a brief intervention. The sample consisted of 205 adolescent cannabis users (66.3% male), who were recruited in high schools and randomly assigned to a brief two-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or an educational feedback control (EFC). Results supported the hypothesis that using cannabis to cope with negative affect would predict the number of problems and dependence symptoms related to cannabis use, after controlling for age, gender, years and frequency of cannabis use, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Significant interactions between internalizing behavior problems and the coping motive showed that using to cope was associated with a higher number of cannabis dependence symptoms among adolescents reporting lower levels internalizing behavior problems. Findings support the potential utility of conducting further research to explore the coping motive as an important indicator of problematic cannabis use.
Towe, Sheri L.; Stephens, Robert S.; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.
RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques.
LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.
Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes.
Recent theories propose that repeated drug use is associated with attentional and evaluative biases for drug-related stimuli, and that these cognitive biases are related to individual differences in subjective craving. This study investigated cognitive biases for cannabis-related cues in recreational cannabis users. Seventeen regular cannabis users and 16 non-users completed a visual probe task which assessed attentional biases for cannabis-related
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given
Julia D. Buckner; Richard G. Heimberg; Russell A. Matthews; Jose Silgado
This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive–behavioral (MET-CB) treatment, motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or a delayed treatment control group. Marijuana use and
Mark D. Litt; Ronald M. Kadden; Robert S. Stephens
Background The prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known. Methods 80 adolescents (15-19 years) in outpatient substance treatment in Denver, Colorado, completed an anonymous questionnaire developed for the study and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R). The proportion ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license was calculated. Those ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license were compared to those never obtaining medical marijuana with respect to marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use, DUSI-R substance use problem and overall problem score using Chi-Square analyses and independent t-tests. Results 39 (48.8%) reported ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license. A significantly greater proportion of those reporting medical marijuana diversion, compared to those who did not, reported very easy marijuana availability, no friend disapproval of regular marijuana use and greater than 20 times of marijuana use per month over the last year. The diversion group compared to the no diversion group also reported more substance use problems and overall problems on the DUSI-R. Conclusions Diversion of medical marijuana is common among adolescents in substance treatment. These data support a relationship between medical marijuana exposure and marijuana availability, social norms, frequency of use, substance-related problems and general problems among teens in substance treatment. Adolescent substance treatment should address the impact of medical marijuana on treatment outcomes.
Thurstone, Christian; Lieberman, Shane A.; Schmiege, Sarah J.
Cannabis in the army is a reality the authors have chosen to inscribe in a temporality, from the concept of mental hygiene to the history of cannabis and of its spreading in the French population, so as to apprehend the present interest in cannabis in the army. Consumption of psychoactive drugs in military forces actually dates back to some decades,
C. Gheorghiev; P. Arvers; F. de Montleau; G. Fidelle; B. Queyriaux; C. Verret
While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study,
The present investigation examined the relationships between motives for cannabis use and negative consequences associated with cannabis use following a brief intervention. The sample consisted of 205 adolescent cannabis users (66.3% male), who were recruited in high schools and randomly assigned to a brief two-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or an educational feedback control (EFC). Results supported the hypothesis that
Courtney L. Fox; Sheri L. Towe; Robert S. Stephens; Denise D. Walker; Roger A. Roffman
This survey estimates the frequency of various adverse effects of the use of the drug cannabis. A sample of 1000 New Zealanders aged 18–35 years were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on cannabis use and associated problems. The questionnaire was derived from criteria for the identification of cannabis abuse which are analagous to criteria commonly used to diagnose alcoholism.
Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Reduced neural and behavioral reactions to reward have been demonstrated in other forms of addiction, as expressed by reduced mood reactivity and lack of striatal activation to rewards, but this effect has not yet been investigated in cannabis users. Methods: We hypothesized that cannabis users and tobacco smokers would
Chantal Martin-Soelch; Maja Kobel; Markus Stoecklin; Tanja Michael; Simone Weber; Bigna Krebs; Klaus Opwis
The future's bright, the future's green. Well almost. Just when things were looking up for medical cannabis, the Government pulled the plug and refused it a license. Is this just a blip on the rocky road to legal cannabis products? Or, as many fear, does it signal the end of medical cannabis and possible liquidation for GW Pharmaceuticals, the developer?
Cannabis is the most widely used illegal recreational drug in Europe; up to 5 of the total population are regular users in some countries. Smoking cannabis can damage the lungs, and some users may become psychologically dependent on the drug. Heavy cannabis use may also be associated with an increased risk of psychiatric illness although no cause and effect relationship
WE report here psychological data from a combined study on the effect of cannabis and alcohol on simulated car-driving and on psychological tests. The car simulator data showed an effect of cannabis and alcohol on brake time and start time, and a much more pronounced effect of cannabis than of alcohol on time and distance estimation after simulated driving. We
Lise Rafaelsen; Henriette Christrup; Per Bech; Ole J. Rafaelsen
|We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…
The present study aims to investigate the social forces that shape tourists’ motives in consuming cannabis while on vacation. The underlying premise of this paper is that cannabis consumption in tourism is driven and influenced by the wider process of the normalization of cannabis use in Western societies and, therefore, should be examined in this context. Using a grounded theory
Rationale No studies to date have directly compared the tolerability and efficacy of smoked marijuana and oral dronabinol in HIV+ marijuana\\u000a smokers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives The aim of this study was to compare dronabinol (0, 10, 20, 30 mg p.o.) and marijuana [0.0, 1.8, 2.8, 3.9% ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] in two samples of HIV+ marijuana smokers: those with (n=15) and those without (n=15) a clinically significant
Margaret Haney; Judith Rabkin; Erik Gunderson; Richard W. Foltin
A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC) and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment.
Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
This study reports the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and other cannabis-related problems in a large cohort (n=1253) of first-year college students, 17 to 20 years old, at one large public university in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Interviewers assessed past-year cannabis use, other drug use, and cannabis-related problems (including DSM-IV criteria for CUD). The prevalence of CUD was
Kimberly M. Caldeira; Amelia M. Arria; Kevin E. O'Grady; Kathryn B. Vincent; Eric D. Wish
The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea, and inflammation. Current research has shown cannabis to be a useful remedy for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, dystonia, and chronic pain. Cannabinoids are used to improve food intake in anorexia of AIDS patients and to prevent vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Cannabinoids reduce the size of brain infarct and cardiac reperfusion injury. However, cannabinoid treatment is not free of side effects including euphoria, psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Since the cannabinoid system is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, the therapeutic potential is great. We must not be blind to the opportunity offered to us by medical cannabis just because it is an illicit drug, nor should we be temped by the quick response of patients to the central effect of cannabis. More research is warranted to explore the full potential of cannabis as medicine. PMID:22352284
Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. It is standardized for the THC and CBD. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb (marihuana) by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary. Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision. PMID:15042867