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1

Marijuana (Cannabis) as Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern published literature on the therapeutic potentials of cannabis has been reviewed. A pure preparation of the major active component, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Marinol(r) or dro-nabinol, is available for treating nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and as an adjunct to weight loss in patients with wasting syndrome associated with AIDS. Although such approval currently applies only to orally

Leo E. Hollister

2001-01-01

2

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

PubMed

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23%?±?0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%. PMID:25416268

Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

2015-01-01

3

The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid into THCA, the precursor of Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinol. We cloned a novel cDNA (GenBank trade mark accession number AB057805) encoding THCA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions from rapidly expanding leaves of Cannabis sativa. This gene consists of a 1635-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 545-amino acid polypeptide of which the first 28 amino acid residues constitute the signal peptide. The predicted molecular weight of the 517-amino acid mature polypeptide is 58,597 Da. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high homology to berberine bridge enzyme from Eschscholtzia californica, which is involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. The liquid culture of transgenic tobacco hairy roots harboring the cDNA produced THCA upon feeding of cannabigerolic acid, demonstrating unequivocally that this gene encodes an active THCA synthase. Overexpression of the recombinant THCA synthase was achieved using a baculovirus-insect expression system. The purified recombinant enzyme contained covalently attached FAD cofactor at a molar ratio of FAD to protein of 1:1. The mutant enzyme constructed by changing His-114 of the wild-type enzyme to Ala-114 exhibited neither absorption characteristics of flavoproteins nor THCA synthase activity. Thus, we concluded that the FAD binding residue is His-114 and that the THCA synthase reaction is FAD-dependent. This is the first report on molecular characterization of an enzyme specific to cannabinoid biosynthesis. PMID:15190053

Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Ishikawa, Yu; Wada, Yoshiko; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Taura, Futoshi

2004-09-17

4

Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

Maickel, Roger P.

1973-01-01

5

Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... cognition . Since MS can impair thinking, and previous studies suggest that smoking cannabis also impairs thinking, investigators at the University of Toronto investigated how cannabis use influenced cognition specifically in people ...

6

Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... is marijuana Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant, Cannabis ... to Remember Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant, Cannabis ...

7

Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this secondary metabolite group have been extensively studied and the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway has been partially elucidated. Although, it is

Isvett Josefina Flores Sanchez

2008-01-01

8

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa , is protective in a murine model of colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory.\\u000a Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms\\u000a (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated\\u000a the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic

Francesca Borrelli; Gabriella Aviello; Barbara Romano; Pierangelo Orlando; Raffaele Capasso; Francesco Maiello; Federico Guadagno; Stefania Petrosino; Francesco Capasso; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Angelo A. Izzo

2009-01-01

9

Elicitation studies in cell suspension cultures of Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with biotic and abiotic elicitors to evaluate their effect on secondary metabolism. Metabolic profiles analysed by 1H NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) showed variations in some of the metabolite pools. However, no cannabinoids were found in either control or elicited cannabis cell

Isvett Josefina Flores-Sanchez; Jaroslav Pe?; Junni Fei; Young Hae Choi; Jaroslav Dušek; Robert Verpoorte

2009-01-01

10

Providing Medical Marijuana: The Importance of Cannabis Clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascenain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by panicipant observation techniques. Respondents reponed highly positive health benefits

Harvey W. Feldman; Jerry Mandel

1998-01-01

11

Psychological studies of marijuana and alcohol in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular users of marijuana (cannabis sativa) were given smoked and orally administered marijuana, a placebo, or alcohol. They were unable to distinguish between smoked marijuana and the tetrahydrocannabinol-free placebo. The oral administration of tincture of cannabis produced primarily dysphoric symptoms and was similar to alcohol in this respect. The smoked marijuana altered pulse rate, time estimation, and EEG, but had

Reese T. Jones; George C. Stone

1970-01-01

12

Comparative Proteomics of Cannabis sativa Plant Tissues  

PubMed Central

Comparative proteomics of leaves, flowers, and glands of Cannabis sativa have been used to identify specific tissue-expressed proteins. These tissues have significantly different levels of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids accumulate primarily in the glands but can also be found in flowers and leaves. Proteins extracted from glands, flowers, and leaves were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Over 800 protein spots were reproducibly resolved in the two-dimensional gels from leaves and flowers. The patterns of the gels were different and little correlation among the proteins could be observed. Some proteins that were only expressed in flowers were chosen for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprint database searching. Flower and gland proteomes were also compared, with the finding that less then half of the proteins expressed in flowers were also expressed in glands. Some selected gland protein spots were identified: F1D9.26-unknown prot. (Arabidopsis thaliana), phospholipase D beta 1 isoform 1a (Gossypium hirsutum), and PG1 (Hordeum vulgare). Western blotting was employed to identify a polyketide synthase, an enzyme believed to be involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, resulting in detection of a single protein. PMID:15190082

Raharjo, Tri J.; Widjaja, Ivy; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Verpoorte, Robert

2004-01-01

13

Compulsive showering and marijuana use – the cannabis hyperemisis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Marihuana addiction Symptoms: Compulsive showering • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Toxicology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: The use or misuse of Cannabis is well recognized in the Caribbean region. Recently, the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome has been described. The triad is characterized by chronic marijuana use, cyclical vomiting, and compulsive bathing. With the extensive use to marijuana as a recreational drug and also the increased use as prescription medication, a patient presenting with this symptomatology needs to be assessed appropriately and this syndrome needs to be one of the differential diagnoses. Case Report: To our knowledge, we report the first such case in the Caribbean region. Here, we report on the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with a 3-week history of nausea and week of epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient was known to use marijuana daily for 2 years and had similar complaints for the last 6 months. Conclusions: Because this popular recreational drug is now being used with increased frequency as a prescribed medication, it is crucial that clinicians be aware of this condition, which can present as a diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23997851

Mohammed, Fawwaz; Panchoo, Kirby; Bartholemew, Maria; Maharaj, Dale

2013-01-01

14

Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides  

PubMed Central

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2–C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric ?+? barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity. PMID:22802619

Gagne, Steve J.; Stout, Jake M.; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

15

Marijuana: Current Concepts†  

PubMed Central

Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

2013-01-01

16

Medical Marijuana programs: implications for cannabis control policy--observations from Canada.  

PubMed

While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California--de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments. PMID:25287942

Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin

2015-01-01

17

Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.  

PubMed

The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (? 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

2015-01-01

18

Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of

Thomas J O'Connell; Ché B Bou-Matar

2007-01-01

19

Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants. In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. is the globulin edestin, widely known for its nutritional potential. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C. sativa variety Carmagnola. Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes. All seven sequences showed the characteristic globulin features, but they result to be divergent members/forms of two edestin types. According to their sequence similarity four forms named CsEde1A, CsEde1B, CsEde1C, CsEde1D have been assigned to the edestin type 1 and the three forms CsEde2A, CsEde2B, CsEde2C to the edestin type 2. Analysis of the coding sequences revealed a high percentage of similarity (98-99%) among the different forms belonging to the same type, which decreased significantly to approximately 64% between the forms belonging to different types. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that both edestin types are expressed in developing hemp seeds and the amount of CsEde1 was 4.44 ± 0.10 higher than CsEde2. Both edestin types exhibited a high percentage of arginine (11-12%), but CsEde2 resulted particularly rich in methionine residues (2.36%) respect to CsEde1 (0.82%). The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. PMID:25280223

Docimo, Teresa; Caruso, Immacolata; Ponzoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica; Galasso, Incoronata

2014-11-01

20

Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge  

PubMed Central

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478

Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

2014-01-01

21

Effects of Cannabis sativa and lysergic acid diethylamide on a visual discrimination task in pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four pigeons were trained on a visual discrimination task which required conditional responding along the independent dimensions of form and color. High doses of Cannabis sativa (marihuana) extract and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which were equated on the basis of their effectiveness in suppressing responding, increased responding on a color dimension but not on a form dimension. High doses of

Ronald K. Siegel

1969-01-01

22

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

2010-10-01

23

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580

2010-01-01

24

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (IV): cannabinoid-free plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic factor that blocks the cannabinoid biosynthesis in Cannabis\\u000a sativa has been investigated. Crosses between cannabinoid-free material and high content, pharmaceutical clones were performed.\\u000a F1s were uniform and had cannabinoid contents much lower than the mean parental value. Inbred F2 progenies segregated into discrete groups: a cannabinoid-free chemotype, a chemotype with relatively low cannabinoid content\\u000a and one with relatively

E. P. M. de Meijer; K. M. Hammond; A. Sutton

2009-01-01

25

Marijuana, absinthe and the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE are striking similarities between the psychological actions of the liqueur absinthe1 and the experiences frequently reported by users of marijuana2. We have therefore compared the properties of thujone and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are believed to be the active principles of Artemisia absinthium and Cannabis sativa, respectively. Both substances are terpenoid, derived from the essential oils absinthol and cannabinol, and

J. Del Castillo; M. Anderson; G. M. RUBOTTOM

1975-01-01

26

Metabolic analysis of elicited cell suspension cultures of Cannabis sativa L. by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and\\u000a pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data\\u000a analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the chloroform\\u000a extract of the pectin-treated cultures

Jaroslav Pe?; Isvett Josefina Flores-Sanchez; Young Hae Choi; Robert Verpoorte

2010-01-01

27

Larval susceptibility of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa against Culex quinquefasciatus, the filariasis vector.  

PubMed

Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride and methanol extracts of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa has been investigated against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts examined, Carbon tetrachloride extract (Cte) of Aloe barbadensis was the most effective with LC50 values of 15.31 and 11.01 ppm after 24 and 48 hr of exposure, respectively followed by pertoleum ether extract (Pee) of A barbadensis, Cte of C. sativa, methanol extract (Mee) of A. barbadensis, methanol and petroleum ether of C. saliva, LC, being 25.97, 88.51, 144.44, 160.78 and 294.42 ppm affer 24hr and 16.60, 68.69, 108.38, 71.71 and 73.32 ppm after 48 hr of post treatment, respectively. Cte of both the plants exhibits potential larvicidal activity and can be used as ecofriendly alternative in the management of the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. PMID:19297997

Maurya, Prejwltta; Mohan, Lalit; Sharma, Preeti; Srivastava, C N

2008-11-01

28

Marijuana.  

PubMed

Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown. PMID:25022187

Ammerman, Seth

2014-04-01

29

Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain , (January 2013) Related Publications Marijuana (Research Reports) Published October 2002 . Revised April 2015 . Explores the latest ... day activities, available treatments. En Español Marijuana (DrugFacts) Published December 2012 . Revised January 2014 . Offers facts about ...

30

Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre content. The effects of all combinations of three sowing densities and three harvest times were studied for

W. Westerhuis; S. Amaducci; P. C. Struik; A. Zatta; Dam van J. E. G; T. J. Stomph

2009-01-01

31

Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of the Dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY Chromosome Sex Determination System  

PubMed Central

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution. PMID:24465491

Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Razumova, Olga V.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2014-01-01

32

Legalizing Cannabis: A physician's primer on the pulmonary effects of marijuana.  

PubMed

Habitual smoking of marijuana is associated with multiple respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and wheezing .These symptoms are not significantly different from those exhibited by tobacco smokers. Furthermore, endobronchial biopsies of habitual smokers of marijuana and /or tobacco have shown that both marijuana and cigarette smoking cause significant bronchial mucosal histopathology and that these effects are additive. Although marijuana smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothoraces. The relationship between marijuana smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. These findings should warn individuals that marijuana smoking may result in serious short-term and long-term respiratory complications, and habitual marijuana use should be viewed with caution. The medical literature so far does not support routine evaluation by pulmonary function tests or imaging studies; until more definitive data is available, we do not recommend the regular use of these tests in the evaluation of habitual marijuana smokers. PMID:25401045

Lutchmansingh, Denyse; Pawar, Leena; Savici, Dana

2014-01-01

33

Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO2.  

PubMed

The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high ?(9)-THC yielding varieties of Cannabis sativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 ?mol mol(-1)) significantly (p?Cannabis sativa, primarily because of decreased stomatal conductance and subsequently the transpiration rate, may enable this species to survive under expected harsh greenhouse effects including elevated CO2 concentration and drought conditions. The higher P N, WUE and nearly constant C i/C a ratio under elevated CO2 concentrations in this species reflect a close coordination between its stomatal and mesophyll functions. PMID:23573021

Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

2011-07-01

34

Temperature response of photosynthesis in different drug and fiber varieties of Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

The temperature response on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of three medicinal drug type (HP Mexican, MX and W1) and four industrial fiber type (Felinq 34, Kompolty, Zolo 11 and Zolo 15) varieties of Cannabis sativa, originally from different agro-climatic zones worldwide, were studied. Among the drug type varieties, optimum temperature for photosynthesis (Topt) was observed in the range of 30-35 °C in high potency Mexican HPM whereas, it was in the range of 25-30 °C in W1. A comparatively lower value (25 °C) for Topt was observed in MX. Among fiber type varieties, Topt was around 30 °C in Zolo 11 and Zolo 15 whereas, it was near 25 °C in Felinq 34 and Kompolty. Varieties having higher maximum photosynthesis (PN max) had higher chlorophyll content as compared to those having lower PN max. Differences in water use efficiency (WUE) were also observed within and among the drug and fiber type plants. However, differences became less pronounced at higher temperatures. Both stomatal and mesophyll components seem to be responsible for the temperature dependence of photosynthesis (PN) in this species, however, their magnitude varied with the variety. In general, a two fold increase in dark respiration with increase in temperature (from 20 °C to 40 °C) was observed in all the varieties. However, a greater increase was associated with the variety having higher rate of photosynthesis, indicating a strong association between photosynthetic and respiratory rates. The results provide a valuable indication regarding variations in temperature dependence of PN in different varieties of Cannabis sativa L. PMID:23573022

Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

2011-07-01

35

A survey of cannabis (marijuana) use and self-reported benefit in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pelvic pain condition largely refractory to treatment. Cannabis (marijuana) use has been reported for a wide variety of chronic pain conditions, but no study has examined prevalence of cannabis use, symptom benefit or side effects, or frequency in CP/CPPS. Methods: Participants were recruited from an outpatient CP/CPPS urology clinic (n = 98) and online through the Prostatitis Foundation website (n = 244). Participants completed questionnaires (demographics, CP/CPPS, depression, cannabis). Results: The clinic sample included Canadian patients and the online sample included primarily American patients. Due to differences, groups were examined separately. Almost 50% of respondents reported using cannabis (clinic n = 49; online n = 89). Of the cannabis users, 36.8% of clinic and 75% of online respondents reported that it improved their symptoms. Most of the respondents (from the clinic and online groups) reported that cannabis improved their mood, pain, muscle spasms, and sleep. However, they did not note any improvements for weakness, fatigue, numbness, ambulation, and urination. Overall, the effectiveness of cannabis for CP/CPPS was “somewhat/very effective” (57% clinic; 63% online). There were no differences between side effects or choice of consumption and most reported using cannabis rarely. Conclusions: These are the first estimates in men suffering from CP/CPPS and suggest that while cannabis use is prevalent, its medical use and benefit are unknown. This is an understudied area and the benefit or hazard for cannabis use awaits further study. PMID:25553163

Tripp, Dean A.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Katz, Laura; Krsmanovic, Adrijana; Ware, Mark A.; Santor, Darcy

2014-01-01

36

Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol.  

PubMed

Pain, spasticity, tremor, spasms, poor sleep quality, and bladder and bowel dysfunction, among other symptoms, contribute significantly to the disability and impaired quality of life of many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Motor symptoms referable to the basal ganglia, especially paroxysmal dystonia, occur rarely and contribute to the experience of distress. A substantial percentage of patients with MS report subjective benefit from what is often illicit abuse of extracts of the Cannabis sativa plant; the main cannabinoids include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and cannabidiol. Clinical trials of cannabis plant extracts and synthetic delta9-THC provide support for therapeutic benefit on at least some patient self-report measures. An illustrative case is presented of a 52-year-old woman with MS, paroxysmal dystonia, complex vocal tics, and marijuana dependence. The patient was started on an empirical trial of dronabinol, an encapsulated form of synthetic delta9-THC that is usually prescribed as an adjunctive medication for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. The patient reported a dramatic reduction of craving and illicit use; she did not experience the "high" on the prescribed medication. She also reported an improvement in the quality of her sleep with diminished awakenings during the night, decreased vocalizations, and the tension associated with their emission, decreased anxiety and a decreased frequency of paroxysmal dystonia. PMID:18496477

Deutsch, Stephen I; Rosse, Richard B; Connor, Julie M; Burket, Jessica A; Murphy, Mary E; Fox, Fiona J

2008-05-01

37

Diversity Analysis in Cannabis sativa Based on Large-Scale Development of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers  

PubMed Central

Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fiber, oils, and intoxicants. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Based on the cannabis transcriptome, 4,577 SSRs were identified from 3,624 ESTs. From there, a total of 3,442 complementary primer pairs were designed as SSR markers. Among these markers, trinucleotide repeat motifs (50.99%) were the most abundant, followed by hexanucleotide (25.13%), dinucleotide (16.34%), tetranucloetide (3.8%), and pentanucleotide (3.74%) repeat motifs, respectively. The AAG/CTT trinucleotide repeat (17.96%) was the most abundant motif detected in the SSRs. One hundred and seventeen EST-SSR markers were randomly selected to evaluate primer quality in 24 cannabis varieties. Among these 117 markers, 108 (92.31%) were successfully amplified and 87 (74.36%) were polymorphic. Forty-five polymorphic primer pairs were selected to evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness among the 115 cannabis genotypes. The results showed that 115 varieties could be divided into 4 groups primarily based on geography: Northern China, Europe, Central China, and Southern China. Moreover, the coefficient of similarity when comparing cannabis from Northern China with the European group cannabis was higher than that when comparing with cannabis from the other two groups, owing to a similar climate. This study outlines the first large-scale development of SSR markers for cannabis. These data may serve as a foundation for the development of genetic linkage, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of cannabis. PMID:25329551

Cheng, Chaohua; Tang, Qing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Changbiao; Zang, Gonggu; Zhao, Lining

2014-01-01

38

Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites  

PubMed Central

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data. PMID:23812081

Docimo, Teresa; Consonni, Roberto; Coraggio, Immacolata; Mattana, Monica

2013-01-01

39

Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana  

PubMed Central

For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone, dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse. PMID:22305029

Bostwick, J. Michael

2012-01-01

40

Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana.  

PubMed

For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone, dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse. PMID:22305029

Bostwick, J Michael

2012-02-01

41

Identity Formation, Marijuana and "The Self": A Study of Cannabis Normalization among University Students.  

PubMed

Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people's understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using "pot" was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman's contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood. PMID:24348431

Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D

2013-01-01

42

Identity Formation, Marijuana and “The Self”: A Study of Cannabis Normalization among University Students  

PubMed Central

Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people’s understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using “pot” was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman’s contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood. PMID:24348431

Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

43

Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants. PMID:25338935

Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Omar, Jone; Navarro, Patricia; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

2014-11-01

44

Pharmacological evaluation of the natural constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene and its modulation by ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.  

PubMed

In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined CBC, THC, and combination of both phytocannabinoids in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paw edema assay. CBC elicited activity in the tetrad that was not blocked by the CB(1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Moreover, a behaviorally inactive dose of THC augmented the effects of CBC in the tetrad that was associated with an increase in THC brain concentrations. Both CBC and THC elicited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in the LPS-induced paw edema model. The CB(2) receptor, SR144528 blocked the anti-edematous actions of THC, but not those produced by CBC. Isobolographic analysis revealed that the anti-edematous effects of these cannabinoids in combination were additive. Although CBC produced pharmacological effects, unlike THC, its underlying mechanism of action did not involve CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. In addition, there was evidence of a possible pharmacokinetic component in which CBC dose-dependently increased THC brain levels following an i.v. injection of 0.3mg/kg THC. In conclusion, CBC produced a subset of behavioral activity in the tetrad assay and reduced LPS-induced paw edema through a noncannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. These effects were augmented when CBC and THC were co-administered. PMID:20619971

DeLong, Gerald T; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H

2010-11-01

45

Pharmacological Evaluation of the Natural Constituent of Cannabis Sativa, Cannabichromene and its Modulation by ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol*  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined CBC, THC, and combination of both phytocannabinoids in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paw edema assay. CBC elicited activity in the tetrad that was not blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Moreover, a behaviorally inactive dose of THC augmented the effects of CBC in the tetrad that was associated with an increase in THC brain concentrations. Both CBC and THC elicited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in the LPS-induced paw edema model. The CB2 receptor, SR144528 blocked the anti-edematous actions of THC, but not those produced by CBC. Isobolographic analysis revealed that the anti-edematous effects of these cannabinoids in combination were additive. Although CBC produced pharmacological effects, unlike THC, its underlying mechanism of action did not involve CB1 or CB2 receptors. In addition, there was evidence of a possible pharmacokinetic component in which CBC dose-dependently increased THC brain levels following an i.v. injection of 0.3 mg/kg THC. In conclusion, CBC produced a subset of behavioral activity in the tetrad assay and reduced LPS-induced paw edema through a noncannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. These effects were augmented when CBC and THC were co-administered. PMID:20619971

DeLong, Gerald T.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H.

2010-01-01

46

Marijuana poisoning.  

PubMed

The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

2013-02-01

47

Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones and its potential functional effects have been largely neglected. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via the activation of type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals an unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor over-activation that could open an unforeseen novel approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. PMID:24385629

Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L.; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P.; Lynch, Diane L.; Shore, Derek M.; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H.; Ross, Ruth A.; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

2014-01-01

48

Striatal D2/D3 Receptor Availability is Inversely Correlated with Cannabis Consumption in Chronic Marijuana Users  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although the incidence of cannabis abuse/dependence in Americans is rising, the neurobiology of cannabis addiction is not well understood. Imaging studies have demonstrated deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in several substance-dependent populations. However, this has not been studied in currently-using chronic cannabis users. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare striatal D2/D3 receptor availability between currently-using chronic cannabis users and healthy controls. METHODS Eighteen right-handed males age 18–34 were studied. Ten subjects were chronic cannabis users; eight were demographically matched controls. Subjects underwent a [11C] raclopride (RAC) PET scan. Striatal RAC binding potential (BPND) was calculated on a voxel-wise basis. Prior to scanning, urine samples were obtained from cannabis users for quantification of urine ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC metabolites (11-nor-?-9-THC-9-carboxylic acid; THC-COOH and 11-hydroxy-THC;OH-THC). Results There were no differences in D2/D3 receptor availability between cannabis users and controls. Voxel-wise analyses revealed that RAC BPND values were negatively associated with both urine levels of cannabis metabolites and self-report of recent cannabis consumption. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, current cannabis use was not associated with deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. There was an inverse relationship between chronic cannabis use and striatal RAC BPND. Additional studies are needed to identify the neurochemical consequences of chronic cannabis use on the dopamine system. PMID:22909787

Albrecht, Daniel S.; Skosnik, Patrick D.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; Brumbaugh, Margaret S.; Perry, Kevin M.; Mock, Bruce H.; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Federici, Lauren A.; Patton, Elizabeth A.; Herring, Christine M.; Yoder, Karmen K.

2012-01-01

49

Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?  

PubMed

The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues. Recently, great attention has been directed to the medical properties of phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant alongside the main constituent ??-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: schizophrenics show a higher use of marijuana as compared to the healthy population. Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. PMID:23109356

Deiana, Serena

2013-01-01

50

Potential dangers of cannabis.  

PubMed

Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society. PMID:1181294

Kaymakçalan, S

1975-01-01

51

Structure and function of ?1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, the enzyme controlling the psychoactivity of Cannabis sativa.  

PubMed

?1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) into THCA, the precursor of the primary psychoactive agent ?1-tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa. The enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified, and crystallized in order to investigate the structure-function relationship of THCA synthase, and the tertiary structure was determined to 2.75Å resolution by X-ray crystallography (R(cryst)=19.9%). The THCA synthase enzyme is a member of the p-cresol methyl-hydroxylase superfamily, and the tertiary structure is divided into two domains (domains I and II), with a flavin adenine dinucleotide coenzyme positioned between each domain and covalently bound to His114 and Cys176 (located in domain I). The catalysis of THCA synthesis involves a hydride transfer from C3 of CBGA to N5 of flavin adenine dinucleotide and the deprotonation of O6' of CBGA. The ionized residues in the active site of THCA synthase were investigated by mutational analysis and X-ray structure. Mutational analysis indicates that the reaction does not involve the carboxyl group of Glu442 that was identified as the catalytic base in the related berberine bridge enzyme but instead involves the hydroxyl group of Tyr484. Mutations at the active-site residues His292 and Tyr417 resulted in a decrease in, but not elimination of, the enzymatic activity of THCA synthase, suggesting a key role for these residues in substrate binding and not direct catalysis. PMID:22766313

Shoyama, Yoshinari; Tamada, Taro; Kurihara, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Ayako; Taura, Futoshi; Arai, Shigeki; Blaber, Michael; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi; Kuroki, Ryota

2012-10-12

52

Analysis of the genetic diversity of Chinese native Cannabis sativa cultivars by using ISSR and chromosome markers.  

PubMed

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an important fiber crop, and native cultivars exist widely throughout China. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 27 important Chinese native hemp cultivars, by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and chromosome markers. We determined the following chromosome formulas: 2n = 20 = 14m + 6sm; 2n = 20 = 20m; 2n = 20 = 18m + 2sm; 2n = 20 = 16m + 4sm; and 2n = 20 = 12m + 8sm. The results of our ISSR analysis revealed the genetic relationships among the 27 cultivars; these relationships were analyzed by using the unweighted pair-group method based on DNA polymorphism. Our results revealed that all of the native cultivars showed considerable genetic diversity. At a genetic distance of 0.324, the 27 varieties could be classified into five categories; this grouping corresponded well with the chromosome formulas. All of the investigated hemp cultivars represent relatively primitive types; moreover, the genetic distances show a geographical distribution, with a small amount of regional hybridity. PMID:25511032

Zhang, L G; Chang, Y; Zhang, X F; Guan, F Z; Yuan, H M; Yu, Y; Zhao, L J

2014-01-01

53

In situ analysis of cell wall polymers associated with phloem fibre cells in stems of hemp, Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

A study of stem anatomy and the sclerenchyma fibre cells associated with the phloem tissues of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants is of interest for both understanding the formation of secondary cell walls and for the enhancement of fibre utility as industrial fibres and textiles. Using a range of molecular probes for cell wall polysaccharides we have surveyed the presence of cell wall components in stems of hemp in conjunction with an anatomical survey of stem and phloem fibre development. The only polysaccharide detected to occur abundantly throughout the secondary cell walls of phloem fibres was cellulose. Pectic homogalacturonan epitopes were detected in the primary cell walls/intercellular matrices between the phloem fibres although these epitopes were present at a lower level than in the surrounding parenchyma cell walls. Arabinogalactan-protein glycan epitopes displayed a diversity of occurrence in relation to fibre development and the JIM14 epitope was specific to fibre cells, binding to the inner surface of secondary cell walls, throughout development. Xylan epitopes were found to be present in the fibre cells (and xylem secondary cell walls) and absent from adjacent parenchyma cell walls. Analysis of xylan occurrence in the phloem fibre cells of hemp and flax indicated that xylan epitopes were restricted to the primary cell walls of fibre cells and were not present in the secondary cell walls of these cells. PMID:18299887

Blake, Anthony W; Marcus, Susan E; Copeland, James E; Blackburn, Richard S; Knox, J Paul

2008-06-01

54

The case for medical marijuana in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Charlotte, a little girl with SCN1A-confirmed Dravet syndrome, was recently featured in a special that aired on CNN. Through exhaustive personal research and assistance from a Colorado-based medical marijuana group (Realm of Caring), Charlotte's mother started adjunctive therapy with a high concentration cannabidiol/?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD:THC) strain of cannabis, now known as Charlotte's Web. This extract, slowly titrated over weeks and given in conjunction with her existing antiepileptic drug regimen, reduced Charlotte's seizure frequency from nearly 50 convulsive seizures per day to now 2-3 nocturnal convulsions per month. This effect has persisted for the last 20 months, and Charlotte has been successfully weaned from her other antiepileptic drugs. We briefly review some of the history, preclinical and clinical data, and controversies surrounding the use of medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy, and make a case that the desire to isolate and treat with pharmaceutical grade compounds from cannabis (specifically CBD) may be inferior to therapy with whole plant extracts. Much more needs to be learned about the mechanisms of antiepileptic activity of the phytocannabinoids and other constituents of Cannabis sativa. PMID:24854149

Maa, Edward; Figi, Paige

2014-06-01

55

Secretory vesicle formation in the secretory cavity of glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae).  

PubMed

The disc cell wall facing the secretory cavity in lipophilic glands of Cannabis was studied for origin and distribution of hyaline areas, secretory vesicles, fibrillar matrix and particulate material. Secretions evident as light areas in the disc cell cytoplasm pass through modified regions in the plasma membrane and appear as hyaline areas in the cell wall. Hyaline areas, surrounded with a filamentous outline, accumulate near the wall surface facing the secretory cavity where they fuse to form enlarged hyaline areas. Fibrillar matrix is related to and may originate from the dense outer layer of the plasma membrane. This matrix becomes distributed throughout the wall material and contributes in part to the composition of the surface feature of secretory vesicles. Thickening of the cell wall is associated with secretions from the disc cells that facilitates movement of hyaline areas, fibrillar matrix and other possible secretions through the wall to form secretory vesicles and intervesicular materials in the secretory cavity. The outer wall of disc cells in aggregate forms the basilar wall surface of the secretory cavity which facilitates the organization of secretory vesicles that fill the secretory cavity. PMID:12872998

Kim, Eun Soo; Mahlberg, Paul G

2003-06-30

56

A Review of Marijuana Assessment Dilemmas: Time for Marijuana Specific Screening Methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how multiple cultural and clinical factors regarding marijuana complicate accurate clinical recognition, assessment and diagnosis of cannabis use disorders. These factors include: Widespread use of marijuana; culturally confusing messages about marijuana's acceptability or harmfulness; social policy debates over legalization and decriminalization; scientific debates about marijuana's risks or medical benefits; DSM-IV-TR assessment criterion shortcomings; and the inadequacy of

Dale Alexander

2003-01-01

57

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as a Resource for Green Cosmetics: Yield of Seed and Fatty Acid Compositions of 20 Varieties Under the Growing Conditions of Organic Farming in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in hemp (non-drug Cannabis sativa L.) for skin care and cosmetic use is due to the high content of oil, especially un- saturated fatty acids in seed with technological and therapeutic effects. In a field trial on an organic farm, seed weight and content of fatty acids

Christian R. Vogl; Helga Mölleken; Gunilla Lissek-Wolf; Andreas Surböck; Jörg Kobert

58

Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds  

PubMed Central

Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed), K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1) and K (232–257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, zinc and iron. PMID:23088580

2012-01-01

59

Economics of Cannabis Legalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Marijuana,legalization,offers an important,advantage,over,decriminalization in that it allows for legal distribution and taxation of cannabis. In the absence of taxation, the free market price of legal marijuana would beextremely low, on the order of five to ten cents per joint. In terms of intoxicating potential, a joint is equivalent to at least $1 or $2 worth of alcohol, the price

Dale Gieringer

60

Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

2014-02-01

61

The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates

Margaret Haney

2005-01-01

62

Rapid isolation procedure for ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) from Cannabis sativa using two flash chromatography systems.  

PubMed

Two isolation procedures for ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), the biogenetic precursor in the biosynthesis of the psychoactive ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant, are presented. Two flash chromatography systems that can be used independently from each other were developed to separate THCA from other compounds of a crude cannabis extract. In both systems UV absorption at 209 and 270 nm was monitored. Purity was finally determined by HPLC-DAD, NMR and GC-MS analysis with a focus on the impurity THC. System 1 consisted of a normal phase silica column (120 g) as well as cyclohexane and acetone--both spiked with the modifier pyridine--as mobile phases. Gradient elution was performed over 15 min. After the chromatographic run the fractions containing THCA fractions were pooled, extracted with hydrochloric acid to eliminate pyridine and evaporated to dryness. Loading 1800 mg cannabis extract yielded 623 mg THCA with a purity of 99.8% and a THC concentration of 0.09%. System 2 was based on a reversed-phase C18 column (150 g) combined with 0.55% formic acid and methanol as mobile phases. A very flat gradient was set over 20 minutes. After pooling the THCA-containing fractions methanol was removed in a rotary evaporator. THCA was re-extracted from the remaining aqueous phase with methyl tert-butyl ether. The organic phase was finally evaporated under high vacuum conditions. Loading 300 mg cannabis extract yielded 51 mg THCA with a purity of 98.8% and a THC concentration of 0.67%. PMID:21944900

Wohlfarth, Ariane; Mahler, Hellmut; Auwärter, Volker

2011-10-15

63

Secondary metabolism in cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual dioecious plant from Central Asia. Cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans\\u000a are some of the secondary metabolites present in C. sativa. Earlier reviews were focused on isolation and identification of more than 480 chemical compounds; this review deals with\\u000a the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites present in this plant. Cannabinoid biosynthesis and some

Isvett Josefina Flores-Sanchez; Robert Verpoorte

2008-01-01

64

Impacts of Surface Water Diversions for Marijuana Cultivation on Aquatic Habitat in Four Northwestern California Watersheds  

PubMed Central

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state-and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

2015-01-01

65

Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern california watersheds.  

PubMed

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state-and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

2015-01-01

66

From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.  

PubMed

The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life. PMID:23909002

Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

2013-01-01

67

General and oral health implications of cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis:

CM Cho; R. Hirsch; S. Johnstone

2005-01-01

68

A PCR marker linked to a THCA synthase polymorphism is a reliable tool to discriminate potentially THC-rich plants of Cannabis sativa L.  

PubMed

Neither absolute THC content nor morphology allows the unequivocal discrimination of fiber cultivars and drug strains of Cannabis sativa L. unequivocally. However, the CBD/THC ratio remains constant throughout the plant's life cycle, is independent of environmental factors, and considered to be controlled by a single locus (B) with two codominant alleles (B(T) and B(D)). The homozygous B(T)/B(T) genotype underlies the THC-predominant phenotype, B(D)/B(D) is CBD predominant, and an intermediate phenotype is induced by the heterozygous state (B(T)/B(D)). Using PCR-based markers in two segregating populations, we proved that the THCA synthase gene represents the postulated B locus and that specific sequence polymorphisms are absolutely linked either to the THC-predominant or the THC-intermediate chemotype. The absolute linkage provides an excellent reliability of the marker signal in forensic casework. For validation, the species-specific marker system was applied to a large number of casework samples and fiber hemp cultivars. PMID:24579739

Staginnus, Christina; Zörntlein, Siegfried; de Meijer, Etienne

2014-07-01

69

Dutch Measures to Control Medical Grade Marijuana: Facilitating Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging interest in the clinical use of cannabis (marijuana), but there is almost no evidence of its efficacy. The Dutch government has a policy that aims at collecting clinical data to determine whether cannabis can be used as a medicine. An Office of Medicinal Cannabis was established in March 2000. This office will act as a regulator

Willem K. Scholten

2001-01-01

70

Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?  

PubMed

As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana. PMID:23656852

Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

2013-04-01

71

Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders 1 Presented in part at the National Marijuana Conference of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, D.C., on 20 July 1995. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of cannabis use is rising among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. However, clinicians who treat adolescent substance users hear frequent reports of serious cannabis-use disorders and problems. This study asked whether cannabis produced dependence and withdrawal among such patients, and whether patients' reports supported previous laboratory findings of reinforcing effects from cannabis. This was

Thomas J Crowley; Marilyn J Macdonald; Elizabeth A Whitmore; Susan K Mikulich

1998-01-01

72

Facts on Marijuana. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…

Brick, John

73

Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases

Ronald Swartz

2010-01-01

74

Cannabis and psychosis: Neurobiology  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a ‘cause-effect’ relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the ‘transition-to-psychosis’ due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553

Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

2014-01-01

75

Medical marijuana: the conflict between scientific evidence and political ideology. Part one of two.  

PubMed

Whether "medical marijuana" (Cannabis sativa used to treat a wide variety of pathologic states) should be accorded the status of a legitimate pharmaceutical agent has long been a contentious issue. Is it a truly effective drug that is arbitrarily stigmatized by many and criminalized by the federal government? Or is it without any medical utility, its advocates hiding behind a screen of misplaced (or deliberately misleading) compassion for the ill? Should Congress repeal its declaration that smoked marijuana is without "current medical benefit"? Should cannabis be approved for medical use by a vote of the people as already has been done in 13 states? Or should medical marijuana be scientifically evaluated for safety and efficacy as any other new investigational drug? How do the competing--and sometimes antagonistic--roles of science, politics and prejudice affect society's attempts to answer this question? This article examines the legal, political, policy, and ethical problems raised by the recognition of medical marijuana by over one-fourth of our states although its use remains illegal under federal law. Although draconian punishment can be imposed for the "recreational" use of marijuana, I will not address the contentious question of whether to legalize or decriminalize the use of marijuana solely for its psychotropic effects, a fascinating and important area of law and policy that is outside the scope of this paper. Instead, the specific focus of this article will be on the conflict between the development of policies based on evidence obtained through the use of scientific methods and those grounded on ideological and political considerations that have repeatedly entered the longstanding debate regarding the legal status of medical marijuana. I will address a basic question: Should the approval of medical marijuana be governed by the same statute that applies to all other drugs or pharmaceutical agents, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), after the appropriate regulatory agency, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has evaluated its safety and efficacy? If not, should medical marijuana be exempted from scientific review and, instead, be evaluated by the Congress, state legislatures, or popular vote? I will argue that advocacy is a poor substitute for dispassionate analysis, and that popular votes should not be allowed to trump scientific evidence in deciding whether or not marijuana is an appropriate pharmaceutical agent to use in modern medical practice. PMID:19296351

Cohen, Peter J

2009-01-01

76

The Future of Medical Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe medical value of marijuana is becoming increasingly clear, as it proves to be a remarkably versatile, safe, and inexpensive drug. Arrangements now being proposed for making cannabis constituents medically available include quasi-legal buyers clubs, restrictive classification as a prescription drug, the isolation of individual cannabinoids, and the manufacture of synthetic analogs. Careful analysis potentially of this inexpensive drug shows

L. Grinspoon

1999-01-01

77

Self-Reported Marijuana Effects and Characteristics of 100 San Francisco Medical Marijuana Club Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other

Debra Harris; Reese T. Jones; Robin Shank; Rajneesh Nath; Emilio Fernandez; Kenneth Goldstein; John Mendelson

2000-01-01

78

IBD patients find symptom relief in the Cannabis field  

PubMed Central

Cannabis (or marijuana) has been used in traditional medicine to treat intestinal inflammation and is used as a self-medication by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A survey by Ravikoff Allegretti et al. 1 at a specialized IBD clinic shows that, in the US, marijuana is used by a significant number of patients with IBD to alleviate their symptoms. PMID:24366227

Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

2014-01-01

79

Medical and Health Consequences of Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug in the world today. Some 146 million people, or 3.7% of the population\\u000a 15–64 years of age, consumed Cannabis in 2001–2003 (1). In the United States, 95 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once. In 2002, an estimated\\u000a 15 million Americans had used the drug in

Jag H. Khalsa

80

Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey  

PubMed Central

Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis (“marijuana”) has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0–10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai‘i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription. PMID:24765558

Webb, Sandra M

2014-01-01

81

Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.  

PubMed

Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription. PMID:24765558

Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

2014-04-01

82

Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Immune Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cannabis has been used as a drug for thousands of years, but marijuana smoking has become prevalent in Western society only during\\u000a the last 40 years (1,2). An annual survey conducted in the United States from 1975 to 2002 documented that marijuana is now the second most commonly\\u000a smoked substance after tobacco (1,2). Marijuana smoke, like tobacco smoke, is generated

Donald P. Tashkin; Michael D. Roth

83

The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States.  

PubMed

In the last 15 years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis' and cannabinoids' current and potential roles in cancer care. Specifically, we will examine five areas of cannabis medicine: (1) pharmacologic properties of cannabis; (2) its potential role in the development of human cancers, particularly smoking-related malignancies; (3) cannabinoids' potential as anti-cancer therapies; (4) cannabis and cannabinoids in the palliation of common cancer-associated symptoms; (5) current legal status of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. PMID:22019199

Bowles, Daniel W; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Camidge, D Ross; Jimeno, Antonio

2012-07-01

84

Multidimensional Family Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project Cooperative Agreement was to test the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a variety of interventions designed to eliminate marijuana use and associated problems in…

Liddle, Howard A.

85

Cognitive Function as an Emerging Treatment Target for Marijuana Addiction  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabis are associated with dose-related cognitive impairments, most consistently in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and memory functions. These impairments are not completely reversible upon cessation of marijuana use and moreover may interfere with the treatment of marijuana addiction. Therefore, targeting cognitive impairment associated with chronic marijuana use may be a promising novel strategy for the treatment of marijuana addiction. Preclinical studies suggest that medications enhancing the cholinergic transmission may attenuate cannabis-induced cognitive impairments, but these cognitive enhancing medications have not been examined in controlled human studies. Preliminary evidence from individuals addicted to other drugs suggests that computerized cognitive rehabilitation may also have utility to improve cognitive function in marijuana users. Future clinical studies optimally designed to measure cognitive function as well as drug use behavior would be needed to test the efficacy of these treatments for marijuana addiction. PMID:20384422

Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

2010-01-01

86

Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence  

PubMed Central

Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

2011-01-01

87

Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.  

PubMed

The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R(2) = 0.7511) and leaves (R(2) = 0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R(2) = 0.8439) and root (R(2) = 0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction. PMID:25174425

Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

2015-01-01

88

Intermediate cannabis dependence phenotypes and the FAAH C385A variant: an exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Cannabis dependence is a growing problem among individuals who use marijuana frequently, and genetic differences make some\\u000a users more liable to progress to dependence. The identification of intermediate phenotypes of cannabis dependence may aid\\u000a candidate genetic analysis. Promising intermediate phenotypes include craving for marijuana, withdrawal symptoms after abstinence,\\u000a and sensitivity to its acute effects. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in

Joseph P. Schacht; Rebecca E. Selling; Kent E. Hutchison

2009-01-01

89

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). We suggest herein that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes based on the following observations. (i) The exclusive expression of THCA synthase was confirmed in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. (ii) THCA synthase activity was detected in the storage cavity content. (iii) Transgenic tobacco expressing THCA synthase fused to green fluorescent protein showed fluorescence in the trichome head corresponding to the storage cavity. These results also showed that secretory cells of the glandular trichomes secrete not only metabolites but also biosynthetic enzyme. PMID:16024552

Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Ishikawa, Yu; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

2005-09-01

90

General and oral health implications of cannabis use.  

PubMed

Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history. PMID:16050084

Cho, C M; Hirsch, R; Johnstone, S

2005-06-01

91

The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.  

PubMed

Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use. PMID:23386598

Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

2013-02-01

92

Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT), Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM). METHODS: A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO

Daniela Piontek; Ludwig Kraus; Danica Klempova

2008-01-01

93

Therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

This paper aims to evaluate the anti-emetic efficacy of cannabinoids in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy using a systematic review of literature searched within electronic databases such as PUBMED, EMBASE, PSYCINFO, LILACS, and 'The Cochrane Collaboration Controlled Trials Register'. Studies chosen were randomized clinical trials comprising all publications of each database until December 2006. From 12 749 initially identified papers, 30 fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review, with demonstration of superiority of the anti-emetic efficacy of cannabinoids compared with conventional drugs and placebo. The adverse effects were more intense and occurred more often among patients who used cannabinoids. Five meta-analyses were carried out: (1) dronabinol versus placebo [n=185; relative risk (RR)=0.47; confidence interval (CI)=0.19-1.16]; (2) Dronabinol versus neuroleptics [n=325; RR=0.67; CI=0.47-0.96; number needed to treat (NNT)=3.4]; (3) nabilone versus neuroleptics (n=277; RR=0.88; CI=0.72-1.08); (4) levonantradol versus neuroleptics (n=194; RR=0.94; CI=0.75-1.18); and (5) patients' preference for cannabis or other drugs (n=1138; RR=0.33; CI=0.24-0.44; NNT=1.8). The superiority of the anti-emetic efficacy of cannabinoids was demonstrated through meta-analysis. PMID:18625004

Machado Rocha, F C; Stéfano, S C; De Cássia Haiek, R; Rosa Oliveira, L M Q; Da Silveira, D X

2008-09-01

94

Cannabis: discrimination of "internal bliss"?  

PubMed

The recent discovery of arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide), an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, and the synthesis of SR141716A, a cannabinoid antagonist selective for brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, have provided new tools to explore the mechanisms underlying cannabis abuse and dependence. Drug discrimination is the animal model with the most predictive validity and specificity for investigation of the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids related to their abuse potential, because, unlike many other drugs of abuse, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, is not self-administered by animals. Results of delta9-THC discrimination studies have revealed that the subjective effects of cannabis intoxication are pharmacologically selective for centrally active cannabinoid compounds, and that cannabis action at CB1 receptors is involved in medication of these effects. Less clear is the role of endogenous cannabinoid system(s) in cannabis intoxication. Anandamide, named for a Sanskrit word for "internal bliss," unreliably substitutes for delta9-THC. Further, substitution, when it is observed, occurs only at doses that also significantly decrease response rates. In contrast, delta9-THC and other structurally diverse cannabinoids fully substitute for delta9-THC at doses that do not substantially affect response rates. Attempts to train animals to discriminate anandamide (or SR141716A) have so far been unsuccessful. Preliminary evidence from drug discrimination studies with more metabolically stable anandamide analogs have suggested that these differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of delta9-THC and anandamide-like cannabinoids are not entirely due to pharmacokinetic factors, but the exact role of "internal bliss" in cannabis intoxication and dependence is still not completely understood. PMID:10515300

Wiley, J L

1999-10-01

95

Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.  

PubMed

The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives. PMID:22089341

Ware, M A

2011-12-01

96

Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

While at least a dozen state legislatures are considering bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government has recently intensified its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using

D. Mark Anderson; Benjamin Hansen; Daniel I. Rees

2012-01-01

97

Marijuana Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

1979-01-01

98

Progression from marijuana use to daily smoking and nicotine dependence in a national sample of U.S. adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhile it has been demonstrated that smoking cigarettes in adolescence increases the likelihood of progressing to marijuana use, few studies have considered the reverse scenario in which early use of cannabis leads to greater tobacco smoking.

David S. Timberlake; Brett C. Haberstick; Christian J. Hopfer; Josh Bricker; Joseph T. Sakai; Jeffrey M. Lessem; John K. Hewitt

2007-01-01

99

Mother's milk and the muffin man: grassroots innovations in medical marijuana delivery systems.  

PubMed

In the ongoing debates over medical marijuana, opponents often conflate the alleged risks of cannabis therapeutics with the acknowledged harms associated with smoking. Although smoking is the most widely used method of administering marijuana, it is not the only available means. This paper provides an account of the production, distribution, and administration of non-smokable cannabis products by members of a California health care collective, the Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana. WAMM has developed a variety of alternative methods of administering cannabis orally and externally that challenge the rhetorical equivalence between smoking as a delivery method and botanical marijuana as a medicine. Their experience with low-cost and low-tech production techniques has enabled even the poor and uninsured among them to manage the debilitating symptoms of their illnesses and the side-effects of their often onerous courses of treatment, without smoking. The organization provides an informative example of. PMID:16537333

Chapkis, Wendy; Webb, Richard J

2005-01-01

100

Marijuana and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of side effects from mental health medication Medical Marijuana Currently, only man-made forms of THC are ... to use marijuana or THC in any form. "Medical marijuana" is not checked for ingredients, strength, or safety. ...

101

Self-change: A pathway to cannabis abuse resolution.  

PubMed

Long-term daily cannabis abusers (N = 25) who without treatment stopped using cannabis for at least one year were interviewed about their past substance use, antecedents to change, and factors supportive of change. Respondents' cannabis problems decreased in the year prior to their recovery compared to their lifetime use. Respondents described their successful quit attempts through structured interviews and autobiographical narratives. The narratives were content analyzed for factors related to recovery. The reports indicated that marijuana cessation was motivated more by internal than external factors, and the most common precipitants of quit attempts were cognitive anti-cannabis factors. The major reason reported by respondents for stopping cannabis was a change in how they viewed their cannabis use, followed by negative personal effects. The most common reported maintenance factors were avoidance of situations in which cannabis was used, changes in lifestyle, and the development of non-cannabis-related interests. Cognitive and respiratory functioning were also assessed. Lastly, more than 75% of respondents reported not seeking treatment because they believed it was not needed or because they wanted to quit on their own. Directions for future research are offered. PMID:15967588

Ellingstad, Timothy P; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Eickleberry, Lori; Golden, Charles J

2006-03-01

102

Differential Effects of Medical Marijuana Based on Strain and Route of Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis displays substantial effectiveness for a variety of medical symptoms. Seventy-seven patients took part in a study in California to assess the efficacy of organically grown Cannabis sativa and indica strains in treatment of various medical conditions via smoking or ingestion. HIV\\/AIDS was the most frequent condition reported, at 51%. Standardized rating forms provided 1892 records that were statistically analyzed.

Valerie Leveroni Corral

2001-01-01

103

Cardiac arrest following cannabis use: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis, or Marijuana, remains one of the most universally used recreational drugs. Over the last four decades, its popularity has risen considerably as it became easily accessible and relatively affordable. Peak use is amongst the young aged 18 to 25 years, although these figures are now shifting towards earlier teens. A strongly installed culture still regards cannabis a harmless drug, yet as more reports have shown there are considerable adverse cardiovascular events linked with its use. Case Presentation In this paper, we present the case of a 15-year-old male who suffered a cardiac arrest following cannabis use and survived the episode. Conclusion Cardiac arrest is a rare and possibly fatal consequence of cannabis use. Public awareness should be raised by extensively promoting all potential complications associated with its use. PMID:19946452

2009-01-01

104

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... this regulation of Cannabis and did not want studies of its potential medicinal benefits to be limited. In 1942, Cannabis ... studies been conducted using Cannabis or cannabinoids? Preclinical studies of cannabinoids have investigated the following activities: Antitumor activity Studies in mice ...

105

Endocannabinoids in the Retina: From Marijuana to Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. There is great interest in endocannabinoids for their role in neuroplasticity as well as for therapeutic use in numerous conditions, including pain, stroke, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, fertility, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, among others. However, there has been relatively far less research on this topic in the eye and retina compared with the brain and other organ systems. The purpose of this review is to introduce the “cannabinergic” field to the retinal community. All of the fundamental work on cannabinoids has been performed in non-retinal preparations, necessitating extensive dependence on this literature for background. Happily, the retinal cannabinoid system has much in common with other regions of the central nervous system. For example, there is general agreement that cannabinoids suppress dopamine release and presynaptically reduce transmitter release from cones and bipolar cells. How these effects relate to light and dark adaptation, receptive field formation, temporal properties of ganglion cells or visual perception are unknown. The presence of multiple endocannabinoids, degradative enzymes with their bioactive metabolites, and receptors provides a broad spectrum of opportunities for basic research and to identify targets for therapeutic application to retinal diseases. PMID:18725316

Yazulla, Stephen

2008-01-01

106

Medical marijuana: legal issues for physicians, others.  

PubMed

California's and Arizona's pro marijuana for medical use initiatives possess practical problems, particularly those regarding possible dangers to physicians who recommend use of cannabis. Doctors, regardless of safeguards placed in the State initiatives, may still face Federal charges and criminal liability according to the California Medical Association (CMA). The CMA believes the safest course for doctors to take is to not recommend marijuana at all, and health care providers are being cautious. No one knows whether Federal authorities will aggressively enforce the law against doctors or others, however, the government appears to be proceeding from the notion that such initiatives are a national strategy to legalize drugs. It appears that, for public relations reasons, prosecution efforts may be limited to distributors that may include buyers' clubs. Congress may also draft a Federal bill aimed at effectively nullifying the two initiatives. Californians for Medical Rights, the organization that sponsored Proposition 215, is working on strategies to protect doctors. PMID:11364025

Mirken, B

1996-12-20

107

Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

108

The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.  

PubMed

The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients. PMID:17712818

Grotenhermen, Franjo

2007-08-01

109

Marijuana and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... 2015. Copyright by OTIS. Selected References: Fried PA, Smith AM. 2001. A lit review of the consequences ... and marijuana. Breastfeed Rev 6(2):27-30. Smith AM, et al. 2004. Effects of prenatal marijuana ...

110

Marijuana and the Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Growing marijuana use among young people, among teenagers in particular, poses serious problems that involve parents, society, law enforcement agencies, legislators, and health care professionals. This paper discusses the multifaceted problems surrounding marijuana use and suggests possible solutions. PMID:702602

Alli, Billiamin A.

1978-01-01

111

Spice (Synthetic Marijuana)  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications » DrugFacts » Spice ("Synthetic Marijuana") DrugFacts: Spice ("Synthetic Marijuana") Email Facebook Twitter Revised December 2012 "Spice" refers to a wide variety of herbal mixtures that produce experiences ...

112

Marijuana use in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since it became popularized in the late 1960s, marijuana use has been socially, if not legally, sanctioned. Contemporary adult culture accepts the notion that marijuana is a 'safe, recreational' drug. As marijuana became more freely available to adults, its use by adolescents soon began to increase. This trend has been monitored over the past three decades, generating numerous scientific papers

Roger S Tonkin

113

A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

PubMed Central

There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

2012-01-01

114

Marijuana Misuse in African States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on marijuana misuse or abuse in African states. It specifically addresses the questions concerning the origins and meanings of marijuana, the history of marijuana as a drug of misuse, legal classification, model of consumption, user inducement and motivation, relationship between marijuana use and criminality, legal status and laws governing the control of marijuana; and it surveys African

PATRICK EDOBOR IGBINOVIA

1982-01-01

115

Electrophysiological evidence of early attentional bias to drug-related pictures in chronic cannabis users.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of attentional bias to cannabis-related cues were investigated in a marijuana dependent group and a non-user group employing a drug Stroop task in which cannabis-related, negative and neutral images were presented. Behaviorally, cannabis users were less accurate during drug-containing blocks than non-users. Electrophysiologically, in chronic marijuana-users, an early positive ERP enhancement over left frontal scalp (EAP, 200-350ms) was present in response to drug-containing blocks relative to negative blocks. This effect was absent in the non-user group. Furthermore, drug-containing blocks gave rise to enhanced voltage of a posterior P300 (300-400ms), and a posterior sustained slow wave (LPP, 400-700ms) relative to negative blocks. However, such effects were similar between cannabis users and non-users. Brain source imaging in cannabis users revealed a generator for the EAP effect to drug stimuli in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex/medial orbitofrontal cortex, a region active in fMRI studies of drug cue-reactivity and a target of the core dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway involved in the processing of substances of abuse. This study identifies the timing and brain localization of an ERP correlate of early attentional capture to drug-related pictures in chronic marijuana users. The EAP to drug cues may identify a new electrophysiological marker with clinical implications for predicting abstinence versus relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions. PMID:24126204

Asmaro, Deyar; Carolan, Patrick L; Liotti, Mario

2014-01-01

116

Marijuana and Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

117

Structural organization of the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes in Cannabis and Humulus (Cannabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural organization of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Humulus lupulus, H. japonicus and Cannabis sativa was determined by restriction site mapping. A high degree of DNA sequence similarity was evident in the coding regions of\\u000a the rDNA repeats of the taxa and supports the placement of Cannabis and Humulus in one family, Cannabaceae. However, the presence of a

M. Pillay; S. T. Kenny

2006-01-01

118

Medical marijuana: legal considerations.  

PubMed

In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. PMID:11366751

Schouten, J T

1999-01-01

119

Marijuana use in adolescence  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275

Tonkin, Roger S

2002-01-01

120

Medical marijuana and children.  

PubMed

Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains. PMID:25647865

Stubblefield, Sam

2014-11-01

121

Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths  

PubMed Central

Aims This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Methods Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 – 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. Conclusions The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths. PMID:23641127

Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.

2012-01-01

122

Can cannabis cause psychosis?  

PubMed

In recent years, increasing popular support for the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has led to legalization for both medicinal and recreational purposes in the United States. To the extent that these changes in policy lead to increase widespread use, it is important to consider the association between heavy chronic cannabis use and the onset of psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia. This article provides a brief review of evidence that support cannabis use as a risk factor in the complex etiology of psychotic illness. In addition to reviewing psychopharmacology, longitudinal research, and clinical studies, the article addresses the potential implications of current research on public health policy. PMID:25768856

Michaels, Timothy I; Novakovic, Vladan

2015-01-01

123

Marijuana, immunity and infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of marijuana cannabinoids on immune function has been examined extensively over the last 25 yr. Various experimental models have been used employing drug-abusing human subjects, experimental animals exposed to marijuana smoke or injected with cannabinoids, and in vitro models employing immune cell cultures treated with various cannabinoids. For the most part, these studies suggest that cannabinoids modulate the

Thomas W Klein; Herman Friedman; Steven Specter

1998-01-01

124

Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

2008-01-01

125

Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. PMID:24176069

Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

2014-01-01

126

Functional MRI of inhibitory processing in abstinent adolescent marijuana users  

PubMed Central

Background Marijuana intoxication appears to impair response inhibition, but it is unclear if impaired inhibition and associated brain abnormalities persist after prolonged abstinence among adolescent users. We hypothesized that brain activation during a go/no-go task would show persistent abnormalities in adolescent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence. Methods Adolescents with (n=16) and without (n=17) histories of marijuana use were compared on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to a go/no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Participants had no neurological problems or Axis I diagnoses other than cannabis abuse/dependence. Results Marijuana users did not differ from non-users on task performance but showed more BOLD response than non-users during inhibition trials in right dorsolateral prefrontal, bilateral medial frontal, bilateral inferior and superior parietal lobules, and right occipital gyri, as well as during “go” trials in right prefrontal, insular, and parietal cortices (p<0.05, clusters>943 ?l). Differences remained significant even after controlling for lifetime and recent alcohol use. Conclusions Adolescent marijuana users relative to non-users showed increased brain processing effort during an inhibition task in the presence of similar task performance, even after 28 days of abstinence. Thus, increased brain processing effort to achieve inhibition may predate the onset of regular use or result from it. Future investigations will need to determine whether increased brain processing effort is associated with risk to use. PMID:17558500

Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Drummond, Sean P. A.; Paulus, Martin P.; Brown, Sandra A.; Yang, Tony T.; Frank, Lawrence R.

2008-01-01

127

Cannabis Withdrawal Among Detained Adolescents: Exploring the Impact of Nicotine and Race  

PubMed Central

Rates of marijuana use among detained youths are exceptionally high. Research suggests a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is valid and clinically significant; however, these studies have mostly been conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings with treatment-seeking, White adults. The present study analyzed archival data to explore the magnitude of cannabis withdrawal symptoms within a diverse sample of detained adolescents while controlling for tobacco use and investigating the impact of race on symptom reports. Adolescents recruited from a juvenile correctional facility (N=93) completed a background questionnaire and the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Analyses revealed a significant main effect for level of tobacco use on severity of irritability, and for level of marijuana use on severity of craving to smoke marijuana and strange/wild dreams. Furthermore, a significant main effect for race was found with Black adolescents reporting lower withdrawal discomfort scores and experiencing less severe depressed mood, difficulty sleeping, nervousness/anxiety, and strange/wild dreams. Although exploratory, these findings may have significant clinical implications for providers in juvenile detention facilities, allowing the execution of proper medical and/or behavioral interventions to assist adolescents presenting with problematic cannabis and/or tobacco withdrawal. PMID:25705103

Soenksen, Shayna; Stein, L.A.R.; Brown, Joanna D.; Stengel, JoAnn R.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Lebeau, Rebecca

2015-01-01

128

Cigarette smoking during an N-acetylcysteine-assisted cannabis cessation trial in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Tobacco and cannabis use are both highly prevalent worldwide. Their co-use is also common in adults and adolescents. Despite this frequent co-occurrence, cessation from both substances is rarely addressed in randomized clinical trials. Given evidence that tobacco use may increase during cannabis cessation attempts, and additionally that tobacco users have poorer cannabis cessation outcomes, we explored tobacco outcomes, specifically cigarette smoking, from an adolescent cannabis cessation trial that tested the efficacy of N-acetylesteine (NAC). Methods Cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15–21; n=116) interested in cannabis treatment were randomized to NAC (1200 mg bid) or matched placebo for 8 weeks. Participants did not need to be cigarette smokers or be interested in smoking cessation to qualify for inclusion. Results Approximately 59% of enrolled participants were daily and non-daily cigarette smokers, and only differed from non-smoking participants on the compulsion sub-scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire. Among cigarette smokers who were retained in the study, there was no change in cigarettes per day for either NAC or placebo groups during the 8-week treatment phase. Being a cigarette smoker did not appear to influence the effects of NAC on cannabis abstinence, though there was a trend in the placebo group of poorer cannabis outcomes for cigarette smokers vs. non-smokers. Conclusions No evidence was found of compensatory cigarette smoking during this cannabis cessation trial in adolescents. Further work assessing interventions to reduce both cannabis and tobacco use in this population is greatly needed. PMID:24720376

McClure, Erin A.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Gray, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

129

CONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT OF ABSTINENCE WITH INDIVIDUALS ABUSING COCAINE AND MARIJUANA  

E-print Network

Two males diagnosed with cocaine dependence received a behavioral intervention comprised of contingency management and the community reinforcement approach. During the initial phase of treatment, reinforcement was delivered contingent on submitting cocaine-free urine specimens. The community reinforcement approach involved two behavior therapy sessions each week. Almost complete cocaine abstinence was achieved, but regular marijuana use continued. During a second phase, reinforcement magnitude was reduced, but remained contingent on submitting cocaine-free specimens. Behavior therapy was reduced to once per week. Cocaine abstinence and regular marijuana use continued. Next, reinforcement was delivered contingent on submitting cocaine- and marijuanafree specimens. This modified contingency resulted in an abrupt increase in marijuana abstinence and maintenance of cocaine abstinence. One- and 5-month follow-ups indicated that cocaine abstinence continued, but marijuana smoking resumed. These results indicate that the behavioral intervention was efficacious in achieving abstinence from cocaine and marijuana; maintenance, however, was achieved for cocaine only. DESCRIPTORS: drug abuse treatment, cocaine, marijuana, contingency management, social reinforcement Approximately 1 to 2 million persons in the United States are currently dependent on cocaine (Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 1990; National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], 1989). Not surprisingly, many of these individuals seek treatment for their problem (NIDA, 1987). Unfortunately, no consensus exists about how to treat cocaine dependence effectively (Gawin & Kleber, 1987). This is particularly alarming given the serious public health problems associated with cocaine use and dependence, induding AIDS (Chaisson et al., 1989), sudden death (Cregler & Mark, 1986), and maternal and fetal adverse effects (Chasnoff, Burns, Schnoll, & Burns, 1985). An estimated 40 % to 50 % of persons seeking treatment for cocaine dependence also meet diagnostic criteria for cannabis dependence (N. Miller

Alan J; Stephen T. Higgins; Dawn D. Deaney; Lisa Kentr; Warren; K. Bickel

130

Open-label pilot study of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence  

PubMed Central

Background There are no efficacious pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. The effects of quetiapine are well matched to the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and could be useful in the treatment of cannabis dependence. Objectives To evaluate quetiapine for the treatment of cannabis dependence and determine the optimal dosing. Methods In an eight-week open-label outpatient pilot trial, we evaluated the feasibility of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence in 15 outpatients. Quetiapine was gradually titrated to 600 mg or the maximum tolerated dose. Results The mean study retention was 6.5 weeks (±2.3), with 67% of participants completing all eight weeks of the trial. The mean maximum dose achieved was 197 mg/day (range: 25–600 mg/day). Only two of the 15 participants were able to achieve the target dose of 600 mg daily. There were no serious adverse events and no participants were discontinued from the trial due to adverse effects. The most common reported adverse effects were fatigue (80% of participants) and somnolence (47%). From baseline to week 8, the modeled overall decrease in daily dollar value of marijuana was 76.3% (CI: 63.4%, 84.7%). Over the eight weeks of the study, there was a 46.9% (CI: 11%, 68.3%) decrease in urine tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCOOH) levels. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising in that quetiapine treatment was tolerated by cannabis-dependent patients and associated with decreased cannabis use. The recommended maximum target dose for cannabis-dependent patients is 300 mg daily. These preliminary data support further evaluation of quetiapine as a treatment for cannabis dependence. PMID:24963729

Mariani, John J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Mamczur, Agnieszka K.; Bisaga, Adam; Nunes, Edward V.; Levin, Frances R.

2014-01-01

131

An examination of opinions toward marijuana policies among high school seniors in the United States.  

PubMed

Support for marijuana (cannabis) legalization is increasing in the US, and state-level marijuana policies are rapidly changing. Research is needed to examine correlates of opinions toward legalization among adolescents approaching adulthood as they are at high risk for use. Data were examined from a national representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (years 2007-2011; N = 11,594) to delineate correlates of opinions toward legalization. A third of students felt marijuana should be entirely legal and 28.5% felt it should be treated as a minor violation; 48.0% felt that if legal to sell it should be sold to adults only, and 10.4% felt it should be sold to anyone. Females, conservatives, religious students, and those with friends who disapprove of marijuana use tended to be at lower odds for supporting legalization, and Black, liberal, and urban students were at higher odds for supporting more liberal policies. Recent and frequent marijuana use strongly increased odds for support for legalization; however, 16.7% of non-lifetime marijuana users also reported support for legalization. Findings should be interpreted with caution as state-level data were not available, but results suggest that support for marijuana legalization is common among specific subgroups of adolescents. PMID:25364985

Palamar, Joseph J

2014-01-01

132

Cannabis and psychosis revisited.  

PubMed

The association between cannabinoids and psychosis has been known for almost a thousand years, but it is still speculated whether cannabis use may be a contributory cause of psychosis, that is, whether it may precipitate schizophrenia in those at risk. In this paper, we will briefly present the data from individual longitudinal studies in the field, together with the factors that are considered important for the association of cannabis abuse and occurrence of schizophrenia and prevention opportunities in the target population. The reviewed studies clearly suggest that cannabis abuse predicts an increased risk for schizophrenia, particularly in young adults. They underline both the need to create adequate prevention measures and consequently avoid the occurrence of the disease in the young at risk. Particular attention should be additionally devoted toward encouraging the young presenting with psychotic symptoms to stop or, at the very least, reduce the frequency of cannabis abuse. The issues are undoubtedly to be addressed by the health care system in general. PMID:25751443

Damjanovi?, Aleksandar; Pantovi?, Maja; Damjanovi?, Aleksandra; Dunji?-Kosti?, Bojana; Ivkovi?, Maja; Milovanovi?, Sr?an; Lackovi?, Maja; Dimitrijevi?, Ivan

2015-03-01

133

Jason B. West,1, Ph.D.; Janet M. Hurley,1  

E-print Network

be productive. KEYWORDS: forensic science, stable isotope ratio, heavy isotopes, drug intelligence, Cannabis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is the most widely used illicit

Ehleringer, Jim

134

-Tetrahydrocannabinol Antagonizes the Peripheral  

E-print Network

) is the ma- jor active psychotropic component of the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa. The membrane proteins systems (3­6). ( )- 9 -THC, the active cannabinoid compound from Cannabis sa- tiva, has been shown

Vogel, Zvi

135

THREE FACTS ABOUT MARIJUANA PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australians are among the largest consumers of marijuana in the world, and estimates show that their expenditure on marijuana is about twice that on wine. In this paper we analyse the evolution of marijuana prices in Australia and show that they have declined in real terms by almost 40 percent over the last decade. This decline is far above that

Kenneth W. Clements

2003-01-01

136

Three Facts About Marijuana Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australians are among the largest consumers of marijuana in the world, and estimates show that their expenditure on marijuana is about twice that on wine. In this paper we analyse the evolution of marijuana prices in Australia and show that they have declined in real terms by almost 40 percent over the decade. This decline is far above that experienced

Kenneth W. Clements

2002-01-01

137

Adult Marijuana Users Seeking Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Screened 290 men and 92 women for participation in study on marijuana cessation. Indices of severity of marijuana abuse and general psychopathology were in clinical range for majority of subjects. Subjects who did not report evidence of alcohol or other drug abuse (n=144) reported less severe consequences of marijuana use and experienced less…

Stephens, Robert S.; And Others

1993-01-01

138

Marijuana, Morality, and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of marijuana in the United States despite the harsh penalties for violation of anti-marijuana laws suggests the need for a reassessment of our present policies. Are the effects of the use of the marijuana drug sufficiently injurious to either the individual or society to warrant such severe legal intervention by the government? What are the social consequences

Stuart L. Hills

1970-01-01

139

Medicinal marijuana use  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe medical marijuana use from the perspectives of patients with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Participants discussed their medicinal marijuana use in one-to-one, semistructured interviews. SETTING Interviews were conducted at a time and place convenient to participants. PARTICIPANTS Six men and eight women with multiple sclerosis participated. METHOD Potential participants identified themselves to the researcher after receiving an invitation in a mailed survey. Eligibility was confirmed, and purposive sampling was used to recruit subjects. A range of issues emerged from the interviews. Interviews and data analysis continued until saturation occurred. MAIN FINDINGS Descriptions fell into three broad areas: patterns of use, legal or social concerns, and perceived effects. Consumption patterns ranged from very infrequent to very regular and were influenced by symptoms, social factors, and supply. Legal concerns expressed by most respondents were negligible. Social concerns centred on to whom use was revealed. The perceived benefits of use were consistent with previous reports in the literature: reduction in pain, spasms, tremors, nausea, numbness, sleep problems, bladder and bowel problems, and fatigue and improved mood, ability to eat and drink, ability to write, and sexual functioning. Adverse effects included problems with cognition, balance, and fatigue and the feeling of being high. Although participants described risks associated with using marijuana, the benefits they derived made the risks acceptable. CONCLUSION Further research is needed to clarify the safety and efficacy of marijuana use by patients with multiple sclerosis. If evidence of benefit is seen, medicinal marijuana should be made available to patients who could benefit from it. Until then, discussing medicinal marijuana use with patients will be awkward for health professionals. PMID:16926966

Page, Stacey A.; Verhoef, Marja J.

2006-01-01

140

Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice.  

PubMed

Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis. PMID:25650954

Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K

2015-01-01

141

Residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist\\u000a after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting\\u000a to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be understood to properly evaluate\\u000a available studies. At present, it appears safe

Harrison G. Pope Jr; Amanda J. Gruber; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2001-01-01

142

Variables related to cannabis use.  

PubMed

A sample of 4,564 self-admitted cannabis users was compared with a sample of airmen who had no known record of drug abuse. This study indicates that there is a very strong likelihood for cannabis users to abuse other drugs. There are relationships between cannabis use and geographic area of enlistment, religious preference, aptitude scores, race, educational level, and age at enlistment. Cannabis use is also related to the likelihood of getting an undesirable discharge, to Airman Performance Report, and to promotion rate. PMID:1176226

Mullins, C J; Vitola, B M; Michelson, A E

1975-01-01

143

Medical marijuana for cancer.  

PubMed

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65: 109-122. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:25503438

Kramer, Joan L

2015-03-01

144

When cannabis is available and visible at school - A multilevel analysis of students' cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims - To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers’ reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use.\\u000aMethods - A multilevel regression model was estimated based on a Swiss national

E. N. Kuntsche

2010-01-01

145

The effects of medical marijuana laws on illegal marijuana use.  

PubMed

More and more states have passed laws that allow individuals to use marijuana for medical purposes. There is an ongoing, heated policy debate over whether these laws have increased marijuana use among non-patients. In this paper, I address that question empirically by studying marijuana possession arrests in cities from 1988 to 2008. I estimate fixed effects models with city-specific time trends that can condition on unobserved heterogeneities across cities in both their levels and trends. I find that these laws increase marijuana arrests among adult males by about 15-20%. These results are further validated by findings from data on treatment admissions to rehabilitation facilities: marijuana treatments among adult males increased by 10-20% after the passage of medical marijuana laws. PMID:25205609

Chu, Yu-Wei Luke

2014-12-01

146

Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: Patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A majority of women experience some nausea and\\/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1-2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users

Michael Smith

147

Statistics on Cannabis Users Skew Perceptions of Cannabis Use  

PubMed Central

Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight (1) differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; (2) how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and (3) the correlation between frequency of use in the past-month and average grams consumed per use-day. Key findings: focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanics. Further, data from a survey conducted in seven European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations. PMID:24223560

Burns, Rachel M.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Everingham, Susan S.; Kilmer, Beau

2013-01-01

148

Behavioral pharmacokinetics of marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male volunteer subjects smoked one marijuana cigarette containing 100, 200, or 250 µg\\/kg ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and were tested on three perceptual-motor performance measures related to driving. Performance was measured and blood samples were collected for 24 h after smoking. The covariation between phamacodynamics of performance and pharmacokinetics of THC in plasma was investigated for decrement in performance as the response

Gene Barnett; Vojtech Licko; Travis Thompson

1985-01-01

149

Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist?  

PubMed Central

It is intriguing that during human cultural evolution man has detected plant natural products that appear to target key protein receptors of important physiological systems rather selectively. Plants containing such secondary metabolites usually belong to unique chemotaxa, induce potent pharmacological effects and have typically been used for recreational and medicinal purposes or as poisons. Cannabis sativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The major psychoactive Cannabis constituent ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) potently activates the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor CB1 and also modulates the cannabinoid receptor CB2. In the last few years, several other non-cannabinoid plant constituents have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors. Moreover, certain plant natural products, from both Cannabis and other plants, also target other proteins of the endocannabinoid system, such as hydrolytic enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this commentary we summarize and critically discuss recent findings. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID:20590562

Gertsch, Jürg; Pertwee, Roger G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

150

[Therapeutic use of Cannibis Sativa L. in Arab medicine].  

PubMed

Arab scientists were various centuries ahead of our current knowledge of the curative power of hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). Modern scientific literature ignores their contribution on the subject. We review in this paper the therapeutic uses of the plant in Arabic medicine from the 8th to the 18th century. Arab physicians knew and used its diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain-killing and antipyretic properties, among others. PMID:11636889

Lozano, I

1997-01-01

151

Medicinal Marijuana: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbo oks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on

R. Jan Gurley; Richard Aranow; Mitchell Katz

1998-01-01

152

Marijuana Is Far From "Harmless."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)

DuPont, Robert L.

1981-01-01

153

Medical marijuana in neurology.  

PubMed

Constituents of the Cannabis plant, cannabinoids, may be of therapeutic value in neurologic diseases. The most abundant cannabinoids are ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which possesses psychoactive properties, and cannabidiol, which has no intrinsic psychoactive effects, but exhibits neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies. A small number of high-quality clinical trials support the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity of multiple sclerosis, pain refractory to opioids, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting. Lower level clinical evidence indicates that cannabinoids may be useful for dystonia, tics, tremors, epilepsy, migraine and weight loss. Data are also limited in regards to adverse events and safety. Common nonspecific adverse events are similar to those of other CNS 'depressants' and include weakness, mood changes and dizziness. Cannabinoids can have cardiovascular adverse events and, when smoked chronically, may affect pulmonary function. Fatalities are rare even with recreational use. There is a concern about psychological dependence, but physical dependence is less well documented. Cannabis preparations may presently offer an option for compassionate use in severe neurologic diseases, but at this point, only when standard-of-care therapy is ineffective. As more high-quality clinical data are gathered, the therapeutic application of cannabinoids will likely expand. PMID:25427150

Benbadis, Selim R; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Bozorg, Ali; Giarratano, Melissa; Kalidas, Kavita; Katzin, Lara; Robertson, Derrick; Vu, Tuan; Smith, Amanda; Zesiewicz, Theresa

2014-12-01

154

Affect dysregulation in cannabis abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric comorbidity and impaired emotional functioning have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but have\\u000a been less well documented in adolescents. Thus, we investigated mental health problems and emotion regulation abilities in\\u000a adolescents and young adults with cannabis dependence. Moreover, we explored the relationships between consumption modalities\\u000a and affective style. Therefore, 32 cannabis abusers (CA) and 30 healthy controls

Géraldine Dorard; Sylvie Berthoz; Olivier Phan; Maurice Corcos; Catherine Bungener

2008-01-01

155

Individual and Additive Effects of the CNR1 and FAAH Genes on Brain Response to Marijuana Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

As previous work has highlighted the significance of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes with respect to cannabis dependence (CD), this study sought to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie these genetic effects. To this end, we collected DNA samples and fMRI data using a cue-elicited craving paradigm in thirty-seven 3-day-abstinent regular marijuana users.

Francesca M Filbey; Joseph P Schacht; Ursula S Myers; Robert S Chavez; Kent E Hutchison

2010-01-01

156

Agronomy of fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre hemp may yield up to 25 t above ground dry matter per hectare (20 t stem dry matter ha?1) which may contain as much as 12 t ha?1 cellulose, depending on environmental conditions and agronomy. Its performance is affected by the onset of flowering and seed development. Effects of cultivar and management on yield and quality were tested at

P. C. Struik; S. Amaducci; M. J. Bullard; N. C. Stutterheim; G. Venturi; H. T. H. Cromack

2000-01-01

157

Expert-Recommended Warnings for Medical Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many U.S. states. At present there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings,

John M. Malouff; Sally E. Rooke

2013-01-01

158

PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF ALCOHOL AND CANNABIS USE DISORDERS IN THE UNITED STATES: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH*  

PubMed Central

Background Limited current information on the epidemiology of lifetime alcohol and cannabis use disorders in the United States is available. Aims To present detailed information about the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime alcohol and cannabis use disorders rates in the United States. To examine gender differences in hazard ratios for the onset of alcohol and cannabis dependence. Methods Participants in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=15,500, age range: 24–32) were interviewed between 2008 and 2009. Participants who exceeded screening thresholds were queried about lifetime DSM-IV alcohol and marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms. Age of substance dependence onset was queried. Results Lifetime rates of alcohol abuse and dependence were 11.8 and 13.2 percent. Lifetime rates of cannabis abuse and dependence were 3.9 and 8.3 percent. Lifetime alcohol and cannabis dependence onset peaks were 23 and 20. Correlates of lifetime alcohol abuse included being male (OR 1.4), African-American (OR 0.7), Income in the 2nd or 3rd quartile (OR 0.7 and 0.6). Correlates of lifetime alcohol dependence were: being male (OR 1.8), African-American (OR 0.5), and never being married (OR 1.5), and regions outside of the west (Midwest OR 0.7, South OR 0.6, Northeast OR 0.6). Correlates of cannabis abuse and dependence were being male (OR 1.8 and 1.4). Conclusions Lifetime alcohol and cannabis use disorders are highly prevalent in the US population. Men are at higher risk for alcohol and cannabis use disorders. Alcohol use disorders demonstrated specific sociodemographic correlates while marijuana use disorders did not. PMID:24440049

Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Zeiger, Joanna S.; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

2014-01-01

159

Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current investigation uses a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate college students (N=189) to investigate schizotypal traits among cannabis and non-cannabis users, as well as the temporal order of the onset of these traits and cannabis use. Findings suggest that regular cannabis users are significantly more prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions as well as disorganization, but not interpersonal deficits,

Jason Schiffman; Brad Nakamura; Mitchell Earleywine; Joseph LaBrie

2005-01-01

160

Marijuana Smoke and ? 9Tetrahydrocannabinol Promote Necrotic Cell Death but Inhibit Fas-Mediated Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana smoke shares many components in common with tobacco smoke except for the presence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the psychotropic compound found only in Cannibis sativa. ?9-THC has been shown to potentiate smoke-induced oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. In the present study, our objective was to determine the effects of ?9-THC on the balance between Fas-induced apoptosis and necrosis in

Theodore A. Sarafian; Donald P. Tashkin; Michael D. Roth

2001-01-01

161

Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

1973-01-01

162

The Medicinal Cannabis Treatment Agreement: Providing Information to Chronic Pain Patients via a Written Document.  

PubMed

Over 20 states now approve medical marijuana for a long list of "indications," and more states may well offer access in the near future. Surveys have demonstrated that pain is the most common indication for medical use of cannabis. As more individuals gain access to this botanical product through state ballot initiatives and legislative mandate, the pain specialist is likely to be confronted by patients either seeking such treatment where permitted, or otherwise inquiring about its potential benefits and harms, and alternative pharmaceuticals containing cannabinoids. Whether or not they are in the position to prescribe medical cannabis, pain physicians would seem to have an obligation to understand and inform their patients on key issues of the evidence base on cannabinoid therapeutics. One way to fulfill this obligation might be to borrow from concepts developed in the prescription of opioids: the use of a written agreement to describe and minimize risks. Regrettably, the widespread adoption of opioids was undertaken while harmful effects were minimized; obviously, no one wants to repeat this misstep. This article describes a method of educating patients in a manner analogous to other treatment agreements. Undoubtedly, the knowledge base concerning risks will be an iterative process as we learn more about the long-term use of medicinal cannabis. But we should start the process now so that patients may be instructed about our current conception of what the use of medicinal cannabis entails. PMID:25370134

Wilsey, Barth; Atkinson, J Hampton; Marcotte, Thomas D; Grant, Igor

2014-11-01

163

Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the public debate about the legalization of marijuana has continued for as long as 25 years, few controlled studies have been conducted to assess its potential medical benefits. The present study examined the antiemetic effect of smoked marijuana cigarettes (8.4 and 16.9 mg ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) compared to a highly potent antiemetic drug, ondansetron (8 mg) in 13 healthy volunteers.

Anna H. V Söderpalm; Alyson Schuster; Harriet de Wit

2001-01-01

164

[Potential applications of marijuana and cannabinoids in medicine].  

PubMed

Cannabinoids, psychoactive substances present in cannabis, have been known to mankind for hundreds of years. Apart from 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substances found in the cannabis herb with the highest toxicological value are cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN). The discovery of CB1 and CB2 receptors, located in various tissues (ranging from the brain to peripheral tissues), has defined the potential objective of these new chemical substances' effects. Many studies on the application of cannabinoids in the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, neoplasms, inflammatory diseases, neurological conditions, pain and vomitting were conducted. Drugs containing e.g. THC appear on the pharmaceutical market. Substances affecting cannabinoid receptors may show beneficial effects, but they may also cause the risk of side effects related mainly to the inhibition of central nervous system. The purpose of this dissertation is the analysis, whether the substances responsible for the effects of marijuana, can find application in medicine. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies connected to the topic. PMID:25518584

Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Pypno, Damian; Caba?a, Krzysztof; Bugaj, Bartosz; Waracki, Mateusz

2014-10-01

165

[Medical grade cannabis (MGC): regulation mechanisms, the present situation around the world and in Israel].  

PubMed

Over the past several years, there is an increased demand and use of medical grade cannabis (MGC) in Israel and around the world. Regulation of cannabis growth, use and distribution has been a subject for many discussions in the Israeli medical system, parliament and the media. The increased demand for this kind of treatment, which is considered to be safe and effective in various indications, caused increased interest in the MGC approval mechanisms. Some countries have created regulation and control mechanisms for MGC. The United Nation convention of 1961 defines the medical legal use of narcotic substances. The convention demands full governmental control of the stock of narcotic substances, including cannabis and a governmental mechanism which will license, supervise, control, document and report the yield and consumption. In the Netherlands there is full accordance with the United Nations requirements and there is a special office for MGC which approves growth, production and marketing. MGC is prescribed in the Netherlands and supplied by a pharmacist as a regular drug. In Canada, after a long legal struggle, patients pressured the government to begin a federal program of MGC. In the U.S.A there are differences in cannabis authorization policy between some of the states and the federal government, which opposes MGC use and therefore, places numerous obstacles. Currently in Israel, the Director General of the Ministry of Health, appoints a representative to certify MGC and approve marijuana growers. MGC is directly supplied by the marijuana growers. This is a problematic model which lacks separation between the growers and the patients. Another problem is that the United Nations requirements are not fulfilled. In this review we present the advantages and drawbacks of the current model and propositions for future models for control and regulation of MGC. PMID:22352285

Shelef, Assaf; Mashiah, Moty; Schumacher, Ilana; Shine, Ofir; Baruch, Yehuda

2011-12-01

166

Exposure to Cannabis in Popular Music and Cannabis Use among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860

Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

2009-01-01

167

Recurrent myopericarditis as a complication of Marijuana use  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Myopericarditis Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: Ibuprofen Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance worldwide and its consumption portends significant side effects. Nowadays, in order to increase its psychotropic effect, various substances are being added constantly to it to promote its potency that might hold toxic effects to different organs including the heart and might lead to other unreported complications such as myopericarditis. Herein, we are presenting a unique case of recurrent myopericarditis after the consumption of contaminated marijuana, an association that has not been reported in literature before. Case Report: A 29-year-old man presented to our institution with pressure-like left-sided chest pain that is aggravated by cough and deep inspiration and relieved by sitting and leaning forward. Examination revealed pericardial rub and workup showed elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and troponin I level of 2.99 ng/ml. ECG upon admission showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads with PR-segment depression. Echocardiogram revealed only concentric hypertrophy. Patient was admitted to another institution with similar symptoms 2 months earlier. Patient admitted to using adulterated Marijuana on both occasions prior to hospitalization. Review of medical records from the outside hospital revealed similar ECG and laboratory findings. Treatment with Ibuprofen resulted in resolution of patient’s symptoms and ECG abnormalities. Conclusions: Recurrent myopericarditis in our patient is likely the result of consumption of contaminated Marijuana. Careful history taking in patients presenting with myopericarditis is crucial as it might be the causal link. PMID:24523950

Rodríguez-Castro, Carlos E.; Alkhateeb, Haider; Elfar, Ahmed; Saifuddin, Fatima; Abbas, Aamer; Siddiqui, Tariq

2014-01-01

168

Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy

Alison Looby; Mitch Earleywine

2007-01-01

169

Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread abuse of marijuana, knowledge about its effects in the human brain is limited. Brain glucose metabolism with and without ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (main psychoactive component of marijuana) was evaluated in eight normal subjects and eight chronic marijuana abusers with positron emission tomography. At baseline, marijuana abusers showed lower relative cerebellar metabolism than normal subjects. THC increased relative cerebellar

Nora D. Volkow; Hampton Gillespie; Nizar Mullani; Lawrence Tancredi; Cathel Grant; Allan Valentine; Leo Hollister

1996-01-01

170

Marijuana Abstinence Effects in Marijuana Smokers Maintained in Their Home Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although withdrawal symptoms are com- monly reported by persons seeking treatment for mari- juana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been es- tablished. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that oc- cur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Methods: Twelve daily marijuana smokers

Alan J. Budney; John R. Hughes; Brent A. Moore; Pam L. Novy

2001-01-01

171

Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

2010-01-01

172

Stigma among California's Medical Marijuana Patients.  

PubMed

The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This article examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends, and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

2015-01-01

173

Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction  

MedlinePLUS

... Some people call this "the munchies." When someone smokes marijuana, they often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume ...

174

Oilseed crop: Camelina sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

False flax and gold of pleasure are the popular names for Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. Seeds and capsules of Camelina sativa ssp. C. linicola (Schimp. and Spenn.), have been found in archaeological excavations from the Bronze Age in Scandinavia and Western Europe. C. sativa was grown as an agricultural crop in European countries and Russia before the Second World War

Josef Zubr

1997-01-01

175

Marijuana smoke and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol promote necrotic cell death but inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Marijuana smoke shares many components in common with tobacco smoke except for the presence of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the psychotropic compound found only in Cannibis sativa. Delta(9)-THC has been shown to potentiate smoke-induced oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. In the present study, our objective was to determine the effects of Delta(9)-THC on the balance between Fas-induced apoptosis and necrosis in A549 lung tumor cells. We found that Fas-induced activation of caspase-3 was inhibited by whole smoke from both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes. Gas-phase smoke, which generates high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, had no effect on caspase-3 activity. However, particulate-phase smoke (tar) was a potent inhibitor of Fas-induced caspase-3 activity, with marijuana tar being more potent than either tobacco or placebo marijuana tar (lacking Delta(9)-THC). Delta(9)-THC also inhibited Fas-induced caspase-3 activity in A549 cells. In contrast, no inhibition was observed when Delta(9)-THC was incubated with activated caspase-3 enzyme, suggesting that Delta(9)-THC acts on the cell pathway(s) leading to caspase-3 activation and not directly on enzyme function. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis (staining for annexin V) versus necrosis (staining for propidium iodide) and confirmed that both marijuana tar extract and synthetic Delta(9)-THC inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis while promoting necrosis. These observations suggest that the Delta(9)-THC contained in marijuana smoke disrupts elements of the apoptotic pathway, thereby shifting the balance between apoptotic and necrotic cell death. This shift may affect both the carcinogenic and immunologic consequences of marijuana smoke exposure. PMID:11485387

Sarafian, T A; Tashkin, D P; Roth, M D

2001-08-01

176

A review of the world cannabis situation.  

PubMed

Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets. For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis, often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas. This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions. In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users. Cannabis is not a uniform drug: the impact of using cannabis of differing potencies and chemical compositions needs to be researched. While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment. PMID:19066071

Leggett, T

2006-01-01

177

High School Athletes and Marijuana Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether those who participated in high school athletics have a different pattern of marijuana use than comparable nonathletes. Male athletes have a higher incidence of marijuana use than nonathletes. The opposite is true for female athletes who are more likely than nonathletes to try marijuana after high school. (MKA)

Ewing, Bradley T.

1998-01-01

178

Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

179

Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

180

Marijuana and second-degree AV block.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old black man without history of heart disease had severe sinus bradycardia and intermittent second-degree AV block after the use of marijuana. After he had abstained from marijuana for 72 hours, the AV block disappeared. We have discussed possible effects of marijuana on the cardiovascular system. PMID:6261403

Akins, D; Awdeh, M R

1981-03-01

181

The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Methods and analyses Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case–control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. Ethics and dissemination The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the public domain through published articles and other reports. PMID:25770234

Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

2015-01-01

182

A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Venlafaxine-Extended Release for Co-occurring Cannabis Dependence and Depressive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate whether venlafaxine-extended release (VEN-XR) is an effective treatment for cannabis dependence with concurrent depressive disorders. Design This was a randomized, 12 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of outpatients (n = 103) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants received up to 375 mg VEN-XR on a fixed-flexible schedule or placebo. All patients received weekly individual cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy that primarily targeted marijuana use. Settings The trial was conducted at two university research centers in the United States. Participants One hundred and three cannabis dependent adults participated in the trial. Measurements The primary outcome measures were 1) abstinence from marijuana defined as at least two consecutive urine-confirmed abstinent weeks and 2) improvement in depressive symptoms based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Findings The proportion of patients achieving a clinically significant mood improvement [50% decrease in Hamilton Depression score from baseline] was high and did not differ between groups receiving VEN-XR (63%) and placebo (69%) (X12=0.48, p-value= 0.49). The proportion of patients achieving abstinence was low overall, but was significantly worse on VEN-XR (11.8%) compared to placebo (36.5%) (X12=7.46, p-value<0.01; OR = 4.51, 95% CI: 1.53, 13.3). Mood improvement was associated with reduction in marijuana use in the placebo group (F1,179=30.49, p-value<0.01), but not the VEN-XR group (F1,186=0.02, p-value=0.89). Conclusions For depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, venlafaxine-extended release does not appear to be effective at reducing depression and may lead to an increase in cannabis use. PMID:23297841

Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.; Agosti, Vito; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A.; Carpenter, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

183

Synthesis and in vitro autoradiographic evaluation of a novel high-affinity radioiodinated ligand for imaging brain cannabinoid subtype-1 receptors  

E-print Network

radioligand in non-human primate. Ã? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is one beneficial effects of cannabis intake may include anti-emesis and appetite stimulation. Conversely abundant and psychoactive cannabi- noid, D9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (D9 -THC, 1), binds with high affin- ity

Shen, Jun

184

[Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].  

PubMed

The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction. PMID:24701869

Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

2014-02-01

185

Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

Paulson, Patricia

186

Marijuana as an Antiemetic Drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the antiemetic drug preferences of practicing adult oncologists and to estimate the frequency of use of marijuana smoke as an antiemetic agent. Design: Identical mailed questionnaire surveys on antiemetic preferences, distributed prior to approval of ondansetron. Sample: Two groups of practicing clinical adult oncologists were surveyed. The first group (N = 120) consisted of every twentieth board-certified,

Richard H. Schwartz; Roy A. Beveridge

1994-01-01

187

Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

2012-01-01

188

Atomoxetine for treatment of marijuana dependence: a report on the efficacy and high incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events in a pilot study.  

PubMed

Marijuana users consistently demonstrate impairments in attention, executive function and response inhibition, which resemble deficits seen in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that targeting the cognitive deficits associated with chronic marijuana use through ADHD medications may help identify a therapeutic agent for marijuana dependence. Thirteen subjects participated in an 11-week open label study to determine the feasibility, safety and tolerability of atomoxetine for individuals seeking treatment for marijuana dependence. The Time-Line Follow-Back measured marijuana use 90 days prior to study entry (p-TLFB) and weekly during the study (s-TLFB) along with weekly qualitative urine drug screen (UDS). For the eight subjects who completed the trial, the TLFB data showed a trend toward reduction in use with an increase in percent days abstinent (p=0.06). Analysis of weekly UDSs did not confirm the TLFB trend with 94% of all possible UDSs positive for THC through out the study. Marijuana dependent subjects taking atomoxetine experienced an inordinate number of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. Overall, 10 of 13 subjects (77%) experienced a mild to moderate GI adverse event defined as nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and loose stools. Atomoxetine is of limited utility in the treatment of cannabis dependence and is associated with clinically significant GI adverse events. PMID:18182254

Tirado, Carlos F; Goldman, Marina; Lynch, Kevin; Kampman, Kyle M; Obrien, Charles P

2008-04-01

189

Jason B. West,1 Ph.D.; Janet M. Hurley,1  

E-print Network

Ratios of Marijuana. I. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes Describe Growth Conditions* ABSTRACT: There remains significant uncertainty in illicit marijuana cultivation. We analyzed the d13 C and d15 N of 508 Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States (1

Ehleringer, Jim

190

Menthol Cigarette and Marijuana Use Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Menthol cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents is high; however, little is known about dual use in this age. Thus, we examined these rates among 2 samples of adolescents in Connecticut. Methods: Study 1 examined a school-wide survey assessing variables related to cigarettes and marijuana among high school students (N = 837 [13% smokers]), and Study 2 examined these factors using baseline data of high school–aged, treatment-seeking, daily cigarette smokers prior to quitting (N = 132). Results: In Study 1, lifetime marijuana use among all adolescents was 33% and past 30-day marijuana use was 21%. Among cigarette smokers, 55% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 84% reported lifetime marijuana use, and 66% reported past 30-day marijuana use. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that cigarette smokers, when compared with nonsmokers, had greater rates of lifetime (odds ratio [OR] = 10.91) and past 30-day marijuana use (OR = 10.44). Among smokers, use of menthol cigarettes, when compared with use of nonmenthol cigarettes, was associated with greater lifetime (OR = 5.05) but not past 30-day marijuana use. In Study 2 with daily smokers, 59% of adolescents reported use of menthol cigarettes and 66% reported past 30-day marijuana use. Compared with nonmenthol cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette smokers were more likely to report past 30-day marijuana use (OR = 2.44). Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is associated with marijuana use, and among smokers, menthol cigarette smoking further increased the odds of marijuana use. More research on the dual use of marijuana and tobacco is needed to inform prevention and treatment of substance use. PMID:23884319

2013-01-01

191

Medical Cannabis Patients: Patient Profiles and Health Care Utilization Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible medicinal uses of cannabis are growing, yet research on how patients use medical cannabis facility services remains scarce. This article reports on the Cannabis Care Study, in which 130 medical cannabis patients at seven facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area were surveyed to gather information about demographics, personal health practices, health outcomes, service use, and satisfaction with

Amanda Reiman

2007-01-01

192

Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.  

PubMed

As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. PMID:15173518

Joffe, Alain

2004-06-01

193

Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.  

PubMed

Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

2014-04-01

194

Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users  

PubMed Central

Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

2014-01-01

195

Medical marijuana diversion and associated problems in adolescent substance treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known.

Christian Thurstone; Shane A. Lieberman; Sarah J. Schmiege

2011-01-01

196

Medical Marijuana: Tribulations and Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread use of smoked marijuana in the San Francisco Bay Area as a treatment for HIV-related anorexia and weight loss, as well as nausea related to prescribed therapy, prompted the design of a clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this controlled substance. The Community Consortium—the Bay Area's community-based HIV clinical trials organization—designed a first pilot evaluation of

Donald I. Abrams

1998-01-01

197

Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 ?m) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 ?m), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

2012-01-01

198

Using Cannabis To Help You Sleep: Heightened Frequency of Medical Cannabis Use among Those with PTSD  

PubMed Central

Background The use of cannabis for medical purposes is proliferating in the U.S., and PTSD is an explicitly approved condition for accessing medical cannabis in 5 states. Prior research suggests that people with PTSD often use cannabis to help cope with their condition, and that doing so results in more frequent and problematic cannabis use patterns. Specific coping motivations, such as sleep improvement, among medical cannabis users, have not been examined. Methods The present study evaluated specific coping use motivations, frequency of cannabis and alcohol use, and mental health among a convenience sample of patients (N=170) at a medical cannabis dispensary in California. Results Those with high PTSD scores were more likely to use cannabis to improve sleep, and for coping reasons more generally, compared with those with low PTSD scores. Cannabis use frequency was greater among those with high PTSD scores who used for sleep promoting purposes compared with those with low PTSD scores or those who did not use for sleep promoting purposes. Conclusions Consistent with prior research, this study found increased rates of coping-oriented use of cannabis and greater frequency of cannabis use among medical users with high PTSD scores compared with low PTSD scores. In addition, sleep improvement appears to be a primary motivator for coping-oriented use. Additional research is needed to examine the health consequences of this pattern of cannabis use and whether alternative sleep promoting interventions (e.g. CBT-I) could reduce the reliance on cannabis for adequate sleep among those with PTSD. PMID:24412475

Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Vandrey, Ryan

2014-01-01

199

Cannabis and caries--does regular cannabis use increase the risk of caries in cigarette smokers?  

PubMed

The use of cannabis by adolescents in Switzerland has almost doubled in the past decade. Empirical observations in private dental practices indicate that cannabis users have more carious lesions than those who do not use cannabis. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that regular cannabis use increases the risk of caries because of hyposalivation or lifestyle. Forty-three regular cannabis users were enrolled in the test group and 42 tobacco smokers were used as a negative control group. All subjects were 18-25 years old. Data were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and a clinical examination. There was no significant difference between groups in decayed and filled surfaces (DFS), saliva flow rate and plaque and gingival indices. The cannabis group had, however, significantly higher DS (decayed surface) values (p = 0.0001) and significantly lower frequencies of daily tooth brushing and dental control visits (p < 0.0001) than the control group. Additionally, the cannabis group reported a significantly higher consumption of sugar-containing beverages than the control group (p = 0.0078). To obtain more objective data relations, the DS values of male cannabis users were also compared with those of Swiss military recruits found in another study. The cannabis users had more caries on smooth surfaces than the military recruits. Although comparison with epidemiological data suggested that the prevalence of caries on smooth surfaces is elevated in cannabis users, DFS data indicated that cannabis users do not have an increased risk of caries. Lifestyle combined with short-term hyposalivation after delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol consumption is the most probable cause of the high prevalence of caries on smooth surfaces in cannabis users. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of cannabis use on oral health. PMID:20112637

Schulz-Katterbach, Michèle; Imfeld, Thomas; Imfeld, Carola

2009-01-01

200

The Marijuana Ladder: Measuring motivation to change marijuana use in incarcerated adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified version of the Contemplation Ladder, a measure of motivation to change marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents (Marijuana Ladder; ML), was related to marijuana use and treatment engagement. Participants (N=122) in this study were all incarcerated at a state juvenile correctional facility in the Northeast. Adolescents were assessed at the

James D. Slavet; L. A. R. Stein; Suzanne M. Colby; Nancy P. Barnett; Peter M. Monti; Charles Golembeske; Rebecca Lebeau-Craven

2006-01-01

201

Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana.  

PubMed

Marijuana and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increase heart rate, slightly increase supine blood pressure, and on occasion produce marked orthostatic hypotension. Cardiovascular effects in animals are different, with bradycardia and hypotension the most typical response. Cardiac output increases, and peripheral vascular resistance and maximum exercise performance decrease. Tolerance to most of the initial cardiovascular effects appears rapidly. With repeated exposure, supine blood pressure decreases slightly, orthostatic hypotension disappears, blood volume increases, heart rate slows, and circulatory responses to exercise and Valsalva maneuver are diminished, consistent with centrally mediated, reduced sympathetic, and enhanced parasympathetic activity. Receptor-mediated and probably nonneuronal sites of action account for cannabinoid effects. The endocannabinoid system appears important in the modulation of many vascular functions. Marijuana's cardiovascular effects are not associated with serious health problems for most young, healthy users, although occasional myocardial infarction, stroke, and other adverse cardiovascular events are reported. Marijuana smoking by people with cardiovascular disease poses health risks because of the consequences of the resulting increased cardiac work, increased catecholamine levels, carboxyhemoglobin, and postural hypotension. PMID:12412837

Jones, Reese T

2002-11-01

202

The social context of cannabis use: Relationship to cannabis use disorders and depressive symptoms among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated the association between the social context of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). This longitudinal study of college students aimed to: develop a social context measure of cannabis use; examine the degree to which social context is associated with the transition from non-problematic cannabis use to CUD; and, examine the association between social context of

Kenneth H. Beck; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O'Grady; Eric D. Wish; Amelia M. Arria

2009-01-01

203

Effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: I am treating a 27-year-old woman who is now in her 10th week of pregnancy. She smokes marijuana two to three times a week, but does not use other drugs. She also smokes 20 cigarettes a day. I am concerned about the effects of marijuana exposure on her baby. ANSWER: It is not always possible to isolate the effect of marijuana exposure from other possible confounders on pregnancy outcome. Although marijuana is not an established human teratogen, recent well conducted studies suggest it might have subtle negative effects on neurobehavioural outcomes, including sleep disturbances, impaired visual problem solving, hyperactivity, impassivity, inattention, and increased delinquency. PMID:11228023

Kozer, E.; Koren, G.

2001-01-01

204

Sex, Drugs, and Cognition: Effects of Marijuana  

PubMed Central

Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana including attention, cognitive flexibility, time estimation, and visuospatial processing. As expected, acute marijuana use impaired performance on selective and divided attention, time estimation, and cognitive flexibility. While there did not appear to be sex differences in marijuana's effects on cognition, women requested to discontinue the smoking session more often than men likely leading to an underestimation of differences. Further study of psychological differences in marijuana's effects on men and women following both acute and residual effects of marijuana is warranted. PMID:21305906

Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

205

Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: Investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMarijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence.

Magdalena Cerdá; Melanie Wall; Katherine M. Keyes; Sandro Galea; Deborah Hasin

206

On the future of cannabis as medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of herbal marijuana as a medicine is here to stay. Both its safety and efficacy have been well established through much anecdotal and clinical experience. Pharmaceutical cannabinoid pro- ducts will be developed, some of which may successfully compete with the de facto gold standard, legally available herbal marijuana.

Lester Grinspoon

2007-01-01

207

Cannabis smoke condensate I: the effect of different preparation methods on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.  

PubMed

Cannabis sativa contains more than 400 known compounds, of which the terpene chemicals, called cannabinoids, are unique to this species. The cannabinoids, which occur as the corresponding acids in the plant material, are the major psychoactive components in this species. The compounds are decarboxylated from the inactive acidic form into the active form by means of smoking. Previous research has made use of the tobacco industry's standard method and adaptations thereof to produce a cannabis smoke condensate. In this study the method of smoke production, which includes the puff frequency, puff length, and puff volume, was tested and the concentration of the major cannabinoid, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the amount of by-products produced under the different conditions were quantified. This study aimed at combining the existing methodology and at providing quantitative results on the influence of the preparation method on the concentration of THC in the smoke. The results indicate that the method of smoke production influences the amount of THC produced (e.g., longer puff length yielding a higher amount of THC). The THC concentration in the smoke condensate varied between 22.17 mg/g of cannabis and 54.00 mg/g, while the amount of by-products produced varied between 25.57 mg/g and 107.40 mg/g. PMID:18645719

Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

2008-07-01

208

Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.  

PubMed

Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129

Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

2012-03-01

209

Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

2004-01-01

210

Marijuana and the Use of Other Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well established that the use of marijuana by young people is positively correlated with at least the experimental use of other drugs1. The probability that an individual uses the strong hallucinogens such as LSD and other drugs rises sharply with increasing frequency of marijuana use2. Such associations are not, of course, sufficient to establish causal relationships between the

William McGlothlin; Kay Jamison; Steven Rosenblatt

1970-01-01

211

The Effects of Marijuana on Human Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating the effects of marijuana on human psychological functioning, this study differs from previous research in two ways: 1) it is concerned with relatively complex cognitive processes; 2) it has a theoretical rationale. The general hypothesis of the study states that marijuana will impair its user's ability to form and use abstract…

Pearl, Joseph H.

212

Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

2005-01-01

213

A Synthesis of Current Research On Marijuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)

Brubaker, Timothy H.

1973-01-01

214

Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

2010-01-01

215

Marijuana smoking and cold tolerance in man.  

PubMed

Ten men who were marijuana users served as subjects in a study of the effects of marijuana smoking on response to cold. Cold water (28 degrees C for 60 min) and cold air (20 degrees C for 120 min) mediums were utilized with three exposures in each medium. The three exposures followed smoking marijuana, smoking placebo, and a no-smoking control period. Additionally, a breathhold experiment preceded and followed the four smoking periods. Marijuana and placebo smoke were inhaled from a spirometer with each man receiving the smoke of 0.739 g of marijuana and placebo. Smoking marijuana did not greatly modify body heat content, since rectal temperature and most peripheral temperatures were not altered. However, temperatures over voluntary muscles likely to be involved in shivering were elevated. Heat production also greatly increased after marijuana, suggesting that it had stimulated shivering. Marijuana also produced tachycardia and abolished apneic bradycardia. The mechanism of this action is not clear, but some sympathetic involvement is indicated. PMID:779756

Hanna, J M; Strauss, R H; Itagaki, B; Kwon, W J; Stanyon, R; Bindon, J; Hong, S K

1976-06-01

216

Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda  

PubMed Central

Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

2011-01-01

217

Marijuana Use among Students and Peers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A casual path model based on Sutherland's theory was developed and applied to student marijuana use as a specific delinquent act. Two types of differential association were suggested to explain the genesis of marijuana use for the individual. The data tended to lend support to the causal path model. (Author/LPG)

Griffin, Brenda S.; Griffin, Charles T.

1978-01-01

218

Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Results Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B = 0.274, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B = 0.0168, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B = 0.0153, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.027). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. PMID:25622777

Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D.C.; Freeman, Tom P.; Das, Ravi K.; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

2015-01-01

219

Laboratory detection of marijuana use. Experience with a photometric immunoassay to measure urinary cannabinoids.  

PubMed

The urinary excretion of cannabinoids was determined using a photometric immunoassay technique among adolescents and young adults who had an abrupt and closely supervised cessation of drug use on entering a strict rehabilitation program. No falsely positive urine test results were encountered among 70 persons admitted consecutively to the program. Among five subjects with a history of chronic, heavy marijuana use (approximately 56 g/mo [approximately 2 oz/mo]), urinary cannabinoids were detected for an average of 13 days (range, nine to 25 days), following cessation of use. Among four subjects with a history of moderate marijuana use (approximately 28 g/mo [approximately 1 oz/mo]), test results remained positive for an average of 4.7 days (range, two to eight days). Test results were negative 48 hours after cessation in two subjects with a history of infrequent use (less than 7 g/mo [0.25 oz/mo]), who had smoked marijuana within the preceding two days. The specificity of the method for detecting recent marijuana use appears excellent; the sensitivity depends on the potency of the cannabis preparation, the time of last use, the frequency of previous use, and the specific gravity of the urine specimen. On the basis of this preliminary experience, positive test results for more than eight consecutive days suggest either surreptitious continued use or previous chronic, heavy use in a newly abstinent person. Purposeful adulteration of known-positive urine specimens with bleach, blood, vinegar, salt, and liquid soap produced falsely negative results. Unless samples are collected under direct observation, urine color, temperature, specific gravity, and dipstick tests for blood and pH should be recorded. PMID:3904404

Schwartz, R H; Hayden, G F; Riddile, M

1985-11-01

220

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

221

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

222

Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

Hill, Kevin P

2014-09-01

223

Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level III evidence). Conclusion Future guidelines should be based on systematic review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of smoked cannabis. Further research is needed on the effectiveness and long-term safety of smoked cannabis compared with pharmaceutical cannabinoids, opioids, and other standard analgesics. PMID:25500598

Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

2014-01-01

224

Form Description Properties Method of  

E-print Network

Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit drug in Australia. There were 627 detections of cannabis at the border in 2006–07, 24 percent more than the previous reporting period. However, there was a minor decrease in the weight of cannabis detected. Sixty-two percent of all border detections of cannabis involved the importation of seeds. In 2006–07, 69 percent of national drug arrests were for cannabis offences. 36 ILLICIT DRUG DATA REPORT 2006–07Main Forms Cannabis plants are categorised into two types: hemp and marijuana. Hemp is fibrous and low in psychoactive components and is primarily used to produce paper, clothes and skin care products. Cannabis sativa is the botanical name for the commonly used term, marijuana. Unlike hemp, marijuana is high in psychoactive components and appears in various forms that are commonly used as a drug. The main forms of cannabis and methods of administration are shown

Herbal Cannabis

225

Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. Sources of information PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Main message Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians should give information on lower-risk cannabis use to all cannabis users. Conclusion Physicians should screen all patients in their practices at least once for cannabis use, especially those who have problems that might be caused by cannabis. Physicians should screen those at higher risk more often, at least annually. Lower-risk cannabis use should be distinguished from problematic use. Brief counseling should be provided to those with problematic use; these patients should be referred to specialists if they are unable to reduce or cease use. PMID:25217674

Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

2014-01-01

226

Nabilone Decreases Marijuana Withdrawal and a Laboratory Measure of Marijuana Relapse  

PubMed Central

Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8?mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2–8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8?mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule ‘liking' or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment. PMID:23443718

Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

2013-01-01

227

Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not

Rosalie Liccardo Pacula

1998-01-01

228

Alcohol Use Potentiates Marijuana Problem Severity in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Background Most young adult women who smoke marijuana also drink alcohol. Marijuana-related problems are associated with marijuana use frequency. We hypothesized that increased alcohol use frequency potentiates the association between frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problem severity. Methods We recruited women age 18–24 who smoked marijuana at least monthly and were not treatment-seeking. Marijuana and alcohol use were measured using the Timeline Followback method. Problems associated with marijuana use were assessed using the Marijuana Problems Scale. Findings Participants (n=332) averaged 20.5 (± 1.8) years of age, were 66.7% non-Hispanic White, and reported using marijuana on 51.5 (± 30.6) and alcohol on 18.9 (± 16.8) of the 90 previous days. Controlling for education, ethnicity, years of marijuana use, and other drug use, frequency of marijuana use (b = .22, p < .01) and frequency of alcohol use (b = 0.13, p < .05) had statistically significant positive effects on marijuana problem severity. In a separate multivariate model, the linear by linear interaction of marijuana by alcohol use frequency was statistically significant (b = 0.18, p < .01) consistent with the hypothesis. Conclusions Concurrent alcohol use impacts the experience of negative consequences from marijuana use in a community sample of young women. Discussions of marijuana use in young adults should consider the possible potentiating effects of alcohol use. PMID:24439950

Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

229

The Influence of Marijuana Use on Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana use is common in adolescence, yet neural consequences have not been well delineated. This review seeks to ascertain whether heavy marijuana use in adolescence is associated with persistent neurocognitive abnormalities, and whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the impact of chronic marijuana use than adults. Among heavy marijuana using adults, neurocognitive deficits are apparent for several days following use,

Alecia D. Schweinsburg; Sandra A. Brown; Susan F. Tapert

2008-01-01

230

Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent

D. Mark Anderson; Daniel I. Rees

2011-01-01

231

Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

2010-01-01

232

Prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders  

PubMed Central

The study examined the prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Participants were 80 adolescents between 13 and 22 years of age with co-occurring bipolar I disorder and cannabis abuse or dependence who reported ever trying a cigarette. Diagnostic and symptom severity measures were completed as part of the baseline assessments for a clinical trial. Almost half (49%) of these participants who ever tried a cigarette were current heavy smokers (?10 cigarettes/day), and 70% met DSM-IV-TR lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking was associated with older age, heavier marijuana use and greater compulsive craving, lifetime diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, illicit drug use disorders, and poorer overall functioning. Nicotine dependence was related to White race, higher current mania severity, and poorer overall functioning. These findings suggest that heavy smoking and nicotine dependence were highly prevalent among these adolescents. Although both were associated with greater physical and psychosocial problems, only heavy smoking was linked to a clear pattern of more severe substance-related and psychiatric problems. Further research to elucidate mechanisms and develop interventions to address early, entrenched patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana is warranted. PMID:23684537

Heffner, Jaimee L.; Anthenelli, Robert M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Beavers, Jennifer; DelBello, Melissa P.

2013-01-01

233

Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.  

PubMed

The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia. PMID:12877759

Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

2003-01-01

234

Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.  

PubMed

Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

2011-10-10

235

Medical marijuana and driving: a review.  

PubMed

Medical marijuana remains a highly debated treatment regimen despite removal of state penalties against care providers prescribing the drug and patients treated with the drug in many areas of the USA. The utility of marijuana in specific medical conditions has been studied at length, but its effects on driving performance and risk of motor vehicle collision remain unclear. As with other medications that affect psychomotor function, the healthcare provider should be informed of the potential risks of driver safety prior to prescribing this psychotropic drug to give appropriate anticipatory guidance for appropriate use. The goal of this narrative review is to assess the current literature regarding marijuana as it relates to driving performance and traffic safety. With a foundation in the pharmacology of cannabinoids, we consider the limitations of testing cannabinoid and metabolite concentration. In addition, we will review studies on driving performance and epidemiological studies implicating marijuana in motor vehicle collisions. The increasing prevalence of medical marijuana laws in the USA suggests that clinicians should be aware of marijuana's influence on public safety. Patients should abstain from driving for 8 h if they achieve a subjective "high" from self-treatment with smoked marijuana and should be aware of the cumulative effects of alcohol and other psychoactive xenobiotics. PMID:24648180

Neavyn, Mark J; Blohm, Eike; Babu, Kavita M; Bird, Steven B

2014-09-01

236

Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes  

PubMed Central

Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:21976636

Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

2012-01-01

237

California: marijuana compassionate use statewide initiative.  

PubMed

An initiative to legalize medical access to and use of marijuana was submitted to the California Attorney General. Supporters must collect 430,000 valid signatures to include the initiative on California's 1996 ballot. The initiative allows possession, personal use, and cultivation of marijuana for a specified group of patients and exempts from punishment the patient's primary caregiver and the recommending physician. Californians for Compassionate Use views the petition as a vehicle to document public support of medical use of marijuana. Advocates are urged to write, call, or fax Californians for Compassionate Use for information on how to help gather signatures. PMID:11362878

1995-10-01

238

Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.  

PubMed

The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena. PMID:24405197

Rubens, Muni

2014-01-01

239

Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... Action Raise the Wage See All Top Issues Economy Education Foreign Policy Health Care Immigration Climate Change ... Seniors and Social Security Taxes Technology Urban and Economic Mobility Veterans Violence Prevention Women The Administration People ...

240

Gynecomastia and cannabis smoking. A nonassociation among US Army soldiers.  

PubMed

Eleven patients diagnosed with idiopathic gynecomastia requiring mammoplasty were compared with matched controls to determine if there was an association between cannabis use and gynecomastia. Patients with gynecomastia were not significantly different from controls regarding their history of cannabis use. For those who admitted using cannabis, patients had a higher frequency but a shorter median duration of use than controls; differences were not statistically significant. Our epidemiologic evidence does not support the previously reported relationship between chronic cannabis use and gynecomastia. PMID:920892

Cates, W; Pope, J N

1977-11-01

241

Jordanian adolescent cannabis use: Patterns, risks, and protective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cannabis is considered to be the most commonly used substances worldwide. Its use is not only common among adolescents but is increasing in developing countries such as Jordan. Cannabis use among adolescents has been linked to unintentional injuries, physical fights, academic problems, and illegal behavior such as driving under the influence. Studies of cannabis use patterns, risks, and protective

Sukaina Abd Al-Rhmman Alzyoud

2010-01-01

242

Cannabis & Psychosis: The Interface Emerging Frontiers for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: CANNABIS CONTINUES TO AFFECT MENTAL HEALTH. ITS ABUSE IS ON RISE GLOBALLY. IN CANADA A RISE BY 30% IN LAST TEN YEARS HAS BEEN OBSERVED IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. INTERRELATIONSHIP OF CANNABIS WITH PSYCHOSIS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA IS A COMPLEX ONE. CANNABIS IS HIGHLY COMORBID WITH PSYCHOSIS, & RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY AND OUTCOME. IT POSES SEVERAL CHALLENGES IN UNDERSTANDING

Amresh Shrivastava

2008-01-01

243

Cannabis use and suicidal behaviours in high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative contributions of cannabis use, depressive and anxious symptoms in the prediction of suicidal behaviors. Participants were 248 high-school students who completed questionnaires assessing cannabis use, suicidal behaviors, depressive and anxious symptoms. Cannabis use was a significant independent predictor of suicidal behaviors after adjustment for depressive and anxious symptoms.

Henri Chabrol; Emeline Chauchard; Jennifer Girabet

2008-01-01

244

Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Cannabis Use and Prospective Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study,

Carrie Cuttler; Ryan J. McLaughlin; Peter Graf

2012-01-01

245

Análisis del patrón de consumo de cannabis en estudiantes universitarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of cannabis use amongst a sample of 580 university students (88.4% female, mean age 21.4 years old) were analysed. Proportionally more males than females normally consume cannabis, although there was no difference in the amount of consumption by gender. Perceived dependence on cannabis increased with the amount of consumption. There was also a positive relationship between tobacco and

María EugEnia

2006-01-01

246

Polysubstance Use in Cannabis Users Referred for Treatment: Drug Use Profiles, Psychiatric Comorbidity and Cannabis-Related Beliefs  

PubMed Central

Background: Population-based surveys demonstrate cannabis users are more likely to use both illicit and licit substances, compared with non-cannabis users. Few studies have examined the substance use profiles of cannabis users referred for treatment. Co-existing mental health symptoms and underlying cannabis-related beliefs associated with these profiles remains unexplored. Methods: Comprehensive drug use and dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis) data were collected on a sample of 826 cannabis users referred for treatment. Patients completed the General Health Questionnaire, Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire, Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Positive Symptoms and Manic-Excitement subscales of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Latent class analysis was performed on last month use of drugs to identify patterns of multiple drug use. Mental health comorbidity and cannabis beliefs were examined by identified drug use pattern. Results: A three-class solution provided the best fit to the data: (1) cannabis and tobacco users (n?=?176), (2) cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol users (n?=?498), and (3) wide-ranging substance users (n?=?132). Wide-ranging substance users (3) reported higher levels of cannabis dependence severity, negative cannabis expectancies, lower opportunistic, and emotional relief self-efficacy, higher levels of depression and anxiety and higher manic-excitement and positive psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, co-morbid psychopathology, and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment. PMID:23966956

Connor, Jason P.; Gullo, Matthew J.; Chan, Gary; Young, Ross McD.; Hall, Wayne D.; Feeney, Gerald F. X.

2013-01-01

247

The occurrence of cannabis use disorders and other cannabis-related problems among first-year college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and other cannabis-related problems in a large cohort (n=1253) of first-year college students, 17 to 20 years old, at one large public university in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Interviewers assessed past-year cannabis use, other drug use, and cannabis-related problems (including DSM-IV criteria for CUD). The prevalence of CUD was

Kimberly M. Caldeira; Amelia M. Arria; Kevin E. O'Grady; Kathryn B. Vincent; Eric D. Wish

2008-01-01

248

Abstinence symptoms following smoked marijuana in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of withdrawal after oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration have been reported, yet little is known about the development of dependence on\\u000a smoked marijuana in humans. In a 21-day residential study, marijuana smokers (n = 12) worked on five psychomotor tasks during the day (0915–1700 hours), and in the evening engaged in recreational activities\\u000a (1700–2330 hours); subjective-effects measures were completed 10

M. Haney; Amie S. Ward; Sandra D. Comer; Richard W. Foltin; Marian W. Fischman

1999-01-01

249

Community attitudes towards cannabis law and the proposed Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a prohibition with civil penalties scheme for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. Previous criminological research has demonstrated the importance of public attitudes towards the law in determining the effectiveness of legislation. This survey represents the first phase of a pre-post study that attempted to gauge public attitudes towards the legal status of cannabis, the proposed legislative reforms surrounding the drug and their likely effects. A random telephone survey of 809 members of the WA population was conducted prior to the implementation of the new laws with a view to exploring contemporary views of the existing legal status of cannabis, attitudes to the proposed legislative model and respondent perceptions of its likely effects. Despite cannabis being viewed negatively by large numbers of the sample, criminal penalties for minor cannabis offences were viewed as inappropriate and ineffective. Once explained, the proposed civil penalty scheme was viewed as 'a good idea' by 79% of the sample, despite significant differences due to personal experience of cannabis use, political affiliation, religiosity and age of offspring. Most believed that the legislative change would not result in changes to levels of cannabis use (70%) or ease of obtaining cannabis (59%). These data suggest that prior to its implementation the new legislation was highly acceptable to the majority of the community. These baseline data will be compared with data to be collected at the post-change phase of the study to allow empirical observations of attitudinal and behavioural changes occurring in the community. PMID:16234125

Fetherston, James; Lenton, Simon

2005-07-01

250

Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (N = 164), ages 14–18 (x? age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Results Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared to those who did not use medical marijuana. Conclusions Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. PMID:22721592

Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

2012-01-01

251

Societal images of Cannabis use: comparing three countries  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. Conclusions These findings emphasize the extent to which views about Cannabis can vary. It is possible that views about Cannabis are, at least in part, a social construction influenced by media, social policy and exposure to the drug that varies from country to country. PMID:22709959

2012-01-01

252

Subjective effects to marijuana associated with marijuana use in community and clinical subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMarijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among adolescents. Marijuana use induces both psychological and physiological responses, which can be interpreted by an individual in a variety of ways (i.e. subjective effects). We have examined subjective effects in adolescent, young adult community, and clinical populations to determine how patterns of use may be predicted by an individual's subjective experiences

Joanna S. Zeiger; Brett C. Haberstick; Robin P. Corley; Marissa A. Ehringer; Thomas J. Crowley; John K. Hewitt; Christian J. Hopfer; Michael C. Stallings; Susan E. Young; Soo Hyun Rhee

2010-01-01

253

Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

2005-01-01

254

Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.  

PubMed

Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365386

James, J S

1998-04-01

255

Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users  

PubMed Central

Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

2013-01-01

256

Objective and subjective memory ratings in cannabis-dependent adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exists exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. Methods The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N=112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. Results A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a “serious problem” with memory loss. Those participants reporting “no problem” or “serious problem” scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. Conclusions and Scientific Significance This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. PMID:25823635

McClure, Erin A.; Lydiard, Jessica B.; Goddard, Scott D.; Gray, Kevin M.

2015-01-01

257

Weed or Wheel! fMRI, Behavioural, and Toxicological Investigations of How Cannabis Smoking Affects Skills Necessary for Driving  

PubMed Central

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underling safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli (“self”) and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. These findings bolster the zero-tolerance policy adopted in several countries that prohibits the presence of any amount of drugs in blood while driving. PMID:23300977

Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard

2013-01-01

258

Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20?mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4?°C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20?mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20?mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20?mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20?mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana. PMID:23609132

Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

2013-09-01

259

The Potential Impact of Legalizing Marijuana : An Examination with Respect to Health, Crime, and Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examines the potential impact of legalizing marijuana with respect to health, crime, and the economy. The findings do not favor or refute marijuana legalization exclusively. The results are mixed. Although marijuana use is harmful to health, medical marijuana appears to be worth being considered. Little evidence shows marijuana use contributes to the commission of crimes. Legalizing marijuana is

Szde Yu

2009-01-01

260

La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

261

Effects of cannabis on pulmonary structure, function and symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide. Long?term use of cannabis is known to cause chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction, but the prevalence of macroscopic emphysema, the dose?response relationship and the dose equivalence of cannabis with tobacco has not been determined. Methods A convenience sample of adults from the Greater Wellington region was recruited into four smoking groups: cannabis only, tobacco only, combined cannabis and tobacco and non?smokers of either substance. Their respiratory status was assessed using high?resolution CT (HRCT) scanning, pulmonary function tests and a respiratory and smoking questionnaire. Associations between respiratory status and cannabis use were examined by analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Results 339 subjects were recruited into the four groups. A dose?response relationship was found between cannabis smoking and reduced forced expiratory volume in 1?s to forced vital capacity ratio and specific airways conductance, and increased total lung capacity. For measures of airflow obstruction, one cannabis joint had a similar effect to 2.5–5 tobacco cigarettes. Cannabis smoking was associated with decreased lung density on HRCT scans. Macroscopic emphysema was detected in 1/75 (1.3%), 15/92 (16.3%), 17/91 (18.9%) and 0/81 subjects in the cannabis only, combined cannabis and tobacco, tobacco alone and non?smoking groups, respectively. Conclusions Smoking cannabis was associated with a dose?related impairment of large airways function resulting in airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. In contrast, cannabis smoking was seldom associated with macroscopic emphysema. The 1:2.5–5 dose equivalence between cannabis joints and tobacco cigarettes for adverse effects on lung function is of major public health significance. PMID:17666437

Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Mathew; Nowitz, Mike; Weatherall, Mark; Pritchard, Alison; McNaughton, Amanda; Robinson, Geoffrey; Beasley, Richard

2007-01-01

262

Concurrence chez Vicia sativa L et Avena sativa L. II. Effets des contraintes hydriques et nutritionnelles  

E-print Network

Agronomie Concurrence chez Vicia sativa L et Avena sativa L. II. Effets des contraintes hydriques Summary ― Competition in Vicia sativa L and Avena sativa L. II. Effects of water and nutritional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Increased Mortality, Hypoactivity, and Hypoalgesia in Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in preparations of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hashish), elicits central nervous system (CNS) responses, including congnitive alterations and euphoria. These responses account for the abuse potential of cannabis, while other effects such as analgesia suggest potential medicinal applications. To study the role of the major known target of cannabinoids in the CNS, the

Andreas Zimmer; Anne M. Zimmer; Andrea G. Hohmann; Miles Herkenham; Tom I. Bonner

1999-01-01

264

Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.  

PubMed

An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000ng/mL for some subjects 129h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

2015-04-01

265

A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers  

PubMed Central

Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions including mood lability, sleep disruption, and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in nontreatment seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were inpatient. On the first inpatient day, active marijuana (6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, decreased caloric intake, and weight loss. Compared to placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake, and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence. PMID:22741619

Cooper, Ziva D.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret

2012-01-01

266

Cannabis in Multiple Sclerosis: Women's Health Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's health has received greater attention with the recognition of significant differences in disease expression and drug action in men and women. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder with important gender differences. MS patients have employed cannabis to treat a number of symptoms associated with the disease including spasticity, pain, tremor, fatigue, and autonomic dysfunction. The scientific literature includes supportive

Denis J. Petro

2002-01-01

267

[Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].  

PubMed

There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite. PMID:25697213

Mönckeberg B, Fernando

2014-04-01

268

Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects. PMID:24564006

Wilkinson, Samuel T

2013-01-01

269

Pretreatment with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases cocaine-stimulated activity in adolescent but not adult male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) remains one of the most widely used illegal drugs, with adolescents being particularly vulnerable to its use and abuse. In spite of this, most studies are conducted in adult animals even though the effects might be quite different in adolescents. Additionally, the use of marijuana often precedes the use of other psychoactive drugs including cocaine, especially when

Diana Dow-Edwards; Sari Izenwasser

270

Endogenous cannabinoid system as a modulator of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) to increase hunger has been noticed for centuries, although intensive research on its molecular mode of action started only after the characterization of its main psychoactive component ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the late 1960s. Despite the public concern related to the abuse of marijuana and its derivatives, scientific studies have pointed to the therapeutic potentials of

D Cota; G Marsicano; B Lutz; V Vicennati; G K Stalla; R Pasquali; U Pagotto

2003-01-01

271

Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

2014-01-01

272

Reactivity to cannabis cues in virtual reality environments.  

PubMed

Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

Bordnick, Patrick S; Copp, Hilary L; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian L; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

2009-06-01

273

Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize  

PubMed Central

Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer PMID:17437626

Earleywine, Mitch; Barnwell, Sara Smucker

2007-01-01

274

Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. With debate surrounding the legalization and control of use, investigating its health risks has become a pressing area of research. One established association is that between cannabis use and schizophrenia, a debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population over their lifetime. Although considerable evidence implicates cannabis use as a component cause of schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether this is entirely due to cannabis directly raising risk of psychosis, or whether the same genes that increases psychosis risk may also increase risk of cannabis use. In a sample of 2,082 healthy individuals, we show an association between an individual’s burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis. This was significant both for comparing those who have ever vs. never used cannabis (p=2.6×10?4), and for quantity of use within users (p=3.0×10?3). While directly predicting only a small amount of the variance in cannabis use, these findings suggest that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology. This form of gene-environment correlation is an important consideration when calculating the impact of environmental risk factors, including cannabis use. PMID:24957864

Power, Robert A.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Zuhair, Mohamed; Montgomery, Grant W.; Henders, Anjali K.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Medland, Sarah E.; Wray, Naomi R.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2015-01-01

275

Predictors of cessation of marijuana use: an event history analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event history analysis was applied to monthly life and drug histories of a representative community sample of 706 marijuana users, followed from ages 15–16 to 34–35, to investigate factors associated with cessation of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood. In addition to age and gender, the most important determinants of cessation are the phenomenology of marijuana use, social role participation,

Kevin Chen; Denise B Kandel

1998-01-01

276

Acute and Residual Effects of Marijuana in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana continues to be the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States. Because many people abuse marijuana during the evening and on weekends and then go to work or school the next day, more research is needed on the residual effects of marijuana. The current study sought to examine both acute and residual subjective, physiologic, and performance effects

Reginald V. Fant; Stephen J. Heishman; Edward B. Bunker; Wallace B. Pickworth

1998-01-01

277

Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

2012-01-01

278

Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and is considered by young adults to be the illicit drug with the least risk. On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers.

Mia Hashibe; Kurt Straif; Donald P. Tashkin; Hal Morgenstern; Sander Greenland; Zuo-Feng Zhang

2005-01-01

279

Liberty Lost: The Moral Case for Marijuana Law Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana policy analyses typically focus on the relative costs and benefits of present policy and its feasible alternatives. This Essay addresses a prior, threshold issue: whether marijuana criminal laws abridge fundamental individual rights, and if so, whether there are grounds that justify doing so. Over 700, 000 people are arrested annually for simple marijuana possession, a small but significant proportion

Eric Blumenson; Eva Nilsen

2010-01-01

280

Treatment of marijuana dependence: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, relatively little research has focused on the treatment of marijuana abuse or dependence; however, marijuana use disorders are now receiving increased attention. This paper reviews the initial clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of outpatient treatments for adult marijuana dependence. Findings from five controlled trials of psychotherapeutic interventions suggest that this disorder appears responsive to the same types of

Aimee L. McRae; Alan J. Budney; Kathleen T. Brady

2003-01-01

281

Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

2012-01-01

282

Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The pharmacology, therapeutic uses, safety, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions of medical mari- juana are reviewed, and the legal issues related to its use and the implications of medical marijuana for the pharmacist are presented. Summary. Marijuana contains more than 460 active chemicals and over 60 unique cannabinoids. The legal landscape sur- rounding marijuana is surprisingly complex and unsettled.

MATTHEW J. SEAMON; JENNIFER A. FASS; MARIA MANISCALCO-FEICHTL; NADA A. ABU-SHRAIE

2007-01-01

283

Effects of Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke on Human Lung Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOUSE lung explants exposed to smoke from cigarettes to which marijuana was added have been reported to display more cellular abnormalities than those exposed to smoke from cigarettes without marijuana1. We report here a study designed to test the effects of smoke from cigarettes made of marijuana only on human lung explants, and to compare these effects with those obtained

Cecile Leuchtenberger; Rudolf Leuchtenberger; Andrée Schneider

1973-01-01

284

Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana has been proposed as treatment for a widening spectrum of medical conditions. Marijuana is a substance with many properties that may be applicable to the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These include analgesia, muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, saliva reduction, appetite stimulation, and sleep induction. In addition, marijuana has now been shown to have strong antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, which

Gregory T. Carter; Bill S. Rosen

2001-01-01

285

Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking

Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai

1994-01-01

286

Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

Finn, Kristin V.

2012-01-01

287

The Effect of Marijuana Scenes in Anti-Marijuana Public Service Announcements on Adolescents' Evaluation of Ad Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service

Yahui Kang; Joseph N. Cappella; Martin Fishbein

2009-01-01

288

Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed, and less is known on the performance of non-treatment-seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction remain relatively unexplored. We compared young adult current cannabis users (CU, n?=?65) and

Raul Gonzalez; Randi Melissa Schuster; Robin J. Mermelstein; Jasmin Vassileva; Eileen M. Martin; Kathleen R. Diviak

2012-01-01

289

Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Background: Although about 7 million people in the US population use marijuana at least weekly, there is a paucity,of scientific data,on persistent,neurocognitive,effects of marijuana,use. Objective: To determine,if neurocognitive deficits persist,in 28-day abstinent,heavy,marijuana,users,and,if these,deficits are,dose-related,to the,number,of marijuana,joints smoked,per,week.,Methods: A battery,of neurocognitive,tests was,given,to 28-day abstinent,heavy marijuana abusers. Results: As joints smoked per week increased, performance decreased on tests measuring memory, executive functioning,

K. I. Bolla; K. Brown; D. Eldreth; K. Tate; J. L. Cadet

2006-01-01

290

The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update  

PubMed Central

Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:24648785

Schoeler, Tabea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

2013-01-01

291

Factor structure of cannabis related beliefs in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated 285 high school students (163 males, 122 females, with a mean age of 17.5±1.1 years) using a questionnaire for the diagnosis of cannabis use and dependence: 159 of them (55.7%) were cannabis users and, among users, 52 subjects (33%) met criteria for cannabis dependence. All subjects were assessed with a self-report questionnaire derived from the questionnaire of

Henri Chabrol; Eve Massot; Etienne Mullet

2004-01-01

292

The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States  

PubMed Central

Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

2014-01-01

293

The current status of medical marijuana in the United States.  

PubMed

Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

McKenna, Gerald J

2014-04-01

294

Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.  

PubMed

Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested. PMID:18855154

Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

2009-02-01

295

Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

2013-01-01

296

Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use.  

PubMed

We investigated the morphology of multiple brain regions in a rare sample of 15 very heavy cannabis users with minimal psychiatric comorbidity or significant exposure to other substances (compared with 15 age- and IQ-matched non-cannabis-using controls) using manual techniques. Heavy cannabis users demonstrated smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes, but no alterations of the orbitofrontal and anterior- and paracingulate cortices, or the pituitary gland. These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use has a selective and detrimental impact on the morphology of the mediotemporal lobe. PMID:25431432

Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Whittle, Sarah; Fornito, Alex; Lubman, Dan I; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2015-01-01

297

Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.  

PubMed

Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

2013-01-01

298

Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

Petersen, Robert C.

1979-01-01

299

An approach to the medical marijuana controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of smoked marijuana as a therapeutic agent is presently a matter of considerable debate in the United States. Many people suffering from a variety of disorders maintain that it is necessary for their adequate treatment. Yet, the evidence to support claims is insufficient for FDA approval. An interim solution is proposed which would allow patients referred by their

L. E Hollister

2000-01-01

300

Dealing in Marijuana: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study attempts to construct a career outline of 100 Chicano drug dealers in South Texas who had been arrested and placed on probation for possession of marijuana with intent to sell. The findings suggest general patterns of conditions leading to dealing in drugs. The probationers were raised in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods and received little formal education. They are

Estevan T. Flores

1981-01-01

301

Marijuana on main street: What if?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit drug use is prevalent around the world. While the nature of the market makes it difficult to determine the total sales worldwide with certainty, estimates suggest sales are around $150 billion a year in the United States alone. Among illicit drugs marijuana is the most commonly used, where the US government spends upwards of $7.7 billion per year in

Liana Jacobi; Michelle Sovinsky

2012-01-01

302

The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

2011-01-01

303

Pregnancy, breast-feeding, and marijuana: a review article.  

PubMed

Marijuana is a commonly used drug. At present, it remains an illegal substance in most areas of the United States. Recent controversy regarding the perceived harms of this drug has resulted in debate in both legal and medical circles. This review examines evidence regarding the effects of marijuana exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding. We examined studies pertaining to fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal findings, and continued development of fetuses and neonates exposed to marijuana through adolescence. In addition, the legal implications for women using marijuana in pregnancy are discussed with recommendations for the care of these patients. The current evidence suggests subtle effects of heavy marijuana use on developmental outcomes of children. However, these effects are not sufficient to warrant concerns above those associated with tobacco use. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. It is predominantly used for its pleasurable physical and psychotropic effects. With the recent changes to legislature in Colorado and Washington State making the recreational use of marijuana legal, marijuana has gained national attention. This raises the question: If it is legal for a woman to consume marijuana, what is the safety of this activity in pregnancy and breast-feeding? Moreover, do the harms of marijuana use on the fetus or infant justify the mandatory reporting laws in some states? PMID:25101905

Hill, Meg; Reed, Kathryn

2013-10-01

304

Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?  

PubMed

The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients. PMID:25199471

Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

2015-02-01

305

Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens  

PubMed Central

Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

2009-01-01

306

Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and perceived effectiveness of marijuana use has not been well studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing legal permission for its use in Crohn's disease. Health care providers have little guidance about the IBD symptoms that may improve with marijuana use. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and perceived benefits of marijuana use among patients with IBD. Methods Prospective cohort survey study of marijuana use patterns in patients with IBD at an academic medical center. Results A total of 292 patients completed the survey (response rate = 94%); 12.3% of patients were active marijuana users, 39.0% were past users, and 48.6% were never users. Among current and past users, 16.4% of patients used marijuana for disease symptoms, the majority of whom felt that marijuana was “very helpful” for relief of abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, age and chronic abdominal pain were associated with current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–0.97; P < 0.001 and OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.24-9.82; P = 0.02). Age and chronic abdominal pain were also multivariate predictors of medicinal use of marijuana (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.97; P < 0.001 and OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8–12.2; P = 0.001). Half of the never users expressed an interest in using marijuana for abdominal pain, were it legally available. Conclusions A significant number of patients with IBD currently use marijuana. Most patients find it very helpful for symptom control, including patients with ulcerative colitis, who are currently excluded from medical marijuana laws. Clinical trials are needed to determine marijuana's potential as an IBD therapy and to guide prescribing decisions. PMID:24185313

Allegretti, Jessica Ravikoff; Courtwright, Andrew; Lucci, Matthew; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Levine, Jonathan

2014-01-01

307

Original article Ploidy of embryogenic Medicago sativa  

E-print Network

Original article Ploidy of embryogenic Medicago sativa subsp. falcata germplasms François Blondon; accepted 2 December 1998) Abstract - The germplasms Medicago sativa L. subsp. falcata WY-RF1 (Reg. no. GP / embryogenesis / Medicago sativa L. subsp. falcata Résumé - Ploïdie de lignées embryogènes de Medicago sativa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke.

Robert Melamede

2005-01-01

309

Cannabis, the mind and society: the hash realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis has been known for at least 4,000 years to have profound effects on the mind — effects that have provoked dramatically divergent attitudes towards it. Some societies have regarded cannabis as a sacred boon for mankind that offers respite from the tribulations of everyday life, whereas others have demonized it as inevitably leading to 'reefer madness'. The debate between

Paul D. Morrison; Cécile Henquet; Marta Di Forti; Robin M. Murray

2007-01-01

310

Cannabis use correlates with schizotypal personality traits in healthy students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that cannabis use and schizotypal traits both constitute risk factors for the later development of schizophrenia. However, their interrelationships remain to be evaluated. The present study examined the association between cannabis use and schizotypal traits in 232 healthy students who ranged in age from 18 to 25 years. All the students had completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire

Patrick Dumas; Mohamed Saoud; Sébastien Bouafia; Christel Gutknecht; René Ecochard; Jean Daléry; Thierry Rochet; Thierry d'Amato

2002-01-01

311

Cannabis use and delinquent behaviors in high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative contributions of cannabis use, alcohol use, psychopathic and borderline personality traits, and depressive symptoms in the prediction of delinquent behaviors. Participants were 312 high-school students who completed self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the contribution of cannabis use and potential confounding variables to delinquent behaviors in

Henri Chabrol; Carine Saint-Martin

2009-01-01

312

Cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various lines of evidence suggest an association between cannabis and psychosis. Five years ago, the only significant case-control study addressing this question was the Swedish Conscript Cohort. Within the last few years, other studies have emerged, allowing the evidence for cannabis as a risk factor to be more systematically reviewed and assessed. Using specific search criteria on Embase, PsychINFO and

David M. Semple; Andrew M. McIntosh; Stephen M. Lawrie

2005-01-01

313

Pathways from Cannabis to Psychosis: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

The nature of the relationship between cannabis use (CU) and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of CU. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong CU and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not CU ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis. PMID:24133460

Burns, Jonathan K.

2013-01-01

314

State of the Art Treatments for Cannabis Dependence  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews established and emerging treatment options for cannabis dependence. Cannabis dependence poses some distinct challenges for treatment providers. The evolving sociocultural context of cannabis use for medical purposes, policy liberalization, and societal normalization has contributed to decreased perceived risk and increased acceptability of use. Simultaneously, the comparatively lower “severity” of cannabis-associated consequences makes it more difficult for some users to recognize the impact of their use and establish an enduring commitment to change. As a result, many treatment seekers are reluctant to accept traditional abstinence-based goals. Among treatment providers, consensus has not been established about the value of non-abstinence goals, such as moderation and harm reduction. Notwithstanding these challenges, the high prevalence of cannabis dependence, its strong association with co-morbid mental health problems, and the difficulty of achieving cannabis cessation ensure that many psychiatrists will face patients with cannabis dependence. While no pharmacotherapy has been approved for cannabis dependence, a number of promising approaches are in development. Psychotherapy studies are establishing a number of evidence-based models and techniques in the treatment resources for patients in need. PMID:22640758

Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A.

2012-01-01

315

Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.  

PubMed

Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities. PMID:24793873

Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

2014-10-01

316

Personality differences in monozygotic twins discordant for cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To explore the association between cannabis and personality scores when genetic background and shared environment are controlled for. Design The co-twin control design. This design provides a powerful method for controlling for the effects of potentially confounding familial factors that may act to predispose subjects both to cannabis use and a particular personality profile. Participants 118 monozygotic twin pairs

Jacqueline M. Vink; Laura Nawijn; Dorret I. Boomsma; Gonneke Willemsen

2007-01-01

317

The Endocannabinoid Anandamide : Metabolism & Neuroprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is an extract of the Cannabis sativa and is the most used illegal drug in the world. Public debate centres upon the possible legalization of marijuana for recreational and therapeutic uses. DELTA-exp.9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, exerts its action by binding to G-protein-coupled membrane receptors, i.e. the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. The biochemical and pharmacological

Marcelis van der Stelt

2002-01-01

318

Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details  

PubMed Central

This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episodes Data System (TEDS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to medical marijuana laws without this supply source. PMID:25558490

Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L.

2014-01-01

319

The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

320

Policy designs for cannabis legalization: starting with the eight Ps.  

PubMed

The cannabis policy landscape is changing rapidly. In November 2012 voters in Colorado and Washington State passed ballot initiatives to remove the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and possession of cannabis. This paper does not address the question of whether cannabis should be legal; it instead focuses on the design considerations confronting jurisdictions that are pondering a change in cannabis policy. Indeed, whether or not cannabis legalization is net positive or negative for public health and public safety largely depends on regulatory decisions and how they are implemented. This essay presents eight of these design choices which all conveniently begin with the letter "P": production, profit motive, promotion, prevention, potency, purity, price, and permanency. PMID:24853283

Kilmer, Beau

2014-07-01

321

Experiences of Australian school staff in addressing student cannabis use.  

PubMed

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended Generation Next seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the majority of school staff had discussed cannabis use at least once in the past year, although teachers were less likely to report having cannabis-related discussions compared to other school staff. Staff drug education training was consistently associated with an increased prevalence of cannabis-related discussion and assistance. These findings highlight a need for drug education among school staff and particularly among teachers. PMID:25068166

Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

2013-01-01

322

Contributions of social influences and expectations of use to cannabis use in high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative contributions of peers cannabis use or non-use, parental approval of such use, adolescents' own beliefs about use, to the prediction of cannabis use. The participants were 559 high-school students who completed questionnaires assessing the frequency of cannabis use, the number of peers using cannabis, the number of peers opposed to

Henri Chabrol; Emeline Chauchard; Joel Dicial Mabila; Régine Mantoulan; Aurélie Adèle; Amélie Rousseau

2006-01-01

323

Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views

Anna Buadze; Rudolf Stohler; Beate Schulze; Michael Schaub; Michael Liebrenz

2010-01-01

324

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...1138 Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled...

2013-07-01

325

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...1138 Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled...

2012-07-01

326

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...1138 Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled...

2011-07-01

327

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...1138 Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled...

2014-07-01

328

The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.  

PubMed

This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:25624385

Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

2015-03-01

329

32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances...eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances...

2010-07-01

330

The Acceptance of Medicinal Marijuana in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical use of cannabis has become increasingly widespread due to state laws sanctioning its use. The extent of use was estimated by surveying official patient registries, private patients' groups, and physicians specializing in cannabis medicine. As of May, 2002, five states with official registration programs reported a total of over 3,400 patients, ranging from a high of 79 patients per

Dale H. Gieringer

2003-01-01

331

Physician Attitudes Regarding the Prescription of Medical Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of physicians' attitudes regarding the therapeutic value of marijuana are rare. Drawing on a national sample of family physicians, general internists, obstetrician-gynecologists, psychiatrists, and addiction specialists, 960 (adjusted response rate 66%) offered opinions about the legal prescription of “marijuana as medical therapy.” Thirty-six percent believed prescribed marijuana should be legal and 26% were neutral to the proposition. Non-moralistic attitudes

Anthony Charuvastra; Peter D. Friedmann; Michael D. Stein

2005-01-01

332

Medical Marijuana: A Survey of Teenagers and Their Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and their teenage children were questioned about medical marijuana and whether they believed that passage of medical marijuana laws in their states would increase teenage use of marijuana for non-medical purposes. A 24-question written survey was distributed separately to teenager\\/parent pairs who visited 1 of 2 suburban general pediatric offices located in Vienna, Virginia or Mason, Ohio. Completed surveys

Richard H. Schwartz; Meghan N. Cooper; Marife Oria; Michael J. Sheridan

2003-01-01

333

Exploring the Impact of Medical Marijuana Laws on the Validity of Self-Reported Marijuana Use Among Juvenile Arrestees Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies have found that underreporting of marijuana use is particularly high. The present study extends previous research that examined the temporal validity of self-reported marijuana use among juvenile arrestees. Furthermore, the present study explores whether the passage of medical marijuana laws in some states have affected the validity of self-reported marijuana use among juvenile arrestees. Using existing juvenile offender

Riane N. Miller; Joseph B. Kuhns

2012-01-01

334

Marijuana withdrawal and craving: influence of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine whether withdrawal after abstinence and cue-elicited craving were associated with polymorphisms within two genes involved in regulating the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNR1 (rs2023239) and FAAH (rs324420) genes, associated previously with substance abuse and functional changes in cannabinoid regulation, were examined in a sample of daily marijuana smokers. Participants Participants were 105 students at the University of Colorado, Boulder between the ages of 18 and 25 years who reported smoking marijuana daily. Measurements Participants were assessed once at baseline and again after 5 days of abstinence, during which they were exposed to a cue-elicited craving paradigm. Outcome measures were withdrawal and craving collected using self-reported questionnaires. In addition, urine samples were collected at baseline and on day 5 for the purposes of 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC–COOH) metabolite analysis. Findings Between the two sessions, THC–COOH metabolite levels decreased significantly, while measures of withdrawal and craving increased significantly. The CNR1 SNP displayed a significant abstinence × genotype interaction on withdrawal, as well as a main effect on overall levels of craving, while the FAAH SNP displayed a significant abstinence × genotype interaction on craving. Conclusions These genetic findings may have both etiological and treatment implications. However, longitudinal studies will be needed to clarify whether these genetic variations influence the trajectory of marijuana use/dependence. The identification of underlying genetic differences in phenotypes such as craving and withdrawal may aid genetically targeted approaches to the treatment of cannabis dependence. PMID:18705688

Haughey, Heather M.; Marshall, Erin; Schacht, Joseph P.; Louis, Ashleigh; Hutchison, Kent E.

2010-01-01

335

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).  

PubMed

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

2015-01-01

336

The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.  

PubMed

The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P < .0001) and are younger on average (35 years old vs 42, P < .0001). The most common mechanisms of injury among patients who test cannabis+ or cannabis- are similar. Flame injury makes up >60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients, cannabis+ patients are more likely to be uninsured (25.2% vs 17.26%, P < .0001). Finally, patients who test cannabis+ have larger burns (TBSA% of 12.94 vs 10.98, P < .0001), have a longer length of stay (13.31 days vs 12.6, P = .16), spend more days in the ICU (7.84 vs 6.39, P = .0006), and have more operations (2.78 vs 2.05, P < .0001). The rate patients testing positive for cannabis in burn units is growing quickly. These patients are younger and are less likely to be insured. These patients also have larger burns, spend more time in ICUs, and have a greater number of operations. The increasing use of cannabis, as expected from legalization of cannabis in multiple states, among burn patient population may lead to increased burden on already tenuous health care resources. PMID:25412052

Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

2015-01-01

337

Cannabinoid potentiation of glycine receptors contributes to cannabis-induced analgesia  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoids enhance the function of glycine receptors (GlyRs). However, little is known about the mechanisms and behavioral implication of cannabinoid-GlyR interaction. Using mutagenesis and NMR analysis, we have identified a serine at 296 in the GlyR protein critical for the potentiation of IGly by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana. The polarity of the amino acid residue at 296 and the hydroxyl groups of THC are critical for THC potentiation. Removal of the hydroxyl groups of THC results in a compound that does not affect IGly when applied alone but selectively antagonizes cannabinoid-induced potentiating effect on IGly and analgesic effect in a tail-flick test in mice. The cannabinoid-induced analgesia is absent in mice lacking ?3GlyRs but not in those lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors. These findings reveal a new mechanism underlying cannabinoid potentiation of GlyRs, which could contribute to some of the cannabis-induced analgesic and therapeutic effects. PMID:21460829

Xiong, Wei; Cheng, KeJun; Cui, Tanxing; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Rice, Kenner; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Li

2012-01-01

338

The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.  

PubMed

The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465

Decorte, Tom

2010-07-01

339

Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.  

PubMed

Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

Hopfer, Christian

2014-01-01

340

The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency  

PubMed Central

Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

2014-01-01

341

Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies  

PubMed Central

The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. The mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce transient psychotic symptoms, while unclear may involve dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurotransmission. However, only a very small proportion of the general population exposed to cannabinoids develop a psychotic illness. It is likely that cannabis exposure is a “component cause” that interacts with other factors to “cause” schizophrenia or a psychotic disorder, but is neither necessary nor sufficient to do so alone. Nevertheless, in the absence of known causes of schizophrenia, the role of component causes remains important and warrants further study. Dose, duration of exposure, and the age of first exposure to cannabinoids may be important factors, and genetic factors that interact with cannabinoid exposure to moderate or amplify the risk of a psychotic disorder are beginning to be elucidated. The mechanisms by which exposure to cannabinoids increase the risk for developing a psychotic disorder are unknown. However, novel hypotheses including the role of cannabinoids on neurodevelopmental processes relevant to psychotic disorders are being studied. PMID:19609589

Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

2010-01-01

342

Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.  

PubMed

The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. PMID:24598271

Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

2014-04-01

343

Jordanian Adolescent Cannabis Use: Patterns, Risks, And Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aJORDANIAN ADOLESCENT CANNABIS USE:\\u000aPATTERNS, RISKS, AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS\\u000aby\\u000aSUKAINA ALZYOUD\\u000aMonth, 2010\\u000aAdvisor: Dr. Stephanie Schim\\u000aMajor: Nursing\\u000aDegree: Doctor of Philosophy\\u000aBackground: Cannabis is considered to be the most commonly used substances worldwide. Its use is not only common among adolescents but is increasing in developing countries such as Jordan. Cannabis use among adolescents has been linked

Sukaina A. Alzyoud

2010-01-01

344

Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts.  

PubMed

The association between level of cannabis consumption and development of schizophrenia during a 15-year follow-up was studied in a cohort of 45,570 Swedish conscripts. The relative risk for schizophrenia among high consumers of cannabis (use on more than fifty occasions) was 6.0 (95% confidence interval 4.0-8.9) compared with non-users. Persistence of the association after allowance for other psychiatric illness and social background indicated that cannabis is an independent risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:2892048

Andréasson, S; Allebeck, P; Engström, A; Rydberg, U

1987-12-26

345

Cannabis, the mind and society: the hash realities.  

PubMed

Cannabis has been known for at least 4,000 years to have profound effects on the mind--effects that have provoked dramatically divergent attitudes towards it. Some societies have regarded cannabis as a sacred boon for mankind that offers respite from the tribulations of everyday life, whereas others have demonized it as inevitably leading to 'reefer madness'. The debate between the protagonists and prohibitionists has recently been re-ignited, but unfortunately this debate continues mainly in ignorance of our new understanding of the effects of cannabis on the brain and of studies that have quantified the extent of the risks of long-term use. PMID:17925811

Murray, Robin M; Morrison, Paul D; Henquet, Cécile; Di Forti, Marta

2007-11-01

346

Effects of chronic, heavy cannabis use on executive functions.  

PubMed

This case describes the clinical course of a cannabis-dependent individual entering a 12-week abstinence-based research program. The case illustrates the effects of chronic, heavy cannabis use on executive functions at three time points: 1) 24 hours of abstinence; 2) 4 weeks of abstinence; and 3) 12 weeks of abstinence. It is followed by discussions by two clinical psychologists and a psychiatrist. The findings described here have important clinical implications, as executive functions have a vital role in treatment participation and in sustaining recovery. It should be of particular interest to clinicians who work with people with cannabis use disorders. PMID:21643485

Crean, Rebecca D; Tapert, Susan F; Minassian, Arpi; Macdonald, Kai; Crane, Natania A; Mason, Barbara J

2011-03-01

347

The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users.  

PubMed

Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control). PMID:23950748

Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J

2013-01-01

348

The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users  

PubMed Central

Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control). PMID:23950748

Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

2013-01-01

349

Assessing the effects of medical marijuana laws on marijuana use: the devil is in the details.  

PubMed

This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to MMLs without this supply source. PMID:25558490

Pacula, Rosalie L; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L

2015-01-01

350

Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

Ostrowsky, Michael K.

2011-01-01

351

Clinical and Psychological Effects of Marijuana in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1968 we conducted a series of pilot experiments on acute marijuana intoxication in human sub- jects. The study was not undertaken to prove or disprove popularly held convictions about marijuana as an intoxicant, to compare it with other drugs, or to introduce our own opinions. Our concern was simply to collect some long overdue pharmacological data.

Andrew T. Weil; Norman E. Zinberg; Judith M. Nelsen

1969-01-01

352

Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

2008-01-01

353

Interaction of 5HTTLPR and Marijuana Use on Property Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine whether a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR) moderates the effects of marijuana use on property offending. The results reveal that 5HTTLPR interacts with marijuana use to predict significantly higher levels of property offending for African American females. The interaction coefficient is not statistically significant

Jamie Vaske; Jamie Newsome; Matthew Makarios; John Paul Wright; Brian B. Boutwell; Kevin M. Beaver

2009-01-01

354

A gateway to nature: Teenagers' narratives on smoking marijuana outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, many youth are disconnected from the natural world; rather, they inhabit a technological world. Although experiences in nature have long been a source of fascination, little is known about how youth independently access and make sense of nature. We focus on the experiences of youth who chose to use marijuana in nature. A substance such as marijuana is often

Barbara M. Moffat; Joy L. Johnson; Jean A. Shoveller

2009-01-01

355

State Medical Marijuana Laws: Understanding the Laws and their Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Since the 1970s, numerous states have had medical marijuana laws. However, public policy makers, activists and the media have given significant attention to the debate regarding allowances for medical marijuana use since the 1996 California and Arizona ballot initiatives. Much of this on-going debate stems from confusion about the various ways states approach the issue. In this paper, we

Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Jamie F. Chriqui; Deborah A. Reichmann; Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath

356

Addiction Medicine Perspective on the Medicalization of Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many medical, ethical, legal and political issues have been raised by legislation in California removing criminal penalties for the medical use of marijuana. The California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) has taken an addiction medicine perspective on the use of marijuana as medicine in an effort to create a neutral framework for dealing with these issues. As part of this

Timmen L. Cermak

1998-01-01

357

Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain  

PubMed Central

Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects. PMID:25385625

Filbey, Francesca M.; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith

2014-01-01

358

Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic

Joan L Bottorff; Joy L Johnson; Barbara M Moffat; Tamsin Mulvogue

2009-01-01

359

Marijuana Use Prevention: The In-DEPTH Model Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five years marijuana use has doubled among eighth, 10th and 12th grade students, and in several demographics it has tripled. The recent debate over the legalization of medical marijuana (California's Proposition 215), positive media messages, lack of parent\\/child discussion, and denial by schools and communities may be contributing factors to the rise of drug use among adolescents.

Lynn Lafferty

1998-01-01

360

Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

2010-01-01

361

Continued detention involvement and adolescent marijuana use trajectories.  

PubMed

Justice-involved youth have high rates of marijuana use. Less is known about what may drive these rates, particularly when justice-involved youth return to the community. One factor that has been implicated is continued detention involvement. Yet, it is unknown how this factor may influence marijuana use trajectories. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, the researchers evaluated the association between continued detention involvement and marijuana use trajectories in two large, ethnically diverse samples of community-based, justice-involved youth. Across both samples, marijuana use decreased over time for youth with continued detention involvement but did not change for youth without continued detention involvement. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the influence of detention involvement in community-based, justice-involved adolescents' marijuana use trajectories. This study also highlights the importance of coordinating prevention/intervention programming for justice-involved youth once they are in the community. PMID:24272742

Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D

2014-01-01

362

Variabilit des phnomnes d'interfrence entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.. I. Dynamique  

E-print Network

Agronomie Variabilité des phénomènes d'interférence entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.. I; Variability of the phenomena of interferences between Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. I. Growth dynamics

Boyer, Edmond

363

Variabilit des phnomnes d'interfrences entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.  

E-print Network

Agronomie Variabilité des phénomènes d'interférences entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L. : II of the phenomena of interferences between Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.: II. Nitro- gen nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Evidence for Connections between Prosecutor-Reported Marijuana Case Dispositions and Community Youth Marijuana-Related Attitudes and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines relationships between local drug policy (as represented by prosecutor-reported case outcomes for first-offender juvenile marijuana possession cases) and youth self-reported marijuana use, perceived risk, and disapproval. Interviews with prosecutors and surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States were…

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; VanderWaal, Curtis J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2009-01-01

365

Cannabis and cognitive dysfunction: Parallels with endophenotypes of schizophrenia?  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is a lot of interest in cannabis use as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction associated with long-term or heavy cannabis use is similar in many respects to the cognitive endophenotypes that have been proposed as vulnerability markers of schizophrenia. In this overview, we examine the similarities between these in the context of the neurobiology underlying cognitive dysfunction, particularly implicating the endogenous cannabinoid system, which plays a significant role in attention, learning and memory, and in general, inhibitory regulatory mechanisms in the brain. Closer examination of the cognitive deficits associated with specific parameters of cannabis use and interactions with neurodevelopmental stages and neural substrates will better inform our understanding of the nature of the association between cannabis use and psychosis. The theoretical and clinical significance of further research in this field is in enhancing our understanding of underlying pathophysiology and improving the provision of treatments for substance use and mental illness. PMID:17245472

Solowij, Nadia; Michie, Patricia T.

2007-01-01

366

Cannabis: a controversial 21st-century drug of antiquity.  

PubMed

Cannabis consumption has been popular for thousands of years and its historical use is noted in many parts of the world including ancient China, India, the Middle East. It is currently the most popular illicit drug in the world, is being utilized as a medicinal plant, and many parts of the world are legalizing this drug. This discussion considers various aspects of cannabis use including its prevalence, history, co-morbid drug abuse, designer cannabinoids, psychiatric adverse effects, medical adverse effects, and management options. The youth of the world should be comprehensively taught that cannabis is neither a safe nor a benign drug. Prevention with comprehensive drug education is the best plan for our youth since management of a chronic or heavy cannabis consummer remains difficult and fraught with failure if cessation is the goal. Caveat emptor! PMID:24940853

Greydanus, D; Holt, M

2014-05-01

367

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia  

PubMed Central

The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture. PMID:19036842

Russo, Ethan B.; Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J.; Zhao, You-Xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-Bing; Lü, En-Guo; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

2008-01-01

368

Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.  

PubMed

France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools. PMID:25099311

Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

2014-11-01

369

Cannabis use predicts future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To assess if cannabis use is a risk factor for future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa, in adolescents and young adults from the general population. Design Cohort study. Setting\\/participants 'Zuid Holland' study, a 14-year follow-up study of 1580 initially 4-16-year-olds who were drawn randomly from the Dutch general pop- ulation. Because cannabis use is generally condoned in the Netherlands,

Robert F. Ferdinand; Frouke Sondeijker; Jan van der Ende; Jean-Paul Selten; Anja Huizink; Frank C. Verhulst

2005-01-01

370

Cannabis consumption initiation among adolescents: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate factors related to initiation of cannabis consumption among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 2043 14–15-year-olds from Barcelona who were followed-up and re-interviewed after 15months. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with consumption, and multivariate logistic regression was carried out to model cannabis initiation. Among matched students, 23.7% of non-users at

Anna Pérez; Carles Ariza; Francesca Sánchez-Martínez; Manel Nebot

2010-01-01

371

Trajectories of adolescent alcohol and cannabis use into young adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Both alcohol and cannabis use carry health risks. Both are commonly initiated in adolescence. To date little research has described trajectories of adolescent cannabis or alcohol use or compared their respective conse- quences in young adulthood.Methods The design was a 10-year eight-wave cohort study of a state-wide community sample of 1943 Victorians initially aged 14-15 years. Moderate- and high-risk

George C. Patton; Carolyn Coffey; Michael T. Lynskey; Sophie Reid; Sheryl Hemphill; John B. Carlin; Wayne Hall

2007-01-01

372

THE PREVALENCE OF CANNABIS-INVOLVED DRIVING IN CALIFORNIA  

PubMed Central

Background Various national surveys suggest that cannabis use is rising nationally, and many States have passed legislation that has potential to increase usage even further. This presents a problem for public roadways, as research suggests that cannabis impairs driving ability. Methods Anonymous oral fluid samples and breath tests were obtained from more than 900 weekend nighttime drivers randomly sampled from six jurisdictions in California. Oral fluid samples were assayed for the presence of Schedule I drugs. Drivers also completed information on self-reported drug use and possession of a medical cannabis permit. Data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (collected using comparable methods) were used as a comparison. Results Using the 2010 data, a total of 14.4% of weekend nighttime drivers tested positive for illegal drugs, with 8.5% testing positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC-positive rates varied considerably among jurisdictions, from a low of 4.3% in Fresno to a high of 18.3% in Eureka. A comparison with the 2007 NRS data found an increase in THC-positive drivers in 2010, but no increase in illegal drugs other than cannabis. Drivers who reported having a medical cannabis permit were significantly more likely to test positive for THC. Conclusions Cannabis-involved driving has increased in California since 2007. Nearly 1-in-10 weekend, nighttime drivers tested positive for THC, and in some jurisdictions, the rate was nearly 1-in-5. The possible contribution of cannabis legislation, such as decriminalization and medical cannabis usage, is discussed. PMID:22101027

Johnson, Mark B.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John H.

2013-01-01

373

Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis?related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger?like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre?Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

2014-01-01

374

Alteration to hippocampal shape in cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in hippocampal morphology are characteristic of schizophrenia and have also been reported in chronic cannabis users. There is a paucity of research investigating potential additive effects of cannabis use on brain pathology associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we performed hippocampal shape analysis in cannabis-using and non-using patients with schizophrenia, healthy cannabis users and healthy non-using controls. Hippocampal shape changes were observed in each group relative to controls, with the greatest degree of alterations (i.e., deflations across the hippocampus, and with an anterior predisposition), in cannabis-using schizophrenia patients. These alterations were associated with cannabis use patterns and psychotic symptoms. PMID:23201308

Solowij, Nadia; Walterfang, Mark; Lubman, Dan I; Whittle, Sarah; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Styner, Martin; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2013-01-01

375

Marijuana Use and Increased Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. In some subcultures, it is widely perceived to be harmless. Although the carcinogenic properties of marijuana smoke are similar to those of tobacco, no epidemiological studies of the relationship between marijuana use and head and neck cancer have been published. The relationship between marijuana use and head and

Zuo-Feng Zhang; Hal Morgenstern; Margaret R. Spitz; Donald P. Tashkin; Guo-Pei Yu; James R. Marshall; T. C. Hsu; Stimson P. Schantz

1999-01-01

376

Exposure opportunity as a mechanism linking youth marijuana use to hallucinogen use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to shed light upon an observed association between the use of marijuana and hallucinogens (e.g. LSD), with a specific focus on the idea that two separate mechanisms might link marijuana use to hallucinogen use: (1) greater hallucinogen exposure opportunity for marijuana users versus nonusers; (2) increased probability of hallucinogen use for marijuana users versus

Holly C. Wilcox; Fernando A. Wagner; James C. Anthony

2002-01-01

377

Neuropsychological functioning in adolescent marijuana users: Subtle deficits detectable after a month of abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adults, studies examining the long-lasting cognitive effects of marijuana use demonstrate subtle deficits in attention, executive function, and memory. Because neuromaturation continues through adolescence, these results cannot necessarily generalize to adolescent marijuana users. The goal of this study was to examine neuropsychological functioning in abstinent marijuana using and demographically similar control adolescents. Data were collected from 65 adolescent marijuana

KRISTA LISDAHL MEDINA; KAREN L. HANSON; ALECIA D. SCHWEINSBURG; MAIRAV COHEN-ZION; BONNIE J. NAGEL; SUSAN F. TAPERT

2007-01-01

378

Medical Marijuana in HIV-Positive Patients: What Do We Know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 4, 2008, our state passed the Michigan Medical Marijuana Act (MMMA), which allows the medical use of marijuana for certain conditions and\\/or constellation of symptoms. This article will (1) review the current evidence that medical marijuana is useful for certain chronic conditions, particularly pain and wasting syndromes experienced by HIV-positive people; (2) discuss the adverse effects of marijuana;

Sandro Cinti

2009-01-01

379

Cannabis Controversies: How genetics can inform the study of comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Aims To review three key and controversial comorbidities of cannabis use – other illicit drug use, psychosis and depression as well as suicide, from a genetically informed perspective. Design Selective review. Results Genetic factors play a critical role in the association between cannabis use, particularly early-onset use and use of other illicit drugs, psychosis and depression as well as suicide, albeit via differing mechanisms. For other illicit drugs, while there is strong evidence for shared genetic influences, residual association that is attributable to causal or person-specific environmental factors cannot be ruled out. For depression, common genetic influences are solely responsible for the association with cannabis use but for suicidal attempt, evidence for person-specific factors persists. Finally, even though rates of cannabis use are inordinately high in those with psychotic disorders, there is no evidence of shared genetic etiologies underlying this comorbidity. Instead, there is limited evidence that adolescent cannabis use might moderate the extent to which diathesis influences psychosis. Conclusions Overlapping genetic influences underlie the association between early-onset cannabis use and other illicit drug use as well as depression and suicide. For psychosis, mechanisms other than shared genetic influences might be at play. PMID:24438181

Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

2014-01-01

380

Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders. Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects. Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis. PMID:23408483

Murthy, Pratima; Bharath, M.M. Srinivas

2012-01-01

381

Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?  

PubMed

The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable. PMID:24606496

Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

2014-06-01

382

High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.  

PubMed

The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so. PMID:22080902

Hilderbrand, Richard L

2011-11-01

383

Identification and differentiation of resinous cannabis and textile cannabis: combined use of HPLC and high-resolution GLC.  

PubMed

The combined use of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) afforded a means of isolating three substances in samples of cannabis, of determining their retention times in HPLC and in GLC with and without derivation, and of identifying them, by comparison with the data in the literature, with the three major constituents of cannabis: cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabinol (CBN), without using either control substances or a mass spectrometer. Furthermore, calculation of the peak area ratios (formula: see text); for the different sample varieties can serve as a criterion for the differentiation of resinous cannabis and textile cannabis. PMID:6272923

Debruyne, D; Moulin, M; Bigot, M C; Camsonne, R

1981-01-01

384

Self-Reported Collision Risk Associated With Cannabis Use and Driving After Cannabis Use Among Ontario Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effects of cannabis use and driving after cannabis use on self-reported collision involvement within the previous 12 months while controlling for demographics, driving exposure, binge drinking, and driving after drinking based on a large representative sample of adults in Ontario.Methods: Data are based on the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults

Robert E. Mann; Gina Stoduto; Anca Ialomiteanu; Mark Asbridge; Reginald G. Smart; Christine M. Wickens

2010-01-01

385

The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (? three days per week in the past 12 months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the transition from frequent non-dependent cannabis use to cannabis dependence, and remission from dependence. Besides its scientific relevance, this knowledge may contribute to improve selective and indicated prevention, early detection, treatment and cannabis policies. The secondary objectives are the identification of factors related to treatment seeking and the validation of self report measures of cannabis use. Between September 2008 and April 2009, baseline data were collected from 600 frequent cannabis users with an average age of 22.1 years, predominantly male (79.3%) and an average cannabis use history of 7.1 years; 42.0% fulfilled a (12-month DSM-IV) diagnosis of cannabis dependence. The response rate was 83.7% after the first follow up at 18 months. The second and last follow-up is planned at 36 months. Computer assisted personal interviews (CAPI) were conducted which covered: cannabis use (including detailed assessments of exposure, motives for use and potency preference); use of other substances; DSM-IV internalizing and externalizing mental disorders; treatment seeking; personality; life events; social support and social functioning. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21815231

van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

2011-01-01

386

Cannabis Use Behaviors and Social Anxiety: The Roles of Perceived Descriptive and Injunctive Social Norms  

PubMed Central

Objective: Individuals with greater social anxiety are particularly vulnerable to cannabis-related impairment. Descriptive norms (beliefs about others’ use) and injunctive norms (beliefs regarding others’ approval of risky use) may be particularly relevant to cannabis-related behaviors among socially anxious persons if they use cannabis for fear of evaluation for deviating from what they believe to be normative behaviors. Yet, little research has examined the impact of these social norms on the relationships between social anxiety and cannabis use behaviors. Method: The current study investigated whether the relationships of social anxiety to cannabis use and use-related problems varied as a function of social norms. The sample comprised 230 (63.0% female) current cannabis-using undergraduates. Results: Injunctive norms (regarding parents, not friends) moderated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problem severity. Post hoc probing indicated that among participants with higher (but not lower) social anxiety, those with greater norm endorsement reported the most severe impairment. Injunctive norms (parents) also moderated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency such that those with higher social anxiety and lower norm endorsement used cannabis less frequently. Descriptive norms did not moderate the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency. Conclusions: Socially anxious cannabis users appear to be especially influenced by beliefs regarding parents’ approval of risky cannabis use. Results underscore the importance of considering reference groups and the specific types of norms in understanding factors related to cannabis use behaviors among this vulnerable population. PMID:24411799

Ecker, Anthony H.; Buckner, Julia D.

2014-01-01

387

Patterns and correlates of cannabis use among individuals with HIV/AIDS in Maritime Canada  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cannabis use in HIV-infected individuals is high and its long-term effects are unclear. METHODS: The prevalence, perceived benefits and consequences, and predictors of cannabis use were studied using a cross-sectional survey in two immunodeficiency clinics in Maritime Canada. RESULTS: Current cannabis use was identified in 38.5% (87 of 226) of participants. Almost all cannabis users (85 of 87 [97.7%]) acknowledged its use for recreational purposes, with 21.8% (19 of 87) reporting medicinal cannabis use. The majority of patients enrolled in the present study reported mild or no symptoms related to HIV (n=179). Overall, 80.5% (70 of 87) of the cannabis-using participants reported a symptom-relieving benefit, mostly for relief of stress, anorexia or pain. Participants consumed a mean (± SD) of 18.3±21.1 g of cannabis per month and spent an average of $105.15±109.87 on cannabis per month. Cannabis use was associated with rural residence, lower income level, driving under the influence of a substance, and consumption of ecstasy and tobacco. Income level, ecstasy use and tobacco use were retained as significant predictors in regression modelling. Cannabis use was not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. DISCUSSION: Prolonged previous cannabis consumption and the substantial overlap between recreational and medicinal cannabis use highlight the challenges in obtaining a tenable definition of medicinal cannabis therapy. PMID:24634690

Harris, Gregory E; Dupuis, Lise; Mugford, Gerald J; Johnston, Lynn; Haase, David; Page, Ginny; Haldane, Heather; Harris, Nicholas; Midodzi, William K; Dow, Gordon

2014-01-01

388

Examining the debate on the use of medical marijuana.  

PubMed

The opium poppy and the coca leaf offer useful perspectives on the current controversies over medical marijuana. In both cases, purified synthetic analogues of biologically active components of ancient folk remedies have become medical mainstays without undermining efforts to reduce nonmedical drug use. A decade ago, a campaign strove to legalize heroin for the compassionate treatment of pain in terminally ill patients. Like the current campaign to legalize medical marijuana, many well-meaning people supported this effort. The campaign for medical heroin was stopped by science when double-blind studies showed that heroin offered no benefits over the standard opioid analgesics in the treatment of severe cancer pain. Scientific medicine requires purified chemicals in carefully controlled doses without contaminating toxic substances. That a doctor would one day write a prescription for leaves to be burned is unimaginable. The Controlled Substances Act and international treaties limit the use of abused drugs or medicines. In contrast to smoked marijuana, specific chemicals in marijuana or, more likely, synthetic analogues, may prove to be of benefit to some patients with specific illnesses. Most opponents of medical use of smoked marijuana are not hostile to the medical use of purified synthetic analogues or even synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which has been available in the United States for prescription by any licensed doctor since 1985. In contrast, most supporters of smoked marijuana are hostile to the use of purified chemicals from marijuana, insisting that only smoked marijuana leaves be used as "medicine," revealing clearly that their motivation is not scientific medicine but the back door legalization of marijuana. PMID:10220812

DuPont, R L

1999-01-01

389

It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.  

PubMed

Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring. PMID:25459779

Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

2014-12-01

390

Evaluations and Expectancies of Alcohol and Marijuana Problems Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the associations between evaluations (good–bad) and expected likelihood (likely–unlikely) of alcohol- and marijuana-related problems and hazardous consumption and problems among college students. Participants provided data on alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and expectancies and evaluations of alcohol problems; marijuana use indices, marijuana-related problems, marijuana effect expectancies, and likelihood and evaluations of marijuana problems. Evaluations of alcohol problems were

Raluca M. Gaher; Jeffrey S. Simons

2007-01-01

391

Functional MRI of inhibitory processing in abstinent adolescent marijuana users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Marijuana intoxication appears to impair response inhibition, but it is unclear if impaired inhibition and associated brain\\u000a abnormalities persist after prolonged abstinence among adolescent users. We hypothesized that brain activation during a go\\/no-go\\u000a task would show persistent abnormalities in adolescent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adolescents with (n?=?16) and without (n?=?17) histories of marijuana use were compared on blood

Susan F. Tapert; Alecia D. Schweinsburg; Sean P. A. Drummond; Martin P. Paulus; Sandra A. Brown; Tony T. Yang; Lawrence R. Frank

2007-01-01

392

Patterns of medical marijuana use among individuals sampled from medical marijuana dispensaries in los angeles.  

PubMed

Abstract The proliferation of medical marijuana (MM) dispensaries has led to concerns that they will lead to more widespread use of marijuana. The aim of the current study was to collect descriptive data on individuals using MM dispensaries in Los Angeles County. A mixed-method approach was employed that consisted of focus groups with 30 individuals and a survey of dispensary users (N = 182) in Los Angeles County. Differences between younger (less than 30 years old) and older individuals were examined in the survey sample. Most individuals in both samples had initiated marijuana use in adolescence. Nearly one-half of survey respondents had indications of risky alcohol use and one-fifth reported recent use of illicit drugs or misuse of prescription medications. Younger individuals had higher rates of tobacco use, visited dispensaries more frequently, and had more socially embedded patterns of use, but they were similar to older individuals in terms of their reasons for use. Nearly all participants believed that MM was beneficial in treating their health problems, although 65% reported symptoms of psychological distress in the past year. Interventions aimed at MM users should stress the related effects of tobacco and risky alcohol use as well as mental health needs. PMID:25188696

Grella, Christine E; Rodriguez, Luz; Kim, Tina

2014-01-01

393

Effects of cannabis on cognition in patients with MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine functional and structural neuroimaging correlates of cognitive dysfunction associated with cannabis use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 20 subjects with MS who smoked cannabis and 19 noncannabis users with MS, matched on demographic and neurologic variables, underwent fMRI while completing a test of working memory, the N-Back. Resting-state fMRI and structural MRI data (lesion and normal-appearing brain tissue volumes, diffusion tensor imaging metrics) were also collected. Neuropsychological data pertaining to verbal (Selective Reminding Test Revised) and visual (10/36 Spatial Recall Test) memory, information processing speed (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test [2- and 3-second versions] and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), and attention (Word List Generation) were obtained. Results: The cannabis group performed more poorly on the more demanding of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test tasks (i.e., 2-second version) (p < 0.02) and the 10/36 Spatial Recall Test (p < 0.03). Cannabis users had more diffuse cerebral activation across all N-Back trials and made more errors on the 2-Back task (p < 0.006), during which they displayed increased activation relative to nonusers in parietal (p < 0.007) and anterior cingulate (p < 0.001) regions implicated in working memory. No group differences in resting-state networks or structural MRI variables were found. Conclusions: Patients with MS who smoke cannabis are more cognitively impaired than nonusers. Cannabis further compromises cerebral compensatory mechanisms, already faulty in MS. These imaging data boost the construct validity of the neuropsychological findings and act as a cautionary note to cannabis users and prescribers. PMID:24789863

Pavisian, Bennis; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Szilagyi, Greg; Staines, Richard W.; O'Connor, Paul

2014-01-01

394

Retail marijuana purchases in designer and commercial markets in New York City: Sales units, weights, and prices per gram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several varities of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for marijuana sales

Stephen J. Sifaneck; Geoffrey L. Ream; Bruce D. Johnson; Eloise Dunlap

2007-01-01

395

Interface of Cannabis and Early Psychosis--Priorities in Research and Service Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: cannabis continues to affect mental health. Its abuse is on rise globally. In Canada a rise by 30% in last ten years has been observed in high school students. Interrelationship of cannabis with psychosis and schizophrenia is a complex one. Cannabis is highly comorbid with psychosis, & related to functional disability and outcome. It poses several challenges in understanding

Amresh Srivastava

2008-01-01

396

Eects of cannabis and psychosis vulnerability in daily life: an experience sampling test study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Epidemiological findings suggest that cannabis use is a risk factor for the emergence of psychosis, and that the induction of psychotic symptoms in the context of cannabis use may be associated with a pre-existing vulnerability for psychosis. This study investigated in a non-clinical population the interaction between cannabis use and psychosis vulnerability in their eects on psychotic experiences in

H. VERDOUX; C. GINDRE; F. SORBARA; M. TOURNIER; D. SWENDSEN

2003-01-01

397

The Chronic Effects of Cannabis on Memory in Humans: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory problems are frequently associated with cannabis use, in both the short- and long-term. To date, re- views on the long-term cognitive sequelae of cannabis use have examined a broad range of cognitive functions, with none specifically focused on memory. Consequently, this review sought to examine the literature specific to memory function in cannabis users in the unintoxicated state with

Nadia Solowij; Robert Battisti

2008-01-01

398

Assessing the Relationship between Marijuana Availability and Marijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States and the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…

Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

2007-01-01

399

Frequency and Risk of Marijuana Use among Substance-Using Health Care Patients in Colorado with and without Access to State Legalized Medical Marijuana.  

PubMed

With increasing use of state legalized medical marijuana across the country, health care providers need accurate information on patterns of marijuana and other substance use for patients with access to medical marijuana. This study compared frequency and severity of marijuana use, and use of other substances, for patients with and without state legal access to medical marijuana. Data were collected from 2,030 patients who screened positive for marijuana use when seeking health care services in a large, urban safety-net medical center. Patients were screened as part of a federally funded screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) initiative. Patients were asked at screening whether they had a state-issued medical marijuana card and about risky use of tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit substances. A total of 17.4% of marijuana users had a medical marijuana card. Patients with cards had higher frequency of marijuana use and were more likely to screen at moderate than low or high risk from marijuana use. Patients with cards also had lower use of other substances than patients without cards. Findings can inform health care providers of both the specific risks of frequent, long-term use and the more limited risks of other substance use faced by legal medical marijuana users. PMID:25715066

Richmond, Melissa K; Pampel, Fred C; Rivera, Laura S; Broderick, Kerryann B; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh

2015-01-01

400

The epidemiology of cannabis use and cannabis-related harm in Australia 1993-2007: Cannabis use and harm in Australia, 1993-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To examine trends in patterns of cannabis use and related harm in the Australian population between 1993 and 2007. Design Analysis of prospectively collected data from: (1) the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) and Australian Secondary Student Alcohol and Drug Survey (ASSADS); (2) the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD); and (3) the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services

Amanda Roxburgh; Wayne D. Hall; Louisa Degenhardt; Jennifer McLaren; Emma Black; Jan Copeland; Richard P. Mattick

2010-01-01

401

Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

2013-01-01

402

Autosomal Linkage Analysis for Cannabis Use Behaviors in Australian Adults  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in developed and in developing nations. Twin studies have highlighted the role of genetic influences on early stages of cannabis use, such as a lifetime history of use, early-onset use and frequent use, however, we are not aware of any genomic studies that have examined these phenotypes. Using data on 2,314 families consisting of 5,600 adult Australian offspring and their parents, all of whom were scanned using 1,399 unique autosomal markers, we conducted autosomal linkage analyses for lifetime history of cannabis initiation, early-onset cannabis use and frequency of use, using a variance components approach in the linkage package MERLIN. Suggestive evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 18 (LOD 2.14 for frequency of use, LOD 1.97 for initiation, at 90–97 cM) and also on chromosome 19 (LOD 1.92 for early onset at 17 cM). These LOD scores did not meet genomewide significance. Further replication of these linkage regions in other samples will be required, although these initial results suggest further targeted efforts on chromosome 18 may yield interesting candidate genes for early stages of cannabis-related behaviors. PMID:18606503

Agrawal, Arpana; Morley, Katherine I.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Statham, Dixie J.; Todd, Richard D.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Whitfield, John; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2008-01-01

403

Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full price of marijuana. The implications of this for driving while intoxicated are examined using self-reported involvement in non-fatal accidents and state-level youth motor vehicle accident fatality rates. The

Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai

1997-01-01

404

Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairments of human cognition and learning following chronic marijuana use are of serious concern, but have not been clearly demonstrated. To determine whether such impairments occurred, this study compared performance of adult marijuana users and non-users (N=144 andN=72, respectively) matched on intellectual functioning before the onset of drug use, i.e., on scores from standardized tests administered during the fourth grade

Robert I. Block; M. M. Ghoneim

1993-01-01

405

High on Life? Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using state-level data for the period 1990 through 2007, we estimate the effect of legalizing medical marijuana on suicide rates. Our results suggest that the passage of a medical marijuana law is associated with an almost 5 percent reduction in the total suicide rate, an 11 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 20- through 29-year-old males, and a 9

D. Mark Anderson; Daniel I. Rees; Joseph J. Sabia

2012-01-01

406

Does the American experience with alcohol prohibition generalize to marijuana?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is common to compare contemporary legal prohibitions against drugs with the prohibition against alcohol in the 1930s. Making\\u000a this analogy presumes similarities between the two prohibitions which have policy implicatioas for the current legal response\\u000a to drugs. This study focuses on one drug, marijuana. Moonshiners of the 1930s are compared with contemporary domestic marijuana\\u000a cultivators, the effects of alcohol

Ralph Weisheit; Beverly A. Smith; Kathrine Johnson

1991-01-01

407

Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstinence following daily marijuana use can produce a withdrawal syndrome characterized by negative mood (eg irritability, anxiety, misery), muscle pain, chills, and decreased food intake. Two placebo-controlled, within-subject studies investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: Study 1), and a mood stabilizer, divalproex (Study 2), on symptoms of marijuana withdrawal. Participants (n=7\\/study), who were not seeking treatment for

Margaret Haney; Carl L Hart; Suzanne K Vosburg; Jennifer Nasser; Andrew Bennett; Carlos Zubaran; Richard W Foltin

2004-01-01

408

Natural Course of Cannabis Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Despite its importance as a public health concern, relatively little is known about the natural course of cannabis use disorders (CUDs). The primary objective of this research is to provide descriptive data on the onset, recovery, and recurrence functions of CUDs during the high-risk periods of adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood based on data from a large prospective community sample. Methods Probands (N = 816) from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) participated in four diagnostic assessments (T1 – T4) between ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed. Results The weighted lifetime prevalence of CUDs was 19.1% with an average onset age of 18.6 years. Although gender was not significantly related to age of initial CUD onset, men were more likely to be diagnosed with a lifetime CUD. Of those diagnosed with a CUD episode, 81.8% eventually achieved recovery during the study period. Women achieved recovery significantly more quickly than men. The recurrence rate (27.7%) was relatively modest, and most likely to occur within the first 36 months following the offset of the first CUD episode. CUD recurrence was uncommon after 72 months of remission and recovery. Conclusion CUDs are relatively common, affecting about 1 out of 5 persons in the OADP sample prior to age 30. Eventual recovery from index CUD episodes is the norm, although about 30% of those with a CUD exhibit a generally persistent pattern of problematic use extending 7 years or longer. PMID:25066537

Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Duncan, Susan C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Rohde, Paul; Klein, Daniel N.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2014-01-01

409

Here are Gupta's reasons for his change of stance: 1. Marijuana laws are not based on science. Gupta wrote: "Not because of sound science, but because of its absence, marijuana was  

E-print Network

been studying medical marijuana since the 19th Century, and marijuana was actually used to treat," Gupta said. 9. The system is biased against research into medical marijuana's benefits. First, you have

Mootha, Vamsi K.

410

Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

2015-01-01

411

Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National  

E-print Network

LETTER Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher rodenticide; fisher; marijuana; Pekania pennanti; pesticide; survival. Correspondence Craig Thompson, USDA. Further investigation indicated that the most likely source was the numerous illegal marijuana cultivation

Fried, Jeremy S.

412

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As...confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP...

2014-10-01

413

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As...confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP...

2011-10-01

414

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As...confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP...

2012-10-01

415

49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137...verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As...confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP...

2013-10-01

416

Adolescent marijuana use from 2002 to 2008: higher in states with medical marijuana laws, cause still unclear  

PubMed Central

Purpose Since 1996, 16 states have legalized marijuana use for medical purposes. The current study provides a scientific assessment of the association of medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use using national data. Method State representative survey data on approximately 23,000 12–17 year olds was collected by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health annually from 2002–2008. Yearly state-specific estimates of prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perception of its riskiness were statistically tested for differences between states with and without MML by year and across years. Results States with MML had higher average adolescent marijuana use, 8.68% (95% CI: 7.95–9.42) and lower perception of riskiness, during the period 2002–2008 compared to states without MML, 6.94% (95% CI: 6.60–7.28%). In the eight states that passed MML since 2004, in the years prior to MML passage, there was already a higher prevalence of use and lower perceptions of risk in those states compared to states that have not passed MML. Conclusions While the most likely of several possible explanations for higher adolescent marijuana use and lower perceptions of risk in MML states cannot be determined from the current study, results clearly suggest the need for more empirically-based research on this topic. PMID:21820632

Wall, Melanie M.; Poh, Ernest; Cerdá, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S.

2011-01-01

417

Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use  

PubMed Central

Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

2008-01-01

418

The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability × cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics, and neurological soft signs (NSS) in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group, which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings PMID:25477825

Løberg, Else-Marie; Helle, Siri; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Kroken, Rune A.; Johnsen, Erik

2014-01-01

419

Cannabis in palliative medicine: improving care and reducing opioid-related morbidity.  

PubMed

Unlike hospice, long-term drug safety is an important issue in palliative medicine. Opioids may produce significant morbidity. Cannabis is a safer alternative with broad applicability for palliative care. Yet the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) classifies cannabis as Schedule I (dangerous, without medical uses). Dronabinol, a Schedule III prescription drug, is 100% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabis contains 20% THC or less but has other therapeutic cannabinoids, all working together to produce therapeutic effects. As palliative medicine grows, so does the need to reclassify cannabis. This article provides an evidence-based overview and comparison of cannabis and opioids. Using this foundation, an argument is made for reclassifying cannabis in the context of improving palliative care and reducing opioid-related morbidity. PMID:21444324

Carter, Gregory T; Flanagan, Aaron M; Earleywine, Mitchell; Abrams, Donald I; Aggarwal, Sunil K; Grinspoon, Lester

2011-08-01

420

Psychomotor Performance, Subjective and Physiological Effects and Whole Blood ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentrations in Heavy, Chronic Cannabis Smokers Following Acute Smoked Cannabis  

PubMed Central

?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations. PMID:22589524

Schwope, David M.; Bosker, Wendy M.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

421

Prescrire du cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Offrir des conseils préliminaires sur la prescription de cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique avant la publication de lignes directrices officielles. Qualité des données Nous avons examiné les ouvrages scientifiques sur l’efficacité analgésique du cannabis fumé et les dommages causés par la consommation de cannabis à des fins médicales et récréatives. Nous avons élaboré des recommandations concernant les indications et les contre-indications du cannabis fumé, les précautions à prendre et son dosage et nous avons classé les recommandations en fonction du niveau des données probantes. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II (études observationnelles bien effectuées) et de niveau III (opinion d’experts). Message principal Le cannabis fumé pourrait être indiqué chez des patients souffrant de douleurs neuropathiques sévères qui n’ont pas répondu à des essais suffisants de cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques et d’analgésiques standards (données probantes de niveau II). Le cannabis fumé est contre-indiqué chez les patients de 25 ans ou moins (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui font actuellement ou ont fait par le passé une psychose ou encore ont de forts antécédents familiaux de psychose (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui ont ou ont eu un problème de consommation de cannabis (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont un problème actuel de toxicomanie ou d’alcoolisme (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont une maladie cardiovasculaire ou respiratoire (données probantes de niveau III); ou celles qui sont enceintes ou planifient une grossesse (données probantes de niveau II). Il devrait être utilisé avec précaution par les patients qui fument du tabac (données probantes de niveau II), qui sont à risque accru de maladies cardiovasculaires (données probantes de niveau III), qui ont des troubles d’anxiété ou de l’humeur (données probantes de niveau II) ou qui prennent de fortes doses d’opioïdes ou de benzodiazépines (données probantes de niveau III). Il faut conseiller aux utilisateurs de cannabis d’attendre au moins 3 à 4 heures avant de conduire s’ils en ont fumé, au moins 6 heures s’ils en ont consommé par la bouche et au moins 8 heures s’ils ont ressenti un «high» subjectif (données probantes de niveau II). La dose maximale recommandée est de 1 inhalation 4 fois par jour (environ 400 mg par jour) de cannabis séché contenant 9 % de delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (données probantes de niveau III)). Les médecins devraient éviter de demander une consultation pour les patients auprès de cliniques «cannabinoïdes» (données probantes de niveau III). Conclusion Les lignes directrices futures devraient se fonder sur une révision systématique des ouvrages scientifiques sur la sécurité et l’efficacité du cannabis fumé. D’autres recherches sont nécessaires sur l’efficacité et la sécurité à long terme du cannabis fumé par rapport à d’autres cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques, aux opioïdes et à d’autres analgésiques standards.

Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

2014-01-01

422

Integrating brain and behavior: evaluating adolescents' response to a cannabis intervention.  

PubMed

Client language (change talk [CT] and counterchange talk [CCT]) is gaining increasing support as an active ingredient of psychosocial interventions. Preliminary work with adults suggests that there may be a neural basis for this. With a diverse sample of adolescent cannabis users, we evaluated the influence of CT and CCT on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response during an fMRI cannabis cue-exposure paradigm. We also investigated how BOLD activation related to treatment outcomes. Adolescent cannabis users (N = 43; 83.7% male; 53.5% Hispanic; M age = 16 years) were presented with CT and CCT derived from their prescan intervention session during the fMRI paradigm. Additionally, BOLD activation during CT (vs. CCT) was tested as a predictor of 1-month follow-up cannabis use behavior (frequency of cannabis use, cannabis problems, cannabis dependence). We observed a significant interaction, with greater activation during CT (vs. CCT) during the cannabis (but not control) cues in several areas key to self-referential processes (uncorrected p < 0.001; medial frontal gyrus, insula). Furthermore, BOLD activation during CT (vs. CCT) during cannabis (but not control) cues in areas that underlie introspection (posterior cingulate, precuneus) was significantly related to youths' 1-month follow-up cannabis use behavior (frequency of cannabis use, cannabis problems, cannabis dependence; uncorrected p < 0.001). These data indicate a unique interaction pattern, whereby CT (vs. CCT) during the cannabis (but not control) cues was associated with significantly greater activation in brain areas involved in introspection. Further, this activation was related to significantly better treatment outcomes for youth. PMID:22925010

Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; McEachern, Amber D; Yezhuvath, Uma; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Filbey, Francesca M

2013-06-01

423

The effects of cannabinoids on the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabinoids have a long history of consumption for recreational and medical reasons. The primary active constituent of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa is ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC).In humans, psychoactive cannabinoids produce euphoria, enhancement of sensory perception, tachycardia, antinociception, difficulties in concentration and impairment of memory. The cognitive deficiencies seem to persist after withdrawal. The toxicity of marijuana has been underestimated for a

Angela Ameri

1999-01-01

424

Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use patterns among youth in Canada.  

PubMed

The authors characterized changes in the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use over time, and examined age of onset, co-morbid use and sociodemographic factors associated with ever using alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Data were collected from students in grades 7-9 as part of the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 19,018 in 2002; n = 29,243 in 2004). Descriptive analyses examined age of onset, co-morbid substance use and changes over time. Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with ever trying alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana with the 2004 data. Alcohol was the most prevalent substance used by youth and it was also the only substance which exhibited increased rates of use between 2002 and 2004. Co-morbid substance use was common, and it was rare to find youth who had used marijuana or tobacco without also having tried alcohol. As expected, youth who had poorer school performance were more likely to drink and smoke marijuana or tobacco, as were youth with more disposable income. Such timely and relevant data are important for guiding future policy, programming, and surveillance activities. PMID:18058247

Leatherdale, Scott Thomas; Hammond, David; Ahmed, Rashid

2008-05-01

425

Heavy cannabis use among UK teenagers: an exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings are presented from a survey of a sample of 2641 UK school students aged 15–16 years. This exercise was part of the 30 country European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). The 201 students who reported using cannabis (marihuana) 40 times or more were examined using cluster analysis. They were also compared to other students. Three

Patrick Miller; Martin Plant

2002-01-01

426

Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy--from receptors to clinical response.  

PubMed

Recreational cannabis use in adults with epilepsy is widespread. The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes is also becoming more prevalent. For this purpose, various preparations of cannabis of varying strengths and content are being used. The recent changes in the legal environment have improved the availability of products with high cannabidiol (CBD) and low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations. There is some anecdotal evidence of their potential efficacy, but the mechanisms of such action are not entirely clear. Some suspect an existence of synergy or "entourage effect" between CBD and THC. There is strong evidence that THC acts via the cannabinoid receptor CB1. The mechanism of action of CBD is less clear but is likely polypharmacological. The scientific data support the role of the endocannabinoid system in seizure generation, maintenance, and control in animal models of epilepsy. There are clear data for the negative effects of cannabis on the developing and mature brain though these effects appear to be relatively mild in most cases. Further data from well-designed studies are needed regarding short- and long-term efficacy and side effects of CBD or high-CBD/low-THC products for the treatment of seizures and epilepsy in children and adults. PMID:25282526

Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Bebin, E Martina

2014-12-01

427

Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis in cat and rat.  

PubMed

1. In anaesthetized rats, intravenous administration of cannabis extract (10 mg/kg), Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.5 mg/kg) and Delta(6)-THC (0.5 mg/kg) caused a reduction in systemic blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate.2. Neither cannabinol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) nor cannabidiol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) had any observed effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the rat.3. Pretreatment of rats with atropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced the hypotension and bradycardia caused by Delta(1)-THC or the extract.4. In anaesthetized cats with autoperfused hindquarters, cannabis extract (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and Delta(1)-THC (0.2 mg/kg, i.v.) caused hypotension, bradycardia, depression of respiratory rate and reduction of hindlimb perfusion pressure.5. Both cannabis extract and Delta(1)-THC potentiated reflex vasodilation and direct vasoconstriction in the hindlimb induced by intravenous noradrenaline in the cat; they reduced reflex hindlimb vasoconstriction elicited by histamine, acetylcholine or bilateral carotid occlusion.6. Tolerance to these cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis extract developed in rats which had been treated i.p. with the extract at (50 mg/kg) per day for 14 days. PMID:4787563

Graham, J D; Li, D M

1973-09-01

428

Injury risk associated with cannabis and cocaine use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the results and limitations of studies of injury risks associated with cannabis and cocaine use. Three types of fatal and non-fatal injuries are considered: injuries due to collisions, intentional injuries and injuries in general. Four types of studies were reviewed: (I) laboratory studies, (II) descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies on the prevalence

Scott Macdonald; Kristin Anglin-Bodrug; Robert E. Mann; Patricia Erickson; Andrew Hathaway; Mary Chipman; Margaret Rylett

2003-01-01

429

Civic Norms and Etiquettes Regarding Marijuana Use in Public Settings in New York City  

PubMed Central

This paper shows that active police enforcement of civic norms against marijuana smoking in public settings has influenced the locations where marijuana is smoked. It has subtly influenced the various marijuana etiquettes observed in both public and private settings. The ethnographic data reveals the importance of informal sanctions; most marijuana consumers report compliance with etiquettes mainly to avoid stigma from nonusing family, friends, and associates—they express limited concern about police and arrest. PMID:18570024

Johnson, Bruce D.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

430

A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

2011-01-01

431

How and Where Young Adults Obtain Marijuana. The NSDUH Report. Issue 20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older about their use of marijuana or hashish in the past year, including their frequency of use. This report focuses on how and where past year marijuana users aged 18 to 25 obtained their most recently used marijuana. Findings include estimates from the combined 2002,…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

2006-01-01

432

Misperceptions of the Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among College Students: Athletes and Non-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of marijuana use and perceptions of the prevalence of marijuana use was assessed in a sample of intercollegiate athletes and a separate sample of primarily first-year non-athlete students at a northwestern public university. Marijuana use prevalence in the non-athlete sample was higher than the prevalence found in nationwide surveys…

Page, Randy M.; Roland, Michelle

2004-01-01

433

Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana  

E-print Network

Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana Janet M: Marijuana Geographic origin Drug trafficking Drug intelligence Stable isotopes Isotope ratio mass geographic region-of-origin and growth environment for marijuana, with the intent of applying these models

Ehleringer, Jim

434

Marijuana Use among Students at Institutions of Higher Education. Infofacts/Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug in the United States, with approximately 14.8 million Americans over the age of 12 reporting past-month use in 2006. While marijuana use declined in the 1980s, its use among all youth--including college students--rose steadily in the 1990s. Prevention professionals report concern because marijuana

Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

2008-01-01

435

Child maltreatment and marijuana problems in young adults: examining the role of motives and emotion dysregulation.  

PubMed

It is well established that childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of marijuana use, but few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study examines marijuana motives as mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and marijuana use in a sample of young adults. In addition, pathways from childhood maltreatment to emotion dysregulation, coping motives, and marijuana use were explored. Participants were 125 young adults (ages 19-25, 66.9% female) recruited through online community advertising. All participants completed questionnaires assessing childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, marijuana motives, past year and past three-month marijuana use, and marijuana problems. Correlational analyses revealed bivariate relationships between childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, marijuana motives and marijuana problems (rs=.24-.50). Mediation analyses revealed that coping motives mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and marijuana problems, and emotion dysregulation was associated with marijuana problems both directly and indirectly via coping motives. The present findings highlight emotion dysregulation and coping motives as important underlying mechanisms in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and marijuana problems. PMID:24268374

Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Goldstein, Abby L

2014-05-01

436

Daily patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timeline followback (TLFB) methodology was used to assess the daily use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in adolescent cigarette smokers and nonsmokers over the prior 30 days. Adolescent smokers reported more frequent daily use of both alcohol and marijuana than nonsmokers did. Of those smokers and nonsmokers who drank alcohol and used marijuana, smokers reported more frequent daily use of

Amy M. Duhig; Dana A. Cavallo; Sherry A. McKee; Tony P. George; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin

2005-01-01

437

The prevalence of marijuana smoking in young adults with sickle cell disease: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The active ingredients of marijuana may have beneficial properties in the treatment of chronic pain and inflammation and is being used by sufferers of chronic pain and arthritis in some settings. Anecdotally, marijuana is believed by some sickle cell disease (SCD) patients to improve their health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of marijuana smoking in the Jamaica

J Knight-Madden; N Lewis; IR Hambleton

2006-01-01

438

College on problems of drug dependence meeting, Puerto Rico (June 1996) Marijuana use and dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discoveries concerning an endogenous cannabinoid system and observations of dramatic increases in marijuana use among youth in the United States have fueled a recent increase in basic and clinical research to better understand and treat marijuana dependence. At the annual meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (Puerto Rico, 1996) a symposium ‘Marijuana Use: Basic Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and

Alan J. Budney; Denise B. Kandel; Don R. Cherek; Billy R. Martin; Robert S. Stephens; Roger Roffman

1997-01-01

439

Short communication Impulsivity, negative expectancies, and marijuana use: A test of the acquired preparedness model  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the dacquired preparedness model,T expectancies mediate the relationship between an impulsive personality style and alcohol use. The current study evaluated whether the model can also be applied to marijuana use. Estimated probabilities and subjective evaluations of personally expected marijuana effects, along with impulsivity and frequency of marijuana use, were assessed in 337 college undergraduates. Tests of mediation examining

Laura Vangsness; Brenna H. Bry; Erich W. LaBouvie

440

Who Are Medical Marijuana Patients? Population Characteristics from Nine California Assessment Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana is a currently illegal psychoactive drug that many physicians believe has substantial therapeutic uses. The medical literature contains a growing number of studies on cannabinoids as well as case studies and anecdotal reports suggesting therapeutic potential. Fifteen states have passed medical marijuana laws, but little is known about the growing population of patients who use marijuana medicinally. This article

Craig Reinarman; Helen Nunberg; Fran Lanthier; Tom Heddleston

2011-01-01

441

Urgent Compassion: Medical Marijuana, Prosecutorial Discretion and the Medical Necessity Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries physicians and patients have extolled the medical benefits of marijuana. The federal government, however; refuses to retreat from its dogged war on drugs, preventing those in serious medical need from realizing marijuana's therapeutic potential. Numerous states have shown their opposition to the federal government's position, as well as their compassion for the seriously ill, lry' placing pro-medical marijuana

Andrew J LeVay

2000-01-01

442

Impact of Conjoint Trajectories of Body Mass Index and Marijuana Use on Short Sleep Duration  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives We examined the association between the conjoint developmental trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and marijuana use from age 24 to age 32 and short sleep duration. Methods The participants included 158 African American male, 267 African American female, 166 Puerto Rican male, and 225 Puerto Rican female young adults (N=816). Using Mplus, we obtained the conjoint trajectories of BMI and marijuana use. Logistic regression analyses examined the association between the conjoint trajectories and short sleep duration. Results Five conjoint trajectory groups were extracted: normal BMI and no or low marijuana use, obese and no or low marijuana use, morbidly obese and some marijuana use, normal BMI and high marijuana use, and obese and high marijuana use. Those in the obese and no or low marijuana use group, the morbidly obese and some marijuana use group, and the obese and high marijuana use group were more likely to report shorter sleep duration than those with normal BMI and no or low marijuana use group. Conclusions and Scientific Significance This study highlights the significance of examining joint trajectories over several developmental stages. In treating short sleep duration, we propose focusing on treating obesity, and also treating marijuana use if applicable. PMID:25187053

Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.; Finch, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

443

Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Its Defenses against Infection and Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the many effects of marijuana use on the lungs. States that patients with pre-existing immune deficits are particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related pulmonary infections. However, warns that habitual use of marijuana may lead to respiratory cancer must await epidemiological studies, which are now possible since 30 years have passed…

Tashkin, Donald P.

1999-01-01

444

Marijuana as therapy for people living with HIV\\/AIDS: Social and health aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic use of marijuana has emerged as an important issue for people living with cancer, HIV\\/AIDS and multiple sclerosis. This paper examines therapeutic use of marijuana in the Positive Health cohort study, a longitudinal cohort study of men and women living with HIV\\/AIDS in NSW and Victoria, Australia. Factors that distinguish therapeutic use of marijuana from recreational use were assessed

A. Fogarty; P. Rawstorne; G. Prestage; J. Crawford; J. Grierson; S. Kippax

2007-01-01

445

Marijuana Price Gradients: Implications for Exports and Export-Generated Tax Revenue for California After Legalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

California nearly legalized commercial marijuana production in 2010; in coming years, other states and California are expected to entertain similar proposals. This raises the question of whether marijuana diverted from legal production could displace current sources of marijuana in other states. Combining prior estimates of legal production cost with new estimates of the cost of smuggling within the United States

Jonathan P. Caulkins; Brittany M. Bond

2012-01-01

446

Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes

Joseph W. LaBrie; Joel R. Grossbard; Justin F. Hummer

2009-01-01

447

Social Meanings of Marijuana Use for Southeast Asian Youth  

PubMed Central

The paper describes findings from a pilot study of drug use and environment for Southeast Asian youths in the San Francisco Bay Area. From interviews with 31 drug-involved youths living in two low-income predominantly ethnic minority neighborhoods, smoking marijuana emerged as pervasive and highly normative. Smoking marijuana provided a means for coping with the stresses of home and community life, and located youths, moreover, within an alternative ghetto lifestyle of rap music, marijuana smoking and youth crime, as modeled by co-resident ethnic minority peers, with which many Southeast Asian youths identified. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment as well as social status in the substance use of this group of second-generation youth. PMID:16537331

Lee, Juliet P.; Kirkpatrick, Sean

2011-01-01

448

COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphisms moderate executive control in cannabis users.  

PubMed

The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to test if these polymorphisms moderate the harmful effects of cannabis use on executive function in young cannabis users. We recruited 144 participants: 86 cannabis users and 58 non-drug user controls. Both groups were genotyped and matched for genetic makeup, sex, age, education, and IQ. We used a computerized neuropsychological battery to assess different aspects of executive functions: sustained attention (CANTAB Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, RVIP), working memory (N-back), monitoring/shifting (CANTAB ID/ED set shifting), planning (CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge, SOC), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). We used general linear model-based analyses to test performance differences between cannabis users and controls as a function of genotypes. We found that: (i) daily cannabis use is not associated with executive function deficits; and (ii) COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderate the link between cannabis use and executive performance. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val/val genotype exhibited lower accuracy of sustained attention, associated with a more strict response bias, than val/val non-users. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val allele also committed more monitoring/shifting errors than cannabis users carrying the met/met genotype. Finally, cannabis users carrying the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype had worse IGT performance than s/s non-users. COMT and SLC6A4 genes moderate the impact of cannabis use on executive functions. PMID:23449176

Verdejo-García, Antonio; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuyás, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

2013-07-01

449

Impact of ADHD and Cannabis Use on Executive Functioning in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. Methods Young adults (24.2±1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year ? monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. Results The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. Conclusions A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD. PMID:23992650

Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M.

2013-01-01

450

The Dose Effects of Short-Term Dronabinol (Oral THC) Maintenance in Daily Cannabis Users  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Prior studies have separately examined the effects of dronabinol (oral THC) on cannabis withdrawal, cognitive performance, and the acute effects of smoked cannabis. A single study examining these clinically relevant domains would benefit the continued evaluation of dronabinol as a potential medication for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. METHODS Thirteen daily cannabis smokers completed a within-subject crossover study and received 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg dronabinol per day for 5 consecutive days. Vital signs and subjective ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving and sleep were obtained daily; outcomes under active dose conditions were compared to those obtained under placebo dosing. On the 5th day of medication maintenance, participants completed a comprehensive cognitive performance battery and then smoked 5 puffs of cannabis for subjective effects evaluation. Each dronabinol maintenance period occurred in a counterbalanced order and was separated by 9 days of ad-libitum cannabis use. RESULTS Dronabinol dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal and resulted in few adverse side effects or decrements in cognitive performance. Surprisingly, dronabinol did not alter the subjective effects of smoked cannabis, but cannabis-induced increases in heart rate were attenuated by the 60 and 120 mg doses. CONCLUSIONS Dronabinol’s ability to dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal may be therapeutically beneficial to individuals trying to stop cannabis use. The absence of gross cognitive impairment or side effects in this study supports safety of doses up to 120mg per day. Continued evaluation of dronabinol in targeted clinical studies of cannabis treatment, using an expanded range of doses, is warranted. PMID:22921474

Vandrey, Ryan; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Murray, Jeannie A.; Lee, Dayong

2012-01-01

451

Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions. Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…

Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald

452

Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, intended for both professionals and the public, contains the ten papers and the ten edited transcripts of discussions from the National Institute on Drug Abuse workgroup. Each of the first five chapters presents two of the papers and discussion highlights selected by the authors. The papers included are: "Cannabis: Effects Upon…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

453

Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

2008-12-01

454