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1

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

PubMed

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23 %?±?0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3 %. PMID:25416268

Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

2015-01-01

2

Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

In this article Overview The question of whether marijuana — produced from the flowering top of the hemp ... Still, there are uncertainties about the benefits of marijuana relative to its side effects. The fact that ...

3

Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

Maickel, Roger P.

1973-01-01

4

The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Conclusions The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:22014239

2011-01-01

5

Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence  

PubMed Central

Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use. PMID:18339491

Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

2008-01-01

6

Marijuana intoxication  

MedlinePLUS

Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

7

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa , is protective in a murine model of colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory.\\u000a Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms\\u000a (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated\\u000a the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic

Francesca Borrelli; Gabriella Aviello; Barbara Romano; Pierangelo Orlando; Raffaele Capasso; Francesco Maiello; Federico Guadagno; Stefania Petrosino; Francesco Capasso; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Angelo A. Izzo

2009-01-01

8

First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.  

PubMed

Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. PMID:22608266

Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

2012-10-10

9

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Inflammation was assessed both macroscopically and histologically. In the inflamed colon, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were evaluated by Western blot, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 by ELISA, and endocannabinoids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were used to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on oxidative stress. Cannabidiol reduced colon injury, inducible iNOS (but not cyclooxygenase-2) expression, and interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10, and endocannabinoid changes associated with 2,4,6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid administration. In Caco-2 cells, cannabidiol reduced reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, cannabidiol, a likely safe compound, prevents experimental colitis in mice. PMID:19690824

Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Maiello, Francesco; Guadagno, Federico; Petrosino, Stefania; Capasso, Francesco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

2009-11-01

10

Psychological studies of marijuana and alcohol in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular users of marijuana (cannabis sativa) were given smoked and orally administered marijuana, a placebo, or alcohol. They were unable to distinguish between smoked marijuana and the tetrahydrocannabinol-free placebo. The oral administration of tincture of cannabis produced primarily dysphoric symptoms and was similar to alcohol in this respect. The smoked marijuana altered pulse rate, time estimation, and EEG, but had

Reese T. Jones; George C. Stone

1970-01-01

11

Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.  

PubMed

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids). Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity. PMID:18681481

Appendino, Giovanni; Gibbons, Simon; Giana, Anna; Pagani, Alberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Stavri, Michael; Smith, Eileen; Rahman, M Mukhlesur

2008-08-01

12

Multiplication vgtative in vitro du chanvre (Cannabis sativa L.). Application la conserva-  

E-print Network

Multiplication végétative in vitro du chanvre (Cannabis sativa L.). Application à la conserva- tion- tétrahydrocannabinol, CPG. SUMMARY In vitro propagation of hemp :application to selected clones of Cannabis sativa L

Boyer, Edmond

13

Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides  

PubMed Central

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2–C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric ?+? barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity. PMID:22802619

Gagne, Steve J.; Stout, Jake M.; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

14

Medical Marijuana programs: Implications for cannabis control policy - Observations from Canada.  

PubMed

While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California - de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments. PMID:25287942

Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin

2015-01-01

15

Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

Horowitz, M

1977-01-01

16

Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.  

PubMed

The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30years) frequent (?3days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

2015-01-01

17

The Therapeutic Use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arab scientists were several centuries ahead of our current knowledge of the curative power of hemp (Cannabis sativaL., Cannabaceae). Modern Western scientific literature ignores their contribution on the subject. We review in this paper the therapeutic uses of the plant in Arabic medicine from the 8th to the 18th century. Arab physicians knew and used its diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory,

Indalecio Lozano

2001-01-01

18

Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two major constituents of Cannabis sativa. ?9-THC modulates sleep, but no clear evidence on the role of CBD is available. In order to determine the effects of CBD on sleep, it was administered intracerebroventricular (icv) in a dose of 10?g\\/5?l at the beginning of either the lights-on or the lights-off period. We found that

Eric Murillo-Rodríguez; Diana Millán-Aldaco; Marcela Palomero-Rivero; Raphael Mechoulam; René Drucker-Colín

2006-01-01

19

Les chimiotypes du chanvre (Cannabis sativa L.) Intrt pour un programme de slection  

E-print Network

Les chimiotypes du chanvre (Cannabis sativa L.) Intérêt pour un programme de sélection Gilbert Pharmacogno- sie (Nr. M. Paris), rue J.-B.-Clément, F 92290 Châtenay-Mala6ry. R�SUM� Cannabis, Cannabinoïdes, Monoecie, Chimiotypes, Sélection. L'adaptation du chanvre (Cannabis sativa L.) à différents milieux s

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).  

PubMed

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained. PMID:22075921

Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

2012-02-01

21

Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge  

PubMed Central

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478

Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

2014-01-01

22

Discrimination of ‘fiber-type’ and ‘drug-type’ Cannabis sativa L. by fluorescent duplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorescent duplex-PCR test was developed based on polymorphisms of the THCA synthase gene in order to discriminate the fiber- and drug-type Cannabis sativa L. and to indicate the presence of Cannabis trace in suspected materials by the numbers and sizes of PCR-amplified products. DNA analysis of drug-type Cannabis resulted in two different PCR-amplified DNA fragments of 94 and 158bp,

Arpaporn Sutipatanasomboon; Nathinee Panvisavas

23

Genetic Individualization of Cannabis sativa by a Short Tandem Repeat Multiplex System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa is the most frequently used of all illicit drugs in the United States. Cannabis has been used throughout history for its stems in the production of hemp fiber, for its seed for oil and food, and for its buds and leaves as a psychoactive drug. Short tandem repeats (STRs), were chosen as molecular markers because of their distinct

Maria Angelica Mendoza Baez

2008-01-01

24

Genetic individualization of Cannabis sativa by a short tandem repeat multiplex system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa is the most frequently used of all illicit drugs in the United States. Cannabis has been used throughout history for its stems in the production of hemp fiber, for its seed for oil and food, and for its buds and leaves as a psychoactive drug. Short tandem repeats (STRs), were chosen as molecular markers because of their distinct

Maria Angelica Mendoza Baez

2008-01-01

25

Characterization of the polymorphic repeat sequence within the rDNA IGS of Cannabis sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) structure of Cannabis sativa contains six variable repeat motifs within a locus spanning 1387 base pairs. The degree of variation of the first three motifs was examined using 77 samples from cannabis samples. The samples originated from five seizures in Taiwan and seed stocks from six different countries. The results showed that there were four

Hsing-Mei Hsieh; Chia-Ling Liu; Li-Chin Tsai; Rur-Jyun Hou; Kuo-Lan Liu; Adrian Linacre; James Chun-I Lee

2005-01-01

26

Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

Two extracts of Cannabis sativa herb, one being cannabinoid-free (ethanol) and the other containing the cannabinoids (petroleum), were shown to inhibit PBQ-induced writhing in mouse when given orally and also to antagonize tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced erythema of mouse skin when applied topically. With the exception of cannabinol (CBN) and delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC), the cannabinoids and olivetol (their biosynthetic precursor) demonstrated activity in the PBQ test exhibiting their maximal effect at doses of about 100 micrograms/kg. delta 1-THC only became maximally effective in doses of 10 mg/kg. This higher dose corresponded to that which induced catalepsy and is indicative of a central action. CNB demonstrated little activity and even at doses in excess of 10 mg/kg could only produce a 40% inhibition of PBQ-induced writhing. Cannabinoid (CBD) was the most effective of the cannabinoids at doses of 100 micrograms/kg. Doses of cannabinoids that were effective in the analgesic test orally were used topically to antagonize TPA-induced erythema of skin. The fact that delta 1-THC and CBN were the least effective in this test suggests a structural relationship between analgesic activity and antiinflammatory activity among the cannabinoids related to their peripheral actions and separate from the central effects of delta 1-THC. PMID:3169967

Formukong, E A; Evans, A T; Evans, F J

1988-08-01

27

Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh,

H. Stambouli; A. El Bouri; M. A. Bellimam; T. Bouayoun; N. El Karni

28

Genetics and Marker-assisted Selection of the Chemotype in Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa is an interesting crop for several industrial uses, but the legislations in Europe and USA require a tight control of cannabinoid\\u000a type and content for cultivation and subsidies release. Therefore, cannabinoid survey by gas chromatography of materials under selection is an important step in hemp breeding.\\u000a In this paper, a number of Cannabis accessions were examined for their

Daniela Pacifico; Francesca Miselli; Mirta Micheler; Andrea Carboni; Paolo Ranalli; Giuseppe Mandolino

2006-01-01

29

Genetic individualization of Cannabis sativa by a short tandem repeat multiplex system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa is the most frequently used of all illicit drugs in the USA. Cannabis has been used throughout history for its stems in the\\u000a production of hemp fiber, seed for oil and food, and buds and leaves as a psychoactive drug. Short tandem repeats (STRs) were\\u000a chosen as molecular markers owing to their distinct advantages over other genetic methods.

Maria A. Mendoza; DeEtta K. Mills; Hemant Lata; Suman Chandra; Mahmoud A. ElSohly; Jose R. Almirall

2009-01-01

30

Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cannabis may have potential therapeutic value, inhalation of a combustion product is an undesirable delivery system. The aim of the study was to investigate vaporization using the Volcano® device as an alternative means of delivery of inhaled Cannabis sativa. Eighteen healthy inpatient subjects enrolled to compare the delivery of cannabinoids by vaporization to marijuana smoked in a standard cigarette.

D I Abrams; H P Vizoso; S B Shade; C Jay; M E Kelly; N L Benowitz; DI Abrams

2007-01-01

31

Sensitization and Allergy to Cannabis sativa Leaves in a Population of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)Sensitized Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. Objective: To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. Methods: A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A,

Carlos Hernando de Larramendi; Jerónimo Carnés; José Luís García-Abujeta; Ana García-Endrino; Elena Muñoz-Palomino; Ángel Julio Huertas; Enrique Fernández-Caldas; Ángel Ferrer

2008-01-01

32

Effects of Cannabis sativa and lysergic acid diethylamide on a visual discrimination task in pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four pigeons were trained on a visual discrimination task which required conditional responding along the independent dimensions of form and color. High doses of Cannabis sativa (marihuana) extract and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which were equated on the basis of their effectiveness in suppressing responding, increased responding on a color dimension but not on a form dimension. High doses of

Ronald K. Siegel

1969-01-01

33

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (II): Cannabigerol predominant plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to clarify the genetic mechanism that is responsible for the accumulation of cannabigerol (CBG) in certain phenotypes of Cannabis sativa L. CBG is the direct precursor of the cannabinoids CBD, THC and CBC. Plants strongly predominant in CBG have been found in different fibre hemp accessions. Inbred offspring derived from one such individual were crossed with true

E. P. M. de Meijer; K. M. Hammond

2005-01-01

34

Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled leaves from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... people mix it in food and eat it. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

35

Results of molecular analysis of an archaeological hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) DNA sample from North West China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation and utilization is an ancient practice to human civilization. There are some controversies on the origin\\u000a and subsequent spread of this species. Ancient plant DNA has proven to be a powerful tool to solve phylogenetic problems.\\u000a In this study, ancient DNA was extracted from an archaeological specimen of Cannabis sativa associated with archaeological human remains

Ashutosh Mukherjee; Satyesh Chandra Roy; S. De Bera; Hong-En Jiang; Xiao Li; Cheng-Sen Li; Subir Bera

2008-01-01

36

Cannabidiolic-acid synthase, the chemotype-determining enzyme in the fiber-type Cannabis sativa.  

PubMed

Cannabidiolic-acid (CBDA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic-acid into CBDA, the dominant cannabinoid constituent of the fiber-type Cannabis sativa. We cloned a novel cDNA encoding CBDA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions with degenerate and gene-specific primers. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme demonstrated that CBDA synthase is a covalently flavinylated oxidase. The structural and functional properties of CBDA synthase are quite similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid (THCA) synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of THCA, the major cannabinoid in drug-type Cannabis plants. PMID:17544411

Taura, Futoshi; Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Yoshikai, Kazuyoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi

2007-06-26

37

Marijuana.  

PubMed

Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown. PMID:25022187

Ammerman, Seth

2014-04-01

38

Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype\\u000a in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). The primer OPA8 generates a set of bands, most of which polymorphic among all the individual plants tested, and 1 of\\u000a which, named OPA8400, present in all male

G. Mandolino; A. Carboni; S. Forapani; V. Faeti; P. Ranalli

1999-01-01

39

Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution  

SciTech Connect

Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

1984-07-01

40

Cannabidiolic-acid synthase, the chemotype-determining enzyme in the fiber-type Cannabis sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabidiolic-acid (CBDA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic-acid into CBDA, the dominant cannabinoid constituent of the fiber-type Cannabis sativa. We cloned a novel cDNA encoding CBDA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions with degenerate and gene-specific primers. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme demonstrated that CBDA synthase is a covalently flavinylated oxidase. The structural

Futoshi Taura; Supaart Sirikantaramas; Yoshinari Shoyama; Kazuyoshi Yoshikai; Yukihiro Shoyama; Satoshi Morimoto

2007-01-01

41

Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. — an important medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous\\u000a nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical\\u000a profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the\\u000a most suitable way to

Hemant Lata; Suman Chandra; Ikhlas A. Khan; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

2009-01-01

42

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (III): variation in cannabichromene proportion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism that controls the proportion of cannabichromene (CBC), a potential pharmaceutical, in the cannabinoid fraction\\u000a of Cannabis sativa L. is explored. As with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), CBC is an enzymatic conversion product of the precursor\\u000a cannabigerol (CBG). CBC is reported to dominate the cannabinoid fraction of juveniles and to decline with maturation. This\\u000a ontogeny was confirmed in

E. P. M. de Meijer; K. M. Hammond; M. Micheler

2009-01-01

43

Marijuana and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Marijuana and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... advice from your health care provider. What is marijuana? Marijuana, also called pot, weed, or cannabis, is ...

44

DNA polymorphisms in the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in “drug-type” and “fiber-type” Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cannabinoid content of 13 different strains of cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) was analyzed. Six strains fell into the “drug-type” class, with high ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) content, and seven strains into the “fiber-type” class, with low THCA using HPLC analysis. Genomic DNA sequence polymorphisms in the THCA synthase gene from each strain were studied. A single PCR fragment of

Mareshige Kojoma; Hikaru Seki; Shigeo Yoshida; Toshiya Muranaka

2006-01-01

45

Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724

Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

2012-05-01

46

Endocannabinoids in the retina: From marijuana to neuroprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous

Stephen Yazulla

2008-01-01

47

Pathogenicity of Phomopsis ganjae on Cannabis sativa and the fungistatic effect of cannabinoids produced by the host  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronology of Phomopsis ganjae conidia germination and infection of Cannabis sativa leaves was observed with the scanning electron microscope. A-conidia germination approached 100% after 24 h, appresoria initiation began after 36 h; B-conidia germinated by 52 h but were not infective. Four-week-old C. sativa seedlings were more susceptible than 16-week-old plants, males more than females. THC and CBD, extracted

John McPartland

1984-01-01

48

Ovipositing butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) distinguishes between aqueous extracts of two strains of Cannabis sativa L. and THC and CBD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovipositing female butterfly has proved a useful tool for separating closely related strains of various plant species. Using the large white (Pieris brassicae), we have been able to distinguish between the Turkish and Mexican strains of Cannabis sativa, and demonstrate that the butterfly is sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between purified THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) - two substances which

Miriam Rothschild; J. W. Fairbairn

1980-01-01

49

Constructing Cannabis: A Social History of Marijuana from a Race, Class and Gender Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States currently spends in excess of seventeen billion dollars annually attempting to control the drug problem. It is estimated that the annual market for illicit drugs is fifty billion dollars, only seven of which is spent on marijuana. Nevertheless, the government continually reaffirms its position that marijuana constitutes a serious social problem. While most Americans are aware of

Kim Star

2001-01-01

50

Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of the Dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY Chromosome Sex Determination System  

PubMed Central

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution. PMID:24465491

Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Razumova, Olga V.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2014-01-01

51

A survey of cannabis (marijuana) use and self-reported benefit in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pelvic pain condition largely refractory to treatment. Cannabis (marijuana) use has been reported for a wide variety of chronic pain conditions, but no study has examined prevalence of cannabis use, symptom benefit or side effects, or frequency in CP/CPPS. Methods: Participants were recruited from an outpatient CP/CPPS urology clinic (n = 98) and online through the Prostatitis Foundation website (n = 244). Participants completed questionnaires (demographics, CP/CPPS, depression, cannabis). Results: The clinic sample included Canadian patients and the online sample included primarily American patients. Due to differences, groups were examined separately. Almost 50% of respondents reported using cannabis (clinic n = 49; online n = 89). Of the cannabis users, 36.8% of clinic and 75% of online respondents reported that it improved their symptoms. Most of the respondents (from the clinic and online groups) reported that cannabis improved their mood, pain, muscle spasms, and sleep. However, they did not note any improvements for weakness, fatigue, numbness, ambulation, and urination. Overall, the effectiveness of cannabis for CP/CPPS was “somewhat/very effective” (57% clinic; 63% online). There were no differences between side effects or choice of consumption and most reported using cannabis rarely. Conclusions: These are the first estimates in men suffering from CP/CPPS and suggest that while cannabis use is prevalent, its medical use and benefit are unknown. This is an understudied area and the benefit or hazard for cannabis use awaits further study. PMID:25553163

Tripp, Dean A.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Katz, Laura; Krsmanovic, Adrijana; Ware, Mark A.; Santor, Darcy

2014-01-01

52

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `P?ri?i' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

2010-01-01

53

Temperature response of photosynthesis in different drug and fiber varieties of Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

The temperature response on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of three medicinal drug type (HP Mexican, MX and W1) and four industrial fiber type (Felinq 34, Kompolty, Zolo 11 and Zolo 15) varieties of Cannabis sativa, originally from different agro-climatic zones worldwide, were studied. Among the drug type varieties, optimum temperature for photosynthesis (Topt) was observed in the range of 30-35 °C in high potency Mexican HPM whereas, it was in the range of 25-30 °C in W1. A comparatively lower value (25 °C) for Topt was observed in MX. Among fiber type varieties, Topt was around 30 °C in Zolo 11 and Zolo 15 whereas, it was near 25 °C in Felinq 34 and Kompolty. Varieties having higher maximum photosynthesis (PN max) had higher chlorophyll content as compared to those having lower PN max. Differences in water use efficiency (WUE) were also observed within and among the drug and fiber type plants. However, differences became less pronounced at higher temperatures. Both stomatal and mesophyll components seem to be responsible for the temperature dependence of photosynthesis (PN) in this species, however, their magnitude varied with the variety. In general, a two fold increase in dark respiration with increase in temperature (from 20 °C to 40 °C) was observed in all the varieties. However, a greater increase was associated with the variety having higher rate of photosynthesis, indicating a strong association between photosynthetic and respiratory rates. The results provide a valuable indication regarding variations in temperature dependence of PN in different varieties of Cannabis sativa L. PMID:23573022

Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

2011-07-01

54

Therapeutic Cannabis (Marijuana) as an Antiemetic and Appetite Stimulant in Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a common cause of death among young adults in the USA. AIDS wasting syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of AIDS. Antiretroviral drug therapy has improved the prognosis of persons with AIDS, but also contributed side effects, particularly nausea and anorexia. Case reports demonstrate persons with AIDS use cannabis as medicine tocontrol nausea, anorexia,

Richard E. Bayer

2001-01-01

55

Failure obtain “cannabis-directed behavior” and abstinence syndrome in rats chronically treated with Cannabis sativa extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to verify whether chronic treatment with Cannabis saliva extracts would induce dependence and\\/or abstinence symptoms in rats. In Experiment one, rats ingested cannabis extract as the only fluid for 126 days. On days 1, 43, 48, 62, 80, 92 and 119 when the animals were in abstinence from previous administration of marihuana for 0 to 96 h,

José Roberto Leite; E. A. Carlini

1974-01-01

56

INFLUENCE OF CULTIVAR, EXPLANT SOURCE AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION OF CANNABIS SATIVA L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on callus induction and plant regeneration were investigated in five cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. Callus was induced from different explant sources (young leaves, petioles, internodes, axillary buds) on MS basal medium with various concentrations of PGRs (2,4-D, DICAMBA, KIN, NAA). The highest frequency of callus induction (avg. 82.7% of

AURELIA SLUSARKIEWICZ-JARZINA; ALEKSANDRA PONITKA; ZYGMUNT KACZMAREK

2005-01-01

57

Identity Formation, Marijuana and “The Self”: A Study of Cannabis Normalization among University Students  

PubMed Central

Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people’s understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using “pot” was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman’s contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood. PMID:24348431

Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

58

Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites  

PubMed Central

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data. PMID:23812081

Docimo, Teresa; Consonni, Roberto; Coraggio, Immacolata; Mattana, Monica

2013-01-01

59

Marijuana. Specialized Information Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents a collection of articles about marijuana. Article 1 reports on the results of a study by the National Academy of Sciences on the health effects of marijuana. A summary report of adverse health and behavioral consequences of cannabis (marijuana) use is provided in article 2. Article 3 presents the Surgeon General's warnings on…

Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

60

In planta imaging of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in Cannabis sativa L. with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabis sativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question.

Garbacik, Erik T.; Korai, Roza P.; Frater, Eric H.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L.

2013-04-01

61

Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:19718326

Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

2007-01-01

62

Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and geographic origins of Cannabis sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative sequencing of cannabis individuals across 12 chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA loci revealed 7 polymorphic sites, including 5 length variable regions and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Simple PCR assays were developed to assay these polymorphisms, and organelle DNA haplotypes were obtained for 188 cannabis individuals from 76 separate populations, including drug-type, fibre-type and wild populations. The haplotype data were analysed

Simon Gilmore; Rod Peakall; James Robertson

2007-01-01

63

Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones and its potential functional effects have been largely neglected. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via the activation of type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals an unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor over-activation that could open an unforeseen novel approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. PMID:24385629

Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L.; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P.; Lynch, Diane L.; Shore, Derek M.; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H.; Ross, Ruth A.; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

2014-01-01

64

Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. is correlated with high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation environments. ..delta../sup 9/-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, both major secondary products of C. sativa, absorb UV-B radiation and may function as solar screens. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. sativa. Drug and fiber-type C. sativa were irradiated with three levels of UV-B radiation for 40 days in greenhouse experiments. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates from 26 to 32/sup 0/C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. The concentration of ..delta../sup 9/-THC, but not of other cannabinoids) in both vegetative and reproductive tissues increased with UV-B dose in drug-type plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of ..delta../sup 9/-THC found in leaves after irradiation may account for the physiological and morphological insensitivity to UV-B radiation in the drug-type plants. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil (CBD). Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. Cannabidiol (CBD) gradually decreased when irradiated but ..delta../sup 9/-THC and cannabichromene did not.

Lydon, J.

1986-01-01

65

Cloning and over-expression of a cDNA encoding a polyketide synthase from Cannabis sativa.  

PubMed

A polyketide synthase has been suggested to play an important role in cannabinoid biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa L. This enzyme catalyzes the biosynthesis of olivetolic acid, one of the precursors for cannabinoid biosynthesis. Using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the DNA homology of chalcone synthase (EC 2.3.1.156) and valerophenone synthase (EC 2.3.1.156) of hop (Humulus lupulus), a cDNA encoding a polyketide synthase in C. sativa was identified. The coding region of the gene is 1170 bp long encoding a 389 amino acid protein of a predicted 42.7 kDa molecular mass and with a pI of 6.04. The gene shares a high homology with a chalcone synthase gene of H. lupulus, 85% and 94% homology on the level of DNA and protein, respectively. Over-expression of the construct in Escherichia coli M15 resulted in a 45 kDa protein. The protein has chalcone synthase activity as well as valerophenone synthase activity, a chalcone synthase-like activity. Using n-hexanoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates did not give olivetol or olivetolic acid as a product. PMID:15120113

Raharjo, Tri J; Chang, Wen-Te; Verberne, Marianne C; Peltenburg-Looman, Anja M G; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

2004-04-01

66

Time course of cannabinoid accumulation and chemotype development during the growth of Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course of cannabinoid accumulation in the leaves of individual plants of three Cannabis accessions was determined by gas-chromatographic analysis in greenhouse-grown plants. The total amounts and the concentration\\u000a ratios of CBD, THC and CBG were determined; two accessions (an experimental hybrid, (21R × 15R) × NL, and plants from a seized\\u000a seed lot) were found chemotypically uniform, with all plants belonging to

D. Pacifico; F. Miselli; A. Carboni; A. Moschella; G. Mandolino

2008-01-01

67

The response of terpenoids to exogenous gibberellic acid in Cannabis sativa L. at vegetative stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3) on plastidic and cytosolic terpenoids and on two key enzymes, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), for terpenoid biosynthesis\\u000a was compared in vegetative cannabis plants. Treatment with GA3 resulted in a decrease of DXS activity in comparison with the control plants. The amount of chlorophylls a, b and

Hakimeh Mansouri; Zahra Asrar; Ryszard Amarowicz

2011-01-01

68

Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats without affecting hyperglycemia. In addition, the results showed that eCBD increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the liver leading to a restoration of the defence mechanism and significantly decreased the liver lipid peroxidation suggesting that eCBD provides protection against oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetes that also strongly contributes to the development of neuropathy. Finally, the nerve growth factor content in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats was restored to normal following the repeated treatment with eCBD, suggesting that the extract was able to prevent the nerve damage caused by the reduced support of this neurotrophin. These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor. PMID:19441010

Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara

2009-12-01

69

Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?  

PubMed

The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues. Recently, great attention has been directed to the medical properties of phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant alongside the main constituent ??-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: schizophrenics show a higher use of marijuana as compared to the healthy population. Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. PMID:23109356

Deiana, Serena

2013-01-01

70

Inhibition of the cataleptic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol by other constituents of Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) induced catalepsy in mice, whereas a cannabis oil (6.68% w/w THC), four cannabinoids and a synthetic mixture did not. Cannabinol (CBN) and olivetol inhibited THC-induced catalepsy in the mornings and the evenings, but cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited this effect only in the evenings. A combination of CBN and CBD inhibited THC-induced catalepsy equal to that of CBN alone in the mornings, but this inhibition was greater than that produced by CBN alone in the evenings. PMID:2897447

Formukong, E A; Evans, A T; Evans, F J

1988-02-01

71

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa.  

PubMed

Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65 A resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6 A, alpha = 69, beta = 81, gamma = 80 degrees. Another crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55 A resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130 A. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1. PMID:18323613

Taguchi, Chiho; Taura, Futoshi; Tamada, Taro; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kuroki, Ryota; Morimoto, Satoshi

2008-03-01

72

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa  

PubMed Central

Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1?M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2?M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65?Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6?Å, ? = 69, ? = 81, ? = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1?M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2?M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55?Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130?Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1. PMID:18323613

Taguchi, Chiho; Taura, Futoshi; Tamada, Taro; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kuroki, Ryota; Morimoto, Satoshi

2008-01-01

73

PKS activities and biosynthesis of cannabinoids and flavonoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants.  

PubMed

Polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymatic activities were analyzed in crude protein extracts from cannabis plant tissues. Chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74), stilbene synthase (STS, EC 2.3.1.95), phlorisovalerophenone synthase (VPS, EC 2.3.1.156), isobutyrophenone synthase (BUS) and olivetol synthase activities were detected during the development and growth of glandular trichomes on bracts. Cannabinoid biosynthesis and accumulation take place in these glandular trichomes. In the biosynthesis of the first precursor of cannabinoids, olivetolic acid, a PKS could be involved; however, no activity for an olivetolic acid-forming PKS was detected. Content analyses of cannabinoids and flavonoids, two secondary metabolites present in this plant, from plant tissues revealed differences in their distribution, suggesting a diverse regulatory control for these biosynthetic fluxes in the plant. PMID:18854334

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Verpoorte, Robert

2008-12-01

74

Cannabis; extracting the medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have

Arno Hazekamp

2007-01-01

75

Rapid isolation procedure for ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) from Cannabis sativa using two flash chromatography systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two isolation procedures for ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), the biogenetic precursor in the biosynthesis of the psychoactive ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant, are presented. Two flash chromatography systems that can be used independently from each other were developed to separate THCA from other compounds of a crude cannabis extract. In both systems UV absorption at 209 and 270nm was

Ariane Wohlfarth; Hellmut Mahler; Volker Auwärter

2011-01-01

76

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as a Resource for Green Cosmetics: Yield of Seed and Fatty Acid Compositions of 20 Varieties Under the Growing Conditions of Organic Farming in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in hemp (non-drug Cannabis sativa L.) for skin care and cosmetic use is due to the high content of oil, especially un- saturated fatty acids in seed with technological and therapeutic effects. In a field trial on an organic farm, seed weight and content of fatty acids

Christian R. Vogl; Helga Mölleken; Gunilla Lissek-Wolf; Andreas Surböck; Jörg Kobert

77

Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

Lamarine, Roland J.

2012-01-01

78

Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds  

PubMed Central

Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed), K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1) and K (232–257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, zinc and iron. PMID:23088580

2012-01-01

79

Cannabis and Eicosanoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many constituents of cannabis exhibit beneficial anti-inflammatory properties, such as ? -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in hemp seed oil. The effects of these cannabis constituents on eicosanoid metabolism is reviewed. THC and GLA modulate the arachidonic acid cascade, inhibiting the production of series 2 prostaglandins and series 4 leukotrienes. Canna-binoid receptor — as well as non-receptor-mediated

John M. McPartland

2001-01-01

80

Economics of Cannabis Legalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Marijuana,legalization,offers an important,advantage,over,decriminalization in that it allows for legal distribution and taxation of cannabis. In the absence of taxation, the free market price of legal marijuana would beextremely low, on the order of five to ten cents per joint. In terms of intoxicating potential, a joint is equivalent to at least $1 or $2 worth of alcohol, the price

Dale Gieringer

81

Exposure to marijuana smoke impairs memory retrieval in mice.  

PubMed

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) and its primary psychoactive component, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), have long been known to disrupt cognition in humans. Although Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids disrupt performance in a wide range of animal models of learning and memory, few studies have investigated the effects of smoked marijuana in these paradigms. Moreover, in preclinical studies, cannabinoids are generally administered before acquisition, and because retention is generally evaluated soon afterward, it is difficult to distinguish between processes related to acquisition and retrieval. In the present study, we investigated the specific effects of marijuana smoke and injected Delta(9)-THC on acquisition versus memory retrieval in a mouse repeated acquisition Morris water-maze task. To distinguish between these processes, subjects were administered Delta(9)-THC or they were exposed to marijuana smoke either 30 min before acquisition or 30 min before the retention test. Inhalation of marijuana smoke or injected Delta(9)-THC impaired the ability of the mice to learn the location of the hidden platform and to recall the platform location once learning had already taken place. In contrast, neither drug impaired performance in a cued task in which the platform was made visible. Finally, the cannabinoid-1 (CB(1)) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide HCl (rimonabant) blocked the memory disruptive effects of both Delta(9)-THC and marijuana. These data represent the first evidence demonstrating that marijuana impairs memory retrieval through a CB(1) receptor mechanism of action and independently of its effects on sensorimotor performance, motivation, and initial acquisition. PMID:17586723

Niyuhire, Floride; Varvel, Stephen A; Martin, Billy R; Lichtman, Aron H

2007-09-01

82

Marijuana Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

Print Home » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director What is Marijuana? Marijuana— also called weed, herb, pot, grass, bud, ganja, Mary Jane , and a ...

83

MEDICAL MARIJUANA: SCIENTIFIC MECHANISMS AND CLINICAL INDICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finally in the early 21 st century, medicinal cannabis is being rediscovered by physicians and patients alike. This paper discusses the current state of medicinal marijuana in the U.S. We'll look at contemporary medicinal use in the context of the 5000-year history of the therapeutic use of cannabis. This includes cannabis use in ancient times, in patent medicines, its use

David Bearman

84

General and oral health implications of cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis:

CM Cho; R. Hirsch; S. Johnstone

2005-01-01

85

Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Missoula Chronic Clinical Cannabis Use Study was proposed to investigate the therapeutic bepnefits and adverse effects of prolonged use of “medical marijuana” in a cohort of seriously ill patients. Use of cannabis was approved through the Compassionate Inves-tigational New Drug (IND) program of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Cannabis is obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse

Ethan Russo; Mary Lynn Mathre; Al Byrne; Robert Velin; Paul J. Bach; Juan Sanchez-Ramos; Kristin A. Kirlin

2002-01-01

86

Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline  

MedlinePLUS

... video , Dr. Madeline Meier discusses her study of marijuana and IQ. Regular cannabis use that starts in ... People with Drug Use Disorders Pre-Teens Teens Marijuana Prevention Research Prevention This page was last updated ...

87

Cannabis and psychosis: Neurobiology  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a ‘cause-effect’ relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the ‘transition-to-psychosis’ due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553

Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

2014-01-01

88

Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.  

PubMed

The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. PMID:22362625

Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

2012-01-01

89

Cannabis and Natural Cannabis Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cannabis plants produce many compounds of possible medical importance. This chapter briefly explains the life cycle, origin, early\\u000a evolution, and domestication of Cannabis, plus provides a brief history of drug Cannabis breeding and looks into the future of Cannabis as a source of medicines. Cannabis is among the very oldest of economic plants providing humans with fiber for spinning, weaving

Robert C. Clarke; David P. Watson

90

Cannabis toxicity and adverse biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of cannabis as a medicinal entity is an ongoing discussion that requires additional clinical and laboratory research. Marijuana smok- ing deposits 4x times more tar in the lungs as compared to tobacco smoke and amount of some pro-carcinogens are up to 2x times greater in marijuana tar. Determination of Dependence\\/Physical Harm relationship by investi- gators shows a proximity of

Ronald Bartzatt

2010-01-01

91

The Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome Characterized by Persistent Nausea and Vomiting, Abdominal Pain, and Compulsive Bathing Associated with Chronic Marijuana Use: A Report of Eight Cases in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals\\/Background  The cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, which is associated with chronic cannabis use, was recently reported in seven case reports\\u000a and one clinical series of ten patients from Australia. We further characterize this syndrome with eight well-documented cases\\u000a in the United States and report results of cannabis discontinuation and cannabis rechallenge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study Methods  Patients were identified by the three investigators in gastroenterology clinic

Maria Soriano-Co; Mihaela Batke; Mitchell S. Cappell

2010-01-01

92

[Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].  

PubMed

Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. PMID:23664286

Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

2013-04-01

93

Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence  

PubMed Central

Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

2011-01-01

94

Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background An oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop

C. Scully

2007-01-01

95

Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms in Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ?1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ?10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ? moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment. PMID:20510550

Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.

2010-01-01

96

Is Marijuana Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... or smoking marijuana leaves. Are “Medical” and “Street” Marijuana Different? In principle, no. Most marijuana sold in ... seizures in their children. Why Isn’t the Marijuana Plant an FDA-Approved Medicine? The FDA requires ...

97

Marijuana: Facts for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

98

59 FR- Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...disturbance caused by feral pigs and illegal cultivation of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), roof or black rat (Rattus rattus...long-term survival of the species. Illegal cultivation of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) occurs in isolated portions of...

1994-03-04

99

Cannabis Prices and Dynamics of Cannabis Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses duration models and self-reported cannabis histories from young Australians to study the dynamics of cannabis use. We find that low cannabis prices are associated with early initiation into cannabis use. While the decision to quit does not appear to be directly influenced by price, we find that the younger an individual is when they start using cannabis

Jan C van Ours; Jenny Williams

2005-01-01

100

Cannabis prices and dynamics of cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses duration models and self-reported cannabis histories from young Australians to study the dynamics of cannabis use. We find that low cannabis prices are associated with early initiation into cannabis use. While the decision to quit does not appear to be directly influenced by price, we find that the younger an individual is when they start using cannabis

Jenny Williams

2007-01-01

101

? 9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin testing may not have the sensitivity to detect marijuana use among individuals ingesting dronabinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), a plant cannabinoid, is a sensitive measure to detect recent marijuana use in cannabis dependent patients. It has been purported that smoking an illicit plant cannabis product will result in a positive THCV urinalysis, whereas the oral ingestion of therapeutic THC such as dronabinol will result in a negative

Frances R. Levin; John J. Mariani; Daniel J. Brooks; Shan Xie; Kathleen A. Murray

2010-01-01

102

Marijuana Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

1979-01-01

103

Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.  

PubMed

The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R(2) = 0.7511) and leaves (R(2) = 0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R(2) = 0.8439) and root (R(2) = 0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction. PMID:25174425

Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

2015-01-01

104

Marijuana: Facts for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Marijuana: Facts for Teens » Letter to Teens Marijuana: Facts for Teens Email Facebook Twitter Letter to Teens Need Treatment? ... they once were. Did you know that teen marijuana use has dropped dramatically since the late 1990s? ...

105

DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

106

Marijuana as doping in sports.  

PubMed

A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations. PMID:12744713

Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

2003-01-01

107

THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas with alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs. PMID:19340636

Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2009-01-01

108

Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

109

Endocannabinoids in the retina: from marijuana to neuroprotection.  

PubMed

The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. There is great interest in endocannabinoids for their role in neuroplasticity as well as for therapeutic use in numerous conditions, including pain, stroke, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, fertility, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, among others. However, there has been relatively far less research on this topic in the eye and retina compared with the brain and other organ systems. The purpose of this review is to introduce the "cannabinergic" field to the retinal community. All of the fundamental works on cannabinoids have been performed in non-retinal preparations, necessitating extensive dependence on this literature for background. Happily, the retinal cannabinoid system has much in common with other regions of the central nervous system. For example, there is general agreement that cannabinoids suppress dopamine release and presynaptically reduce transmitter release from cones and bipolar cells. How these effects relate to light and dark adaptations, receptive field formation, temporal properties of ganglion cells or visual perception are unknown. The presence of multiple endocannabinoids, degradative enzymes with their bioactive metabolites, and receptors provides a broad spectrum of opportunities for basic research and to identify targets for therapeutic application to retinal diseases. PMID:18725316

Yazulla, Stephen

2008-09-01

110

Endocannabinoids in the Retina: From Marijuana to Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. There is great interest in endocannabinoids for their role in neuroplasticity as well as for therapeutic use in numerous conditions, including pain, stroke, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, fertility, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, among others. However, there has been relatively far less research on this topic in the eye and retina compared with the brain and other organ systems. The purpose of this review is to introduce the “cannabinergic” field to the retinal community. All of the fundamental work on cannabinoids has been performed in non-retinal preparations, necessitating extensive dependence on this literature for background. Happily, the retinal cannabinoid system has much in common with other regions of the central nervous system. For example, there is general agreement that cannabinoids suppress dopamine release and presynaptically reduce transmitter release from cones and bipolar cells. How these effects relate to light and dark adaptation, receptive field formation, temporal properties of ganglion cells or visual perception are unknown. The presence of multiple endocannabinoids, degradative enzymes with their bioactive metabolites, and receptors provides a broad spectrum of opportunities for basic research and to identify targets for therapeutic application to retinal diseases. PMID:18725316

Yazulla, Stephen

2008-01-01

111

Test Your Knowledge: Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Depressant ... for Teens Guest Blogger Healthy Minds and Bodies Marijuana National Drug Facts Week NIDA News and Events ...

112

Marijuana and Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

113

Cannabis sativa : an optimization study for ROI  

E-print Network

Despite hemp's multifarious uses in over 30 countries ranging from the manufacture of paper to specialty textiles, construction, animal feed, and fuel, its acceptance in the US has been shunned because of its association ...

Esmail, Adnan M

2010-01-01

114

Cannabis and psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable debate about the reasons for the association observed between cannabis use and psychosis in both\\u000a clinical and general population samples. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain the association are the following: 1) common\\u000a factors explain the cooccurrence; 2 cannabis causes psychosis that would not have occurred in the absence of cannabis use;\\u000a 3) cannabis precipitates psychosis

Louisa Degenhardt; Wayne Hall

2002-01-01

115

Reducing Cannabis Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that cannabis is prohibited in Australia, more than one million people aged 14 years or older use it at least once a week. These frequent users are more at risk of suffering the harms associated with cannabis use than infrequent users. This report is an exploratory investigation into factors which might encourage regular cannabis users to stop

Craig Jones; Don Weatherburn

116

Pediatricians' Group Opposes Legal Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Pediatricians' Group Opposes Legal Marijuana American Academy of Pediatrics says drug has potential ... Preidt Monday, January 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Marijuana MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana shouldn' ...

117

An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Anecdotal reports suggest that cannabis may alleviate LUTS, and cannabinoid receptors in the bladder and nervous system are potential pharmacological targets. In an open trial we evaluated the safety, tolerability, dose range, and efficacy of two whole-plant extracts of Cannabis sativa in patients with advanced

CM Brady; R Dasgupta; C Dalton; OJ Wiseman; KJ Berkley; CJ Fowler

2004-01-01

118

Do medical cannabis laws encourage cannabis use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the

Dennis M. Gorman; J. Charles Huber

2007-01-01

119

Marijuana, immunity and infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of marijuana cannabinoids on immune function has been examined extensively over the last 25 yr. Various experimental models have been used employing drug-abusing human subjects, experimental animals exposed to marijuana smoke or injected with cannabinoids, and in vitro models employing immune cell cultures treated with various cannabinoids. For the most part, these studies suggest that cannabinoids modulate the

Thomas W Klein; Herman Friedman; Steven Specter

1998-01-01

120

Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

2008-01-01

121

A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

PubMed Central

There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

2012-01-01

122

A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.  

PubMed

There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

2012-06-01

123

Position Paper: Should the Scottish National Party Support Scotland to Legalize, Decriminalize, or Prohibit Cannabis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK has the highest rate of cannabis use among young people worldwide. Dr. Alan Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse reports, "Every year more than 100,000 people, most of them adolescents, seek treatment for their inability to control their marijuana use." According to the Scottish Drug Misuse Statistics in Scotland 2002,…

Jhaveri, Sujata

2005-01-01

124

Diffusion abnormalities in adolescents and young adults with a history of heavy cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is growing evidence that adolescence is a key period for neuronal maturation. Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and young adults in the United States and internationally, very little is known about its impact on the developing brain. Based on neuroimaging literature on normal brain developmental during adolescence, we hypothesized that individuals with heavy cannabis use

Manzar Ashtari; Kelly Cervellione; John Cottone; Babak A. Ardekani; Sanjiv Kumra

2009-01-01

125

Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons.

F. T. A. PIJLMAN; S. M. RIGTER; J. HOEK; H. M. J. GOLDSCHMIDT; R. J. M. NIESINK

2005-01-01

126

Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

Charboneau, Evonne J.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Martin, Peter R.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cowan, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

127

Impulsivity, Variation in the Cannabinoid Receptor (CNR1) and Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Genes, and Marijuana-Related Problems  

PubMed Central

Objective: Impulsivity is associated with increased marijuana use and subsequent marijuana-related problems among marijuana users. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes have been associated with cannabis-related phenotypes. This exploratory study tested whether the association between different aspects of impulsivity and the number of marijuana-related problems among users is explicated by variation in these putative cannabinoid-related genes. Method: A total of 151 young adult regular marijuana users (used on M = 41.4% of the prior 60 days, SD = 24.3%) provided DNA and completed measures of trait (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and behavioral impulsivity (Stop Signal Task and Delay Discounting Questionnaire), as well as a self-report of marijuana-related problems. Three CNR1 and five FAAH SNPs were genotyped, tested for haplotype blocks, and subsequently examined for association with phenotypes described above. Results: CNR1 variation significantly moderated the association between trait-level, but not behavioral, impulsivity and marijuana-related problems, such that the combination of higher trait impulsivity and CNR1 variation was associated with a greater number of marijuana-related problems. In contrast, there were no significant FAAH by impulsivity interactions; however, there was a main effect of FAAH on marijuana-related problems. Conclusions: These findings support an association with CNR1 and FAAH genes and marijuana-related problems among regular marijuana users. CNR1 variation emerged as a moderator of the relationship between trait impulsivity and marijuana problems, thus suggesting that marijuana users with CNR1 risk variants and a higher trait impulsivity are at greater risk for developing marijuana-related problems and supporting a role for CNR1 in a broader impulsivity phenotype. PMID:24172113

Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Metrik, Jane; McGeary, John; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Francazio, S.; Knopik, Valerie S.

2013-01-01

128

Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.  

PubMed

Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (?5.5% ??-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

2013-08-01

129

Effects of Cannabis on Impulsivity: A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging Findings  

PubMed Central

We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted. PMID:23829358

Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E.; Borgwardt, Stefan

2014-01-01

130

Effects of cannabis on impulsivity: a systematic review of neuroimaging findings.  

PubMed

We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted. PMID:23829358

Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, Andre; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

2014-01-01

131

Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Medical marijuana is promoted as a treatment for many diseases, ...

132

Three Facts About Marijuana Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australians are among the largest consumers of marijuana in the world, and estimates show that their expenditure on marijuana is about twice that on wine. In this paper we analyse the evolution of marijuana prices in Australia and show that they have declined in real terms by almost 40 percent over the decade. This decline is far above that experienced

Kenneth W. Clements

2002-01-01

133

THREE FACTS ABOUT MARIJUANA PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australians are among the largest consumers of marijuana in the world, and estimates show that their expenditure on marijuana is about twice that on wine. In this paper we analyse the evolution of marijuana prices in Australia and show that they have declined in real terms by almost 40 percent over the last decade. This decline is far above that

Kenneth W. Clements

2003-01-01

134

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) that is both: (1) Made from any portion of a plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from...

2012-04-01

135

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) that is both: (1) Made from any portion of a plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from...

2013-04-01

136

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) that is both: (1) Made from any portion of a plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from...

2011-04-01

137

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) that is both: (1) Made from any portion of a plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from...

2010-04-01

138

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

...tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) that is both: (1) Made from any portion of a plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i.e., the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from...

2014-04-01

139

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... and changing mood or consciousness). In the United States, Cannabis is a controlled substance and has been classified as a Schedule I agent (a drug with increased potential for abuse and no known medical use). ...

140

Neurobiology of cannabis addiction.  

PubMed

Cannabis has emerged as a common substance of abuse and dependence and the peculiarities associated with this widely available and used substance has triggered substantial research in this field. The earlier held concept of rather benign nature of this compound as a substance of abuse and dependence has changed as a result of the ongoing clinical and research findings. Cannabis has been found to have multiple physical and mental effects in human beings. But still a lot remains to be answered regarding the basis for the development of dependence on cannabis. However, the discovery of various cannabis receptors and their endogenous and synthetic ligands have added fuel to the ever growing interest in this substance. Various hypotheses have been postulated in this regard based on the findings of both the animal and human studies which serve as potential explanations to the observations. These findings have helped in the better understanding of the issue and have provided substrate for the clinical application. PMID:19552052

Jain, Raka; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

2008-01-01

141

Cigarette smoking during an N-acetylcysteine-assisted cannabis cessation trial in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Tobacco and cannabis use are both highly prevalent worldwide. Their co-use is also common in adults and adolescents. Despite this frequent co-occurrence, cessation from both substances is rarely addressed in randomized clinical trials. Given evidence that tobacco use may increase during cannabis cessation attempts, and additionally that tobacco users have poorer cannabis cessation outcomes, we explored tobacco outcomes, specifically cigarette smoking, from an adolescent cannabis cessation trial that tested the efficacy of N-acetylesteine (NAC). Methods Cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15–21; n=116) interested in cannabis treatment were randomized to NAC (1200 mg bid) or matched placebo for 8 weeks. Participants did not need to be cigarette smokers or be interested in smoking cessation to qualify for inclusion. Results Approximately 59% of enrolled participants were daily and non-daily cigarette smokers, and only differed from non-smoking participants on the compulsion sub-scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire. Among cigarette smokers who were retained in the study, there was no change in cigarettes per day for either NAC or placebo groups during the 8-week treatment phase. Being a cigarette smoker did not appear to influence the effects of NAC on cannabis abstinence, though there was a trend in the placebo group of poorer cannabis outcomes for cigarette smokers vs. non-smokers. Conclusions No evidence was found of compensatory cigarette smoking during this cannabis cessation trial in adolescents. Further work assessing interventions to reduce both cannabis and tobacco use in this population is greatly needed. PMID:24720376

McClure, Erin A.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Gray, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

142

Cannabis and educational achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To examine the relationship between cannabis use in adolescence\\/young adulthood and levels of educational attainment. Design Data were gathered over the course of a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measurements Measures analysed included (a) frequency of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood (15-25 years); (b) levels of educational achievement to age

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Annette L. Beautrais

2003-01-01

143

Altered cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive correlates in adolescent cannabis users  

PubMed Central

Rationale The effects of adolescent marijuana use on the developing brain remain unclear, despite its prevalence. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive imaging technique that characterizes neurovascular status and cerebral blood flow (CBF), potentially revealing contributors to neuropathological alterations. No studies to date have looked at CBF in adolescent marijuana users. Objectives This study examined CBF in adolescent marijuana users and matched healthy controls at baseline and after 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. Methods Heavy adolescent marijuana users (n=23, >200 lifetime marijuana use days) and demographically matched controls (n=23) with limited substance exposure underwent an ASL brain scan at an initial session and after 4 weeks of sequential urine toxicology to confirm abstinence. Results Marijuana users showed reduced CBF in four cortical regions including the left superior and middle temporal gyri, left insula, left and right medial frontal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus at baseline; users showed increased CBF in the right precuneus at baseline, as compared to controls (corrected p values<0.05). No between group differences were found at follow-up. Conclusions Marijuana use may influence CBF in otherwise healthy adolescents acutely; however, group differences were not observed after several weeks of abstinence. Neurovascular alterations may contribute to or underlie changes in brain activation, neuropsychological performance, and mood observed in young cannabis users with less than a month of abstinence. PMID:22395430

Jacobus, Joanna; Goldenberg, Diane; Wierenga, Christina E.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Liu, Thomas T.

2012-01-01

144

-Tetrahydrocannabinol Antagonizes the Peripheral  

E-print Network

) is the ma- jor active psychotropic component of the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa. The membrane proteins systems (3­6). ( )- 9 -THC, the active cannabinoid compound from Cannabis sa- tiva, has been shown

Vogel, Zvi

145

Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice.  

PubMed

: Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis. PMID:25650954

Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K

2015-01-01

146

The effects of medical marijuana laws on illegal marijuana use.  

PubMed

More and more states have passed laws that allow individuals to use marijuana for medical purposes. There is an ongoing, heated policy debate over whether these laws have increased marijuana use among non-patients. In this paper, I address that question empirically by studying marijuana possession arrests in cities from 1988 to 2008. I estimate fixed effects models with city-specific time trends that can condition on unobserved heterogeneities across cities in both their levels and trends. I find that these laws increase marijuana arrests among adult males by about 15-20%. These results are further validated by findings from data on treatment admissions to rehabilitation facilities: marijuana treatments among adult males increased by 10-20% after the passage of medical marijuana laws. PMID:25205609

Chu, Yu-Wei Luke

2014-12-01

147

Aspects of tolerance to and dependence on cannabis.  

PubMed

Tolerance at all levels of complexity in the brain involves "learning" in the sense of the acquisition of compensatory adaptations to the consequences of the presence of a drug-produced disturbance in function. Depending on the function, species, and dose of cannabis, "tissue tolerance," behaviorally augmented (to provide the presence of the disturbed function) or not, develops at different rates or not all (e.g., to impairment of the logical sequence of thoughts, to which no tolerance has yet been demonstrated). "Dispositional tolerance" (increased rate of metabolism of delta 9-THC due to enzyme induction) may play a role in the development of tolerance or "reverse tolerance" to cannabis in man. There is evidence that for the label "high," placebo effects may account for the "reverse tolerance" seen in experienced users on smoking (but not on ingestion of delta 9-THC or placebo) along with evidence of residual tolerance to other not-so-labeled effects of the drug. Dependence on cannabis, in the sense of abstinence phenomena on abrupt withdrawal of delta 9-THC, has been demonstrated in monkeys made tolerant to delta 9-THC given four times daily for about 1 month. In man, physiologic marijuana abstinence signs have not been demonstrated, but behavioral (and some physiologic) abstinence phenomena have been reported in heavy users of hashish or ganja. The between-dose hyperirritability and dysphoria reported to occur in experimental studies on chronic marijuana intoxication may actually be early and short-lived abstinence changes. In the West, where marijuana with relatively low delta 9-THC content is widely smoked, dependence in the sense of drug-seeking behavior appears to be less a function of any pharmacologic reinforcing properties the drug may have than of secondary (conditioned) reinforcement derived from the social milieu in which the marijuana is smoked. In cultures where marijuana of higher delta 9-THC content, hashish, or ganja is used, pharmacologic reinforcement (through suppression of abstinence changes) may play a greater role in maintaining drug-seeking behavior. PMID:828472

Wikler, A

1976-01-01

148

Cannabis Transactions and Law Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

he New Zealand government recently announced that a Parliamentary Select Committee would investigate the most effective public health strategies to reduce the harm of cannabis, including its legal status. Public hearings of submissions began on 30 May this year. Those in favour of the legalisation of cannabis in New Zealand have pointed out that if cannabis were legalised buyers and

Chris Wilkins

2001-01-01

149

Marijuana and Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extra-therapeutic uses of cannabis and other age-old psychoactive plants are currently ignored or dismissed not only by the usual suspects (moral entrepreneurs, political, religious leaders and other self-proclaimed do-gooders), but also by the great majority of the academic community. Those wishing to experiment with such substances often do so at no small risk to reputation or freedom. Thus, potentially

Peter Webster

2001-01-01

150

Chronic Marijuana Use and The Brain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Chronic Marijuana Use and The Brain HealthDay November 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Brain Diseases Marijuana Transcript Long-term marijuana use may lead to ...

151

Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... and children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

152

Medical Marijuana in Certain Neurological Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Systematic Review for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES MEDICAL MARIJUANA IN CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS ©2014 American Academy of ... review, visit AAN.com/guidelines. What is medical marijuana? Marijuana is an herb that grows naturally in ...

153

Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

Marijuana Q& A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even ... at www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp. The Truth About Marijuana Slang—Weed, Pot, Grass, Reefer, Ganja, Mary Jane, ...

154

Mouse Study Explores Secrets of Marijuana 'Munchies'  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Mouse Study Explores Secrets of Marijuana 'Munchies' Researcher says pot might help release an ... 2015) Wednesday, February 18, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Marijuana WEDNESDAY, Feb. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The marijuana " ...

155

Behavioral pharmacokinetics of marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male volunteer subjects smoked one marijuana cigarette containing 100, 200, or 250 µg\\/kg ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and were tested on three perceptual-motor performance measures related to driving. Performance was measured and blood samples were collected for 24 h after smoking. The covariation between phamacodynamics of performance and pharmacokinetics of THC in plasma was investigated for decrement in performance as the response

Gene Barnett; Vojtech Licko; Travis Thompson

1985-01-01

156

Open-label pilot study of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence  

PubMed Central

Background There are no efficacious pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. The effects of quetiapine are well matched to the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and could be useful in the treatment of cannabis dependence. Objectives To evaluate quetiapine for the treatment of cannabis dependence and determine the optimal dosing. Methods In an eight-week open-label outpatient pilot trial, we evaluated the feasibility of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence in 15 outpatients. Quetiapine was gradually titrated to 600 mg or the maximum tolerated dose. Results The mean study retention was 6.5 weeks (±2.3), with 67% of participants completing all eight weeks of the trial. The mean maximum dose achieved was 197 mg/day (range: 25–600 mg/day). Only two of the 15 participants were able to achieve the target dose of 600 mg daily. There were no serious adverse events and no participants were discontinued from the trial due to adverse effects. The most common reported adverse effects were fatigue (80% of participants) and somnolence (47%). From baseline to week 8, the modeled overall decrease in daily dollar value of marijuana was 76.3% (CI: 63.4%, 84.7%). Over the eight weeks of the study, there was a 46.9% (CI: 11%, 68.3%) decrease in urine tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCOOH) levels. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising in that quetiapine treatment was tolerated by cannabis-dependent patients and associated with decreased cannabis use. The recommended maximum target dose for cannabis-dependent patients is 300 mg daily. These preliminary data support further evaluation of quetiapine as a treatment for cannabis dependence. PMID:24963729

Mariani, John J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Mamczur, Agnieszka K.; Bisaga, Adam; Nunes, Edward V.; Levin, Frances R.

2014-01-01

157

[Abuse of cannabis preparations].  

PubMed

The author reviews the basic features, nature of action and the effects of the canabis drugs (hashish and marijuana) on human organism. The review starts with the well known fact that these kinds of drugs are the oldest ones and the most widely known to the civilization. It reviews in details very wide effects of the canabis drugs on the mental functions as well as the clinical expression of that action, where the basic mechanisms dominate: euphorogenic, sedative and psychodelic. With a detailed description of all psychopathological phenomena that appear in the chronic hashish and marijuana addicts, where the amotivation syndrome and flash back are particularly pointed out. PMID:1366331

Dukanovi?, B

1991-01-01

158

Cannabis for Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis has a long history of medicinal use going back over 2000 years. Although concerns about its abuse led to its fall from favour in the early years of the last century, there has recently been a resurgence in interest in its therapeutic effects. The pharmacology of the cannabinoid system is being unravelled, with the discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors

P. J. Fox; J. P. Zajicek

2002-01-01

159

Medicinal Marijuana: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbo oks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on

R. Jan Gurley; Richard Aranow; Mitchell Katz

1998-01-01

160

Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.  

PubMed

For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

161

Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention, and include occasional and chronic daily cannabis smokers. PMID:23220273

Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

162

Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice  

PubMed Central

Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD); the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine. PMID:18226254

Lucas, Philippe G

2008-01-01

163

Residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist\\u000a after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting\\u000a to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be understood to properly evaluate\\u000a available studies. At present, it appears safe

Harrison G. Pope Jr; Amanda J. Gruber; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2001-01-01

164

[Psychiatric complications of cannabis use].  

PubMed

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, especially among young people. Cannabis use is extremely commonplace and frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders that raise questions about the etiology. The use of cannabis is an aggravating factor of all psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric complications are related to the age of onset, duration of exposure and individual risk factors of the individual (mental and social health). The panic attack is the most common complication. The link with psychosis is narrow that leads to increased prevention for vulnerable populations. Cannabis is also an indicator of increased depressive vulnerability and an aggravating factor for bipolar disorder. PMID:24579344

Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

2013-12-01

165

Cannabis and the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The active compound in herbal cannabis, D9-tetrahydro- cannabinol, exerts all of its known central effects through the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. Research on cannabinoid mechanisms has been facilitated by the availability of selective antagonists acting at CB1 recep- tors and the generation of CB1 receptor knockout mice. Particularly important classes of neurons that express high levels of CB1 receptors are

Leslie Iversen

2003-01-01

166

Boosted cannabis image recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the large number of Websites promoting the use of illicit drugs, it has become important to screen these sites for the protection of children on the Inter- net. Conventional keyword-based approaches are not sufficient because these Websites often have lots of im- ages and little meaningful words than prices. We pro- pose an AdaBoost-based algorithm for cannabis image recognition.

Nianhua Xie; Xi Li; Xiaoqin Zhang; Weiming Hu; James Z. Wang

2008-01-01

167

Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured at room temperature, 4°C and ?20°C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation

Christian Lindholst

2010-01-01

168

Cannabis and Cannabis Based Medicine Extracts: Additional Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews results in recent human clinical trials with cannabis based medicine extract (CBME), THC or cannabis.In a study performed at Queen's Square, London, both High THC and THC:CBD fixed ratio sublingual CBME demonstrated significant benefits on mean maximum cystometric capacity, mean daytime frequency of urination, frequency of nocturia, and mean daily episodes of incontinence in 11 multiple sclerosis

Ethan Russo

2004-01-01

169

Cannabis and Cannabis Based Medicine Extracts: Additional Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. This study reviews results in recent human clinical trials with cannabis based medicine extract (CBME), THC or cannabis. In a study performed at Queen's Square, London, both High THC and THC:CBD fixed ratio sublingual CBME demonstrated significant bene- fits on mean maximum cystometric capacity, mean daytime frequency of urination, frequency of nocturia, and mean daily episodes of inconti- nence

Ethan Russo

2003-01-01

170

Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: Patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A majority of women experience some nausea and\\/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1-2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users

Michael Smith

171

Reprint of: Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: Patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of women experience some nausea and\\/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1–2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users of medicinal

Rachel E. Westfall; Patricia A. Janssen; Philippe Lucas; Rielle Capler

2009-01-01

172

Self-administration of cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory: benefits and pitfalls.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to describe self-administration procedures for modeling addiction to cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory, the benefits and pitfalls of the approach, and the methodological issues unique to each drug. In addition, the predictive validity of the model for testing treatment medications will be addressed. The results show that all three drugs of abuse are reliably and robustly self-administered by non-treatment-seeking research volunteers. In terms of pharmacotherapies, cocaine use is extraordinarily difficult to disrupt either in the laboratory or in the clinic. A range of medications has been shown to significantly decrease cocaine's subjective effects and craving without decreasing either cocaine self-administration or cocaine abuse by patients. These negative data combined with recent positive findings with modafinil suggest that self-administration procedures are an important intermediary step between pre-clinical and clinical studies. In terms of cannabis, a recent study suggests that medications that improve sleep and mood during cannabis withdrawal decrease the resumption of marijuana self-administration in abstinent volunteers. Clinical data on patients seeking treatment for their marijuana use are needed to validate these laboratory findings. Finally, in contrast to cannabis or cocaine dependence, there are three efficacious Food and Drug Administration-approved medications to treat opioid dependence, all of which decrease both heroin self-administration and subjective effects in the human laboratory. In summary, self-administration procedures provide meaningful behavioral data in a small number of individuals. These studies contribute to our understanding of the variables maintaining cocaine, marijuana and heroin intake, and are important in guiding the development of more effective drug treatment programs. PMID:18855806

Haney, Margaret

2009-01-01

173

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent  

E-print Network

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis of America Abstract Background: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. Design: Participants

Palmeri, Thomas

174

When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

Kuntsche, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

175

Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

1973-01-01

176

Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users  

PubMed Central

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J.

2014-01-01

177

Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

2014-04-16

178

Recent cannabis abuse decreased stress-induced BOLD signals in the frontal and cingulate cortices of cocaine dependent individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous neuroimaging studies showed that use of marijuana can alter patterns of cortical activation during rest or a task challenge. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether recent cannabis abuse contributed to stress-induced blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in a group of cocaine-dependent individuals. Emotional stress was induced using the script-guided imagery paradigm, in which subjects imagined being in a

Chiang-shan Ray Li; Verica Milivojevic; R. Todd Constable; Rajita Sinha

2005-01-01

179

[Potential applications of marijuana and cannabinoids in medicine].  

PubMed

Cannabinoids, psychoactive substances present in cannabis, have been known to mankind for hundreds of years. Apart from 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substances found in the cannabis herb with the highest toxicological value are cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN). The discovery of CB1 and CB2 receptors, located in various tissues (ranging from the brain to peripheral tissues), has defined the potential objective of these new chemical substances' effects. Many studies on the application of cannabinoids in the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, neoplasms, inflammatory diseases, neurological conditions, pain and vomitting were conducted. Drugs containing e.g. THC appear on the pharmaceutical market. Substances affecting cannabinoid receptors may show beneficial effects, but they may also cause the risk of side effects related mainly to the inhibition of central nervous system. The purpose of this dissertation is the analysis, whether the substances responsible for the effects of marijuana, can find application in medicine. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies connected to the topic. PMID:25518584

Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Pypno, Damian; Caba?a, Krzysztof; Bugaj, Bartosz; Waracki, Mateusz

2014-10-01

180

Distress, coping, and drug law enforcement in a series of patients using medical cannabis.  

PubMed

Patients using medical cannabis in the United States inhabit a conflicting medicolegal space. This study presents data from a dispensary-based survey of patients using medical cannabis in the state of Washington regarding cannabis-specific health behaviors, levels of psychological distress, stress regarding marijuana criminality, past experiences with drug law enforcement, and coping behaviors. Thirty-seven subjects were enrolled in this study, and all but three completed survey materials. The median index of psychological distress, as measured by the Behavioral Symptom Inventory, was nearly 2.5 times higher than that found in a general population sample but one third less than that found in an outpatient sample. The subjects reported a moderate amount of stress related to the criminality of marijuana, with 76% reporting previous exposure to 119 separate drug law enforcement tactics in total. The subjects reported a wide range of coping methods, and their responses to a modified standardized survey showed the confounding influence of legality in assessing substance-related disorders. PMID:23538974

Aggarwal, Sunil Kumar; Carter, Gregory; Sullivan, Mark; Morrill, Richard; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Mayer, Jonathan

2013-04-01

181

Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist?  

PubMed Central

It is intriguing that during human cultural evolution man has detected plant natural products that appear to target key protein receptors of important physiological systems rather selectively. Plants containing such secondary metabolites usually belong to unique chemotaxa, induce potent pharmacological effects and have typically been used for recreational and medicinal purposes or as poisons. Cannabis sativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The major psychoactive Cannabis constituent ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) potently activates the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor CB1 and also modulates the cannabinoid receptor CB2. In the last few years, several other non-cannabinoid plant constituents have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors. Moreover, certain plant natural products, from both Cannabis and other plants, also target other proteins of the endocannabinoid system, such as hydrolytic enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this commentary we summarize and critically discuss recent findings. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID:20590562

Gertsch, Jürg; Pertwee, Roger G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

182

Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread abuse of marijuana, knowledge about its effects in the human brain is limited. Brain glucose metabolism with and without ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (main psychoactive component of marijuana) was evaluated in eight normal subjects and eight chronic marijuana abusers with positron emission tomography. At baseline, marijuana abusers showed lower relative cerebellar metabolism than normal subjects. THC increased relative cerebellar

Nora D. Volkow; Hampton Gillespie; Nizar Mullani; Lawrence Tancredi; Cathel Grant; Allan Valentine; Leo Hollister

1996-01-01

183

Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

2010-01-01

184

Recurrent myopericarditis as a complication of Marijuana use  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Myopericarditis Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: Ibuprofen Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance worldwide and its consumption portends significant side effects. Nowadays, in order to increase its psychotropic effect, various substances are being added constantly to it to promote its potency that might hold toxic effects to different organs including the heart and might lead to other unreported complications such as myopericarditis. Herein, we are presenting a unique case of recurrent myopericarditis after the consumption of contaminated marijuana, an association that has not been reported in literature before. Case Report: A 29-year-old man presented to our institution with pressure-like left-sided chest pain that is aggravated by cough and deep inspiration and relieved by sitting and leaning forward. Examination revealed pericardial rub and workup showed elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and troponin I level of 2.99 ng/ml. ECG upon admission showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads with PR-segment depression. Echocardiogram revealed only concentric hypertrophy. Patient was admitted to another institution with similar symptoms 2 months earlier. Patient admitted to using adulterated Marijuana on both occasions prior to hospitalization. Review of medical records from the outside hospital revealed similar ECG and laboratory findings. Treatment with Ibuprofen resulted in resolution of patient’s symptoms and ECG abnormalities. Conclusions: Recurrent myopericarditis in our patient is likely the result of consumption of contaminated Marijuana. Careful history taking in patients presenting with myopericarditis is crucial as it might be the causal link. PMID:24523950

Rodríguez-Castro, Carlos E.; Alkhateeb, Haider; Elfar, Ahmed; Saifuddin, Fatima; Abbas, Aamer; Siddiqui, Tariq

2014-01-01

185

Preventing cannabis users from driving under the influence of cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 320 recent cannabis users in New South Wales, Australia to assess the likely deterrent effects of (a) increasing the certainty of apprehension for driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) and (b) doubling the severity of penalties for DUIC. Participants were presented with a drug-driving scenario and asked to indicate their likelihood of driving

Craig Jones; Neil Donnelly; Wendy Swift; Don Weatherburn

2006-01-01

186

The Peer Group and Marijuana Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a survey of 1,704 suburban adolescents and guided by Sutherland's theory of differential association, this paper focuses on the peer group and marijuana use. The peer group is said to be particularly influential in the initial and continued use of marijuana.This paper tests the following two hypotheses as they relate to marijuana use, defined here as a deviant

Nechama Tec

1972-01-01

187

Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

Hoyt, Les Leanne

1981-01-01

188

Agronomy of fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre hemp may yield up to 25 t above ground dry matter per hectare (20 t stem dry matter ha?1) which may contain as much as 12 t ha?1 cellulose, depending on environmental conditions and agronomy. Its performance is affected by the onset of flowering and seed development. Effects of cultivar and management on yield and quality were tested at

P. C. Struik; S. Amaducci; M. J. Bullard; N. C. Stutterheim; G. Venturi; H. T. H. Cromack

2000-01-01

189

Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT), Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM). Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ranging from .72 to .92). Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence. PMID:19055741

Piontek, Daniela; Kraus, Ludwig; Klempova, Danica

2008-01-01

190

The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of

David J. Allsop; Melissa M. Norberg; Jan Copeland; Shanlin Fu; Alan J. Budney

2011-01-01

191

The Medicinal Cannabis Treatment Agreement: Providing Information to Chronic Pain Patients via a Written Document.  

PubMed

Over 20 states now approve medical marijuana for a long list of "indications," and more states may well offer access in the near future. Surveys have demonstrated that pain is the most common indication for medical use of cannabis. As more individuals gain access to this botanical product through state ballot initiatives and legislative mandate, the pain specialist is likely to be confronted by patients either seeking such treatment where permitted, or otherwise inquiring about its potential benefits and harms, and alternative pharmaceuticals containing cannabinoids. Whether or not they are in the position to prescribe medical cannabis, pain physicians would seem to have an obligation to understand and inform their patients on key issues of the evidence base on cannabinoid therapeutics. One way to fulfill this obligation might be to borrow from concepts developed in the prescription of opioids: the use of a written agreement to describe and minimize risks. Regrettably, the widespread adoption of opioids was undertaken while harmful effects were minimized; obviously, no one wants to repeat this misstep. This article describes a method of educating patients in a manner analogous to other treatment agreements. Undoubtedly, the knowledge base concerning risks will be an iterative process as we learn more about the long-term use of medicinal cannabis. But we should start the process now so that patients may be instructed about our current conception of what the use of medicinal cannabis entails. PMID:25370134

Wilsey, Barth; Atkinson, J Hampton; Marcotte, Thomas D; Grant, Igor

2014-11-01

192

Cannabis use in the community.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The illegal use of cannabis has been increasing in many Western countries for the past two decades. Recently, some interest has been shown in modifying legislation and control. The need for general practitioners to be aware of the short- and long-term consequences of cannabis use is increasing, and more information is required about its effects on behaviour, psychological states and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The use of general practice populations to study the prevalence of cannabis use and its damaging effects is less represented in the literature than it should be, considering the extent of cannabis consumption. AIM: A study was carried out in 1995 to determine the prevalence of cannabis use in a general practice population and any associated health problems. As a pilot study, samples of cannabis were obtained for forensic analysis. METHOD AND PATIENTS: Two questionnaires were used. One very short enquiry about the use, if any, of the drug, and a longer one about the effects of its use. Data concerning medical effects were included from patients' case notes. Samples of cannabis were obtained for forensic examination. RESULTS: A very high proportion (61%) of patients surveyed indicated some cannabis use (past or present). Thirty-seven per cent had used it in the previous 12 months. Users could be broadly divided into transitory experimenters, regular users and heavy users. Medical problems included those attributed to associated tobacco smoking, other illegal drug use and psychological problems. Benefits perceived by patients recording use were many. Polydrug use and legislation issues were difficult to separate from the effects of cannabis itself. Chest infections, anxiety and depression, and drug dependence were common diagnoses, and 13 of the 32 females in the study group had evidence of cervical smear abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Few serious damaging effects from cannabis use itself were identified, although chest infections and anxiety problems were common. Tobacco damage, associated drug use and criminal or legal issues dominated and obscured the important perceived benefits and the scientific understanding of the effects and side effects of the drug. More research into several identified areas is required. PMID:8978114

Robertson, J R; Miller, P; Anderson, R

1996-01-01

193

[From cannabis to selective CB2R agonists: molecules with numerous therapeutical virtues].  

PubMed

Originally used in Asia for the treatment of pain, spasms, nausea and insomnia, marijuana is the most consumed psychotropic drug worldwide. The interest of medical cannabis has been reconsidered recently, leading to many scientific researches and commercialization of these drugs. Natural and synthetic cannabinoids display beneficial antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in numerous diseases, however accompanied with undesirable effects due to the CB1 receptor. Present researches focus on the design of therapeutical molecules targeting the CB2 receptors, and thus avoiding central side effects and therefore psychotropic effects caused by the CB1 receptor. PMID:23732102

Leleu-Chavain, Natascha; Biot, Christophe; Chavatte, Philippe; Millet, Régis

2013-05-01

194

Maternal use of cannabis and pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo document the prevalence of cannabis use in a large sample of British women studied during pregnancy, to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on pregnancy outcome.

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Kate Northstone

2002-01-01

195

Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current investigation uses a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate college students (N=189) to investigate schizotypal traits among cannabis and non-cannabis users, as well as the temporal order of the onset of these traits and cannabis use. Findings suggest that regular cannabis users are significantly more prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions as well as disorganization, but not interpersonal deficits,

Jason Schiffman; Brad Nakamura; Mitchell Earleywine; Joseph LaBrie

2005-01-01

196

Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

2012-01-01

197

Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

2006-01-01

198

Cannabis Britannica: A History of the Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mills in this book begins the task of examining the historical origins of the laws and policies regarding cannabis in the United Kingdom. The book covers the period between 1800 and 1928: from the time that the British learned about the uses of cannabis in India until the establishment of national and international legislation on cannabis and other drugs in

Beatriz Acevedo

2006-01-01

199

Die Wirkungen von Cannabis und THC  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe Effects of Cannabis and THC Cannabis and THC exert manifold actions on a number of organ systems. A lethal dose of THC in humans is unknown. Above the psychotropic threshold, ingestion of cannabis causes an enhanced well-being and relaxation with an intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. The most important unwanted acute psychical effects are anxiety and panic attacks. Acute

F. Grotenhermen

1999-01-01

200

Personal Account of Medical Use of Cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides a personal account of her sojourn with multiple sclerosis and its treatment with smoked and oral preparations of cannabis.Additional information is provided as to the effects, dosing and delivery of cannabis employed by 250 members of the Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics.

Clare Hodges

2002-01-01

201

Cannabis in Sport  

PubMed Central

Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

2013-01-01

202

Exposure to Cannabis in Popular Music and Cannabis Use among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860

Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

2009-01-01

203

74 FR 2101 - Lyle E. Craker; Denial of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marijuana is cultivated from the cannabis plant, which is recognized as ``a...dried flowering tops and leaves of the cannabis plant,\\5\\ ``is a variable and complex...marihuana'' means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or...

2009-01-14

204

A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Venlafaxine-Extended Release for Co-occurring Cannabis Dependence and Depressive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate whether venlafaxine-extended release (VEN-XR) is an effective treatment for cannabis dependence with concurrent depressive disorders. Design This was a randomized, 12 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of outpatients (n = 103) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants received up to 375 mg VEN-XR on a fixed-flexible schedule or placebo. All patients received weekly individual cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy that primarily targeted marijuana use. Settings The trial was conducted at two university research centers in the United States. Participants One hundred and three cannabis dependent adults participated in the trial. Measurements The primary outcome measures were 1) abstinence from marijuana defined as at least two consecutive urine-confirmed abstinent weeks and 2) improvement in depressive symptoms based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Findings The proportion of patients achieving a clinically significant mood improvement [50% decrease in Hamilton Depression score from baseline] was high and did not differ between groups receiving VEN-XR (63%) and placebo (69%) (X12=0.48, p-value= 0.49). The proportion of patients achieving abstinence was low overall, but was significantly worse on VEN-XR (11.8%) compared to placebo (36.5%) (X12=7.46, p-value<0.01; OR = 4.51, 95% CI: 1.53, 13.3). Mood improvement was associated with reduction in marijuana use in the placebo group (F1,179=30.49, p-value<0.01), but not the VEN-XR group (F1,186=0.02, p-value=0.89). Conclusions For depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, venlafaxine-extended release does not appear to be effective at reducing depression and may lead to an increase in cannabis use. PMID:23297841

Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.; Agosti, Vito; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A.; Carpenter, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

205

Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.  

PubMed

The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects. PMID:1267035

Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

1976-04-01

206

Effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: I am treating a 27-year-old woman who is now in her 10th week of pregnancy. She smokes marijuana two to three times a week, but does not use other drugs. She also smokes 20 cigarettes a day. I am concerned about the effects of marijuana exposure on her baby. ANSWER: It is not always possible to isolate the effect of marijuana exposure from other possible confounders on pregnancy outcome. Although marijuana is not an established human teratogen, recent well conducted studies suggest it might have subtle negative effects on neurobehavioural outcomes, including sleep disturbances, impaired visual problem solving, hyperactivity, impassivity, inattention, and increased delinquency. PMID:11228023

Kozer, E.; Koren, G.

2001-01-01

207

A cannabis reader: global issues and local experiences  

E-print Network

A cannabis reader: global issues and local experiences Perspectives on cannabis controversies number: 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 This publication should be referenced as: EMCDDA (2008), A cannabis reader: Corrigan, D. (2008), `The pharmacology of cannabis: issues for understanding its use', in: A cannabis

Boyer, Edmond

208

Jason B. West,1 Ph.D.; Janet M. Hurley,1  

E-print Network

Ratios of Marijuana. I. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes Describe Growth Conditions* ABSTRACT: There remains significant uncertainty in illicit marijuana cultivation. We analyzed the d13 C and d15 N of 508 Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States (1

Ehleringer, Jim

209

TECHNICAL NOTE Shannon L. Datwyler,1,2  

E-print Network

in Hemp and Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) According to Amplified Fragment Length PolymorphismsÃ? ABSTRACT cultivars have forensic utility, but no direct comparison of hemp and marijuana amplified fragment length and a potent cultivar of marijuana using AFLP markers. Ten primer pairs yielded 1206 bands, of which 88% were

Weiblen, George D

210

Cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical sample of users  

PubMed Central

Objective With the recent debates over marijuana legalization and increases in use, it is critical to examine its role in cognition. While many studies generally support the adverse acute effects of cannabis on neurocognition, the non-acute effects remain less clear. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine relationships between recent and past cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical adult sample. Method One hundred and fifty-eight participants were recruited through fliers distributed around local college campuses and the community. All participants completed the Brief Drug Use History Form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, and neurocognitive assessment, and underwent urine toxicology screening. Participants consisted of recent users (n = 68), past users (n = 41), and non-users (n = 49). Results Recent users demonstrated significantly (p < .05) worse performance than non-users across cognitive domains of attention/working memory (M = 42.4, SD = 16.1 vs. M = 50.5, SD = 10.2), information processing speed (M = 44.3, SD = 7.3 vs. M = 52.1, SD = 11.0), and executive functioning (M = 43.6, SD = 13.4 vs. M = 48.6, SD = 7.2). There were no statistically significant differences between recent users and past users on neurocognitive performance. Frequency of cannabis use in the last 4 weeks was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and all individual cognitive domains. Similarly, amount of daily cannabis use was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and individual cognitive domains. Conclusions Our results support the widespread adverse effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning. Although some of these adverse effects appear to attenuate with abstinence, past users' neurocognitive functioning was consistently lower than non-users. PMID:24556155

Thames, April D.; Arbid, Natalie; Sayegh, Philip

2014-01-01

211

Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 ?m) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 ?m), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

2012-01-01

212

Memory Functions in Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the paper, the authors deal with memory functions in cannabis users, which were examined using the Wechsler Memory Scales - Third Edition (WMS-III), as part of a pro- ject implemented by the Department of Psychology at the Philosophical Faculty of Palacky University in Olomouc in partnership with the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Science and

Lenka Miovská; Michal Miovský

2004-01-01

213

63 FR 59751 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Rescheduling of Synthetic Dronabinol (MartinolSUP /SUP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...isomer of 9 -(trans)-tetrahydrocannabinol [ 9 -(trans)-THC], which is the major psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana). Dronabinol, under the trade name Marinol . was approved for marketing by the FDA on May 31,...

1998-11-05

214

7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of which is prohibited by...

2011-01-01

215

7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.  

...but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of which is prohibited by...

2014-01-01

216

7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of which is prohibited by...

2013-01-01

217

7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of which is prohibited by...

2012-01-01

218

7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of which is prohibited by...

2010-01-01

219

Novel cannabidiol and anandamide analogs.  

E-print Network

??Part I Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and (-)-cannabidiol (CBD) are the major constituents of Cannabis sativa (marijuana). (-)-CBD shares many of delta-9-THC's therapeutic properties without inducing negative… (more)

D’Souza, Marsha Rebecca

2012-01-01

220

Personality Correlates of Undergraduate Marijuana Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the personological factors underlying marijuana use in the college population. Under anonymous conditions, 148 students at two universities completed the California Psychological Inventory and a biographical questionnaire concerning drug usage. Four conclusions were reached: (1) marijuana use at two…

Hogan, Robert; And Others

221

Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

2004-01-01

222

Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

2010-01-01

223

Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

2005-01-01

224

Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda  

PubMed Central

Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

2011-01-01

225

Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.  

PubMed

Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk. PMID:25216851

Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

2015-03-01

226

Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

2010-01-01

227

Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not

Rosalie Liccardo Pacula

1998-01-01

228

The familial aggregation of cannabis use disorders  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this paper is to examine the familial aggregation of cannabis use disorders and other psychiatric conditions among first-degree relatives and spouses of probands with a cannabis use disorder. Design Controlled family study methods. Setting Out-patient psychiatric clinics and the local community (same geographic area). Participants Two hundred and sixty-two probands with a life-time history of cannabis use disorder, alcohol dependence, anxiety disorders or no history of any disorder, and their first-degree relatives and spouses. Measurements Cannabis use disorders and other DSM-III-R disorders in the relatives and spouses using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Findings Results reveal an elevated risk of life-time history of cannabis use disorders among siblings [odds ratio (OR: 3.6), adult offspring (OR): 6.9], and spouses (OR: 4.4) of probands with cannabis use disorders. There is a latent familial factor underlying cannabis use disorders that was shared partially with alcohol abuse/dependence. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders aggregated independently from cannabis use disorders in families. Equal elevation in the magnitude of the association among the first-degree adult relatives and spouses of probands with a cannabis use disorder suggests the probable contribution of both environmental and genetic factors. Conclusions These findings support a family-based approach to drug abuse intervention and the importance of future research concerning environmental mediators of familial transmission of drug abuse. PMID:19335660

Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Li, Julan Julia; Stipelman, Brooke; Yu, Kelly; Fucito, Lisa; Swendsen, Joel; Zhang, Heping

2009-01-01

229

Cognitive and subjective dose-response effects of acute oral ? 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in infrequent cannabis users  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Although some aspects of memory functions are known to be acutely impaired by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC; the main active constituent of marijuana), effects on other aspects of memory are not known and the time course of functional\\u000a impairments is unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present study aimed to detail the acute and residual cognitive effects of ?9-THC in infrequent cannabis users.

Valerie H. Curran; Catherine Brignell; Sally Fletcher; Paul Middleton; John Henry

2002-01-01

230

Cannabis use and oral diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesMedline and the Cochrane Central register of controlled trails (CENTRAL).Study selectionRandomised Controlled Trials, Controlled Clinical Trials and Cohort Studies conducted on humans investigating cannabis usage were included. Screening was performed independently by two reviewers. Only English language studies were included. Case reports, letters and historical reviews were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisA narrative synthesis was conducted.ResultsSeven studies were included and

Analia Veitz-Keenan; Silvia Spivakovsky

2011-01-01

231

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

232

Subjective and behavioral effects of marijuana the morning after smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve regular marijuana smokers participated in a study designed to detect possible after-effects associated with marijuana smoking. Each subject was evaluated for two weekends - during one weekend they received only placebo marijuana (0.0% THC); the other weekend they received active marijuana (2.1% THC). Each weekend subjects received a total of 40 standardized puffs of marijuana smoke, administered during five

L. D. Chait

1990-01-01

233

Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... News Share-Worthy Photos Video Gallery Live Events Music and Arts Performances From the Press Office Your ... Rural More Service Seniors and Social Security Taxes Technology Urban and Economic Mobility Veterans Violence Prevention Women ...

234

Early Reactions to Cannabis Predict Later Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Whilethereisagrowingliteratureonthelink- ages between early subjective responses to nicotine and alcohol and later risks of nicotine or alcohol depen- dence, to date there has been no study of this issue in relation to cannabis. Objective: To examine the extent to which subjective responses to early (prior to the age of 16 years) canna- bis use were associated with subsequent cannabis de-

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden

2003-01-01

235

Medical marijuana diversion and associated problems in adolescent substance treatment*  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known. Methods 80 adolescents (15-19 years) in outpatient substance treatment in Denver, Colorado, completed an anonymous questionnaire developed for the study and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R). The proportion ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license was calculated. Those ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license were compared to those never obtaining medical marijuana with respect to marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use, DUSI-R substance use problem and overall problem score using Chi-Square analyses and independent t-tests. Results 39 (48.8%) reported ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license. A significantly greater proportion of those reporting medical marijuana diversion, compared to those who did not, reported very easy marijuana availability, no friend disapproval of regular marijuana use and greater than 20 times of marijuana use per month over the last year. The diversion group compared to the no diversion group also reported more substance use problems and overall problems on the DUSI-R. Conclusions Diversion of medical marijuana is common among adolescents in substance treatment. These data support a relationship between medical marijuana exposure and marijuana availability, social norms, frequency of use, substance-related problems and general problems among teens in substance treatment. Adolescent substance treatment should address the impact of medical marijuana on treatment outcomes. PMID:21565453

Thurstone, Christian; Lieberman, Shane A.; Schmiege, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

236

Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

2008-01-01

237

Do cognitive impairments recover following cessation of cannabis use ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous research with long term cannabis users established an impaired ability to focus attention and filter out irrelevant information, which was progressive with the cumulative duration of exposure to cannabis. The current study examined these processes in a group of ex-cannabis users. The results suggested a partial recovery of function but the past duration of cannabis use continued to

Nadia Solowij

1995-01-01

238

Baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. However, only few studies have shown the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in targeting cannabis withdrawal symptoms or reducing the reinforcing effects of cannabis. Baclofen has been shown to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms and the subjective effects of cannabis. We think that the clinical utility of baclofen for cannabis dependence is a reasonable approach. A case report using baclofen is presented and provides preliminary support for the use of baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence. PMID:24490032

Labrune, Nathalie; Lancon, Christophe; Simon, Nicolas

2014-01-01

239

Marijuana Use, Driving, and Related Cognitions  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Method Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Results Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood of and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319

Arterberry, Brooke J.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Pedersen, Sarah; McCarthy, Denis M.

2014-01-01

240

Rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the assay of urinary 11-nor- ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and confirmation of use of cannabis derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main active cannabis (Marijuana and hashish) derivative ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol is, in vivo, transformed and excreted mainly as 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) and its glucuronide. The method presented here allows the confirmation of the presence of THC-COOH by means of a basic hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction clean-up on reversed-phase (RP) disposable cartridges followed by analysis on a C8 RP column and UV detection;

Vincenza Bianchi; Giovanni Donzelli

1996-01-01

241

Towards a better cannabis drug  

PubMed Central

This commentary discusses the importance of a new study entitled ‘Cannabidiol attenuates deficits of visuo-spatial associative memory induced by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol’ by Wright et al. from the Scripps Institute in La Jolla, California. The results in this study show that the non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol opposes some, but not all, forms of behavioural and memory disruption caused by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in male rhesus monkeys. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on the research paper by Wright et al., pp 1365–1373 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12199 PMID:24024867

Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda

2013-01-01

242

Effects of acute oral ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory P300 event-related potential in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked P300 are a robust finding in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient attentional resource allocation and active working memory. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the main active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has been known to acutely impair cognitive abilities in several domains, particularly in memory and attention. Given the psychotic-like effects of ?9-THC, a cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia has been

Patrik Roser; Georg Juckel; Johannes Rentzsch; Thomas Nadulski; Jürgen Gallinat; Andreas M. Stadelmann

2008-01-01

243

Assessing topographical orientation skills in cannabis users.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks. PMID:22272167

Palermo, Liana; Bianchini, Filippo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tanzilli, Antonio; Guariglia, Cecilia

2012-01-01

244

Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users  

PubMed Central

The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks. PMID:22272167

Palermo, Liana; Bianchini, Filippo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tanzilli, Antonio; Guariglia, Cecilia

2012-01-01

245

From cannabis to the endocannabinoid system: refocussing attention on potential clinical benefits.  

PubMed

Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest herbal remedies known to man. Over the past four thousand years, it has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases but due to its psychoactive properties, its current medicinal usage is highly restricted. In this review, we seek to highlight advances made over the last forty years in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cannabis on the human body and how these can potentially be utilized in clinical practice. During this time, the primary active ingredients in cannabis have been isolated, specific cannabinoid receptors have been discovered and at least five endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) have been identified. Together, these form the framework of a complex endocannabinoid signalling system that has widespread distribution in the body and plays a role in regulating numerous physiological processes within the body. Cannabinoid ligands are therefore thought to display considerable therapeutic potential and the drive to develop compounds that can be targeted to specific neuronal systems at low enough doses so as to eliminate cognitive side effects remains the 'holy grail' of endocannabinoid research. PMID:23155985

Youssef, F F; Irving, A J

2012-06-01

246

La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

247

Simultaneous cannabis and tobacco use and cannabis-related outcomes in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to those who reported a lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use, individuals who report simultaneous use of cannabis and tobacco are more likely to also report higher rates of substance-related problems and psychopathology. In a sample of young women, we examine (a) co-occurring use, or whether regular cigarette smoking is associated with increased cannabis involvement and (b) simultaneous

Arpana Agrawal; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden; Michele L. Pergadia; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Andrew C. Heath

2009-01-01

248

Prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders  

PubMed Central

The study examined the prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Participants were 80 adolescents between 13 and 22 years of age with co-occurring bipolar I disorder and cannabis abuse or dependence who reported ever trying a cigarette. Diagnostic and symptom severity measures were completed as part of the baseline assessments for a clinical trial. Almost half (49%) of these participants who ever tried a cigarette were current heavy smokers (?10 cigarettes/day), and 70% met DSM-IV-TR lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking was associated with older age, heavier marijuana use and greater compulsive craving, lifetime diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, illicit drug use disorders, and poorer overall functioning. Nicotine dependence was related to White race, higher current mania severity, and poorer overall functioning. These findings suggest that heavy smoking and nicotine dependence were highly prevalent among these adolescents. Although both were associated with greater physical and psychosocial problems, only heavy smoking was linked to a clear pattern of more severe substance-related and psychiatric problems. Further research to elucidate mechanisms and develop interventions to address early, entrenched patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana is warranted. PMID:23684537

Heffner, Jaimee L.; Anthenelli, Robert M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Beavers, Jennifer; DelBello, Melissa P.

2013-01-01

249

EEG of Chronic Marijuana Users during Abstinence: Relationship to Years of Marijuana Use, Cerebral Blood Flow and Thyroid Function  

PubMed Central

Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267

Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.

2008-01-01

250

What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... Society What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana KidsHealth > Kids > Puberty & Growing Up > Drugs, Alcohol & Smoking > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana Print A A A Text Size What It ...

251

Marijuana Effects On Human Forgetting Functions  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of delay-independent (initial discrimination) from delay-dependent (forgetting or retrieval) components of memory. Using methods developed in the experimental analysis of behavior and signal detection theory, we tested the acute effects of smoked marijuana on forgetting functions in 5 humans. Immediately after smoking placebo, a low dose, or a high dose of marijuana (varying in ?9-THC content), subjects completed delayed match-to-sample testing that included a range of retention intervals within each test session (0.5, 4, 12, and 24 s). Performances (discriminability) at each dose were plotted as forgetting functions, as described and developed by White and colleagues (White, 1985; White & Ruske, 2002). For all 5 subjects, both ?9-THC doses impaired delay-dependent discrimination but not delay-independent discrimination. The outcome is consistent with current nonhuman studies examining the role of the cannabinoid system on delayed matching procedures, and the data help illuminate one behavioral mechanism through which marijuana alters memory performance. PMID:15762381

Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Lieving, Lori M; Tcheremissine, Oleg V

2005-01-01

252

Cannabis Use and Psychosis: A Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Evidence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper evaluates evidence for two hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis: (i) that heavy cannabis use causes a ‘cannabis psychosis’, i.e. a psychotic disorder that would not have occurred in the absence of cannabis use and which can be recognised by its pattern of symptoms and their relationship to cannabis use; and (ii) that cannabis

Wayne Hall; Louisa Degenhardt

2000-01-01

253

Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of smoked marijuana in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of smoked marijuana were studied by training marijuana smokers to discriminate between the effects of marijuana containing 2.7% ?9-THC (M) and marijuana containing 0.0% ?9-THC (P). In addition to measures of discrimination responding, subjective effects were assessed with standardized mood questionnaires. The post-smoking increase in expired air carbon monoxide (CO) level was used as an

L. D. Chait; S. M. Evans; K. A. Grant; J. B. Kamien; C. E. Johanson; C. R. Schuster

1988-01-01

254

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

255

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

256

Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level III evidence). Conclusion Future guidelines should be based on systematic review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of smoked cannabis. Further research is needed on the effectiveness and long-term safety of smoked cannabis compared with pharmaceutical cannabinoids, opioids, and other standard analgesics. PMID:25500598

Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

2014-01-01

257

Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

Finn, Kristin V.

2012-01-01

258

Acute and Residual Effects of Marijuana in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana continues to be the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States. Because many people abuse marijuana during the evening and on weekends and then go to work or school the next day, more research is needed on the residual effects of marijuana. The current study sought to examine both acute and residual subjective, physiologic, and performance effects

Reginald V. Fant; Stephen J. Heishman; Edward B. Bunker; Wallace B. Pickworth

1998-01-01

259

Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

2012-01-01

260

Predictors of cessation of marijuana use: an event history analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event history analysis was applied to monthly life and drug histories of a representative community sample of 706 marijuana users, followed from ages 15–16 to 34–35, to investigate factors associated with cessation of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood. In addition to age and gender, the most important determinants of cessation are the phenomenology of marijuana use, social role participation,

Kevin Chen; Denise B Kandel

1998-01-01

261

Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

2012-01-01

262

Effects of Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke on Human Lung Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOUSE lung explants exposed to smoke from cigarettes to which marijuana was added have been reported to display more cellular abnormalities than those exposed to smoke from cigarettes without marijuana1. We report here a study designed to test the effects of smoke from cigarettes made of marijuana only on human lung explants, and to compare these effects with those obtained

Cecile Leuchtenberger; Rudolf Leuchtenberger; Andrée Schneider

1973-01-01

263

Effects of acute marijuana smoking in post-menopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute effects of marijuana and placebo cigarette smoking on pulse rate and self-estimations of mood and level of intoxication were studied in ten post-menopausal women. Six women had no prior experience with marijuana. Four subjects had a total of seven marijuana smoking experiences, none of which occurred during the past year. Statistically significant increases in pulse rate and level of

Richard A. Benedikt; Patricia Cristofaro; Jack H. Mendelson; Nancy K. Mello

1986-01-01

264

Liberty Lost: The Moral Case for Marijuana Law Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana policy analyses typically focus on the relative costs and benefits of present policy and its feasible alternatives. This Essay addresses a prior, threshold issue: whether marijuana criminal laws abridge fundamental individual rights, and if so, whether there are grounds that justify doing so. Over 700, 000 people are arrested annually for simple marijuana possession, a small but significant proportion

Eric Blumenson; Eva Nilsen

2010-01-01

265

Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. Sources of information PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Main message Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians should give information on lower-risk cannabis use to all cannabis users. Conclusion Physicians should screen all patients in their practices at least once for cannabis use, especially those who have problems that might be caused by cannabis. Physicians should screen those at higher risk more often, at least annually. Lower-risk cannabis use should be distinguished from problematic use. Brief counseling should be provided to those with problematic use; these patients should be referred to specialists if they are unable to reduce or cease use. PMID:25217674

Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

2014-01-01

266

Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in cannabis research have paralleled developments in opioid pharmacology whereby a psychoactive plant extract has elucidated novel endogenous signalling systems with thera- peutic significance. Cannabinoids (CBs) are chemical compounds derived from cannabis. The major psychotropic CB delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC) was isolated in 1964 and the first CB receptor (CB1R) was cloned in 1990. CB signalling occurs via G-protein-coupled receptors distributed

R. D. Hosking; J. P. Zajicek

2008-01-01

267

Metabolic Effects of Chronic Cannabis Smoking  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We examined if chronic cannabis smoking is associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, reduced ?-cell function, or dyslipidemia in healthy individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, case-control study, we studied cannabis smokers (n = 30; women, 12; men, 18; 27 ± 8 years) and control subjects (n = 30) matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI (27 ± 6). Abdominal fat depots and intrahepatic fat content were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Insulin-sensitivity indices and various aspects of ?-cell function were derived from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). RESULTS Self-reported cannabis use was: 9.5 (2–38) years; joints/day: 6 (3–30) [median (range)]. Carbohydrate intake and percent calories from carbohydrates, but not total energy intake, were significantly higher in cannabis smokers. There were no group differences in percent total body fat, or hepatic fat, but cannabis smokers had a higher percent abdominal visceral fat (18 ± 9 vs. 12 ± 5%; P = 0.004). Cannabis smokers had lower plasma HDL cholesterol (49 ± 14 vs. 55 ± 13 mg/dL; P = 0.02), but fasting levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids (FFA) were not different. Adipocyte insulin resistance index and percent FFA suppression during an OGTT was lower (P < 0.05) in cannabis smokers. However, oral glucose insulin sensitivity index, measures of ?-cell function, or incretin concentrations did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Chronic cannabis smoking was associated with visceral adiposity and adipose tissue insulin resistance but not with hepatic steatosis, insulin insensitivity, impaired pancreatic ?-cell function, or glucose intolerance. PMID:23530011

Muniyappa, Ranganath; Sable, Sara; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Mari, Andrea; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Walter, Mary; Courville, Amber; Hall, Gail; Chen, Kong Y.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kunos, George; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Skarulis, Monica C.

2013-01-01

268

Acute effects of smoked marijuana on decision making, as assessed by a modified gambling task, in experienced marijuana users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of regular marijuana use on executive cognitive abilities, including decision making, is not well understood. While cross-sectional studies have suggested that substance abusers exhibit impaired decision making, as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task, the direct role of marijuana use in the Gambling Task performance of marijuana smokers has not been well defined. In this report, we present

Nehal P. Vadhan; Carl L. Hart; Wilfred G. van Gorp; Erik W. Gunderson; Margaret Haney; Richard W. Foltin

2007-01-01

269

Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

2009-01-01

270

Ammonia release from heated 'street' cannabis leaf and its potential toxic effects on cannabis users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To use selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the molecular species emitted by heated 'street' cannabis plant material, especially targeting ammonia. Materials and methods Samples of 'street' cannabis leaf, held under a UK Home Office licence, were prepared by finely chopping and mixing the material. The samples were then heated in commercially available devices. The air

Roger N. Bloor; Tianshu S. Wang; P. Špan?l; David Smith

2008-01-01

271

Do Early Experiences with Cannabis vary in Cigarette Smokers?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We examine whether regular cigarette smokers were more likely to be exposed to and use cannabis at an earlier age, and further, upon initiation, whether their initial experiences with cannabis varied from those reported by never/non-regular cigarette smokers. METHOD A sample of 3797 Australian twins and siblings aged 21–46 years was used. Survival analyses examined whether cigarette smokers were at increased likelihood of early opportunity to use cannabis and early onset of cannabis use. Logistic regression examined whether cigarette smokers reported greater enjoyment of their cannabis experience, inhaling on the first try, differing positive and negative initial subjective reactions, smoked cigarettes with cannabis the first time and were more likely to try cannabis again within a week. RESULTS Regular cigarette smokers were more likely to report an earlier opportunity to use cannabis and early onset of cannabis use. Regular cigarette smokers were also considerably more likely to have enjoyed their first experience with cannabis and reported higher rates of positive initial reactions. They were more likely to report inhaling on the first try and smoking cigarettes with cannabis. Potentially negative subjective reactions were also elevated in regular cigarette smokers. Importantly, cigarette smokers were at 1.87 increased odds of smoking cannabis within a week of their initial use. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the well-known overlap in cannabis and cigarette smoking behaviors may evolve as early as opportunity to use and extend through the course of the substance use trajectory. PMID:23010290

Agrawal, Arpana; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2012-01-01

272

QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?  

PubMed Central

RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981

LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.

2009-01-01

273

Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.  

PubMed

Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

2011-10-10

274

Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Background: Although about 7 million people in the US population use marijuana at least weekly, there is a paucity,of scientific data,on persistent,neurocognitive,effects of marijuana,use. Objective: To determine,if neurocognitive deficits persist,in 28-day abstinent,heavy,marijuana,users,and,if these,deficits are,dose-related,to the,number,of marijuana,joints smoked,per,week.,Methods: A battery,of neurocognitive,tests was,given,to 28-day abstinent,heavy marijuana abusers. Results: As joints smoked per week increased, performance decreased on tests measuring memory, executive functioning,

K. I. Bolla; K. Brown; D. Eldreth; K. Tate; J. L. Cadet

2006-01-01

275

Increased Mortality, Hypoactivity, and Hypoalgesia in Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in preparations of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hashish), elicits central nervous system (CNS) responses, including congnitive alterations and euphoria. These responses account for the abuse potential of cannabis, while other effects such as analgesia suggest potential medicinal applications. To study the role of the major known target of cannabinoids in the CNS, the

Andreas Zimmer; Anne M. Zimmer; Andrea G. Hohmann; Miles Herkenham; Tom I. Bonner

1999-01-01

276

The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States  

PubMed Central

Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

2014-01-01

277

Published: March 23, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 2961 dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm2000536 |J. Med. Chem. 2011, 54, 29612970  

E-print Network

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is one of the oldest known plant- derived substances used medicinally or as a drug of abuse.1 Marijuana's principle psychoactive phytocannabinoid, 9 -tetrahy- drocannabinol (9 -THC modified extensively to evaluate substituent effects on receptor affinity, selectivity, and physiochemical

Shen, Jun

278

Immunoactive effects of cannabinoids: Considerations for the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active constituents of Cannabis sativa have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. Today, marijuana is the most prevalent drug of abuse in the United States and, conversely, therapeutic use of marijuana constituents are gaining mainstream clinical and political acceptance. Given the documented contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to a range of physiological systems, including cognitive function,

William E. Greineisen; Helen Turner

2010-01-01

279

Concurrence chez Vicia sativa L et Avena sativa L. I. Effets des contraintes hydriques et nutritionnelles  

E-print Network

Agronomie Concurrence chez Vicia sativa L et Avena sativa L. I. Effets des contraintes hydriques et / morphogenèse / concurrence Summary — Competition in Vicia sativa L and Avena sativa L.I. Effects of water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Small-Scale Cannabis Growers in Denmark and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To compare domestic cannabis cultivation in Denmark and Finland to describe national characteristics in small-scale cannabis growing. Design: A Web survey conducted among small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark (June to November 2008) and Finland (May to June 2009). Participants: Current cannabis growers (Denmark, 401; Finland, 1,054). Measurements: Comparisons in regard to social background, growing history, practices, purposes and motives

Pekka Hakkarainen; Vibeke Asmussen Frank; Jussi Perälä; Helle Vibeke Dahl

2011-01-01

281

Cannabis use is associated with schizotypy and attentional disinhibition  

E-print Network

Cannabis use is associated with schizotypy and attentional disinhibition Patrick D. Skosnika , Lea of the endogenous cannabinioid system, a re-examination of the cannabis-induced exacerbation hypothesis of SZ is warranted. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether current cannabis users exhibit personality

Park, Sohee

282

A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey estimates the frequency of various adverse effects of the use of the drug cannabis. A sample of 1000 New Zealanders aged 18–35 years were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on cannabis use and associated problems. The questionnaire was derived from criteria for the identification of cannabis abuse which are analagous to criteria commonly used to diagnose alcoholism.

Huw Thomas

1996-01-01

283

Le cannabis dans les armées : entre passé et actualité  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis in the army is a reality the authors have chosen to inscribe in a temporality, from the concept of mental hygiene to the history of cannabis and of its spreading in the French population, so as to apprehend the present interest in cannabis in the army. Consumption of psychoactive drugs in military forces actually dates back to some decades,

C. Gheorghiev; P. Arvers; F. de Montleau; G. Fidelle; B. Queyriaux; C. Verret

2009-01-01

284

Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Cannabis Use and Prospective Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study,

Carrie Cuttler; Ryan J. McLaughlin; Peter Graf

2012-01-01

285

Early clinical manifestations of cannabis dependence in a community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In this research, the ‘natural history’ of cannabis dependence is probed, using data from a large epidemiological sample of cannabis users followed from 1981 through 1996, until most of these users had passed through the empirically derived period of risk for developing cannabis dependence. Methods: The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area research group sampled, recruited, and assessed 3481 adults age

Marsha F. Rosenberg; James C. Anthony

2001-01-01

286

Cannabis Usage in Tourism: sA Sociological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to investigate the social forces that shape tourists’ motives in consuming cannabis while on vacation. The underlying premise of this paper is that cannabis consumption in tourism is driven and influenced by the wider process of the normalization of cannabis use in Western societies and, therefore, should be examined in this context. Using a grounded theory

Yaniv Belhassen; Carla Almeida Santos; Natan Uriely

2007-01-01

287

Reduced Response to Reward in Smokers and Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Reduced neural and behavioral reactions to reward have been demonstrated in other forms of addiction, as expressed by reduced mood reactivity and lack of striatal activation to rewards, but this effect has not yet been investigated in cannabis users. Methods: We hypothesized that cannabis users and tobacco smokers would

Chantal Martin-Soelch; Maja Kobel; Markus Stoecklin; Tanja Michael; Simone Weber; Bigna Krebs; Klaus Opwis

2009-01-01

288

Efectos del cannabis sobre la salud mental en jóvenes consumidores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This is the second part of a review of the damage to health associated with cannabis consumption among young people. The first part reviewed the available evidence about the adverse effects of cannabis on physical health. This second part deals with the available evidence about its effects on mental health. Cannabis has been considered a relatively harmless drug, and

L. Gutiérrez Rojas; J. De Irala; M. A. Martínez-González

2006-01-01

289

Abus et dépendance au cannabis à l'adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescent has dramatically increased. Today it's becoming one of the main public health problems. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: the leaves and the resin. These substances have a high concentration of tetrahydroxycannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Resent research has permitted to understand how the cannabinoid system works:

O. Phan; M. Corcos; N. Girardon; S. Nezelof; P. Jeammet

2005-01-01

290

Cannabis smoking and acute coronary syndrome: Two illustrative cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis is a common substance of drug abuse among the young adults because of its euphoric and addictive effects. The pathophysiological effects of cannabis smoking and its relation to adverse cardiovascular events are well known. However, the relative contribution of cannabis smoking when combined with tobacco smoking to coronary artery disease is unclear and has not been well emphasized.We describe

Shridhar Dwivedi; Vivek Kumar; Amitesh Aggarwal

2008-01-01

291

Cannabis and Alcohol: Effects on Simulated Car Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cannabis and alcohol on simulated car driving were studied. Cannabis resin containing 4 percent Delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol was administered orally in three doses equivalent to 8, 12, and 16 milligrams of that component. Alcohol was given orally in one standard dose of 70 grams. Both cannabis and alcohol increased the time required to brake and start, whereas alcohol

Ole J. Rafaelsen; Per Bech; Johannes Christiansen; Henriette Christrup; Jorgen Nyboe; Lise Rafaelsen

1973-01-01

292

Specific thought patterns in chronic cannabis smokers observed during treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians report that chronic cannabis users seem to have symptoms, such as mental confusion and memory problems when entering treatment. The present study systematizes observations that were made during treatment of cannabis users during and after cessation of cannabis use. Cognitive symptoms prior to cessation are described in the conceptual framework of cognitive categories in the I.Q. test. Normalization of

Thomas Lundqvist

1995-01-01

293

Correlates of driving under the influence of cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIdentifying cannabis users who are most at risk of driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) has important implications for drug treatment and prevention efforts. This paper examined correlates of DUIC among a purposive sample of recent cannabis users.

Craig G. A. Jones; Wendy Swift; Neil J. Donnelly; Don J. Weatherburn

2007-01-01

294

Prospects for New Cannabis-Based Prescription Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis is now emerging from a period of prohibition and being revisited as a potential source of treatments for conditions ill served by synthetic substances. Previous research focussed primarily on effects produced by synthetic cannabinoids such as THC, or cannabis of unknown cannabinoid content. Chemovars of cannabis characterized by high content of specific cannabinoids (primarily, but not only THC and

Brian A. Whittle; Geoffrey W. Guy; Philip Robson

2001-01-01

295

Cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): Update 2013.  

PubMed

A significant increase in median values of THC contents was observed in 2013 for both herbal products (+24.6%) and cannabis resin (+9.7%), confirming the previously observed trend (2010-2012) in cannabis potency of seized products in the Venice area (Italy). A significant decreasing trend of the CBD content of cannabis products was also confirmed. PMID:25069834

Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

2014-07-28

296

Assessment of different mouthwashes on cannabis oral fluid concentrations.  

PubMed

Since the implementation of mandatory drug testing in drivers' oral fluid, several solutions to avoid an onsite positive result can be found on drug users' forums, especially for marijuana, including the use of different mouthwashes. Recently, a product for personal hygiene, Kleaner, has been sold for this purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of water, whole milk, and Kleaner mouthwashes on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) oral fluid concentrations, and those observed in passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions. The study was performed on four days. On day 0, study information was given to the participants. On days 1, 2, and 3, 11 chronic cannabis users smoked their usual daily dose, and oral fluid specimens were collected before smoking (t=-0.5h) and at t=0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-smoking. On day 1, participants rinsed their mouth with water before each specimen collection. On day 2, 5 participants rinsed their mouth with Kleaner and 6 with whole milk. On day 3, a specimen was collected before and after rinsing the mouth with water. Statistically significant lower concentrations were observed comparing concentrations in oral fluid specimens collected before and after a water rinse. However, maximum THC concentrations at t=0.25 h were >3-fold higher than the cut-off employed by the Spanish police (25 ng/mL) regardless of the use of any mouthwash. THC was also detected in the oral fluid of passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions; however, concentrations were <25 ng/mL in all cases. PMID:24453092

de Castro, Ana; Lendoiro, Elena; Fernández-Vega, Hadriana; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Cruz, Angelines

2014-10-01

297

Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety  

MedlinePLUS

... Tags College Students People with Drug Use Disorders Marijuana Comorbidity Treatment Research Epidemiology This page was last ... Heroin Hormones Illegal Drugs Inhalants K2 LSD (Acid) Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medications ...

298

Weed or wheel! FMRI, behavioural, and toxicological investigations of how cannabis smoking affects skills necessary for driving.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underlying safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli ("self") and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. These findings bolster the zero-tolerance policy adopted in several countries that prohibits the presence of any amount of drugs in blood while driving. PMID:23300977

Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

2013-01-01

299

Weed or Wheel! fMRI, Behavioural, and Toxicological Investigations of How Cannabis Smoking Affects Skills Necessary for Driving  

PubMed Central

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underling safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli (“self”) and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. These findings bolster the zero-tolerance policy adopted in several countries that prohibits the presence of any amount of drugs in blood while driving. PMID:23300977

Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard

2013-01-01

300

Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile  

PubMed Central

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). “Known Provenance” samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

2013-01-01

301

Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.  

PubMed

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

Swift, Wendy; Wong, Alex; Li, Kong M; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

2013-01-01

302

The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

2011-01-01

303

Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?  

PubMed

The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients. PMID:25199471

Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

2015-02-01

304

Cannabis depenalisation, drug consumption and crime - evidence from the 2004 cannabis declassification in the UK.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the link between cannabis depenalisation and crime using individual-level panel data for England and Wales from 2003 to 2006. We exploit the declassification of cannabis in the UK in 2004 as a natural experiment. Specifically, we use the fact that the declassification changed expected punishments differently in various age groups due to thresholds in British criminal law and employ a difference-in-differences type design using data from the longitudinal version of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. Our findings suggest essentially no increases in either cannabis consumption, consumption of other drugs, crime and other forms of risky behaviour. PMID:24937326

Braakmann, Nils; Jones, Simon

2014-08-01

305

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

306

Marijuana and Music: A Speculative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extra-therapeutic uses of cannabis and other age-old psychoactive plants are currently ignored or dismissed not only by the usual suspects (moral entrepreneurs, political, religious leaders and other self-proclaimed do-gooders), but also by the great majority of the aca- demic community. Those wishing to experiment with such substances often do so at no small risk to reputation or freedom. Thus,

Peter Webster

307

Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details  

PubMed Central

This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episodes Data System (TEDS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to medical marijuana laws without this supply source. PMID:25558490

Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L.

2014-01-01

308

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances...

2014-07-01

309

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances...

2011-07-01

310

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances...

2013-07-01

311

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances...

2010-07-01

312

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances...

2012-07-01

313

Effects of Smoking Marijuana on Brain Perfusion and Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of smoking marijuana on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive performance were assessed in 12 recreational users in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. PET with [15Oxygen]-labeled water ([15O]H2O) was used to measure rCBF before and after smoking of marijuana and placebo cigarettes, as subjects repeatedly performed an auditory attention task. Smoking marijuana resulted in intoxication, as assessed by

Daniel S O'Leary; Robert I Block; Julie A Koeppel; Michael Flaum; Susan K Schultz; Nancy C Andreasen; Laura Boles Ponto; G Leonard Watkins; Richard R Hurtig; Richard D Hichwa

2002-01-01

314

Articles Media and Marijuana: A Longitudinal Analysis of News Media Effects on Adolescents' Marijuana Use and Related Outcomes, 1977-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how aggregate levels of news coverage about marijuana have impacted adolescents' marijuana behavior generally, and through the intervening variables of personal disapproval and perceived harmfulness of marijuana, two variables that existing research has identified as significant predictors of adolescent marijuana use at the aggregate level. It was hypothesized that news coverage of reasons why people should not

JO ELLEN STRYKER

2003-01-01

315

[Internalizing problem behaviour and cannabis use: associations and variables of influence in a cross-sectional study of 14- to 23 year old cannabis users].  

PubMed

Regarding the association between internalizing problem behaviour and cannabis use in adolescents and young adults, several studies were published in recent time. Using cross-sectional data from adolescent and young adult cannabis users of the project "CAN Stop" (n = 239; age 14-23), associations between internalizing problem behaviour, cannabis effects expectancies, number of psychosocial problems and severity of dependence were analysed with an age- and gender-sensitive perspective. By describing young cannabis users, we seek to deepen the understanding of the association between cannabis use and internalizing problem behaviour. Cannabis users with normal-range YSR/YASR-profiles, internalizing problem behaviour, externalizing problem behaviour or combined problems differ significantly regarding their age of first cannabis use, age of regular cannabis use and number of both cannabis and alcohol use days. Regarding cannabis effects expectancies, cannabis users with externalizing problem behaviour show a broader variation of positive expectancies. Internalizing problems were associated with impairing and sedating effects expectancies. PMID:24707768

Baldus, Christiane; Haevelmann, Andrea; Reis, Olaf; Thomasius, Rainer

2014-01-01

316

Dimensions and Severity of Marijuana Consequences: Development and Validation of the Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ)  

PubMed Central

The Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ) is a 50-item self-report measure modeled after the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ). College students (n = 315) completed questionnaires online. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 8-factor structure. The results indicate good convergent and discriminant validity of the MACQ. A brief, unidimensional, 21-item version (B-MACQ) was developed by a Rasch model. Comparison of item severity estimates of the B-MACQ items and the corresponding items from the YAACQ indicate that the severity of alcohol- and marijuana- problems is defined by a relatively unique pattern of consequences. The MACQ and B-MACQ provide promising new alternatives to assessing marijuana-related problems. PMID:22305645

Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.

2012-01-01

317

CHAPTER ONE: THE HISTORY OF CANNABIS PROHIBITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide prohibition of cannabis emerged as part of a system of international controls first developed for other psychoactive drugs. When the representatives of a dozen nations met in Shanghai in 1909 to discuss the possibility of a drug-control treaty, the focus was entirely on limiting opium's importation into China. During a second meeting - held in The Hague in

Lynn Zimmer

318

Acute cardiovascular fatalities following cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report six cases of possible acute cardiovascular death in young adults, where very recent cannabis ingestion was documented by the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in postmortem blood samples. A broad toxicological blood analysis could not reveal other drugs. Similar cases have been reported in the literature, but the toxicological analysis has been absent or limited to urine samples, which

Liliana Bachs; Henning Mørland

2001-01-01

319

Introduction: Cannabis: From Pariah to Prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Cannabis has been employed in human medicine for more than 4000 years. In the last century, political prohibition led to its disap- pearance from the conventional pharmacopoeia, but this trend is revers- ing due to the broad acceptance and application of this forbidden medicine by patients with chronic and intractable disorders inadequately treated by available therapeutics. This study addresses

Ethan Russo

2003-01-01

320

Challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the major policy challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia. The first is uncertainty about the health effects of cannabis, especially in young people. The second is uncertainty about the extent and severity of harms attributed to cannabis prohibition by its critics. The paper summarises and briefly states the extent of these putative harms to the degree that the data allow. The third challenge is a consequence of the first two, and the very different weightings that proponents of more liberal or restrictive policies give to harms arising from cannabis use and those arising from prohibition, namely, strong disagreements within the community about how we should respond to cannabis use by young people. In the face of such disagreement the formulation of cannabis policy necessitates a political compromise. The compromise that has emerged is a continued prohibition of cannabis production, sale and use, combined with either civil penalties for use in some states and reduced penalties or diversion in others. It concludes with suggestions about what needs to be learned about the health effects of cannabis use and the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition if we are to develop policies that are more effective in reducing harms caused by cannabis use. PMID:19320694

Hall, Wayne D

2009-03-01

321

Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

2014-01-01

322

Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7?years p?cannabis consumers were dependent on cannabis. They were more often dependent on opiates (17 vs. 0%) and alcohol (32 vs. 7.4%, p?=?0.001) and presented compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p?=?0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. Conclusion: 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment. PMID:25076916

Lejoyeux, Michel; Basquin, Anne; Koch, Marie; Embouazza, Houcine; Chalvin, Florence; Ilongo, Michaelle

2014-01-01

323

79 FR 18111 - In the Matter of Advanced Cannabis Solutions, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Advanced Cannabis Solutions, Inc.; Order of Suspension of...information concerning the securities of Advanced Cannabis Solutions, Inc. (``Advanced Cannabis''), a Colorado corporation...

2014-03-31

324

The Endocannabinoid Anandamide : Metabolism & Neuroprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is an extract of the Cannabis sativa and is the most used illegal drug in the world. Public debate centres upon the possible legalization of marijuana for recreational and therapeutic uses. DELTA-exp.9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, exerts its action by binding to G-protein-coupled membrane receptors, i.e. the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. The biochemical and pharmacological

Marcelis van der Stelt

2002-01-01

325

Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex.  

PubMed

Abstinence following daily marijuana use can produce a withdrawal syndrome characterized by negative mood (eg irritability, anxiety, misery), muscle pain, chills, and decreased food intake. Two placebo-controlled, within-subject studies investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: Study 1), and a mood stabilizer, divalproex (Study 2), on symptoms of marijuana withdrawal. Participants (n=7/study), who were not seeking treatment for their marijuana use, reported smoking 6-10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 6-7 days/week. Study 1 was a 15-day in-patient, 5-day outpatient, 15-day in-patient design. During the in-patient phases, participants took oral THC capsules (0, 10 mg) five times/day, 1 h prior to smoking marijuana (0.00, 3.04% THC). Active and placebo marijuana were smoked on in-patient days 1-8, while only placebo marijuana was smoked on days 9-14, that is, marijuana abstinence. Placebo THC was administered each day, except during one of the abstinence phases (days 9-14), when active THC was given. Mood, psychomotor task performance, food intake, and sleep were measured. Oral THC administered during marijuana abstinence decreased ratings of 'anxious', 'miserable', 'trouble sleeping', 'chills', and marijuana craving, and reversed large decreases in food intake as compared to placebo, while producing no intoxication. Study 2 was a 58-day, outpatient/in-patient design. Participants were maintained on each divalproex dose (0, 1500 mg/day) for 29 days each. Each maintenance condition began with a 14-day outpatient phase for medication induction or clearance and continued with a 15-day in-patient phase. Divalproex decreased marijuana craving during abstinence, yet increased ratings of 'anxious', 'irritable', 'bad effect', and 'tired.' Divalproex worsened performance on psychomotor tasks, and increased food intake regardless of marijuana condition. Thus, oral THC decreased marijuana craving and withdrawal symptoms at a dose that was subjectively indistinguishable from placebo. Divalproex worsened mood and cognitive performance during marijuana abstinence. These data suggest that oral THC, but not divalproex, may be useful in the treatment of marijuana dependence. PMID:14560320

Haney, Margaret; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Nasser, Jennifer; Bennett, Andrew; Zubaran, Carlos; Foltin, Richard W

2004-01-01

326

Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

Hopfer, Christian

2014-01-01

327

Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

2010-01-01

328

Pattern of cannabis use in ecstasy polydrug users: moderate cannabis use may compensate for self-rated aggression and somatic symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis is one of the most common 'co-drugs' for ecstasy users. The aim of the present study was to explore self-reported psychobiological problems in ecstasy polydrug users in relation to their pattern of cannabis use. Two hundred and eighty ecstasy polydrug users were allocated into five cannabis groups according to the frequency of their cannabis use. The control group comprised

R. M. Milani; A. C. Parrott; F. Schifano; J. J. D. Turner

2005-01-01

329

Cannabis withdrawal is common among treatment-seeking adolescents with cannabis dependence and major depression, and is associated with rapid relapse to dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a

Jack R. Cornelius; Tammy Chung; Christopher Martin; D. Scott Wood; Duncan B. Clark

2008-01-01

330

Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD,

Fabian Fiestas; Mirjana Radovanovic; Silvia S Martins; Maria E Medina-Mora; Jose Posada-Villa; James C Anthony

2010-01-01

331

Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed, and less is known on the performance of non-treatment-seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction remain relatively unexplored. We compared young adult current cannabis users (CU, n?=?65) and

Raul Gonzalez; Randi Melissa Schuster; Robin J. Mermelstein; Jasmin Vassileva; Eileen M. Martin; Kathleen R. Diviak

2012-01-01

332

Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic cannabis smokers during oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol therapy and smoked cannabis challenge  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective for attenuating cannabis withdrawal and may benefit treatment of cannabis use disorders. Oral fluid (OF) cannabinoid testing, increasing in forensic and workplace settings, could be valuable for monitoring during cannabis treatment. METHODS Eleven cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days, and received daily 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral THC in divided doses for 5 days. There was a 5-puff smoked cannabis challenge on the 5th day. Each medication session was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF was collected the evening prior to and throughout oral THC sessions and analyzed by 2-dimensional GC-MS for THC, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). RESULTS During all oral THC administrations, THC OF concentrations decreased to ?78.2, 33.2, and 1.4 ?g/L by 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. CBN also decreased over time with concentrations 10-fold lower than THC, with none detected beyond 69h. CBD and 11-OH-THC were rarely detected, only within 19 and 1.6h post smoking, respectively. THCCOOH OF concentrations were dose-dependent and increased over time during 120 mg THC dosing. After cannabis smoking, THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations showed a significant dose-effect and decreased significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS Oral THC dosing significantly affected OF THCCOOH but minimally contributed to THC OF concentrations; prior ad libitum smoking was the primary source of THC, CBD and CBN. Higher cannabinoid concentrations following active oral THC administrations versus placebo suggest a compensatory effect of THC tolerance on smoking topography. PMID:23938457

Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R.; Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Murray, Jeannie A.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2014-01-01

333

Assessing the effects of medical marijuana laws on marijuana use: the devil is in the details.  

PubMed

This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to MMLs without this supply source. PMID:25558490

Pacula, Rosalie L; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L

2015-01-01

334

Original article Ploidy of embryogenic Medicago sativa  

E-print Network

Original article Ploidy of embryogenic Medicago sativa subsp. falcata germplasms François Blondon; accepted 2 December 1998) Abstract - The germplasms Medicago sativa L. subsp. falcata WY-RF1 (Reg. no. GP / embryogenesis / Medicago sativa L. subsp. falcata Résumé - Ploïdie de lignées embryogènes de Medicago sativa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Quality of web-based information on cannabis addiction.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability, and content quality. "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of the 94 Websites identified, 57 were included. Most were commercial sites. Based on outcome measures, the overall quality of the sites turned out to be poor. A global score (the sum of accountability, interactivity, content quality and esthetic criteria) appeared as a good content quality indicator. While cannabis education Websites for patients are widespread, their global quality is poor. There is a need for better evidence-based information about cannabis use and addiction on the Web. PMID:18724652

Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

2008-01-01

336

Clinical and Psychological Effects of Marijuana in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1968 we conducted a series of pilot experiments on acute marijuana intoxication in human sub- jects. The study was not undertaken to prove or disprove popularly held convictions about marijuana as an intoxicant, to compare it with other drugs, or to introduce our own opinions. Our concern was simply to collect some long overdue pharmacological data.

Andrew T. Weil; Norman E. Zinberg; Judith M. Nelsen

1969-01-01

337

Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

2010-01-01

338

Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

Ostrowsky, Michael K.

2011-01-01

339

Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

2008-01-01

340

Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain.  

PubMed

Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects. PMID:25385625

Filbey, Francesca M; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D; Spence, Jeffrey S; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith

2014-11-25

341

Religiosity and Spirituality of Alcohol and Marijuana Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on measuring the spirituality of alcohol and marijuana users, using the new and exclusively Czech measuring tool, the Prague Spiritual Questionnaire (PSQ). The data from 155 respondents shows that users of both marijuana and alcohol scored significantly higher in the mysticism dimension of spirituality than those who only drank alcohol. People who mentioned that the specified spiritual

Radmila Lorencova

2011-01-01

342

Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic

Joan L Bottorff; Joy L Johnson; Barbara M Moffat; Tamsin Mulvogue

2009-01-01

343

Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of smoked marijuana in humans.  

PubMed

The discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of smoked marijuana were studied by training marijuana smokers to discriminate between the effects of marijuana containing 2.7% delta 9-THC (M) and marijuana containing 0.0% delta 9-THC (P). In addition to measures of discrimination responding, subjective effects were assessed with standardized mood questionnaires. The post-smoking increase in expired air carbon monoxide (CO) level was used as an index of smoke inhalation. Relative to P cigarettes, M cigarettes increased heart rate and produced changes on eight mood scales. M cigarettes were rated as harsher and more potent than P cigarettes, and produced lower levels of CO than P cigarettes. The P--M discrimination was readily acquired by most subjects. The DS effects of marijuana showed a rapid onset, appearing within 90 s from the beginning of smoking. The DS effects were dose dependent, with 0.9% delta 9-THC marijuana producing primarily placebo-appropriate discrimination responding, and 1.4% delta 9-THC marijuana producing 100% drug-appropriate responding. This experimental paradigm could be used to determine whether the DS effects of smoked marijuana would generalize to those of other psychoactive drugs. PMID:3127846

Chait, L D; Evans, S M; Grant, K A; Kamien, J B; Johanson, C E; Schuster, C R

1988-01-01

344

Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain  

PubMed Central

Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects. PMID:25385625

Filbey, Francesca M.; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith

2014-01-01

345

Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding

Soo Yeun Lee; Seung Min Oh; Kyu Hyuck. Chung

2006-01-01

346

Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMarijuana contains multiple cannabinoids. Most attention is given to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which produces euphoria and in some cases anxiety and panic reactions. Research suggests that another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), may offset some of these effects. Thus, there is growing interest in the health consequences of the THC to CBD ratio for marijuana.

James Richard Burgdorf; Beau Kilmer; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula

2011-01-01

347

Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To model the impact of rising rates of cannabis use on the incidence and prevalence of psychosis under four hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Methods: The study modelled the effects on the prevalence of schizophrenia over the lifespan of cannabis in eight birth cohorts: 1940–1944, 1945–1949, 1950–1954, 1955–1959, 1960–1964, 1965–1969, 1970–1974, 1975–1979. It derived predictions

Louisa Degenhardt; Wayne Hall; Michael Lynskey

2003-01-01

348

Cannabis and schizophrenia: impact on onset, course, psychopathology and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis consuming schizophrenic patients are younger at onset, are likely to have started abuse before onset of schizophrenia and\\u000a show more prominent positive symptoms than nonabusers. It has been suggested that cannabis is a risk-factor for schizophrenia. Our aim was to assess prevalence and pattern of cannabis use in 125 chronic male schizophrenic subjects and its impact on socioepidemiological and

G. Bersani; V. Orlandi; G. D. Kotzalidis; P. Pancheri

2002-01-01

349

Cannabinoid concentrations in hair from documented cannabis users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N=18) or non-daily use, i.e. one to five cannabis cigarettes per week (N=20). Drug use was also

Marilyn A. Huestis; Richard A. Gustafson; Eric T. Moolchan; Allan Barnes; James A. Bourland; Stacy A. Sweeney; Eugene F. Hayes; Patrick M. Carpenter; Michael L. Smith

2007-01-01

350

The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update.  

PubMed

Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:24648785

Schoeler, Tabea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

2013-01-01

351

Continued detention involvement and adolescent marijuana use trajectories.  

PubMed

Justice-involved youth have high rates of marijuana use. Less is known about what may drive these rates, particularly when justice-involved youth return to the community. One factor that has been implicated is continued detention involvement. Yet, it is unknown how this factor may influence marijuana use trajectories. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, the researchers evaluated the association between continued detention involvement and marijuana use trajectories in two large, ethnically diverse samples of community-based, justice-involved youth. Across both samples, marijuana use decreased over time for youth with continued detention involvement but did not change for youth without continued detention involvement. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the influence of detention involvement in community-based, justice-involved adolescents' marijuana use trajectories. This study also highlights the importance of coordinating prevention/intervention programming for justice-involved youth once they are in the community. PMID:24272742

Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D

2014-01-01

352

Cannabis careers revisited: applying Howard S. Becker's theory to present-day cannabis use.  

PubMed

A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest a revision of the theory. As part of this, we propose a stretch of the sociological approach represented by Becker and followers in order to include, not only recreational drug use, but also use for which young people have sought treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use. PMID:24444848

Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

2014-01-01

353

The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (? three days per week in the past 12?months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the transition from frequent non-dependent cannabis use to cannabis dependence, and remission from dependence.

Pol van der P; N. Liebregts; Graaf de R; D. J. Korf; Brink van den W; Laar van M

2011-01-01

354

Bad trip due to anticholinergic effect of cannabis.  

PubMed

Cannabis in its various forms has been known since time immemorial, the use of which has been rising steadily in India. 'Bad trips' have been documented after cannabis use, manifestations ranging from vague anxiety and fear to profoundly disturbing states of terror and psychosis. Cannabis is known to affect various neurotransmitters, but 'bad trip' due to its anticholinergic effect has never been described in literature to the best of author's knowledge. Hereby, the author describes a case of a young adult male experiencing profound anticholinergic effects after being exposed for the first time in his life to bhang, a local oral preparation of cannabis. PMID:23906840

Mangot, Ajish G

2013-01-01

355

Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

2013-01-01

356

Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use.  

PubMed

We investigated the morphology of multiple brain regions in a rare sample of 15 very heavy cannabis users with minimal psychiatric comorbidity or significant exposure to other substances (compared with 15 age- and IQ-matched non-cannabis-using controls) using manual techniques. Heavy cannabis users demonstrated smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes, but no alterations of the orbitofrontal and anterior- and paracingulate cortices, or the pituitary gland. These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use has a selective and detrimental impact on the morphology of the mediotemporal lobe. PMID:25431432

Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Whittle, Sarah; Fornito, Alex; Lubman, Dan I; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2015-01-01

357

Evidence for Connections between Prosecutor-Reported Marijuana Case Dispositions and Community Youth Marijuana-Related Attitudes and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines relationships between local drug policy (as represented by prosecutor-reported case outcomes for first-offender juvenile marijuana possession cases) and youth self-reported marijuana use, perceived risk, and disapproval. Interviews with prosecutors and surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States were…

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; VanderWaal, Curtis J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2009-01-01

358

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using

Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García

2011-01-01

359

Marijuana Use and Increased Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. In some subcultures, it is widely perceived to be harmless. Although the carcinogenic properties of marijuana smoke are similar to those of tobacco, no epidemiological studies of the relationship between marijuana use and head and neck cancer have been published. The relationship between marijuana use and head and

Zuo-Feng Zhang; Hal Morgenstern; Margaret R. Spitz; Donald P. Tashkin; Guo-Pei Yu; James R. Marshall; T. C. Hsu; Stimson P. Schantz

1999-01-01

360

Fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse: Molecular adsorbent recirculation system therapy  

PubMed Central

Marijuana is used for psychoactive and recreational purpose. We report a case of fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse who recovered following artificial support systems for acute liver failure. There is no published literature of management of marijuana intoxication with molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS). MARS is effective and safe in patients with fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana intoxication. PMID:24049281

Swarnalatha, G.; Pai, S.; Ram, R.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

2013-01-01

361

Fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse: Molecular adsorbent recirculation system therapy.  

PubMed

Marijuana is used for psychoactive and recreational purpose. We report a case of fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse who recovered following artificial support systems for acute liver failure. There is no published literature of management of marijuana intoxication with molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS). MARS is effective and safe in patients with fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana intoxication. PMID:24049281

Swarnalatha, G; Pai, S; Ram, R; Dakshinamurty, K V

2013-09-01

362

The Social Context of Cannabis Use: Relationship to Cannabis Use Disorders and Depressive Symptoms among College Students  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated the association between the social context of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). This longitudinal study of college students aimed to: develop a social context measure of cannabis use; examine the degree to which social context is associated with the transition from non-problematic cannabis use to CUD; and, examine the association between social context of cannabis use and depressive symptoms. The analytic sample consisted of 322 past-year cannabis users at baseline. Four distinct and internally consistent social context scales were found (i.e., social facilitation, emotional pain, sex-seeking, and peer acceptance). Persistent CUD (meeting DSM-IV criteria for CUD at baseline and twelve months later) was associated with using cannabis in social facilitation or emotional pain contexts, controlling for frequency of cannabis use and alcohol use quantity. Students with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to use cannabis in an emotional pain or sex-seeking context. These findings highlight the importance of examining the social contextual factors relating to substance use among college students. PMID:19497678

Beck, Kenneth H.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

2009-01-01

363

Popliteal Artery Entrapment Associated with Cannabis Arteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To report popliteal artery entrapment in a patient with distal necrosis and cannabis-related arteritis, two rare or exceptional disorders never described in association. To conduct a targeted review and especially to seek information on the clinical presentation with characteristics specific to each disorder so as to hasten the diagnosis and choose appropriate management.Material and methods. A 19-year-old man who

E Ducasse; J Chevalier; D Dasnoy; F Speziale; P Fiorani; P Puppinck

2004-01-01

364

Cannabis Withdrawal is Common among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence and Major Depression, and is Associated with Rapid Relapse to Dependence  

PubMed Central

Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rapid relapse). The participants in this study included 170 adolescents and young adults, including 104 with cannabis dependence, 32 with cannabis abuse, and 34 with cannabis use without dependence or abuse. All of these subjects demonstrated current depressive symptoms and cannabis use, and most demonstrated current DSM-IV major depressive disorder and current comorbid cannabis dependence. These subjects had presented for treatment for either of two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving fluoxetine. Cannabis withdrawal was the most commonly reported cannabis dependence criterion among the 104 subjects in our sample with cannabis dependence, being noted in 92% of subjects, using a two-symptom cutoff for determination of cannabis withdrawal. The most common withdrawal symptoms among those with cannabis dependence were craving (82%), irritability (76%), restlessness (58%), anxiety (55%), and depression (52%). Cannabis withdrawal symptoms (in the N=170 sample) were reported to have been associated with rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rapid relapse). These findings suggest that cannabis withdrawal should be included as a diagnosis in the upcoming DSM-V, and should be listed in the upcoming criteria list for the DSM-V diagnostic category of cannabis dependence. PMID:18313860

Cornelius, Jack R.; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher; Wood, D. Scott; Clark, Duncan B.

2008-01-01

365

Single and multiple doses of rimonabant antagonize acute effects of smoked cannabis in male cannabis users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  A single 90-mg dose of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates effects of smoked cannabis in humans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The objective of this study is to evaluate whether repeated daily 40-mg doses of rimonabant can attenuate effects of smoked\\u000a cannabis to the same extent as a single higher (90 mg) dose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Forty-two male volunteers received one of three oral drug

Marilyn A. Huestis; Susan J. Boyd; Stephen J. Heishman; Kenzie L. Preston; Denis Bonnet; Gerard Le Fur; David A. Gorelick

2007-01-01

366

Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).  

PubMed

Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants. PMID:25416257

Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

2015-01-01

367

Neural Effects of Positive and Negative Incentives during Marijuana Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms. PMID:23690923

Filbey, Francesca M.; Dunlop, Joseph; Myers, Ursula S.

2013-01-01

368

Marijuana and cocaine impair alveolar macrophage function and cytokine production  

E-print Network

Use of marijuana and cocaine is on the rise in the United States. Although pulmonary toxicity from these drugs has occasionally been reported, little is known about their effects on the lung microenvironment. We evaluated the function of alveolar macrophages (AMs) recovered from the lungs of nonsmokers and habitual smokers of either tobacco, marijuana, or crack cocaine. AMs recovered from marijuana smokers were deficient in their ability to phagocytose Staphylococcus aureus (p ? 0.01). AMs from marijuana smokers and from cocaine users were also severely limited in their ability to kill both bacteria and tumor cells (p ? 0.01). Studies using N G-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, suggest that AMs from nonsmokers and tobacco smokers were able to use nitric oxide as an antibacterial effector molecule, while AMs from smokers of marijuana and cocaine were not. Finally, AMs from marijuana smokers, but not from smokers of tobacco or cocaine, produced less than normal amounts of tumor necrosis factor-?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-6 when stimulated in culture with lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, the production of transforming growth factor-?, an immunosuppressive cytokine, was similar in all groups. These findings indicate that habitual exposure of the lung to either marijuana or cocaine impairs the function and/or cytokine production of AMs. The ultimate outcome of these effects may be an enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease, cancer, and AIDS. Baldwin GC, Tashkin DP,

Gayle Cocita Baldwin; Donald P. Tashkin; Dawn M. Buckley; Alice N. Park; Steven M. Dubinett; Michael D. Roth

1997-01-01

369

It's Not Your Mother's Marijuana: Effects on Maternal-Fetal Health and the Developing Child.  

PubMed

Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring. PMID:25459779

Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

2014-12-01

370

Examining the debate on the use of medical marijuana.  

PubMed

The opium poppy and the coca leaf offer useful perspectives on the current controversies over medical marijuana. In both cases, purified synthetic analogues of biologically active components of ancient folk remedies have become medical mainstays without undermining efforts to reduce nonmedical drug use. A decade ago, a campaign strove to legalize heroin for the compassionate treatment of pain in terminally ill patients. Like the current campaign to legalize medical marijuana, many well-meaning people supported this effort. The campaign for medical heroin was stopped by science when double-blind studies showed that heroin offered no benefits over the standard opioid analgesics in the treatment of severe cancer pain. Scientific medicine requires purified chemicals in carefully controlled doses without contaminating toxic substances. That a doctor would one day write a prescription for leaves to be burned is unimaginable. The Controlled Substances Act and international treaties limit the use of abused drugs or medicines. In contrast to smoked marijuana, specific chemicals in marijuana or, more likely, synthetic analogues, may prove to be of benefit to some patients with specific illnesses. Most opponents of medical use of smoked marijuana are not hostile to the medical use of purified synthetic analogues or even synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which has been available in the United States for prescription by any licensed doctor since 1985. In contrast, most supporters of smoked marijuana are hostile to the use of purified chemicals from marijuana, insisting that only smoked marijuana leaves be used as "medicine," revealing clearly that their motivation is not scientific medicine but the back door legalization of marijuana. PMID:10220812

DuPont, R L

1999-01-01

371

Media Exposure and Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

PRIMACK, BRIAN A.; KRAEMER, KEVIN L.; FINE, MICHAEL J.; DALTON, MADELINE A.

2010-01-01

372

Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Brain Structure  

PubMed Central

The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence. PMID:24633558

Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

2014-01-01

373

Neuropsychological Performance in Long-term Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, its long-term cognitive effects remain inadequately studied. Methods: We recruited individuals aged 30 to 55 years in 3 groups: (1) 63 current heavy users who had smoked cannabis at least 5000 times in their lives and who were smoking daily at study entry; (2) 45 former

Harrison G. Pope; Amanda J. Gruber; James I. Hudson; Marilyn A. Huestis; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2001-01-01

374

The short-term consequences of early onset cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between early onset (prior to 15 years of age) cannabis use and rates of mental health or adjustment problems during the period from 15 to 16 years of age were studied in a New Zealand birth cohort. Early onset cannabis users were at increased risks of later substance use behaviors, conduct\\/oppositional disorders, juvenile offending, severe truancy, school dropout,

David M. Fergusson; Michael T. Lynskey; L. John Horwood

1996-01-01

375

Cannabis, Vulnerability, and the Onset of Schizophrenia: An Epidemiological Perspective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Second to alcohol, cannabis is the most frequently misused substance among patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this paper is to examine at early onset of psychosis whether the high comorbidity of schizophrenia and cannabis abuse is due to a causal relationship between the two disorders. Previous studies have mostly included chronic patients or samples with mixed stages of

Martin Hambrecht; Heinz Häfner

2000-01-01

376

Cannabis abuse and risk for psychosis in a prodromal sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to examine the rate of cannabis use among participants in the Cognitive Assessment and Risk Evaluation (CARE) Program, a longitudinal program for individuals who are “at risk” for developing a psychotic disorder. Cannabis abuse was assessed in 48 individuals identified as at risk for psychosis based on subsyndromal psychotic symptoms and\\/or family history.

Karin Kristensen; Kristin S. Cadenhead

2007-01-01

377

Cannabis use and the risk of later schizophrenia: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To study the role of cannabis use in the onset of symptoms and disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum. Design Review of five population-based, longitudinal studies on the relation- ship between cannabis use and problems ranging from the experience of psychotic symptoms to hospitalization with a confirmed diagnosis of schizo- phrenia. Several hypotheses are examined that may explain this relationship:

Filip Smit; Linda Bolier; Pim Cuijpers

2004-01-01

378

Legalisation of medicinal cannabis in New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since cannabis pharmaceuticals were removed from official pharmacopeias in the Western world in the mid-twentieth century there have been ongoing campaigns to re-legalise medicinal cannabis. This political and social struggle for legalisation tends to be cyclical, with its proponents and detractors fluctuating between characterising its use as a form of deviance through to viewing it as a legitimate response

Graham Irvine

2011-01-01

379

Autosomal linkage analysis for cannabis use behaviors in Australian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in developed and in developing nations. Twin studies have highlighted the role of genetic influences on early stages of cannabis use, such as a lifetime history of use, early-onset use and frequent use, however, we are not aware of any genomic studies that have examined these phenotypes. Using data on 2314 families

Arpana Agrawal; Katherine I. Morley; Narelle K. Hansell; Michele L. Pergadia; Grant W. Montgomery; Dixie J. Statham; Richard D. Todd; Pamela A. F. Madden; Andrew C. Heath; John Whitfield; Nicholas G. Martin; Michael T. Lynskey

2008-01-01

380

Predictors of Treatment Contact Among Individuals with Cannabis Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown that cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. Furthermore, individuals with cannabis dependence have high rates of comorbid substance use disorders and depression. A significant proportion of individuals with addictive disorders develop withdrawal symptoms, cannot control their drug use despite substantial adverse psychosocial consequences, and frequently have a coexisting psychiatric

Vito Agosti; Frances R. Levin

2004-01-01

381

Interactions between specific parameters of cannabis use and verbal memory.  

PubMed

Recently, the impact of different parameters of cannabis use, including the age of first use, the average frequency of use, the cumulative lifetime dose, the average dose per occasion, and the duration of regular use upon cognitive functions has been discussed. However, to date no study has systematically investigated the interactions of these parameters with regard to cognitive performance. To determine whether these interactions exist, 142 healthy young adult cannabis users participated in a neuropsychological assessment study with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). In line with previous studies on cannabis use and verbal memory, significant associations between certain components of verbal memory and frequency of use, cumulative lifetime dose and duration of regular use respectively were found. Remarkably, a multivariate analysis solely revealed a significant main effect of the duration of cannabis use with regard to immediate recall and recall after interference. Moreover, the findings suggest that age of first use, duration of use and frequency of cannabis use interact with regard to their impact on different measures of verbal memory. The findings of the present study provide first evidence that particular parameters of cannabis use interact with regard to their impact on cognitive functions in unintoxicated cannabis users. This finding might deliver more insight into the complex mechanisms underlying the impaired memory functions observed in cannabis users. PMID:20398718

Wagner, Daniel; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Jörg

2010-08-16

382

Using Cannabis Therapeutically in the UK: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three therapeutic cannabis users in England were interviewed about their experiences using an illegal drug for therapeutic purposes. Interviews were semi-structured, and responses highly qualitative. Particular issues included how and why cannabis was used therapeutically; what problems its illegality posed in terms of access, cost, reliability of supply, and quality of the product; the perceived beneficial effects of its use;

Ross Coomber; Michael Oliver; Craig Morris

2003-01-01

383

Cannabis and driving: Results from a general population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of illicit drugs on driving, and particularly of cannabis and driving, is the object of increasing awareness. While there is increasing evidence of their effect on psychomotor performance and increased risk of involvement in traffic accidents, limited information is available concerning factors that can predict the likelihood of driving under the influence of cannabis. The present study aims

F. J. Alvarez; I. Fierro; M. C. Del Río

2007-01-01

384

Cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various lines of evidence suggest an association between cannabis and psychosis. Five years ago, the only significant case-control study addressing this question was the Swedish Conscript Cohort. Within the last few years, other studies have emerged, allowing the evidence for cannabis as a risk factor to be more systematically reviewed and assessed. Using specific search criteria on Embase, PsychINFO and

David M. Semple; Andrew M. McIntosh; Stephen M. Lawrie

2005-01-01

385

Chronic cannabis use and the sense of coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic cannabis users undergoing therapy were tested using the Sense of Coherence scale to determine the extent to which patients showed improvements in perceived comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness of life. Improvement was demonstrated between admission and the completion of therapy six weeks later. Post-treatment scores were in the range of control subjects. Users who had quit using cannabis for more

Thomas Lundqvist

1995-01-01

386

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully

Marcel Toonen; Simon Ribot; J. T. N. M. Thissen

2006-01-01

387

The Medical Use of Cannabis Among the Greeks and Romans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, which contains a complete survey of the surviving references to medical cannabis in Greek and Latin literature, updates the last serious treatment of the subject (Brunner 1973).Though it eventually became commonplace, cannabis seems to have been largely unknown to the Greeks in the fifth century BCE, when Herodotus wrote his description of the hemp vapor-baths used by the

James L. Butrica

2002-01-01

388

Pathways from Cannabis to Psychosis: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

The nature of the relationship between cannabis use (CU) and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of CU. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong CU and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not CU ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis. PMID:24133460

Burns, Jonathan K.

2013-01-01

389

Patterns of medical marijuana use among individuals sampled from medical marijuana dispensaries in los angeles.  

PubMed

Abstract The proliferation of medical marijuana (MM) dispensaries has led to concerns that they will lead to more widespread use of marijuana. The aim of the current study was to collect descriptive data on individuals using MM dispensaries in Los Angeles County. A mixed-method approach was employed that consisted of focus groups with 30 individuals and a survey of dispensary users (N = 182) in Los Angeles County. Differences between younger (less than 30 years old) and older individuals were examined in the survey sample. Most individuals in both samples had initiated marijuana use in adolescence. Nearly one-half of survey respondents had indications of risky alcohol use and one-fifth reported recent use of illicit drugs or misuse of prescription medications. Younger individuals had higher rates of tobacco use, visited dispensaries more frequently, and had more socially embedded patterns of use, but they were similar to older individuals in terms of their reasons for use. Nearly all participants believed that MM was beneficial in treating their health problems, although 65% reported symptoms of psychological distress in the past year. Interventions aimed at MM users should stress the related effects of tobacco and risky alcohol use as well as mental health needs. PMID:25188696

Grella, Christine E; Rodriguez, Luz; Kim, Tina

2014-01-01

390

Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: the socioeconomic context.  

E-print Network

1 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: the socioeconomic.drugalcdep.2011.09.002 #12;2 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults-completed mail survey: regular tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse (AUDIT), cannabis use, problematic cannabis use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Cannabis in Palliative Medicine: Improving Care and Reducing Opioid-Related Morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike hospice, long-term drug safety is an important issue in palliative medicine. Opioids may produce significant morbidity. Cannabis is a safer alternative with broad applicability for palliative care. Yet the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) classifies cannabis as Schedule I (dangerous, without medical uses). Dronabinol, a Schedule III prescription drug, is 100% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabis

Gregory T. Carter; Aaron M. Flanagan; Mitchell Earleywine; Donald I. Abrams; Sunil K. Aggarwal; Lester Grinspoon

2011-01-01

392

Prohibition and Cannabis Use in Australia: A Survey of 18- to 29-year-olds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of cannabis use in Australia has increased in the last few years, prompting some to argue that the prohibition against cannabis is both costly and ineffective and should be lifted. Surveys designed to evaluate the effect of reducing or eliminating sanctions for cannabis use, however, have been more concerned about the effect of cannabis law reform on the

Don Weatherburn; Craig Jones; Neil Donnelly

2003-01-01

393

A within-subject comparison of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence from cannabis, tobacco, and both substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been characterized, but its clinical significance remains uncertain. One method of assessing the significance of cannabis withdrawal is to compare it directly to an established withdrawal syndrome. The present study was a within-subject comparison of cannabis, tobacco, and combined cannabis and tobacco withdrawal among users of both substances. Participants (N=12) completed three 5-day periods of

R. G. Vandrey; A. J. Budney; J. R. Hughes; A. Liguori

2008-01-01

394

Policy designs for cannabis legalization: starting with the eight Ps.  

PubMed

The cannabis policy landscape is changing rapidly. In November 2012 voters in Colorado and Washington State passed ballot initiatives to remove the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and possession of cannabis. This paper does not address the question of whether cannabis should be legal; it instead focuses on the design considerations confronting jurisdictions that are pondering a change in cannabis policy. Indeed, whether or not cannabis legalization is net positive or negative for public health and public safety largely depends on regulatory decisions and how they are implemented. This essay presents eight of these design choices which all conveniently begin with the letter "P": production, profit motive, promotion, prevention, potency, purity, price, and permanency. PMID:24853283

Kilmer, Beau

2014-07-01

395

Believability of Messages about Cannabis, Cocaine and Heroin among Never-Triers, Trier-Rejecters and Current Users of Cannabis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the believability of strong warnings about the negative consequences of drug use among young adults in Australia who have never tried, currently use, or have tried and rejected cannabis. It finds that the strong warnings about cannabis are generally believed by never-triers. The same warnings are perceived by current users as…

Jones, Sandra C.; Rossiter, John R.

2004-01-01

396

Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views

Anna Buadze; Rudolf Stohler; Beate Schulze; Michael Schaub; Michael Liebrenz

2010-01-01

397

In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hemp Seed ( Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated gastrointestinal hydrolysis of hemp seed proteins using pepsin and pancreatin followed by membrane ultrafiltration\\u000a fractionation yielded fractions with peptide sizes of <1, 1–3, 3–5, and 5–10 kDa. Analysis of in vitro antioxidant properties\\u000a showed that the hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) exhibited a significantly weaker (p < 0.05) scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals when compared to the fractionated peptides. Metal chelation\\u000a activity

Abraham T. Girgih; Chibuike C. Udenigwe; Rotimi E. Aluko

2011-01-01

398

Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

Shin, Soo-Jeong; Sung, Yong Joo

2008-09-01

399

The interactive effects of emotional clarity and cognitive reappraisal on problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users.  

PubMed

This study examined whether emotional clarity (i.e., the extent to which one can identify and understand the type and source of emotions one experiences) and cognitive reappraisal (i.e., altering how potentially emotion-eliciting situations are construed to change their emotional impact) would individually or jointly be associated with problematic cannabis use among individuals receiving cannabis for medical reasons (n=153). Findings indicated that problematic cannabis use was predicted by the interaction between emotional clarity and cognitive reappraisal. In particular, low levels of emotional clarity combined with high levels of cognitive reappraisal predicted problematic cannabis use. The current study is the first to demonstrate the interactive effects of emotional clarity and the use of cognitive reappraisal in predicting substance use disorder outcomes. Such findings are important given the lack of empirical data demonstrating for whom and for which conditions cannabis is either beneficial or detrimental. PMID:23254215

Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gross, James J; Babson, Kimberly A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2013-03-01

400

Variabilit des phnomnes d'interfrences entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.  

E-print Network

Agronomie Variabilité des phénomènes d'interférences entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L. : II of the phenomena of interferences between Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.: II. Nitro- gen nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

Assessing the Relationship between Marijuana Availability and Marijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States and the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…

Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

2007-01-01

402

Arrests and convictions for cannabis related offences in a New Zealand birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the associations between the use of cannabis and arrest\\/conviction for cannabis related offences. Methods: Data on cannabis use and arrests\\/convictions for cannabis related offences were gathered during the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of Christchurch (New Zealand) born children (N=983). Information on cannabis use, arrests and convictions was gathered over the period

D. M Fergusson; N. R Swain-Campbell; L. J Horwood

2003-01-01

403

Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full price of marijuana. The implications of this for driving while intoxicated are examined using self-reported involvement in non-fatal accidents and state-level youth motor vehicle accident fatality rates. The

Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai

1997-01-01

404

Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairments of human cognition and learning following chronic marijuana use are of serious concern, but have not been clearly demonstrated. To determine whether such impairments occurred, this study compared performance of adult marijuana users and non-users (N=144 andN=72, respectively) matched on intellectual functioning before the onset of drug use, i.e., on scores from standardized tests administered during the fourth grade

Robert I. Block; M. M. Ghoneim

1993-01-01

405

Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant\\u000a exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana\\u000a etiology with adolescents (N=624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires\\u000a about their marijuana use,

Christopher Williams; Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Michelle Ifill-Williams

1999-01-01

406

Teenage Indulgence in Cigarettes, Alcohol and Marijuana: Evidence of a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the possible existence of a 'gateway' effect between the consumption of three different substances--cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana--among adolescents. A gateway effect exists when consumption of one substance increases the likelihood of subsequent initiation of consumption of other substances. We find evidence that smoking and\\/or alcohol consumption serve as 'gateways' for initiating marijuana-use, and each of smoking and alcohol

Bisakha Sen; Rajshree Agarwal; Richard Hofler

2002-01-01

407

Psychometric properties of a valuations scale for the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given that marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance, identification of the role of potentially malleable cognitive factors in marijuana-related behaviors remains an important goal. The Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991) assesses marijuana effect expectancies that are differentially related to marijuana use and use-related problems. Evaluation of the desirability of marijuana effect expectancies may provide additional information regarding cognitions related to marijuana use behaviors. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Valuations Scale (MEEQ-V) which was developed for this study to assess the desirability of marijuana effect expectancies. The sample was comprised of 925 (73.0% female) undergraduate participants, 41.9% of whom endorsed lifetime marijuana use and 24.7% of whom reported current (past three-month) use. The MEEQ-V scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Most (but not all) MEEQ-V scales were correlated with their corresponding MEEQ scale. There was some support for convergent validity. MEEQ-V scales were differentially related to frequency of marijuana use and use-related problems. Most MEEQ-V scales were related to frequency of marijuana use above and beyond variance attributable to corresponding MEEQ scales. Results suggest that assessment of desirability of marijuana's effects could provide unique and important information about cognitions related to marijuana use behaviors. PMID:23254209

Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Welch, Katherine D

2013-03-01

408

Use and diversion of medical marijuana among adults admitted to inpatient psychiatry.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Marijuana use is associated with anxiety, depressive, psychotic, neurocognitive, and substance use disorders. Many US states are legalizing marijuana for medical uses. Objective: To determine the prevalence of medical marijuana use and diversion among psychiatric inpatients in Colorado. Methods: Some 623 participants (54.6% male) responded to an anonymous 15-item discharge survey that assessed age, gender, marijuana use, possession of a medical marijuana card, diversion of medical marijuana, perceived substance use problems, and effects of marijuana use. Univariate statistics were used to characterize participants and their responses. Chi-square tests assessed factors associated with medical marijuana registration. Results: Of the total number of respondents, 282 (47.6%) reported using marijuana in the last 12 months and 60 (15.1%) reported having a marijuana card. In comparison to survey respondents who denied having a medical marijuana card, those respondents with a medical marijuana card were more likely to have initiated use before the age of 25, to be male, to have used marijuana in the last 12 months, and to have used at least 20 days in the past month. 133 (24.1%) respondents reported that someone with a medical marijuana card had shared or sold medical marijuana to them; 24 (41.4%) of respondents with a medical marijuana card reported ever having shared or sold their medical marijuana. Conclusion: Medical marijuana use is much more prevalent among adults hospitalized with a psychiatric emergency than in the general population; diversion is common. Further studies which correlate amount, dose, duration, and strain of use with particular psychiatric disorders are needed. PMID:25375878

Nussbaum, Abraham M; Thurstone, Christian; McGarry, Laurel; Walker, Brendan; Sabel, Allison L

2014-11-01

409

The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.  

PubMed

The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P < .0001) and are younger on average (35 years old vs 42, P < .0001). The most common mechanisms of injury among patients who test cannabis+ or cannabis- are similar. Flame injury makes up >60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients, cannabis+ patients are more likely to be uninsured (25.2% vs 17.26%, P < .0001). Finally, patients who test cannabis+ have larger burns (TBSA% of 12.94 vs 10.98, P < .0001), have a longer length of stay (13.31 days vs 12.6, P = .16), spend more days in the ICU (7.84 vs 6.39, P = .0006), and have more operations (2.78 vs 2.05, P < .0001). The rate patients testing positive for cannabis in burn units is growing quickly. These patients are younger and are less likely to be insured. These patients also have larger burns, spend more time in ICUs, and have a greater number of operations. The increasing use of cannabis, as expected from legalization of cannabis in multiple states, among burn patient population may lead to increased burden on already tenuous health care resources. PMID:25412052

Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

2015-01-01

410

Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

2015-01-01

411

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use  

PubMed Central

Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors. PMID:17034634

Barnwell, Sara Smucker; Earleywine, Mitch

2006-01-01

412

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines,...

2014-10-01

413

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines,...

2011-10-01

414

Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National  

E-print Network

LETTER Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher rodenticide; fisher; marijuana; Pekania pennanti; pesticide; survival. Correspondence Craig Thompson, USDA. Further investigation indicated that the most likely source was the numerous illegal marijuana cultivation

Fried, Jeremy S.

415

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines,...

2010-10-01

416

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines,...

2012-10-01

417

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP...verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines,...

2013-10-01

418

Dependence on cannabis--an ever lasting issue.  

PubMed

In this paper the dependence syndrome on cannabis as it is defined in International Classification Systems (e.g., DSM-IV) will be examined from a theoretical and a technical point of view. Therefore, both the conceptualization and the operationalization of the dependence syndrome are the focus of interest. It is shown that dependence on cannabis should deal with only psychic dependence. Analyzing criteria of psychic dependence via DSM-IV points to the need of conceptual reformulation. Deficiencies concerning variable validity and measurement conditions are pointed out. It is suggested, that the dependence syndrome on cannabis via international classification systems (e.g. DSM-IV) should be revised. PMID:15974145

Soellner, Renate

2005-01-01

419

Effects of Chronic, Heavy Cannabis Use on Executive Functions  

PubMed Central

This case describes the clinical course of a cannabis-dependent individual entering a 12-week abstinence-based research program. The case illustrates the effects of chronic, heavy cannabis use on executive functions at three time points: 1) 24 hours of abstinence; 2) 4 weeks of abstinence; and 3) 12 weeks of abstinence. It is followed by discussions by two clinical psychologists and a psychiatrist. The findings described here have important clinical implications, as executive functions have a vital role in treatment participation and in sustaining recovery. It should be of particular interest to clinicians who work with people with cannabis use disorders. PMID:21643485

Crean, Rebecca D.; Tapert, Susan F.; Minassian, Arpi; MacDonald, Kai; Crane, Natania A.; Mason, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

420

A comparison of symptoms and family history in schizophrenia with and without prior cannabis use: Implications for the concept of cannabis psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is considerable interest in cannabis use in psychosis. It has been suggested that the chronic psychosis associated with cannabis use, is symptomatically distinct from idiopathic schizophrenia. Several studies have reported differences in psychopathology and family history in people with schizophrenia according to whether or not they were cannabis users. We set out to test the hypotheses arising from these

J. Boydell; K. Dean; R. Dutta; E. Giouroukou; P. Fearon; R. Murray

2007-01-01

421

The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

422

Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.  

PubMed

More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers' responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences. PMID:19656642

Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

2009-11-01

423

Exploring the Ecological Association Between Crime and Medical Marijuana Dispensaries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Routine activities theory purports that crime occurs in places with a suitable target, motivated offender, and lack of guardianship. Medical marijuana dispensaries may be places that satisfy these conditions, but this has not yet been studied. The current study examined whether the density of medical marijuana dispensaries is associated with crime. Method: An ecological, cross-sectional design was used to explore the spatial relationship between density of medical marijuana dispensaries and two types of crime rates (violent crime and property crime) in 95 census tracts in Sacramento, CA, during 2009. Spatial error regression methods were used to determine associations between crime rates and density of medical marijuana dispensaries, controlling for neighborhood characteristics associated with routine activities. Results: Violent and property crime rates were positively associated with percentage of commercially zoned areas, percentage of one-person households, and unemployment rate. Higher violent crime rates were associated with concentrated disadvantage. Property crime rates were positively associated with the percentage of population 15–24 years of age. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries was not associated with violent or property crime rates. Conclusions: Consistent with previous work, variables measuring routine activities at the ecological level were related to crime. There were no observed cross-sectional associations between the density of medical marijuana dispensaries and either violent or property crime rates in this study. These results suggest that the density of medical marijuana dispensaries may not be associated with crime rates or that other factors, such as measures dispensaries take to reduce crime (i.e., doormen, video cameras), may increase guardianship such that it deters possible motivated offenders. PMID:22630790

Kepple, Nancy J.; Freisthler, Bridget

2012-01-01

424

68 FR 14119 - Exemption From Control of Certain Industrial Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration...CSA)) certain items derived from the cannabis plant and containing tetrahydrocannabinols...mixtures are made from those portions of the cannabis plant that are excluded from the...

2003-03-21

425

Le nouveau paysage du cannabis II. Données récentes sur la psychotoxicité du cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC), après avoir épaulé le tonus anandamidergique, majorant ses effects anxiolytiques et\\u000a antidépresseurs, perdrait de son efficacité. Les troubles anxieux et\\/ou dépressifs qui avaient pu inciter à recourir réapparaîtraient\\u000a alors, plus intenses, pour culminer quand la drogue serait durablement arrêtée. Le cannabis participe à des polytoxicomanies,\\u000a qu’il suscite en partie. Il est porté sur les épaules du tabac,

Jean Costentin

2004-01-01

426

Le nouveau paysage du cannabis I. Données récentes sur la neurobiologie des endocannabinoïdes et du cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC), principe actif du cannabis, est de tous les agents toxicomanogènes le seul qui soit\\u000a stocké plusieurs semaines dans l’organisme. Il donne lieu à une dépendance psychique, mais aussi physique, dépendances qui\\u000a sont largement masquées par le fait que sa disparition du plasma est contemporaine de son stockage dans les lipides, en particulier\\u000a cérébraux. Dans le cerveau le

Jean Costentin

2004-01-01

427

Cannabis and cognitive dysfunction: Parallels with endophenotypes of schizophrenia?  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is a lot of interest in cannabis use as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction associated with long-term or heavy cannabis use is similar in many respects to the cognitive endophenotypes that have been proposed as vulnerability markers of schizophrenia. In this overview, we examine the similarities between these in the context of the neurobiology underlying cognitive dysfunction, particularly implicating the endogenous cannabinoid system, which plays a significant role in attention, learning and memory, and in general, inhibitory regulatory mechanisms in the brain. Closer examination of the cognitive deficits associated with specific parameters of cannabis use and interactions with neurodevelopmental stages and neural substrates will better inform our understanding of the nature of the association between cannabis use and psychosis. The theoretical and clinical significance of further research in this field is in enhancing our understanding of underlying pathophysiology and improving the provision of treatments for substance use and mental illness. PMID:17245472

Solowij, Nadia; Michie, Patricia T.

2007-01-01

428

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia  

PubMed Central

The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture. PMID:19036842

Russo, Ethan B.; Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J.; Zhao, You-Xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-Bing; Lü, En-Guo; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

2008-01-01

429

Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males  

MedlinePLUS

... People in the ER, Especially Young Males Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, ... on the scene a few years ago, synthetic marijuana (MJ)—often called “Spice” or “K2”—has become ...

430

Neurologists Say Jury Still Out on Medical Marijuana's Use for Brain Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Neurologists Say Jury Still Out on Medical Marijuana's Use for Brain Disorders Easing federal restrictions on ... 2015) Wednesday, December 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Marijuana Neurologic Diseases WEDNESDAY, Dec. 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

431

What is the mechanism whereby cannabis use increases risk of psychosis?  

PubMed

Cannabis use has increased greatly over the last three decades. The various types of cannabis differ in their concentration of the main psychoactive component, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the other major ingredient, cannabidiol (CBD). Plant engineering has maximized levels of THC, thus increasing the potency of street cannabis. It is well known that cannabis intoxication can cause brief psychotic symptoms like paranoia, whilst recent evidence demonstrates that heavy use of cannabis increases the risk of chronic psychoses like schizophrenia; genetic vulnerability seems to predispose some people to a higher risk. This paper starts to consider the neurochemical mechanisms whereby cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis. PMID:19073418

Luzi, Sonija; Morrison, Paul D; Powell, John; di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M

2008-10-01

432

The environment and schizophrenia: the role of cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis use is associated with poor outcome in existing schizophrenia and may precipitate psychosis in individuals with preexisting liability. To investigate the overall effect size and consistency of the association between cannabis and psychosis, a meta-analysis from prospective studies was carried out. The pooled odds ratio was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.5) and could not be explained by confounding or re-

Cécile Henquet; Robin Murray; Don Linszen; Jim van Os

2005-01-01

433

Cannabis and schizophrenia: results of a follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 39 schizophrenic patients with a history of current cannabis abuse at index admission was compared with a control\\u000a group of schizophrenics without substance abuse matched for age, gender, and year of admission. At follow-up after 68.7 ±\\u000a 28.3 months, 27\\/ 39 cases and 26\\/39 controls could be investigated. 8\\/27 cases (30%) had continued cannabis abuse, 6\\/27 (22%)

D. Caspari

1999-01-01

434

Cannabis and Eicosanoids: A Review of Molecular Pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many constituents of cannabis exhibit beneficial anti-in- flammatory properties, such as 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in mar- ijuana and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in hemp seed oil. The effects of these cannabis constituents on eicosanoid metabolism is reviewed. THC and GLA modulate the arachidonic acid cascade, inhibiting the production of series 2 prostaglandins and series 4 leukotrienes. Canna- binoid receptor- as well as

John M. McPartland

435

[Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].  

PubMed

Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

2014-01-01

436

Cannabis induced dopamine release: an in-vivo SPECT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a research study aimed at examining the alterations in dopaminergic function in schizophrenia, the authors identified a surreptitious case scenario which provided new insights into the subjective and neurochemical effects of cannabis. A 38-year-old drug-free schizophrenic patient took part in a single photon emission computerized tomographic (SPECT) study of the brain, and smoked cannabis secretively during a pause in

Lakshmi N. P Voruganti; Piotr Slomka; Pamela Zabel; Adel Mattar; A. George Awad

2001-01-01

437

Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis?related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger?like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre?Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

2014-01-01

438

THE PREVALENCE OF CANNABIS-INVOLVED DRIVING IN CALIFORNIA  

PubMed Central

Background Various national surveys suggest that cannabis use is rising nationally, and many States have passed legislation that has potential to increase usage even further. This presents a problem for public roadways, as research suggests that cannabis impairs driving ability. Methods Anonymous oral fluid samples and breath tests were obtained from more than 900 weekend nighttime drivers randomly sampled from six jurisdictions in California. Oral fluid samples were assayed for the presence of Schedule I drugs. Drivers also completed information on self-reported drug use and possession of a medical cannabis permit. Data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (collected using comparable methods) were used as a comparison. Results Using the 2010 data, a total of 14.4% of weekend nighttime drivers tested positive for illegal drugs, with 8.5% testing positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC-positive rates varied considerably among jurisdictions, from a low of 4.3% in Fresno to a high of 18.3% in Eureka. A comparison with the 2007 NRS data found an increase in THC-positive drivers in 2010, but no increase in illegal drugs other than cannabis. Drivers who reported having a medical cannabis permit were significantly more likely to test positive for THC. Conclusions Cannabis-involved driving has increased in California since 2007. Nearly 1-in-10 weekend, nighttime drivers tested positive for THC, and in some jurisdictions, the rate was nearly 1-in-5. The possible contribution of cannabis legislation, such as decriminalization and medical cannabis usage, is discussed. PMID:22101027

Johnson, Mark B.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John H.

2013-01-01

439

Explicit and implicit effects of anti-marijuana and anti-tobacco TV advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of anti-tobacco and anti-marijuana TV advertisements on explicit (i.e., semantic differential ratings) and implicit (i.e. Implicit Association Test, IAT) attitudes toward tobacco and marijuana were compared. Two hundred twenty nine, 18- to 19-year-old U.S. college students were randomly assigned to anti-tobacco or anti-marijuana PSA viewing conditions. Participants completed a short survey on attitudes to tobacco and marijuana. Afterwards they

Maria Czyzewska; Harvey J. Ginsburg

2007-01-01

440

Explicit and implicit effects of anti-marijuana and anti-tobacco TV advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of anti-tobacco and anti-marijuana TVadvertisements on explicit (i.e., semantic differential ratings) and implicit (i.e. Implicit Association Test, IAT) attitudes toward tobacco and marijuana were compared. Two hundred twenty nine, 18- to 19-year-old U.S. college students were randomly assigned to anti-tobacco or anti-marijuana PSA viewing conditions. Participants completed a short survey on attitudes to tobacco and marijuana. Afterwards they watched

Maria Czyzewska; Harvey J. Ginsburg

2006-01-01

441

Cannabinoid hyperemesis: cyclical hyperemesis in association with chronic cannabis abuse  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: To explore the association between chronic cannabis abuse and a cyclical vomiting illness that presented in a series of cases in South Australia. Methods: Nineteen patients were identified with chronic cannabis abuse and a cyclical vomiting illness. For legal and ethical reasons, all patients were counselled to cease all cannabis abuse. Follow up was provided with serial urine drug screen analysis and regular clinical consultation to chart the clinical course. Of the 19 patients, five refused consent and were lost to follow up and five were excluded on the basis of confounders. The remaining nine cases are presented here and compared with a published case of psychogenic vomiting. Results: In all cases, including the published case, chronic cannabis abuse predated the onset of the cyclical vomiting illness. Cessation of cannabis abuse led to cessation of the cyclical vomiting illness in seven cases. Three cases, including the published case, did not abstain and continued to have recurrent episodes of vomiting. Three cases rechallenged themselves after a period of abstinence and suffered a return to illness. Two of these cases abstained again, and became and remain well. The third case did not and remains ill. A novel finding was that nine of the 10 patients, including the previously published case, displayed an abnormal washing behaviour during episodes of active illness. Conclusions: We conclude that chronic cannabis abuse was the cause of the cyclical vomiting illness in all cases, including the previously described case of psychogenic vomiting. PMID:15479672

Allen, J H; de Moore, G M; Heddle, R; Twartz, J C

2004-01-01

442

Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample.  

PubMed

Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3% marijuana in cars. Allowing cigarettes in the home was associated with younger age, racial/ethnic minority status, living off campus, personal marijuana use, parental tobacco use and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in the home included older age, not having children, living off campus, positive perceptions of marijuana and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing cigarettes in cars included personal cigarette and marijuana use, parental tobacco and marijuana use, more cigarette-smoking friends and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in cars included being non-Hispanic black; positive perceptions of marijuana; and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Interventions must target distinct factors influencing policies regarding cigarette versus marijuana use in personal settings to address the consequences of marijuana and cigarette SHSe. PMID:25214515

Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J; Schauer, Gillian L; Lang, Delia L; Kegler, Michelle C

2015-02-01

443

Child maltreatment and marijuana problems in young adults: examining the role of motives and emotion dysregulation.  

PubMed

It is well established that childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of marijuana use, but few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study examines marijuana motives as mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and marijuana use in a sample of young adults. In addition, pathways from childhood maltreatment to emotion dysregulation, coping motives, and marijuana use were explored. Participants were 125 young adults (ages 19-25, 66.9% female) recruited through online community advertising. All participants completed questionnaires assessing childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, marijuana motives, past year and past three-month marijuana use, and marijuana problems. Correlational analyses revealed bivariate relationships between childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, marijuana motives and marijuana problems (rs=.24-.50). Mediation analyses revealed that coping motives mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and marijuana problems, and emotion dysregulation was associated with marijuana problems both directly and indirectly via coping motives. The present findings highlight emotion dysregulation and coping motives as important underlying mechanisms in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and marijuana problems. PMID:24268374

Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Goldstein, Abby L

2014-05-01

444

Misperceptions of the Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among College Students: Athletes and Non-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of marijuana use and perceptions of the prevalence of marijuana use was assessed in a sample of intercollegiate athletes and a separate sample of primarily first-year non-athlete students at a northwestern public university. Marijuana use prevalence in the non-athlete sample was higher than the prevalence found in nationwide surveys…

Page, Randy M.; Roland, Michelle

2004-01-01

445

Marijuana Use among Students at Institutions of Higher Education. Infofacts/Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug in the United States, with approximately 14.8 million Americans over the age of 12 reporting past-month use in 2006. While marijuana use declined in the 1980s, its use among all youth--including college students--rose steadily in the 1990s. Prevention professionals report concern because marijuana

Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

2008-01-01

446

How and Where Young Adults Obtain Marijuana. The NSDUH Report. Issue 20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older about their use of marijuana or hashish in the past year, including their frequency of use. This report focuses on how and where past year marijuana users aged 18 to 25 obtained their most recently used marijuana. Findings include estimates from the combined 2002,…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

2006-01-01

447

A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

2011-01-01

448

Effects of marijuana on neurophysiological signals of working and episodic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale The primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana, ? 9-THC, activates cannabinoid receptors, which are especially abundant in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Acute marijuana smoking can disrupt working memory (WM) and episodic memory (EM) functions that are known to rely on these regions. However, the effects of marijuana on the brain activity accompanying such cognitive processes remain largely unexplored. Objectives

Aaron B. Ilan; Michael E. Smith; Alan Gevins

2004-01-01

449

Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Its Defenses against Infection and Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the many effects of marijuana use on the lungs. States that patients with pre-existing immune deficits are particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related pulmonary infections. However, warns that habitual use of marijuana may lead to respiratory cancer must await epidemiological studies, which are now possible since 30 years have passed…

Tashkin, Donald P.

1999-01-01

450

Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana  

E-print Network

: Marijuana Geographic origin Drug trafficking Drug intelligence Stable isotopes Isotope ratio mass to analyses of marijuana trafficking in the USA. The models were developed on the basis of eradication to significantly improve our understanding of marijuana production and trafficking because stable isotopes function

Ehleringer, Jim

451

Marijuana, expectancies, and post-traumatic stress symptoms: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Previous work suggests that people might turn to marijuana to alleviate the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated distress. Expectancy theories emphasize that the use of drugs correlates with their anticipated effects. The current study examined multivariate links among marijuana use, PTSD symptoms, and expectancies for marijuana-induced changes in those symptoms. Over 650 combat-exposed, male veterans who used marijuana at least once per week completed measures of PTSD symptoms, marijuana expectancies, and marijuana use in an Internet survey. Participants generally expected marijuana to relieve PTSD symptoms, especially those related to intrusions and arousal. Symptoms, expectancies for relief of symptoms, and marijuana consumption correlated significantly. Regressions revealed significant indirect effects of symptoms on use via expectancies, but no significant interactions of expectancies and symptoms. Combat-exposed veterans who use marijuana appear to use more as the magnitude of PTSD symptoms and their expectations of marijuana-induced relief of those symptoms increase. These results emphasize the importance of PTSD treatments in an effort to keep potential negative effects of marijuana to a minimum. They also underscore the import of expectancies in predicting marijuana use. PMID:25052875

Earleywine, Mitch; Bolles, Jamie R

2014-01-01

452

Airway inflammation in young marijuana and tobacco smokers  

E-print Network

Forty healthy young subjects, ages 20 to 49 yr, underwent videobronchoscopy, mucosal biopsy, and bronchial lavage to evaluate the airway inflammation produced by habitual smoking of marijuana and/or tobacco. Videotapes were graded in a blinded manner for central airway erythema, edema, and airway secretions using a modified visual bronchitis index. The bronchitis index scores were significantly higher in marijuana smokers (MS), tobacco smokers (TS), and in combined marijuana/tobacco smokers (MTS), than in nonsmokers (NS). As a pathologic correlate, mucosal biopsies were evaluated for the presence of vascular hyperplasia, submucosal edema, inflammatory cell infiltrates, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Biopsies were positive for two of these criteria in 97 % of all smokers and for three criteria in 72%. By contrast, none of the biopsies from NS exhibited greater than one positive finding. Finally, as a measure of distal airway inflammation, neutrophil counts and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations were determined in bronchial lavage fluid. The percentage of neutrophils correlated

Michael D. Roth; Ashim Arora; Sanford H. Barsky; Eric C. Kleerup; Michael Simmons; Donald P. Tashkin

1998-01-01

453

Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

2008-12-01

454

Neighborhood environment and marijuana use in urban young adults.  

PubMed

Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI?=?0.97, RMSEA?=?0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p?marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Lee, Myong Hwa; Johnson, Renee; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S

2015-02-01

455

Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

2008-01-01

456

State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.  

PubMed

The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and accessibility of treatment are also needed. Computer- and phone-based interventions, social media, and brief interventions that can be implemented in primary care settings are areas that may hold promise for reaching at-risk populations. Adolescents and persons with co-occurring mental illness are at particularly high risk of cannabis dependence, and may suffer disproportionately from cannabis’s adverse effects. As in the treatment of other substance use disorders, there is a need for a continuing care model with long-term follow-up that extends past the periods typically evaluated in treatment studies. Additionally, there is a need for further investigation of genetic underpinnings and endophenotypes underlying cannabis dependence to identify neurobiological mechanisms for targeted intervention. One benefit of the societal focus on cannabis has been a prominent increase in research covering everything from the basic science to public health impact of cannabis. Over the next decade, physicians who provide treatment for individuals with cannabis dependence are likely to see their armamentarium of effective interventions expand, to the ultimate betterment of patients, their families, and society at large. PMID:22640758

Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A

2012-06-01

457

Student Reports of Availability, Peer Approval and Use of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Other Drugs at School: 1993. Statistics in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on middle and senior high school students showed a reversal of previous decline in smoking marijuana and using drugs other than marijuana, a decline in students' personal disapproval of marijuana, and a high prevalence of alcohol use. Student reports of peer approval, availability, and use at school of alcohol, marijuana, and other…

Nolin, Mary Jo; And Others

458

[Effects of oral cannabis and dronabinol on driving capacity].  

PubMed

Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have shown that cannabis is the main psychoactive substance detected in the blood of drivers suspected of driving under the influence of psychotropic drugs. An oral administration double-blind crossover study was carried out with eight healthy male subjects, aged 22 to 30 years, all occasional cannabis smokers. Three treatments and one placebo were administered to all participants at a two week interval: 20 mg dronabinol, 16.5 mg D9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 45.7 mg THC as a cannabis milk decoction. Participants were asked to report the subjective drug effects and their willingness to drive under various circumstances on a visual analog scale. Clinical observations, a psychomotor test and a tracking test on a driving simulator were also carried out. Compared to cannabis smoking, THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH blood concentrations remained low through the whole study (<13.1 ng THC/mL,<24.7 ng 11-OH-THC/mL and<99.9 ng THC-COOH/mL). Two subjects experienced deep anxiety symptoms suggesting that this unwanted side-effect may occur when driving under the influence of cannabis or when driving and smoking a joint. No clear association could be found between these adverse reactions and a susceptibility gene to propensity to anxiety and psychotic symptoms (genetic polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase). The questionnaires have shown that the willingness to drive was lower when the drivers were assigned an insignificant task and was higher when the mission was of crucial importance. The subjects were aware of the effects of cannabis and their performances on the road sign and tracking test were greatly impaired, especially after ingestion of the strongest dose. The Cannabis Influence Factor (CIF) which relies on the molar ratio of active and inactive cannabinoids in blood provided a good estimate of the fitness to drive. PMID:16710114

Giroud, C; Augsburger, M; Favrat, B; Menetrey, A; Pin, M-A; Rothuizen, L-E; Appenzeller, M; Buclin, T; Mathieu, S; Castella, V; Hazekamp, A; Mangin, P

2006-05-01

459

Cannabis dependence and peer selection in social networks of frequent users  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Dutch longitudinal study on the dynamics of cannabis dependence, at baseline 600 frequent cannabis users (? 3 days cannabis use per week in past 12 months) aged 18-30 years were interviewed. Nearly half of all participants (42%) met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence in the 12 months prior to the interview. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling; referrals

N. Liebregts; A. Benschop; Pol van der P; Laar van M; Graaf de R; Brink van den W; D. J. Korf

2011-01-01

460

Synthesis and structureactivity relationships (SARs) of 1,5-diarylpyrazole cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor ligands  

E-print Network

and cognitive effects of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) have been known for centuries. Despite its long history effects. Currently, in the endocannabinoid system, two sub-types of receptor, CB1 and CB2, are rec- ognized as mediating the biological effects arising from exposure to receptor ligands, whether endogenous

Shen, Jun

461

The residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis: the current status of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis must first be separated from evidence regarding (i) the acute effects of the drug, (ii) attributes of heavy cannabis users, and (iii) actual psychiatric disorders caused or exacerbated by cannabis. The remaining evidence must then be subdivided into (a) data supporting a ‘drug residue’ effect during the 12–24 h period immediately after

Harrison G. Pope Jr; Amanda J. Gruber; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

1995-01-01

462

Running head: Lifecourse socioeconomic position and substance use Lifecourse socioeconomic position and tobacco and cannabis use.  

E-print Network

position and tobacco and cannabis use. Lucy Bowes,1 Aude Chollet,1 Eric Fombonne2 , Cédric Galéra3 , Maria and cannabis use among young adults. Methods: Data come from 1,103 participants (mean age 28.9) of the TEMPO and job stability in 2009, with self-reported tobacco and cannabis use in 2009. Results: Compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

2011-01-01

464

Image Set Classification using Multi-Layer Multiple Instance Learning with Application to Cannabis  

E-print Network

Image Set Classification using Multi-Layer Multiple Instance Learning with Application to Cannabis instance learning (MMIL) for image set classification and applying it to the task of cannabis website approach is applied to a cannabis website classification task, in which we collected a dataset containing

Ling, Haibin

465

Early-onset cannabis use and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of the association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individuals who initiate cannabis use at an early age, when the brain is still developing, might be more vulnerable to lasting neuropsychological deficits than individuals who begin use later in life. Methods: We analyzed neuropsychological test results from 122 long-term heavy cannabis users and 87 comparison subjects with minimal cannabis exposure, all of whom had undergone a 28-day period

Harrison G Pope; Amanda J Gruber; James I Hudson; Geoffrey Cohane; Marilyn A Huestis; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2003-01-01

466

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

E-print Network

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among.lestrat@inserm.fr Keywords: alcohol dependence; cannabis; family history; socioeconomic position; young adults; epidemiology), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

467

Diagnostic and Symptomatological Features in Chronic Psychotic Patients According to Cannabis Use Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and the clinical meaning of cannabis use in patients with chronic psychosis has not been systematically explored. The authors have compared the diagnostic and symptomatological characteristics of 111 male patients affected by chronic psychosis with and without past or current use of cannabis. Sixty-six patients were still using or had used cannabis; in all cases the use preceded

Icro Maremmani; Antonio Lazzeri; Matteo Pacini; Mercedes Lovrecic; Gian Franco Placidi; Giulio Perugi

2004-01-01

468

Early cannabis use and DSM-IV nicotine dependence: a twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Evidence suggests that cannabis users are at increased risk for cigarette smoking—if so, this may potentially be the single most alarming public health challenge posed by cannabis use. We examine whether cannabis use prior to age 17 years is associated with an increased likelihood of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to

Arpana Agrawal; Michael T. Lynskey; Michele L. Pergadia; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Andrew C. Heath; Nicholas G. Martin; Pamela A. F. Madden

2008-01-01

469

Motivational Intervention to Reduce Cannabis Use in Young People with Psychosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cannabis use has a negative impact on psychosis. Studies are needed to explore the efficacy of psychological interventions to reduce cannabis use in psychosis. Our aim is to study the efficacy of a specific motivational intervention on young cannabis users suffering from psychosis. Methods: Participants (aged less than 35 years) were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) alone,

Charles Bonsack; Silvia Gibellini Manetti; Jérôme Favrod; Yves Montagrin; Jacques Besson; Pierre Bovet; Philippe Conus

2011-01-01

470

Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

2009-01-01

471

Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

2014-01-01

472

Acute effects of ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory evoked mismatch negativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked mismatch negativity (MMN) have often been found in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient auditory information processing and working memory. Cannabis-induced psychotic states may resemble schizophrenia. Currently, there are discussions focusing on the close relationship between cannabis, the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic system, and the onset of schizophrenic psychosis. This study investigated the effects of cannabis on MMN

Georg Juckel; Patrik Roser; Thomas Nadulski; Andreas M. Stadelmann; Jürgen Gallinat

2007-01-01

473

Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergent evidence suggests a link between cannabis use and psychosis. 1 However, cannabis comprises a combination of cannabinoids and these different constituents may have distinct effects, not all of which are detrimental to mental health. The main component of smoked cannabis is D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC), which is thought to be responsible for the majority of the psychotomimetic effects of the drug:

Celia J. A. Morgan; H. Valerie Curran

2008-01-01

474

Characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Cannabis plants grown in Northern Thailand and its forensic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis

Prapatsorn Tipparat; Surapol Natakankitkul; Pipop Chamnivikaipong; Sirot Chutiwat

475

The Demand for Cocaine and Marijuana by Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the debate over the costs and benefits of legalizing the use of currently illicit drugs has been revived. This paper attempts to inform this debate by providing some evidence on the effects of illicit drug prices and legal sanctions for drug possession and sale on youth drug use. Data on cocaine and marijuana use by high school

Frank J. Chaloupka; Michael Grossman; John A. Tauras

1998-01-01

476

Effects of marijuana on equilibrium, psychomotor performance, and simulated driving.  

PubMed

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is frequently found in the blood of drivers involved in automobile accidents, and marijuana use has been associated with impaired field sobriety test performance. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of marijuana (0, 1.77, or 3.95% THC) on equilibrium and simulated driving. Ten marijuana users (seven men, three women) smoked one marijuana cigarette at the beginning of each session. Then 2 min later, they began a 60-min test battery that included subjective effects scales, a computerized test of body sway, a rapid judgment task and brake latency measurement in a driving simulator, critical flicker fusion (CFF), and a choice reaction time task (CRT). Self-report ratings of 'high' and 'drug potency' increased comparably following both active doses. The high, but not the low, dose significantly increased body sway. The high dose also marginally increased brake latency by a mean of 55 ms (P < 0.10), which is comparable to an increase in stopping distance of nearly 5 feet at 60 mph Judgment, CFF, and CRT scores did not differ across dose conditions. The equilibrium and brake latency data with 3.95% THC are similar to prior results in our laboratory in participants with breath alcohol concentrations near 0.05%. PMID:9862085

Liguori, A; Gatto, C P; Robinson, J H

1998-11-01

477

New Developments in Understanding and Treating Adolescent Marijuana Dependence1  

PubMed Central

Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States and worldwide. Marijuana use is a problem of increasing magnitude among adolescents. Use typically begins in adolescence and is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. Method This article will present an overview of trends in marijuana use, and will review the endocannabinoid system and marijuana. It will discuss recent policy developments in US and their implications, especially for adolescents. Existing treatments will be reviewed, including findings from a recent randomized double-blind trial of N-acetylcysteine, a compound that reverses the dysregulation of the glutamate system that occurs in substance dependence. Conclusions The core treatment approaches include psychosocial interventions, sometimes in combination with each other. While a reduction in days of use is often achieved with most of these approaches, abstinence is a much more elusive goal. The evidence base for effective treatments remains inadequate especially with regard to adolescents, and there is an urgent need for more research in this area. Promising new treatments include N-acetylcysteine in conjunction with contingency management. PMID:25289370

Gray, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

478

Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status  

PubMed Central

Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

2012-01-01

479

Autosomal linkage analysis for cannabis use behaviors in Australian adults.  

PubMed

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in developed and in developing nations. Twin studies have highlighted the role of genetic influences on early stages of cannabis use, such as a lifetime history of use, early-onset use and frequent use, however, we are not aware of any genomic studies that have examined these phenotypes. Using data on 2314 families consisting of 5600 adult Australian offspring and their parents, all of whom were scanned using 1399 unique autosomal markers, we conducted autosomal linkage analyses for lifetime history of cannabis initiation, early-onset cannabis use and frequency of use, using a variance components approach in the linkage package MERLIN. Suggestive evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 18 (LOD 2.14 for frequency of use, LOD 1.97 for initiation, at 90-97 cM) and also on chromosome 19 (LOD 1.92 for early-onset at 17 cM). These LOD scores did not meet genome-wide significance. Further replication of these linkage regions in other samples will be required, although these initial results suggest further targeted efforts on chromosome 18 may yield interesting candidate genes for early stages of cannabis-related behaviors. PMID:18606503

Agrawal, Arpana; Morley, Katherine I; Hansell, Narelle K; Pergadia, Michele L; Montgomery, Grant W; Statham, Dixie J; Todd, Richard D; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Whitfield, John; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

2008-12-01

480

Autosomal Linkage Analysis for Cannabis Use Behaviors in Australian Adults  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in developed and in developing nations. Twin studies have highlighted the role of genetic influences on early stages of cannabis use, such as a lifetime history of use, early-onset use and frequent use, however, we are not aware of any genomic studies that have examined these phenotypes. Using data on 2,314 families consisting of 5,600 adult Australian offspring and their parents, all of whom were scanned using 1,399 unique autosomal markers, we conducted autosomal linkage analyses for lifetime history of cannabis initiation, early-onset cannabis use and frequency of use, using a variance components approach in the linkage package MERLIN. Suggestive evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 18 (LOD 2.14 for frequency of use, LOD 1.97 for initiation, at 90–97 cM) and also on chromosome 19 (LOD 1.92 for early onset at 17 cM). These LOD scores did not meet genomewide significance. Further replication of these linkage regions in other samples will be required, although these initial results suggest further targeted efforts on chromosome 18 may yield interesting candidate genes for early stages of cannabis-related behaviors. PMID:18606503

Agrawal, Arpana; Morley, Katherine I.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Statham, Dixie J.; Todd, Richard D.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Whitfield, John; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2008-01-01

481

Fatty acid relationships in former cannabis users with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in the fatty acid (FA)-based endocannabinoid lipid signaller anandamide, and prevalent cannabis use, have been found to be associated with schizophrenia and may potentially alter stress mechanisms. Other FA-based signallers, however, reportedly enhance anandamide function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between peripherally-measured levels of the FA sources of anandamide and its related signallers. The authors examined erythrocyte FA levels in patients who were former cannabis users ("C-ever") (n=6) or cannabis-naïve ("C-never") (n=6), in relation to symptoms of stress measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS). The results showed that, in former cannabis users only, arachidonic acid (AA, anandamide's precursor) was positively correlated with total 16- and 18-carbon monounsaturated and saturated FAs (16,18m+sFAs), precursors of lipid signallers that enhance or interact with anandamide function. In C-ever, both AA and 16,18m+sFAs correlated inversely with stress, while the 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid, was positively correlated with stress. Although the findings are tentative in this small sample, potential interventions are indicated. Future research may determine whether these FAs are involved in hypothesised links between anandamide abnormalities, cannabis use and stress in schizophrenia. PMID:16236415

Monterrubio, Sharon; Solowij, Nadia; Meyer, Barbara J; Turner, Nigel

2006-03-01

482

Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results  

E-print Network

Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether

Park, Sohee

483

Are adolescents gambling with cannabis use? a longitudinal study of impulsivity measures and adolescent substance use: the TRAILS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined (a) the predictive value of observed versus reported measures of impulsivity on the onset of cannabis use and determined if lifetime tobacco and cannabis users can be differentiated by their level of impulsivity and (b) the predictive value of observed versus reported measures of impulsivity on repeated cannabis use and determined if repeated tobacco and cannabis

A. Prince van Leeuwen; H. E. Creemers; F. C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A. C. Huizink

2011-01-01

484

Are adolescents gambling with cannabis use? A longitudinal study of impulsivity measures and adolescent substance use: the TRAILS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This study examined (a) the predictive value of observed versus reported measures of impulsivity on the onset of cannabis use and determined if lifetime tobacco and cannabis users can be differentiated by their level of impulsivity and (b) the predictive value of observed versus reported measures of impulsivity on repeated cannabis use and determined if repeated tobacco and cannabis

A. Prince van Leeuwen; H. E. Creemers; F. C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A. C. Huizink

2010-01-01