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The growing of marijuana (Cannabissativa L.) on public lands poses problems to the environment and the public. Remote sensing offers a potential way of monitoring public lands for the production of marijuana. However, very little information on the spectral properties of marijuana is available in the scientific literature. Our objectives were to 1) characterize the spectral properties of the
New NCI Resource About Cannabis (Marijuana) The NCI Fact Sheet Marijuana Use in Supportive Care for Cancer Patients is no longer current and has been removed. The Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®) information summary provides up-to-date information on
Microsatellite markers were developed for Cannabissativa L. (marijuana) to be used for DNA typing (genotype identification) and to measure the genetic relationships between the different plants. Twelve different oligonucleotide probes were used to screen an enriched microsatellite library of Cannabissativa in which 49% of the clones contained microsatellite sequences. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Cannabis revealed that GA\\/CT
A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabissativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…
Background Cannabissativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Conclusions The availability of the Cannabissativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics.
Forensic laboratories can be called to examine illicit Cannabis samples (marijuana) to identify their geographical origin. They can also be required to compare different seizures to establish whether they were drawn from the same original lot. The quantitative determination of selected organic components is one of the criteria currently used in such investigations. This study aimed at evaluating the inorganic
A 51-year-old man with asthmatic attacks due to Cannabissativa seed inhalation was studied. Specific IgE against this seed was demonstrated by in vivo (skin and bronchial challenge tests) and in vitro methods (reverse enzyme immunoassay and histamine release from basophils), suggesting a Type I immunologic reaction. PMID:1789408
Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...
Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabissativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. PMID:22608266
The Clinton administration filed suit to close six marijuana buyers' clubs in California more than a year after Proposition 215, permitting medical use of the drug, was passed. This action was taken against six clubs: Cannabis Cultivators Club, Flower Therapy, Marin Alliance for Medical Marijuana, Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative, Santa Cruz Buyers' Club, and Ukiah Buyers' Club. Although Proposition 215 gives persons with a documented need for the drug a legal right to use it in California, the Federal prohibitions for its use still violates Federal law. In practice, social users can usually obtain marijuana while many patients who need it have no source from which to buy it. The history of the Federal attack on medical marijuana usage in California and the State's response are included. PMID:11365003
Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory.\\u000a Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms\\u000a (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated\\u000a the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic
Francesca Borrelli; Gabriella Aviello; Barbara Romano; Pierangelo Orlando; Raffaele Capasso; Francesco Maiello; Federico Guadagno; Stefania Petrosino; Francesco Capasso; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Angelo A. Izzo
In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascenain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by panicipant observation techniques. Respondents reponed highly positive health benefits
Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes
Humans have used the plant Cannabissativa for its intoxicating effects for thousands of years. In the United States, cannabis is the most commonly used illicit intoxicating substance among adolescents [93,175]. Marijuana and other cannabis preparations (other than synthetic pharmaceuticals) are derived from the female plant. The primary psychoactive molecule is ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC), but the plant contains approximately 60 other
A high dose of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabissativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and\\/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models
A. W. Zuardi; J. A. S. Crippa; J. E. C. Hallak; F. A. Moreira; F. S. Guimarães
THE sweet odour of Cannabissativa, L. is of special interest as a possible means for the detection of illicit marijuana traffic. US Customs dogs, trained to alert to the odour of marijuana and hashish, are successfully used to find concealed contraband. An electronic ``sniffer'' that employs a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer to detect volatile vapours of drugs, including marijuana,
Marijuana (Cannabissativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids). Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity. PMID:18681481
IntroductionCannabis dependence is a common but poorly understood condition in adolescents. Marijuana craving has been posited as a potential contributing factor to continued use and relapse, but relatively few studies have focused on the measurement of craving and reactivity to marijuana cues. The present work sought to explore reactivity to marijuana cues within this age group.
Kevin M. Gray; Steven D. LaRowe; Noreen L. Watson; Matthew J. Carpenter
Cannabissativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with biotic and abiotic elicitors to evaluate their effect on secondary metabolism. Metabolic profiles analysed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) showed variations in some of the metabolite pools. However, no cannabinoids were found in either control or elicited cannabis cell cultures. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene expression was monitored during a time course. Results suggest that other components in the signaling pathway can be controlling the cannabinoid pathway. PMID:19500620
Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Pec, Jaroslav; Fei, Junni; Choi, Young Hae; Dusek, Jaroslav; Verpoorte, Robert
The interest in hemp (non-drug Cannabissativa L.) for skin care and cosmetic use is due to the high content of oil, especially unsaturated fatty acids in seed with technological and therapeutic effects. In a field trial on an organic farm, seed weight and content of fatty acids of 20 hemp varieties were surveyed on three different harvest dates. The
Christian R. Vogl; Helga Mölleken; Gunilla Lissek-Wolf; Andreas Surböck; JÖRg Kobert
Fibre hemp ( Cannabissativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in August), the radiation use efficiency (RUE, above-ground dry matter accumulated per unit
Cannabissativa plants submitted to 10 and 12 hours of natural light showed different content in cannabinoids. An increase of exposure to natural light of only 2 hours a day, at least, doubled the average amoung of THC, but decreased that of cannabichromene. PMID:248289
This study investigates the quantitative transformation that take place in hemp (Cannabissativa L. ) seeds during germination: dry matter, ash, protein, lipid, fiber and carbohydrates, the Germinative Energy, the Germinative Capacity over eight days of germination. The results show that different components of the seed undergo transformations during germination. Germ grows by accumulating proteins and fiber and by consuming
Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabissativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.
Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav
?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabissativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2–C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric ?+? barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.
Gagne, Steve J.; Stout, Jake M.; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.
In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabissativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583
We report on the first short tandem repeat (STR) locus to be isolated from the plant Cannabissativa. The STR locus, isolated by a hybrid-capture enrichment procedure, was found to contain a simple sequence repeat motif of 6 bp. This 6 bp repeat motif showed no variation in repeat length but with minor variations in repeat unit sequences. The data show the locus to be highly polymorphic with the number of repeat units ranging from 3 to 40 in 108 screened samples. The observed heterozygosity was approximately 87.04%. The forward and reverse primers (CS1F and CS1R) produced no PCR products in cross-reaction study from 20 species of plants, including highly related species such as Humulus japonicus and Nicotiana tabacum. This hexanucleotide repeat DNA locus could be used to identify cannabis samples and predict their genetic relationship as the test is specific to C. sativa and is highly reproducible. PMID:12505471
Although the measurement of eye pupil variations is a common method in the only few cannabis effect research, there are no studies on short term effects of kif (Moroccan traditional preparation of cannabis) on eye pupil. The aim of the present paper is to present results about effect of a smoked kif preparation (Cannabissativa L.) on pupil diameter variations
A. Merzouki; J. Molero Mesa; A. Louktibi; M. Kadiri; G. V. Urbano
Hemp (Cannabissativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained. PMID:22075921
CT-3, a synthetic derivative of a metabolite of marijuana, is being tested by arthritis researchers as a possible new anti-inflammatory drug. Early studies show that CT-3 may be effective without the gastric side effects of steroids and psychoactive effects of marijuana. The processes of inflammation may be important in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. Obtaining the medical benefits without the psychoactive effects of marijuana is also important, as the high associated with cannabis use can be debilitating. The drug is currently in early pre-clinical animal testing. PMID:11365002
The waxy fraction from the variety Carma of fiber hemp (Cannabissativa) afforded the unusual cannabinoid 4, identified as the farnesyl prenylogue of cannabigerol (CBG, 1) on the basis of its spectroscopic properties. A comparative study of the profile of 4 and 1 toward metabotropic (CB1, CB2) and ionotropic (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1) targets of phytocannabinoids showed that prenylogation increased potency toward CB2 by ca. 5-fold, with no substantial difference toward the other end-points, except for a decreased affinity for TRPM8. The isolation of 4 suggests that C. sativa could contain yet-to-be-discovered prenylogous versions of medicinally relevant cannabinoids, for which their biological profiles could offer interesting opportunities for biomedical exploitation. PMID:21902175
Pollastro, Federica; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Allarà, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Appendino, Giovani
BACKGROUND: Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of
Plants synthesize a myriad of isoprenoid products that are required both for essential constitutive processes and for adaptive responses to the environment. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the MVA pathway on isoprenoid biosynthesized by the MEP pathway in Cannabissativa by treatment with mevinolin. The amount of chlorophyll a, b, and total showed to be significantly enhanced in treated plants in comparison with control plants. Also, mevinolin induced the accumulation of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol in treated plants. Mevinolin caused a significant decrease in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. This result show that the inhibition of the MVA pathway stimulates MEP pathway but none for all metabolites. PMID:24757332
Male Wistar rats injected with a Cannabissativa (marihuana) extract 3 minutes before or 30 seconds after trials, were compared to a control group for performance in a Lashley III alley maze. Animals that had received cannabis 3 minutes before trials were better performers than controls; on the other hand, posttrial injections were found to increase the running time of
Marijuana (Cannabissativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478
Illegal cannabis (Cannabissativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648
The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabissativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water
Elisa K. Shibuya; Jorge E. Souza Sarkis; Osvaldo Negrini Neto; Marcelo Z. Moreira; Reynaldo L. Victoria
Summary Cannabis and Marijuana as Multidrug Mixture in Phytotherapy. Without doubt, Cannabissativa L. is one of the oldest and best-known medical plants. Many traditional and modern ways of use potentially give hints for advantages and risks of different preparations. Several individual experiences of patients and physicians as well as some studies suggest that single substances extracted of or derived
Four pigeons were trained on a visual discrimination task which required conditional responding along the independent dimensions of form and color. High doses of Cannabissativa (marihuana) extract and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which were equated on the basis of their effectiveness in suppressing responding, increased responding on a color dimension but not on a form dimension. High doses of
Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabissativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabissativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabissativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. PMID:20533168
Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A
This work investigated copper effect on the root morphology and root proteome of Cannabissativa plants grown in the absence or in the presence of 150 ppm CuSO4. Copper is an essential trace element in plants, but it becomes strongly phytotoxic at high concentrations. Root systems, though genetically determined, are very plastic and can be affected by a number of
Bona Elisa; Francesco Marsano; Maria Cavaletto; Graziella Berta
The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…
Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles
Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabissativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.
Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabissativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580
Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert
Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabissativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa. PMID:23406349
Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree
... treatment (see Question 9 ). Questions and Answers About Cannabis What is Cannabis ? Cannabis , also known as marijuana , ... conditions . List of Localities That Permit Use of Cannabis for Certain Medical Conditions Enlarge Alaska (AK) Arizona ( ...
Background Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area) who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.
Chemical analysis of cannabinoid, and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting of DNA were used to identify different samples of Cannabissativa L. for forensic purposes. Three samples were classified into two types, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) chemo-types, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two samples of the CBD type were not distinguished by their HPLC patterns. ISSR fingerprinting identified polymorphic DNA patterns between these samples. ISSR fingerprinting clearly differentiated between cannabis samples that could not be achieved by HPLC analysis. PMID:11842329
Cannabidiolic-acid (CBDA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic-acid into CBDA, the dominant cannabinoid constituent of the fiber-type Cannabissativa. We cloned a novel cDNA encoding CBDA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions with degenerate and gene-specific primers. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme demonstrated that CBDA synthase is a covalently flavinylated oxidase. The structural and functional properties of CBDA synthase are quite similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid (THCA) synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of THCA, the major cannabinoid in drug-type Cannabis plants. PMID:17544411
Cannabissativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC. PMID:20118579
Fischedick, Justin; Van Der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert
THERE are striking similarities between the psychological actions of the liqueur absinthe1 and the experiences frequently reported by users of marijuana2. We have therefore compared the properties of thujone and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are believed to be the active principles of Artemisia absinthium and Cannabissativa, respectively. Both substances are terpenoid, derived from the essential oils absinthol and cannabinol, and
Compressive behaviour of hemp (Cannabis Sativ L.) stems is important for the design of hemp handling and processing machines. Experiments were carried out to measure the compressive properties of stems from two hemp varieties: Alyssa (grown for fibre only) and Petera (grown for both fibre and seed), produced in Manitoba, Canada. The physical properties of the hemp specimens were measured.
Ying Chen; Claude Laguë; Hubert Landry; Qingjin Peng; Wen Zhong
Compressive strength of hemp (Cannabis Sativ L.) stems is of great importance for the design of hemp handling and processing machines. A study was carried out to evaluate the compressive behavior of hemp stalks. Two varieties of hemp stalks produced for single purpose (Alyssa) and dual purposes (Petera) in Manitoba, Canada were used in the study. Each variety of hemp
The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol?1) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high ?9-THC yielding varieties of Cannabissativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 ?mol mol?1) significantly (p?P\\u000a N), water use efficiency (WUE) and internal CO2 concentration
Suman Chandra; Hemant Lata; Ikhlas A. Khan; Mahmoud A. ElSohly
An aminopeptidase (HSA) with a molecular mass of 78 kDa was purified from hemp (Cannabissativa) seeds. The activity was inhibited by monoiodeacetic acid, p-chloromercuri-phenylsulfonic acid, and Zn2+ ion. The specificity of HSA was similar to that of a leucyl aminopeptidase [EC 126.96.36.199] from mammalian cytosol. However, other enzyme properties were different from these of leucyl aminopeptidase. PMID:10879480
Arima, K; Uchikoba, T; Shimada, M; Yonezawa, H; Kaneda, K
The effect of Cannabissativa on trypanosome-infected rats was examined. An aqueous extract of the seeds administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d cured animals infected with Trypanosome brucei brucei of blood stream parasites. Six fractions eluted from the crude extract by column chromatography were assessed for trypanocidal properties. Of these, only 2 fractions retained trypanocidal activity by curing mice infected with T brucei brucei. PMID:7900270
Nok, A J; Ibrahim, S; Arowosafe, S; Longdet, I; Ambrose, A; Onyenekwe, P C; Whong, C Z
A simple method is presented for the preparative isolation of seven major cannabinoids from Cannabissativa plant material. Separation was performed by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), a technique that permits large?scale preparative isolations. Using only two different solvent systems, it was possible to obtain pure samples of the cannabinoids; (?)???(trans)?tetrahydrocannabinol (??THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), (?)???(trans)?tetrahydrocannabinolic acid?A (THCA),
Arno Hazekamp; Ruud Simons; Melvin Sengers; Rianne van Zweden; Robert Verpoorte
Four populations of Cannabissativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.
A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype\\u000a in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp (Cannabissativa L.). The primer OPA8 generates a set of bands, most of which polymorphic among all the individual plants tested, and 1 of\\u000a which, named OPA8400, present in all male
G. Mandolino; A. Carboni; S. Forapani; V. Faeti; P. Ranalli
The natural Cannabissativa compounds, cannabidiol, cannabinol, d9- and d8-tetrahydrocannabinol, in that order of potency, decreased the susceptibility of rat dorsal hippocampus to seizure discharges caused by afferent stimulation. The drugs were effective following both intraperitoneal injection and topical application. They were more active, on a dose basis, than the well-known antiepileptic agents mysoline and diphenylhidantoin. Within the dose range
Iván Izquierdo; Otto A. Orsingher; Antonio C. Berardi
Cannabissativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous\\u000a nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical\\u000a profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the\\u000a most suitable way to
Hemant Lata; Suman Chandra; Ikhlas A. Khan; Mahmoud A. ElSohly
The effects of different cadmium concentrations [17 mg(Cd) kg?1(soil) and 72 mg(Cd) kg? 1(soil)] on Cannabissativa L. growth and photosynthesis were examined. Hemp roots showed a high tolerance to Cd, i.e. more than 800 mg(Cd) kg?1(d.m.) in roots had no major effect on hemp growth, whereas in leaves and stems concentrations of 50 – 100 mg(Cd) kg?1(d.m.) had a
Polarised Raman micrsospectroscopy was employed to study the molecular structure within dislocations (slip planes) in the cell walls of Hemp fibre cells (Cannabissativa (L.)). It was found that the cellulose microfibrils within dislocations have a different orientation than in the surrounding cell wall, and that the cellulose in the transition zones between a large dislocation and the surrounding wall may have yet another orientation. Furthermore, cellulose orientation seemed to be less uniform within dislocations than in the surrounding cell wall. PMID:23542583
Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled leaves from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... people mix it in food and eat it. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...
... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Marijuana and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... advice from your health care provider. What is marijuana? Marijuana, also called pot, weed, or cannabis, is ...
Cannabissativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and\\u000a pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data\\u000a analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the chloroform\\u000a extract of the pectin-treated cultures
Jaroslav Pe?; Isvett Josefina Flores-Sanchez; Young Hae Choi; Robert Verpoorte
Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown. PMID:25022187
Cannabissativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method for the in vitro propagation of a screened and selected high yielding drug type variety of Cannabissativa, MX-1 using synthetic seed technology. Axillary buds of Cannabissativa isolated from aseptic multiple shoot cultures were successfully encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The best gel complexation was achieved using 5 % sodium alginate with 50 mM CaCl2.2H2O. Regrowth and conversion after encapsulation was evaluated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions on different planting substrates. The addition of antimicrobial substance - Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) had a positive effect on overall plantlet development. Encapsulated explants exhibited the best regrowth and conversion frequency on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ 0.5 ?M) and PPM (0.075 %) under in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, 100 % conversion of encapsulated explants was obtained on 1:1 potting mix- fertilome with coco natural growth medium, moistened with full strength MS medium without TDZ, supplemented with 3 % sucrose and 0.5 % PPM. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated explants were hardened off and successfully transferred to the soil. These plants are selected to be used in mass cultivation for the production of biomass as a starting material for the isolation of THC as a bulk active pharmaceutical. PMID:23572915
Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A
The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABISSATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724
Cannabinoids, consisting of alkylresorcinol and monoterpene groups, are the unique secondary metabolites that are found only in Cannabissativa. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC) are well known cannabinoids and their pharmacological properties have been extensively studied. Recently, biosynthetic pathways of these cannabinoids have been successfully established. Several biosynthetic enzymes including geranylpyrophosphate:olivetolate geranyltransferase, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) synthase and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) synthase have been purified from young rapidly expanding leaves of C. sativa. In addition, molecular cloning, characterization and localization of THCA synthase have been recently reported. THCA and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), its substrate, were shown to be apoptosis-inducing agents that might play a role in plant defense. Transgenic tobacco hairy roots expressing THCA synthase can produce THCA upon feeding of CBGA. These results open the way for biotechnological production of cannabinoids in the future. PMID:17691992
Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride and methanol extracts of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabissativa has been investigated against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts examined, Carbon tetrachloride extract (Cte) of Aloe barbadensis was the most effective with LC50 values of 15.31 and 11.01 ppm after 24 and 48 hr of exposure, respectively followed by pertoleum ether extract (Pee) of A barbadensis, Cte of C. sativa, methanol extract (Mee) of A. barbadensis, methanol and petroleum ether of C. saliva, LC, being 25.97, 88.51, 144.44, 160.78 and 294.42 ppm affer 24hr and 16.60, 68.69, 108.38, 71.71 and 73.32 ppm after 48 hr of post treatment, respectively. Cte of both the plants exhibits potential larvicidal activity and can be used as ecofriendly alternative in the management of the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. PMID:19297997
Maurya, Prejwltta; Mohan, Lalit; Sharma, Preeti; Srivastava, C N
A genetic database was established with the aim of documenting the genetic diversity of Cannabissativa in Australia for future utilization in forensic investigations. The database consisted of genotypes at 10 validated short tandem repeat loci for 510 plants representing drug seizures from across Australia and 57 fiber samples. A total of 106 alleles and 314 different genotypes were detected. All fiber samples exhibited unique genotypes while 55% of the drug samples shared a genotype with one or more samples. Shared genotypes were mostly found within seizures; however, some genotypes were found among seizures. Statistical analysis indicated that genotype sharing was a consequence of clonal propagation rather than a lack of genetic resolution. Thus, the finding of shared genotypes among seizures is likely due to either a common supplier, or direct links among seizures. Notwithstanding the potential intelligence information provided by genetic analysis of C. sativa, our database analysis also reveals some present limitations. PMID:19302382
Howard, Christopher; Gilmore, Simon; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod
The chronology of Phomopsis ganjae conidia germination and infection of Cannabissativa leaves was observed with the scanning electron microscope. A-conidia germination approached 100% after 24 h, appresoria initiation began after 36 h; B-conidia germinated by 52 h but were not infective. Four-week-old C. sativa seedlings were more susceptible than 16-week-old plants, males more than females. THC and CBD, extracted
Male-associated DNA sequences were analysed in hemp (Cannabissativa L.), a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. A male-associated DNA sequence in C. sativa (MADC1) and its flanking sequence encoded a reverse transcriptase that was strongly homologous to those of LINE-like retrotransposons from various plants and other organisms, as well as another open reading frame (ORF). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with
The essential oil and the solvent extract of two populations of Cannabissativa L. ssp. spontanea growing wild in Austria were analyzed comparatively. In the essential oil, myrcene (31% and 27%, respectively), (E)-?-ocimene (13% and 3%, respectively) and ?-caryophyllene (11% and 16%, respectively) were found, while in the solvent extract the non-hallucinogeneous cannabidiol (77% and 59%, respectively) dominated. The hallucinogeneous
RNA isolated from the glands of a ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-producing strain of Cannabissativa was used to generate a cDNA library containing over 100 000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequencing of over 2000 clones from the library resulted in the identification of over 1000 unigenes. Candidate genes for almost every step in the biochemical pathways leading from primary metabolites to THCA were identified. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that many of the pathway genes are preferentially expressed in the glands. Hexanoyl-CoA, one of the metabolites required for THCA synthesis, could be made via either de novo fatty acids synthesis or via the breakdown of existing lipids. qPCR analysis supported the de novo pathway. Many of the ESTs encode transcription factors and two putative MYB genes were identified that were preferentially expressed in glands. Given the similarity of the Cannabis MYB genes to those in other species with known functions, these Cannabis MYBs may play roles in regulating gland development and THCA synthesis. Three candidates for the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene responsible for the first committed step in the pathway to THCA were characterized in more detail. One of these was identical to a previously reported chalcone synthase (CHS) and was found to have CHS activity. All three could use malonyl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as substrates, including the CHS, but reaction conditions were not identified that allowed for the production of olivetolic acid (the proposed product of the PKS activity needed for THCA synthesis). One of the PKS candidates was highly and specifically expressed in glands (relative to whole leaves) and, on the basis of these expression data, it is proposed to be the most likely PKS responsible for olivetolic acid synthesis in Cannabis glands.
Marks, M. David; Tian, Li; Wenger, Jonathan P.; Omburo, Stephanie N.; Soto-Fuentes, Wilfredo; He, Ji; Gang, David R.; Weiblen, George D.; Dixon, Richard A.
Hemp (Cannabissativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.
Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Razumova, Olga V.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Karlov, Gennady I.
Hemp (Cannabissativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution. PMID:24465491
Divashuk, Mikhail G; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Razumova, Olga V; Kirov, Ilya V; Karlov, Gennady I
A 10-kDa protein was isolated from resting seeds of hemp (Cannabissativa) by buffer extraction, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The protein did not inhibit bovine trypsin. It consisted of subunits composed of 27 and 61 residues and was held together by two disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence was identified by protein analysis, and had 20 mole% of amino acids containing sulfur. The protein was most similar to a methionine-rich protein of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and to Mabinlin IV, a sweetness-inducing protein of Capparis masaikai. The high methionine content and the absence of trypsin inhibitory activity suggested that the seed protein can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. PMID:9614695
Chemical investigation of the pollen grain collected from male plants of Cannabissativa L. resulted in the isolation for the first time of two flavonol glycosides from the methanol extract, and the identification of 16 cannabinoids in the hexane extract. The two glycosides were identified as kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and quercetin 3-O-sophoroside by spectroscopic methods including high-field two-dimensional NMR experiments. The characterisation of each cannabinoid was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses and by comparison with both available reference cannabinoids and reported data. The identified cannabinoids were delta9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol, cannabidivarin, cannabicitran, delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabicyclol, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabinol, dihydrocannabinol, cannabielsoin, 6a, 7, 10a-trihydroxytetrahydrocannabinol, 9, 10-epoxycannabitriol, 10-O-ethylcannabitriol, and 7, 8-dehydro-10-O-ethylcannabitriol. PMID:15688956
Ross, Samir A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Sultana, Gazi N N; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Hossain, Chowdhury F; Chandra, Suman
Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabissativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `P?ri?i' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.
Feruloyltyramine (FT), a new amide compound, together with p-coumaroyltyramine (p-CT) was isolated and identified in ethanol extract of cannabis seeds. FT and p-CT were also detected in the roots, leaves and resin of Cannabissativa L. The intracerebroventricular injection of these amides caused hypothermia and motor incoordination in mice, and the maximal effects were caused 160 to 240 min after the injection. Furthermore, p-CT also exhibited cataleptogenic effect in mice, although FT did not show any effect. These results suggest that these amide compounds may be responsible for some pharmacotoxicity of marihuana. PMID:1806939
Yamamoto, I; Matsunaga, T; Kobayashi, H; Watanabe, K; Yoshimura, H
The temperature response on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of three medicinal drug type (HP Mexican, MX and W1) and four industrial fiber type (Felinq 34, Kompolty, Zolo 11 and Zolo 15) varieties of Cannabissativa, originally from different agro-climatic zones worldwide, were studied. Among the drug type varieties, optimum temperature for photosynthesis (Topt) was observed in the range of 30-35 °C in high potency Mexican HPM whereas, it was in the range of 25-30 °C in W1. A comparatively lower value (25 °C) for Topt was observed in MX. Among fiber type varieties, Topt was around 30 °C in Zolo 11 and Zolo 15 whereas, it was near 25 °C in Felinq 34 and Kompolty. Varieties having higher maximum photosynthesis (PN max) had higher chlorophyll content as compared to those having lower PN max. Differences in water use efficiency (WUE) were also observed within and among the drug and fiber type plants. However, differences became less pronounced at higher temperatures. Both stomatal and mesophyll components seem to be responsible for the temperature dependence of photosynthesis (PN) in this species, however, their magnitude varied with the variety. In general, a two fold increase in dark respiration with increase in temperature (from 20 °C to 40 °C) was observed in all the varieties. However, a greater increase was associated with the variety having higher rate of photosynthesis, indicating a strong association between photosynthetic and respiratory rates. The results provide a valuable indication regarding variations in temperature dependence of PN in different varieties of Cannabissativa L. PMID:23573022
Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A
Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897
The Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007 is a national-level strategic assessment of cannabis cultivation and marijuana production in the United States. This assessment addresses major trends in domestic cannabis cultivation, both indoor and outd...
It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabissativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607
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Non-drug varieties of Cannabissativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), ?-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were ?-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and ?-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries. PMID:24422510
Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A
Cannabissativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the chloroform extract of the pectin-treated cultures were more different than control and JA-treated cultures; but in the methanol/water extract the metabolome of the JA-treated cells showed clear differences with control and pectin-treated cultures. Tyrosol, an antioxidant metabolite, was detected in cannabis cell cultures. The tyrosol content increased after eliciting with JA. PMID:20229065
Pec, Jaroslav; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert
The increasing utilization of synthetic (encapsulated) seeds for germplasm conservation and propagation necessitates the assessment\\u000a of genetic stability of conserved propagules following their plantlet conversion. We have assessed the genetic stability of\\u000a synthetic seeds of Cannabissativa L. during in vitro multiplication and storage for 6 months at different growth conditions using inter simple sequence repeat\\u000a (ISSR) DNA fingerprinting. Molecular analysis
Hemant Lata; Suman Chandra; Natascha Techen; Ikhlas A. Khan; Mahmoud A. ElSohly
For 5 millennia, Cannabissativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone, dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse. PMID:22305029
Experiments were performed to verify whether chronic treatment with Cannabis saliva extracts would induce dependence and\\/or abstinence symptoms in rats. In Experiment one, rats ingested cannabis extract as the only fluid for 126 days. On days 1, 43, 48, 62, 80, 92 and 119 when the animals were in abstinence from previous administration of marihuana for 0 to 96 h,
Marijuana continues to garner considerable attention and is the subject of intense public debate and scientific scrutiny. It is unquestionably one of the most frequently used illicit drugs throughout the world. In Western countries, the pat- tern of use among age groups has not deviated significantly since the mid-1970s. The most prevalent use occurs in per- sons who are in
BILLY R. M ARTIN; WILLIAM L. D EWEY; VINCENZO D I M ARZO
Marijuana (Cannabissativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide as well as in the Unites States. Prolonged use of marijuana or repeated administration of its primary psychoactive constituent, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can lead to physical dependence in humans and laboratory animals. The changes that occur with repeated cannabis use include alterations in behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses. A variety of withdrawal responses occur in cannabis-dependent individuals: anger, aggression, irritability, anxiety and nervousness, decreased appetite or weight loss, restlessness, and sleep difficulties with strange dreams. But the long half-life and other pharmacokinetic properties of THC result in delayed expression of withdrawal symptoms, and because of the lack of contiguity between drug cessation and withdrawal responses the latter are not readily recognized as a clinically relevant syndrome. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of clinical and laboratory animal research has emerged supporting the assertion that chronic exposure to cannabinoids produces physical dependence and may contribute to drug maintenance in cannabis-dependent individuals. However, no medications are approved to treat cannabis dependence and withdrawal. In this review, we describe preclinical and clinical research that supports the existence of a cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome. In addition, we review research evaluating potential pharmacotherapies (e.g., THC, a variety of antidepressant drugs, and lithium) to reduce cannabis withdrawal responses and examine how expanded knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms in the endocannabinoid system may lead to promising new therapeutic targets.
Ramesh, Divya; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Wiebelhaus, Jason M.; Lichtman, Aron H.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a common cause of death among young adults in the USA. AIDS wasting syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of AIDS. Antiretroviral drug therapy has improved the prognosis of persons with AIDS, but also contributed side effects, particularly nausea and anorexia. Case reports demonstrate persons with AIDS use cannabis as medicine tocontrol nausea, anorexia,
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabissativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data.
Cannabissativa L. has been used for the treatment of various gynecological diseases in traditional medicine. The potential of this plant to protect against complications of menopause has been raised but rarely studied. Twenty female rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (OVX) and three other ovariectomized groups: HST1%, HST2% and HST10% which received 1%, 2% and 10% hempseed, respectively, in their diet for 3 weeks. The effects of hempseed on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles, estradiol and calcium levels were evaluated. Rats were tested for behavioral changes using the forced swimming test. The results showed that ovariectomy, independent of the type of diet, caused elevation of plasma calcium, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, while hempseed modified this effect. Plasma estradiol levels were significantly lower in the OVX group compared to other groups. The swimming times for the OVX and sham groups were significantly shorter than that of the HSD10% group. All hempseed-treated groups were less anxious and showed significant declines in fecal boli compared to the sham group. The exploratory diving percent decreased in the HST10% group compared with other groups. These results suggest that hempseed may improve post-ovariectomy complications in rats. PMID:21069097
Saberivand, A; Karimi, I; Becker, L A; Moghaddam, A; Azizi-Mahmoodjigh, S; Yousefi, M; Zavareh, S
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabissativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data. PMID:23812081
Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabissativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question.
Garbacik, Erik T.; Korai, Roza P.; Frater, Eric H.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L.
Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of ??-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabissativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question. PMID:23588807
Garbacik, Erik T; Korai, Roza P; Frater, Eric H; Korterik, Jeroen P; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L
Regenerating pieces of planarian worms are able to absorbe insoluble substances deposited on the base of the vessels in which they are cultivated. This biological test was used to study the toxic effects of the essential oil of Cannabissativa L. The hydrocarbons such as pinene (alpha and beta), caryophyllene and so on were not toxic. On the contrary caryophyllene oxide was highly toxic. It was not possible to detect any protection by 5-hydroxytryptamine as it was the case against delta 1-tétrahydro-cannabinol and cannabidiol. PMID:754350
The feasibility of combined phytoextraction and in situ washing of soil contaminated with Pb (1750 mg kg-1), Zn (1300 mg kg-1), and Cd (7.2 mg kg-1), induced by the addition of biodegradable chelator, [S,S] stereoisomere of ethylenediamine discuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS), was tested in soil columns with hemp (Cannabissativa) as the phytoextracting plant. The addition of [S,S]-EDDS (10 mmol kg-1 dry soil) yielded concentrations of 1026±442, 330.3±114.7 and 3.84±1.55 mg kg-1
Marijuana (Cannabissativa L.) was sampled at nine progressive growth stages in Riley County, Kansas, and analyzed for four major cannabinoids: cannabidiol\\u000a (CBD), della-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), and cannabinol (CBN). Seasonal\\u000a fluctuation in cannabinoids were related to stage of plant development. Cannabinoids were lowest in seedlings, highest prior\\u000a to flowering and at an intermediate level thereafter until physiological maturity. Cannabinoids
In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabissativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined CBC, THC, and combination of both phytocannabinoids in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paw edema assay. CBC elicited activity in the tetrad that was not blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Moreover, a behaviorally inactive dose of THC augmented the effects of CBC in the tetrad that was associated with an increase in THC brain concentrations. Both CBC and THC elicited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in the LPS-induced paw edema model. The CB2 receptor, SR144528 blocked the anti-edematous actions of THC, but not those produced by CBC. Isobolographic analysis revealed that the anti-edematous effects of these cannabinoids in combination were additive. Although CBC produced pharmacological effects, unlike THC, its underlying mechanism of action did not involve CB1 or CB2 receptors. In addition, there was evidence of a possible pharmacokinetic component in which CBC dose-dependently increased THC brain levels following an i.v. injection of 0.3 mg/kg THC. In conclusion, CBC produced a subset of behavioral activity in the tetrad assay and reduced LPS-induced paw edema through a noncannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. These effects were augmented when CBC and THC were co-administered.
DeLong, Gerald T.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H.
This Chartbook recognizes marijuana as a major component of the illicit drug problem. Major progress has been achieved in reducing youth marijuana use; nevertheless, the overall demand for marijuana remains strong. The supply of cannabis is complex, invol...
The cannabinoid content of 13 different strains of cannabis plant (Cannabissativa L.) was analyzed. Six strains fell into the "drug-type" class, with high Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) content, and seven strains into the "fiber-type" class, with low THCA using HPLC analysis. Genomic DNA sequence polymorphisms in the THCA synthase gene from each strain were studied. A single PCR fragment of the THCA synthase gene was detected from six strains of "drug-type" plants. We could also detect the fragment from seven strains of "fiber-type" plants, although no or very low content of THCA were detected in these samples. These were 1638 bp from all 13 strains and no intron among the sequences obtained. There were two variants of the THCA synthase gene in the "drug-type" and "fiber-type" cannabis plants, respectively. Thirty-seven major substitutions were detected in the alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences from these variants. Furthermore, we identified a specific PCR marker for the THCA synthase gene for the "drug-type" strains. This PCR marker was not detected in the "fiber-type" strains. PMID:16143478
Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones and its potential functional effects have been largely neglected. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabissativa (marijuana) ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via the activation of type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals an unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor over-activation that could open an unforeseen novel approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.
The cross-reaction of anti-?1-THCA MAb against other cannabinoids was very wide. However, other naturally occurring and synthetic phenolics including opium alkaloids did not react to the MAb. Using this ELISA, this paper reports application of the competitive ELISA for detection of marijuana samples. The ELISA described here was very sensitive to the ether extracts of marijuana samples when compared to
Marijuana (Cannabissativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women, but information is limited about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development. The present study evaluated the influence of early maternal marijuana use on fetal growth. Women electing voluntary saline-induced abortions were recruited at a mid-gestational stage of pregnancy (weeks 17-22), and detailed drug use and medical histories were obtained. Toxicological assays (maternal urine and fetal meconium) were used in conjunction with the maternal report to assign groups. Subjects with documented cocaine and opiate use were excluded. Main developmental outcome variables were fetal weight, foot length, body length, and head circumference; ponderal index was also examined. Analyses were adjusted for maternal alcohol and cigarette use. Marijuana (n=44)- and nonmarijuana (n=95)-exposed fetuses had similar rates of growth with increased age. However, there was a 0.08-cm (95% CI -0.15 to -0.01) and 14.53-g (95% CI -28.21 to 0.86) significant reduction of foot length and body weight, respectively, for marijuana-exposed fetuses. Moreover, fetal foot length development was negatively correlated with the amount and frequency of marijuana use reported by the mothers. These findings provide evidence of a negative impact of prenatal marijuana exposure on the mid-gestational fetal growth even when adjusting for maternal use of other substances well known to impair fetal development. PMID:15734273
Hurd, Y L; Wang, X; Anderson, V; Beck, O; Minkoff, H; Dow-Edwards, D
The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabissativa L. is correlated with high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation environments. ..delta../sup 9/-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, both major secondary products of C. sativa, absorb UV-B radiation and may function as solar screens. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. sativa. Drug and fiber-type C. sativa were irradiated with three levels of UV-B radiation for 40 days in greenhouse experiments. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates from 26 to 32/sup 0/C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. The concentration of ..delta../sup 9/-THC, but not of other cannabinoids) in both vegetative and reproductive tissues increased with UV-B dose in drug-type plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of ..delta../sup 9/-THC found in leaves after irradiation may account for the physiological and morphological insensitivity to UV-B radiation in the drug-type plants. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil (CBD). Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. Cannabidiol (CBD) gradually decreased when irradiated but ..delta../sup 9/-THC and cannabichromene did not.
The increasing utilization of synthetic (encapsulated) seeds for germplasm conservation and propagation necessitates the assessment of genetic stability of conserved propagules following their plantlet conversion. We have assessed the genetic stability of synthetic seeds of Cannabissativa L. during in vitro multiplication and storage for 6 months at different growth conditions using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) DNA fingerprinting. Molecular analysis of randomly selected plants from each batch was conducted using 14 ISSR markers. Of the 14 primers tested, nine produced 40 distinct and reproducible bands. All the ISSR profiles from in vitro stored plants were monomorphic and comparable to the mother plant which confirms the genetic stability among the clones. GC analysis of six major cannabinoids [?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol and cannabinol] showed homogeneity in the re-grown clones and the mother plant with insignificant differences in cannabinoids content, thereby confirming the stability of plants derived from synthetic seeds following 6 months storage. PMID:21805186
Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Techen, Natascha; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A
The unusual concentration of cannabinoids recently found in marijuana samples submitted to the forensic laboratory for chemical analysis prompted an investigation into whether genetic modifications have been made to the DNA of Cannabissativa L. to increase its potency. Traditional methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) were used to analyze herbal cannabis preparations. Our analyses support the hypothesis that marijuana samples submitted to forensic laboratories and characterized by an abnormal level of ?(9)-THC are the product of breeding selection rather than of transgenic modifications. Further, this research has shown a risk of false positive results associated with the poor quality of the seized samples and probably due to the contamination by other transgenic vegetable products. On the other hand, based on these data, a conclusive distinction between the hypothesis of GMO plant contamination and the other of genetic modification of cannabis cannot be made requiring further studies on comparative chemical and genetic analyses to find out an explanation for the recently detected increased potency of cannabis. PMID:22211569
Recent advances in development of immunoassay methods for marijuana constituents in body fluids provide a rapid means of detection for forensic purposes and a useful research tool for accurate quantitation of dose-response relation. Therapeutic possibilities of cannabis, such as reduction in intraocular pressure and bronchodilatation, may stimulate development of synthetic cannabinoid derivatives that meet acceptable standards of safety and effiicacy for treatment of glaucoma and asthma. Cannabis use may have harmful short- and long-term impacts on health. Potentially serious short-term effects include predisposition to angina during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Even in healthy subjects, marijuana smoking decreases peak exercise performance, possibly because of its chronotropic effect with achievement of maximum heart rate at reduced work loads. Although no conclusive evidence exists for long-term biologic consequences of chronic cannabis use, preliminary evidence, suggesting impairment in pulmonary function and immune responses, requires further investigation with large-scale epidemiologic studies. PMID:358885
The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of ?9-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail
Abir T. El-Alfy; Kelly Ivey; Keisha Robinson; Safwat Ahmed; Mohamed Radwan; Desmond Slade; Ikhlas Khan; Mahmoud ElSohly; Samir Ross
Three new cannabichromanone derivatives were isolated from high potency cannabis, along with the known cannabichromanone. Full spectroscopic data, including the use of electronic circular dichroism and Mosher ester analysis to determine the absolute configuration of these compounds, are reported. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antileishmanial and anti-oxidant activity.
Ahmed, Safwat A.; Ross, Samir A.; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.
Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug. It is estimated that 4% of the global population between the ages of\\u000a 15 and 64 smoked marijuana in 2003. Despite the drug’s extreme popularity, reports of cannabis-related stroke and myocardial\\u000a infarction are so rare as to still be reportable. Cannabinoids, the active compounds contained in marijuana, interact with\\u000a cardiovascular centers in
In Part I of this article, I examined the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in drug approval and then detailed the known risks of medical marijuana (any form of Cannabissativa used--usually by smoking--to treat a wide variety of pathologic states and diseases). Part II of the article will begin by reviewing the benefits of Cannabissativa as documented by well designed scientific studies that have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. I will then propose that ability of scientists to conduct impartial studies designed to answer the question of marijuana's role in medical therapy has been greatly hampered by political considerations. I will posit that in spite of the considerable efforts of policymakers, it is becoming apparent that marijuana's benefits should be weighed against its well-described risks. I will conclude that political advocacy is a poor substitute for dispassionate analysis and that neither popular votes nor congressional "findings" should be permitted to trump scientific evidence in deciding whether or not marijuana is an appropriate pharmaceutical agent to use in modern medical practice. Whether or not marijuana is accepted as a legitimate medical therapy should remain in the hands of the usual drug-approval process and that the statutory role of the Food and Drug Administration should be dispositive. PMID:19492213
A valid cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been demonstrated in controlled studies with adult marijuana abusers, yet few published reports have examined cannabis withdrawal among adolescents. Adolescents presenting for outpatient substance abuse treatment, whose primary substance of abuse was cannabis, completed a questionnaire reporting the presence and severity of withdrawal symptoms during past periods of cannabis abstinence. Nearly two-thirds of the
Ryan Vandrey; Alan J. Budney; Jody L. Kamon; Catherine Stanger
Charlotte, a little girl with SCN1A-confirmed Dravet syndrome, was recently featured in a special that aired on CNN. Through exhaustive personal research and assistance from a Colorado-based medical marijuana group (Realm of Caring), Charlotte's mother started adjunctive therapy with a high concentration cannabidiol/?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD:THC) strain of cannabis, now known as Charlotte's Web. This extract, slowly titrated over weeks and given in conjunction with her existing antiepileptic drug regimen, reduced Charlotte's seizure frequency from nearly 50 convulsive seizures per day to now 2-3 nocturnal convulsions per month. This effect has persisted for the last 20 months, and Charlotte has been successfully weaned from her other antiepileptic drugs. We briefly review some of the history, preclinical and clinical data, and controversies surrounding the use of medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy, and make a case that the desire to isolate and treat with pharmaceutical grade compounds from cannabis (specifically CBD) may be inferior to therapy with whole plant extracts. Much more needs to be learned about the mechanisms of antiepileptic activity of the phytocannabinoids and other constituents of Cannabissativa. PMID:24854149
This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n ?=? 15), 50% hemp seed (n ?=? 15) or basal diet (n? =? 15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabissativa L. byproducts in their diets. PMID:21328577
Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac
Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabissativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1?M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2?M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65?Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6?Å, ? = 69, ? = 81, ? = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1?M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2?M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55?Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130?Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1.
?1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) into THCA, the precursor of the primary psychoactive agent ?1-tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabissativa. The enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified, and crystallized in order to investigate the structure-function relationship of THCA synthase, and the tertiary structure was determined to 2.75Å resolution by X-ray crystallography (R(cryst)=19.9%). The THCA synthase enzyme is a member of the p-cresol methyl-hydroxylase superfamily, and the tertiary structure is divided into two domains (domains I and II), with a flavin adenine dinucleotide coenzyme positioned between each domain and covalently bound to His114 and Cys176 (located in domain I). The catalysis of THCA synthesis involves a hydride transfer from C3 of CBGA to N5 of flavin adenine dinucleotide and the deprotonation of O6' of CBGA. The ionized residues in the active site of THCA synthase were investigated by mutational analysis and X-ray structure. Mutational analysis indicates that the reaction does not involve the carboxyl group of Glu442 that was identified as the catalytic base in the related berberine bridge enzyme but instead involves the hydroxyl group of Tyr484. Mutations at the active-site residues His292 and Tyr417 resulted in a decrease in, but not elimination of, the enzymatic activity of THCA synthase, suggesting a key role for these residues in substrate binding and not direct catalysis. PMID:22766313
Marihuana (Cannabissativa, the hemp plant) is one of the most widely used illicit drugs all over the world. Cannabis products are usually smoked. The plant contains chemicals called cannabinoids. One of these, 1-delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) is believed be responsible for most of the characteristic psychoactive (euphoria) and cardiovascular (tachycardia, conjuctivitis) effects. Although some clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marihuana (i.e. on the basis of its antiemetic, anticonvulsive and analgesic effect)--the scientific evidence is weak. Therefore the complete legalization of the drug is strongly opposed. PMID:11367861
Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal substance in the United States and Europe. There is a dramatic increase in the demand for treatment for cannabis dependence. The majority of marijuana-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence from cannabis partly due to the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Onset of most symptoms occurs during the 1st week
Aviv Weinstein; Hila Miller; Eti Tal; Irit Ben Avi; Isachar Herman; Rachel Bar-Hamburger; Miki Bloch
The complete 1H- and 13C-NMR assignments of the major Cannabis constituents, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, cannflavin A and cannflavin B have been determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra including 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H-COSY, HMQC and HMBC. The substitution of carboxylic acid on the cannabinoid nucleus (as in tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid) has a large effect on the chemical shift of H-1" of the C5 side chain and 2'-OH. It was also observed that carboxylic acid substitution reduces intermolecular hydrogen bonding resulting in a sharpening of the H-5' signal in cannabinolic acid in deuterated chloroform. The additional aromaticity of cannabinol causes the two angular methyl groups (H-8 and H-9) to show identical 1H-NMR shifts, which indicates that the two aromatic rings are in one plane in contrast to the other cannabinoids. For the cannabiflavonoids, the unambiguous assignments of C-3' and C-4' of cannflavin A and B were determined by HMBC spectra. PMID:15595449
Choi, Young Hae; Hazekamp, Arno; Peltenburg-Looman, Anja M G; Frédérich, Michel; Erkelens, Cornelis; Lefeber, Alfons W M; Verpoorte, Robert
Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed), K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1) and K (232–257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabissativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, zinc and iron.
A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates
Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…
Neither absolute THC content nor morphology allows the unequivocal discrimination of fiber cultivars and drug strains of Cannabissativa L. unequivocally. However, the CBD/THC ratio remains constant throughout the plant's life cycle, is independent of environmental factors, and considered to be controlled by a single locus (B) with two codominant alleles (BT and BD ). The homozygous BT /BT genotype underlies the THC-predominant phenotype, BD /BD is CBD predominant, and an intermediate phenotype is induced by the heterozygous state (BT /BD ). Using PCR-based markers in two segregating populations, we proved that the THCA synthase gene represents the postulated B locus and that specific sequence polymorphisms are absolutely linked either to the THC-predominant or the THC-intermediate chemotype. The absolute linkage provides an excellent reliability of the marker signal in forensic casework. For validation, the species-specific marker system was applied to a large number of casework samples and fiber hemp cultivars. PMID:24579739
Staginnus, Christina; Zörntlein, Siegfried; de Meijer, Etienne
We studied the effects of heavy metal salts (Pb(NO3)2, CuSO4, and ZnSO4) on phytohormonal status and sex expression in various cultivars of marijuana (Cannabissativa L.), a dioecious plant, grown on Knop nutrient medium. Pb(NO3)2 and ZnSO4 were added to the medium at the concentration of 10?9 M, and CuSO4, at the concentration of 10?10 M. Plant were grown under
Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those
Denise D. Walker; Robert Stephens; Roger Roffman; Josephine DeMarce; Brian Lozano; Sheri Towe; Belinda Berg
The scheduling of cannabis under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has established legal precedents that determine how scientific evidence affects its regulation in the United States. This background challenges three common fallacies that make it seem marijuana prohibition is the only viable policy outcome. A contemporary effort to reschedule cannabis is based on recent findings that have established that marijuana
Synthetic and naturally occurring cannabidiol and cannabichromene were distinctly separated without derivation by GLC using a 6% OV-1 column; an artifact of cannabichromene, cannabicyclol, was separated from (minus)-delta9-trans-tetrahydrocanna-bivarin. This procedure is versatile and applicable for the quantitation of Cannabis containing both cannabidiol and cannabichromene. Biological interaction among (minus)-delta9-trans-tetrhydrocanabinol, cannabichromene, and other cannabinoids in natural Cannabis preparations can now be studied. In the phenyl methyl silicone polymer series, cannabidiol precedes ca-nabichromene on columns containing below a 50% phenyl-to-methyl ratio. Columns containing below a 50% phenyl-to-methyl ratio. Columns containing a 50:50 or greater ratio of phenyl to methyl reverse the separation order with cannabichromene preceding cannabidiol. PMID:1151651
Turner, C E; Hadley, K W; Holley, J H; Billets, S; Mole, M L
Two isolation procedures for ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), the biogenetic precursor in the biosynthesis of the psychoactive ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant, are presented. Two flash chromatography systems that can be used independently from each other were developed to separate THCA from other compounds of a crude cannabis extract. In both systems UV absorption at 209 and 270 nm was monitored. Purity was finally determined by HPLC-DAD, NMR and GC-MS analysis with a focus on the impurity THC. System 1 consisted of a normal phase silica column (120 g) as well as cyclohexane and acetone--both spiked with the modifier pyridine--as mobile phases. Gradient elution was performed over 15 min. After the chromatographic run the fractions containing THCA fractions were pooled, extracted with hydrochloric acid to eliminate pyridine and evaporated to dryness. Loading 1800 mg cannabis extract yielded 623 mg THCA with a purity of 99.8% and a THC concentration of 0.09%. System 2 was based on a reversed-phase C18 column (150 g) combined with 0.55% formic acid and methanol as mobile phases. A very flat gradient was set over 20 minutes. After pooling the THCA-containing fractions methanol was removed in a rotary evaporator. THCA was re-extracted from the remaining aqueous phase with methyl tert-butyl ether. The organic phase was finally evaporated under high vacuum conditions. Loading 300 mg cannabis extract yielded 51 mg THCA with a purity of 98.8% and a THC concentration of 0.67%. PMID:21944900
Summary An analytical procedure was developed for the detection of neutral and acidic cannabinoids in herbal cannabis without the\\u000a need of any preliminary derivatization. The method was used to assay cannabinoid content of over one hundred fiber hemp samples\\u000a grown in different Italian localities and harvested at different maturation level degrees during the summer. No interferences\\u000a were observed due to the
C. Rustichelli; V. Ferioli; M. Baraldi; P. Zanoli; G. Gamberini
There is an emerging interest in the clinical use of cannabis (marijuana), but there is almost no evidence of its efficacy. The Dutch government has a policy that aims at collecting clinical data to determine whether cannabis can be used as a medicine. An Office of Medicinal Cannabis was established in March 2000. This office will act as a regulator
Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…
Aims Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Design Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC) or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to 4 optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. Setting High schools in Seattle, WA, USA. Participants 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. Measurements Main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. Findings At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to DFC. Frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reduction in use and problems were sustained at 12-months but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and not different by condition. Conclusions Brief interventions can attract and have positive impacts on adolescent cannabis users, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified.
Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis:
In the cultivations of Cannabis, it is important to be able to distinguish fiber-type plants from drug-type plants by an easy observation of their phenotype. This study required the screening of many samples for their cannabinoid content. A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunological method was developed for the determination of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the leaf extracts. The useful range of the calibration curve was between 10 pg and 25 ng of standard. Matrix effects were minimized by a high dilution of samples. PMID:10552557
Bacigalupo, M A; Ius, A; Meroni, G; Grassi, G; Moschella, A
Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a
Frances R. Levin; John J. Mariani; Daniel J. Brooks; Martina Pavlicova; Wendy Cheng; Edward V. Nunes
The prevalence of cannabis use is rising among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. However, clinicians who treat adolescent substance users hear frequent reports of serious cannabis-use disorders and problems. This study asked whether cannabis produced dependence and withdrawal among such patients, and whether patients' reports supported previous laboratory findings of reinforcing effects from cannabis. This was
Thomas J Crowley; Marilyn J Macdonald; Elizabeth A Whitmore; Susan K Mikulich
Patients who urgently need marijuana for medical reasons will be unable to get it at California buyers clubs. The California Supreme Court refused to overturn an appeals court decision against the clubs. Although the ruling occurred in the case of the Cannabis Cultivators Club only, it affects all 20 clubs in the State. The decision means that patients can only legally obtain marijuana by growing it themselves or from a primary caregiver who grows it (although there is no legal way to obtain the seeds). Legal briefs have been filed by the buyers clubs. The politics of the issue indicate that the parties cannot come to a workable compromise on providing marijuana for use in treating nausea, wasting syndrome, or chemotherapy-related problems. PMID:11365119
In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other
Debra Harris; Reese T. Jones; Robin Shank; Rajneesh Nath; Emilio Fernandez; Kenneth Goldstein; John Mendelson
SummaryThe medical value of marijuana is becoming increasingly clear, as it proves to be a remarkably versatile, safe, and inexpensive drug. Arrangements now being proposed for making cannabis constituents medically available include quasi-legal buyers clubs, restrictive classification as a prescription drug, the isolation of individual cannabinoids, and the manufacture of synthetic analogs. Careful analysis potentially of this inexpensive drug shows
The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabissativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA. Cannabinoids are synthesized in glandular trichomes present mainly on female flowers. We quantified hexanoyl-CoA using LC-MS/MS and found levels of 15.5 pmol g(-1) fresh weight in female hemp flowers with lower amounts in leaves, stems and roots. This pattern parallels the accumulation of the end-product cannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). To search for the acyl-activating enzyme (AAE) that synthesizes hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoate, we analyzed the transcriptome of isolated glandular trichomes. We identified 11 unigenes that encoded putative AAEs including CsAAE1, which shows high transcript abundance in glandular trichomes. In vitro assays showed that recombinant CsAAE1 activates hexanoate and other short- and medium-chained fatty acids. This activity and the trichome-specific expression of CsAAE1 suggest that it is the hexanoyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the cannabinoid pathway. CsAAE3 encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that activates a variety of fatty acid substrates including hexanoate. Although phylogenetic analysis showed that CsAAE1 groups with peroxisomal AAEs, it lacked a peroxisome targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) and localized to the cytoplasm. We suggest that CsAAE1 may have been recruited to the cannabinoid pathway through the loss of its PTS1, thereby redirecting it to the cytoplasm. To probe the origin of hexanoate, we analyzed the trichome expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. The high abundance of transcripts that encode desaturases and a lipoxygenase suggests that hexanoate may be formed through a pathway that involves the oxygenation and breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:22353623
Stout, Jake M; Boubakir, Zakia; Ambrose, Stephen J; Purves, Randy W; Page, Jonathan E
Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a 'cause-effect' relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the 'transition-to-psychosis' due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553
Under pressure from the courts, Health Canada reluctantly comes up with a distribution plan to provide dried cannabis and seeds to patients using medical marijuana. The plan has been greeted with considerable criticism PMID:14746292
Cannabissativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have
Background Chronic users of cannabis often report withdrawal symptoms after abstinence from use, but little is known about cannabis withdrawal in people with schizophrenia. Methods Cannabis use patterns and withdrawal symptoms in adults with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use before attempting to quit without formal treatment were assessed with the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a 176-item, semi-structured questionnaire. Results 120 participants, predominantly African–American (62.5%) and male (76.7%), met inclusion criteria. 20.1% reported that their first regular cannabis use (median age 15 years [range 8–48]) preceded their age at first psychotic symptoms (20 [4–50] years). Twenty (16.7%) participants met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse; 98 (81.7%) met surrogate criteria for lifetime cannabis dependence. Withdrawal symptoms were reported by 113 (94.2%) participants, with 74.2% reporting ?4 symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were craving for cannabis (59.2%), feeling anxious (52.57%), feeling bored (47.5%), feeling sad or depressed (45.8%), feeling irritable or jumpy (45.0%), feeling restless (43.3%), and trouble failing asleep (33.3%). One hundred-and-four (92.0%) participants took some action to relieve at least one of their withdrawal symptoms during their index-quit attempt, including 26 (23.0%) participants who reported resuming cannabis use. Conclusion Cannabis withdrawal is a clinically significant feature of cannabis use among people with schizophrenia, may serve as a negative reinforcer for relapse, and deserves greater attention in treatment and research. Clinical Trials registration NCT00679016.
Boggs, Douglas L.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared A.; Turner, Hailey; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; McMahon, Robert P.; Gorelick, David A.
The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. PMID:22362625
Contents: The DEA Position on Marijuana; The Fallacy of Marijuana for Medicinal Use; (Smoked Marijuana is Not Medicine, The Legalization Lobby, The Failure of Legalized Marijuana Efforts); Dangers of Marijuana (Marijuana is Dangerous to the User and Other...
Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug in the world today. Some 146 million people, or 3.7% of the population\\u000a 15–64 years of age, consumed Cannabis in 2001–2003 (1). In the United States, 95 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once. In 2002, an estimated\\u000a 15 million Americans had used the drug in
The reinforcing properties of ?9 (17.5 mg), a 1 g marijuana cigarette containing 1.83% ?9-THC, a synthetic cannabis compound (Nabilone 2 mg orally), and their respective placebos were assessed with self-report and operant work-contingent choice procedures. Three groups of eight subjects were selected on the basis of a history of regular, intermittent, or occasional marijuana-smoking behavior. All subjects served as
This article summarizes current knowledge about the medicinal value of cannabis and its principal psychoactive ingredient, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), particularly in the control of nausea and vomiting, in glaucoma, and in reduction of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. The major issues in the controversy about marijuana and medicine, primarily moral and ethical, are discussed. PMID:2995262
Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis (“marijuana”) has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0–10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai‘i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.
Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ?1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ?10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ? moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment.
Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.
Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects.
Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects. PMID:9656007
Cannabis plants show a high Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore the cultivation of hemp and its possession are prohibited by law in Japan. Meanwhile, Cannabis seeds have been used as a component of shichimi-togarashi (a Japanese spice), bird feed, or a crude drug (mashinin). To exclude the possibility of germination, it is officially noticed that hemp seeds must be killed. However, the number of violators has increased in recent years. To judge the ability of seed germination, a germination test is performed. However, the test requires several days and thus has not been used for on-site inspection. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method to determine the ability of Cannabis seeds to germinate using 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The principle of the assay is as follows. The endogenous respiratory enzymes in hemp seeds convert added colorless TTC into red 1,3,5-triphenylformazan. Consequently, a living embryo is stained red, while red does not appear in the dead seeds. The reaction was active over a pH range of 8.0-9.0, and the optimum activity was found from 40 to 50 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, we were able to determine the ability of seeds to germinate based on the presence of color within 20 min. Since this method is rapid and simple, it is applicable to on-site inspections. In addition, it could be used as an alternative technique to the germination test, because erroneous decisions is cannot occur under the assay principle. PMID:18981707
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Grassroots AIDS activist groups denounce the Clinton Administration's stance on banning medicinal use of marijuana due to the lack of clinical evidence supporting its benefits. The 1997 meeting of the San Francisco Medical Society and the New England Journal of Medicine both agreed, following a review of 75 scientific studies of the medicinal benefits of marijuana, that the benefits of smoked marijuana include relief from pain and the reduction of nausea caused by anti-cancer drugs. The Federal government is attempting to punish physicians for prescribing marijuana to their patients, a situation being opposed by the Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights who have initiated a suit against the government. A hearing to stop this prosecution was scheduled for March 21. PMID:11364533
The Cannabis Healing Center, the largest of the medical marijuana buyers' clubs in San Francisco, was shut down on May 25 due to a court order obtained by State Attorney General Dan Lungren. The closure creates an emergency situation for thousands of persons who obtained the drug through the center. City officials are exploring ways to develop guidelines for the medical usage of marijuana that would be consistent with California Proposition 215. Proposition 215 does not nullify Federal laws against marijuana, however, Federal authorities usually allow State or local jurisdictions to handle marijuana enforcement. The three other buyers' clubs in the city are unable to meet the needs of everyone due to insufficient staffing. The closure also shut down the campaign office of Dennis Peron, who was the founder of the previous Cannabis Buyers' Club, and who was running for governor. Contact information and documentation requirements are included for the buyers' clubs. PMID:11365467
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.
Used data from Ontario Alcohol and Drug Use Among Students survey (N=4,267) to determine how reported alcohol and cannabis (marijuana) use changed with increased exposure to drug education. Concluded drug education had stronger influence on younger students and lighter drinkers but little impact on heavy drinkers. Found decrease in cannabis use…
Exposed students (N=2,319) in grades 7-10 to drug use study results showing use of cannabis (marijuana) as uncommon among peer group. Measured influence of new data on perceptions and how changed perceptions might affect cannabis use. Found changing perceptions was difficult. Found student perceptions of drug use bore no relationship to personal…
We have analyzed the distribution of genotypes at a single hexanucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) locus in a Cannabissativa seed database along with seed-packaging information. This STR locus is defined by the polymerase chain reaction amplification primers CS1F and CS1R and is referred to as NMI01 (for National Marijuana Initiative) in our study. The population database consists of seed seizures of two categories: seed samples from labeled and unlabeled packages regarding seed bank source. Of a population database of 93 processed seeds including 12 labeled Cannabis varieties, the observed genotypes generated from single seeds exhibited between one and three peaks (potentially six alleles if in homozygous state). The total number of observed genotypes was 54 making this marker highly specific and highly individualizing even among seeds of common lineage. Cluster analysis associated many but not all of the handwritten labeled seed varieties tested to date as well as the National Park seizure to our known reference database containing Mr. Nice Seedbank and Sensi Seeds commercially packaged reference samples. PMID:23216136
Shirley, Nicholas; Allgeier, Lindsay; Lanier, Tommy; Coyle, Heather Miller
Sample populations of 157 Cannabis accessions of diverse geographic origin were surveyed for allozyme variation at 17 gene loci. The frequencies of 52 alleles were subjected to principal components analysis. A scatter plot revealed two major groups of accessions. The sativa gene pool includes fiber\\/seed landraces from Europe, Asia Minor, and Central Asia, and ruderal populations from Eastern Europe. The
This article examines the history of assigning a banned status to medical marijuana; describes the politics of medical marijuana research; provides evidence of the scientifically demonstrated efficacy and safety of Cannabis for certain pathologic conditions; analyzes several vaguely worded state statutes governing the recommendation, distribution, and use of "medical marijuana" that render its use open to abuse; and recommends the development and enforcement of statutory and regulatory reforms that would bring state oversight of this drug into agreement with stringent federal regulation of other controlled substances with proven medical utility. PMID:20880248
This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)
A spectrophotometric method used to test for paraquat in 160 confiscated marijuana samples is described. Twenty of these samples (12.5 per cent) tested positive for paraquat. Nine confiscated hash oil samples tested negative. The identification of paraquat was proven by isolation, chromatography, and spectral methods. The cannabinoids in paraquat positive Cannabis samples were analysed. PMID:258606
Turner, C E; Cheng, P C; Torres, L M; Elsohly, M A
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The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas with alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.
Objectives. This article describes a sample of 160 adults selected to participate in a random- ized controlled trial conducted at a specialized outpatient clinic for cannabis users in Brazil. It correlates consumption with several measures of marijuana use, comparing it with other samples. Methods. Instruments used were the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and Wender Utah Rating Scale for screening
Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as ‘skunk’ in the mainstream UK media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers whether the trend reflects an increased awareness of and desire for medical marijuana. Determining whether cannabis is a drug or a medicine depends on its objective physiological effects - which may vary from one individual
Cannabis displays substantial effectiveness for a variety of medical symptoms. Seventy-seven patients took part in a study in California to assess the efficacy of organically grown Cannabissativa and indica strains in treatment of various medical conditions via smoking or ingestion. HIV\\/AIDS was the most frequent condition reported, at 51%. Standardized rating forms provided 1892 records that were statistically analyzed.
Both the key mechanism of action for marijuana (the endocannabinoid system) and the symptoms associated with marijuana withdrawal suggest an important link to anxiety. Despite this link, there is a dearth of research on the characteristics of heavy marijuana users with clinical-level anxiety compared to those with heavy marijuana use alone. Over 10,000 participants (friends or affiliates of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) provided data via online survey. After careful, conservative screening, anxiety, other psychopathology, other drug use, and marijuana-related problems were examined in 2567 heavy marijuana users. Subsequently, 275 heavy users with clinical-level anxiety were compared to demographically-equivalent non-anxious heavy users on psychopathology, drug use, and cannabis-related problems. Among several psychological variables (including anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and impulsivity), anxiety was most strongly predictive of amount of marijuana used and marijuana-related problems. Group comparison (n=550 total) revealed that clinically anxious heavy users exhibited more use, more non-anxiety psychopathological symptoms, and a greater number and severity of marijuana-related problems than their non-anxious peers. The findings reveal that anxiety shows an important relation to marijuana use and related problems among regular, heavy users. Further examinations of common and unique factors predisposing individuals for anxiety and marijuana abuse appear warranted. PMID:22727786
Van Dam, Nicholas T; Bedi, Gillinder; Earleywine, Mitch
Individual, cultural, professional, and gender-related factors converge to increase the denial of women's marijuana problems. Recent epidemiological information on marijuana use shows that marijuana is a significant problem for women of various ethnic groups, pregnant women, young adults and workers. Women's marijuana-related problems affect their health, safety, domestic relations, motherhood, and work. Outdated addiction theories, diagnostic tools, and insufficient research
This study examined the response to cannabis withdrawal symptoms and use of quitting strategies to maintain abstinence in people with schizophrenia. A convenience sample of 120 participants with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use and a previous quit attempt without formal treatment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire to characterize their "most serious" (self-defined) quit attempt. One hundred thirteen participants had withdrawal symptoms, of whom 104 (92.0%) took some action to relieve a symptom, most commonly nicotine use (75%). 90% of withdrawal symptoms evoked an action for relief in a majority of participants experiencing them, most frequently anxiety (95.2% of participants) and cannabis craving (94.4%). 96% of participants used one or more quitting strategies to maintain abstinence during their quit attempt, most commonly getting rid of cannabis (72%) and cannabis paraphernalia (67%). Religious support or prayer was the quitting strategy most often deemed "most helpful" (15%). Use of a self-identified most helpful quitting strategy was associated with significantly higher one-month (80.8% vs. 73.6%) and one-year (54.9% vs. 41.3%) abstinence rates. Actions to relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms in people with schizophrenia are common. Promotion of effective quitting strategies may aid relapse prevention. PMID:23969281
Koola, Maju Mathew; Boggs, Douglas Lee; Kelly, Deanna Lynn; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared Allen; Turner, Hailey Elaine; McMahon, Robert Patrick; Gorelick, David Alan
An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. PMID:24119618
The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits. PMID:11366533
Rationale Cannabis abuse and endocannabinoids are associated to schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives It is important to discern the association between schizophrenia and exogenous Cannabissativa, on one hand, and the endogenous cannabinoid system, on the other hand.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results On one hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in genetically predisposed people,\\u000a may lead to a worse outcome of
Emilio Fernandez-Espejo; Maria-Paz Viveros; Luis Núñez; Bart A. Ellenbroek; Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca
In previous studies, long-term cannabis use led to alterations of the endocannabinoid system including an increase in CB1 and/or CB2 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) in blood cells and an increase in the serum level of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. However, in those studies, cannabis use was stopped only few days before testing or not interrupted at all. Therefore, one cannot decide whether the alterations are due to long-term cannabis abuse or are confounded by acute effects of cannabis. Blood was sampled from donors that had smoked marijuana ?20 times in their lives but had abstained from cannabis for ?6 months (high-frequency users, HFU) and from controls (cannabis use ?5 times lifetime). CB1 and CB2 mRNA was determined in peripheral mononuclear blood cells using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Serum anandamide level was assayed using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. CB2 mRNA was increased by 45 % in HFU when compared to controls, whereas CB1 mRNA did not differ. The anandamide level in HFU exceeded that in controls by 90 %. Tobacco smoking could be excluded as a confounding factor. In conclusion, marijuana users that had smoked marijuana ?20 times in their lives and stopped cannabis use at least 6 months before the study show an increase in CB2 receptor mRNA in the blood and in serum anandamide level. These alterations resemble those obtained for marijuana smokers that had stopped cannabis use only few days before testing and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of disorders associated with long-term cannabis use. PMID:24788457
Muhl, Daniela; Kathmann, Markus; Hoyer, Carolin; Kranaster, Laura; Hellmich, Martin; Gerth, Christoph W; Faulhaber, Johannes; Schlicker, Eberhard; Leweke, F Markus
... safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any kind ... symptoms can I get that tells me smoking marijuana is affecting my lungs? Marijuana smoke (like tobacco) ...
The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabissativa, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. There is great interest in endocannabinoids for their role in neuroplasticity as well as for therapeutic use in numerous conditions, including pain, stroke, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, fertility, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, among others. However, there has been relatively far less research on this topic in the eye and retina compared with the brain and other organ systems. The purpose of this review is to introduce the "cannabinergic" field to the retinal community. All of the fundamental works on cannabinoids have been performed in non-retinal preparations, necessitating extensive dependence on this literature for background. Happily, the retinal cannabinoid system has much in common with other regions of the central nervous system. For example, there is general agreement that cannabinoids suppress dopamine release and presynaptically reduce transmitter release from cones and bipolar cells. How these effects relate to light and dark adaptations, receptive field formation, temporal properties of ganglion cells or visual perception are unknown. The presence of multiple endocannabinoids, degradative enzymes with their bioactive metabolites, and receptors provides a broad spectrum of opportunities for basic research and to identify targets for therapeutic application to retinal diseases. PMID:18725316
This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
One of the main problems affecting our society nowadays is drug consumption. Hemp derivatives (Cannabissativa) are the drugs most commonly abused by the young Chilean population. This product is obtained from the leaves and dried up flowers, they contains the active product, tetrahydrocannabinol, which is five to six times lower in concentration than that found in hashish (Florenzano et
Growing marijuana use among young people, among teenagers in particular, poses serious problems that involve parents, society, law enforcement agencies, legislators, and health care professionals. This paper discusses the multifaceted problems surrounding marijuana use and suggests possible solutions.
A key question in the ongoing policy debate over cannabis' legal status is whether liberalizing cannabis laws leads to an increase in cannabis use. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of a specific type of liberalization, decriminalization, on initiation into cannabis use. Our identification strategy exploits variation in the timing of cannabis policy reforms and our estimation framework marries a difference-in-difference approach with a discrete time duration model. Our results reveal evidence of both heterogeneity and dynamics in the response of cannabis uptake to decriminalization. Overall, we find that the impact of decriminalization is concentrated amongst minors, who have a higher rate of uptake in the first five years following its introduction. PMID:24727348
The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Anecdotal reports suggest that cannabis may alleviate LUTS, and cannabinoid receptors in the bladder and nervous system are potential pharmacological targets. In an open trial we evaluated the safety, tolerability, dose range, and efficacy of two whole-plant extracts of Cannabissativa in patients with advanced
CM Brady; R Dasgupta; C Dalton; OJ Wiseman; KJ Berkley; CJ Fowler
This article provides an overview of the issues surrounding the use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Examples of some of the ethical issues related to professional practice are discussed. The authors do not advocate legalising cannabis for all, but the therapeutic advantages and disadvantages of using cannabis are highlighted. PMID:11975210
Subjects who have used only cannabis were compared with those who have used cannabis along with other drugs, and with a control sample on whom no drug-using information was available. Results indicate that cannabis-only users are more effective than users...
... notes there is recent clinical evidence regarding marijuana’s health risks, benefits, tradeoffs, as well as uncertainties. Dr. Groopman, ... Dr. Groopman emphasizes there is a tradeoff of health risks versus benefits from marijuana use — similar to other ...
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence.
There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.
Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh
... lower right-hand corner of the player. Medical Marijuana and Brain Diseases HealthDay April 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Marijuana Multiple Sclerosis Transcript Medical marijuana might be a ...
The UK has the highest rate of cannabis use among young people worldwide. Dr. Alan Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse reports, "Every year more than 100,000 people, most of them adolescents, seek treatment for their inability to control their marijuana use." According to the Scottish Drug Misuse Statistics in Scotland 2002,…
The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons.
F. T. A. PIJLMAN; S. M. RIGTER; J. HOEK; H. M. J. GOLDSCHMIDT; R. J. M. NIESINK
Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of attentional bias to cannabis-related cues were investigated in a marijuana dependent group and a non-user group employing a drug Stroop task in which cannabis-related, negative and neutral images were presented. Behaviorally, cannabis users were less accurate during drug-containing blocks than non-users. Electrophysiologically, in chronic marijuana-users, an early positive ERP enhancement over left frontal scalp (EAP, 200-350ms) was present in response to drug-containing blocks relative to negative blocks. This effect was absent in the non-user group. Furthermore, drug-containing blocks gave rise to enhanced voltage of a posterior P300 (300-400ms), and a posterior sustained slow wave (LPP, 400-700ms) relative to negative blocks. However, such effects were similar between cannabis users and non-users. Brain source imaging in cannabis users revealed a generator for the EAP effect to drug stimuli in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex/medial orbitofrontal cortex, a region active in fMRI studies of drug cue-reactivity and a target of the core dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway involved in the processing of substances of abuse. This study identifies the timing and brain localization of an ERP correlate of early attentional capture to drug-related pictures in chronic marijuana users. The EAP to drug cues may identify a new electrophysiological marker with clinical implications for predicting abstinence versus relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions. PMID:24126204
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged.
Cannabissativa grows abundantly among other natural vegetation in the northern part of Pakistan. Buffalo, the common dairy animals of the region, are allowed to graze upon this vegetation. These animals ingest significant amounts of marijuana, which after absorption is metabolized into a number of psychoactive agents which are ultimately excreted through the urine and milk. This potentially contaminated milk is used by the people of the region. Depending upon the amount of milk ingested and the degree of contamination, the milk could result in a low to moderate level of chronic exposure to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other metabolites especially among the children raised on this milk. This research was conducted to investigate the extent of passive consumption of marijuana by the consumers of potentially contaminated milk. Urine and milk specimens were obtained from buffalo and were analyzed for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) which is a major metabolite for THC. The analysis was done by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was observed that during the months of June and July, 60 percent of the buffalo contained detectable levels of THC-COOH in their urine and 50 percent of these animals produced milk which was contaminated with THC or other metabolites. Analysis of the urine obtained from children with ages ranging from six months to 3 years, who were being raised on the milk from these animals, indicated that 29 percent of them had low levels of THC-COOH in their urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2168954
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented
Ahmed Elkashef; Frank Vocci; Marilyn Huestis; Margaret Haney; Alan Budney; Amanda Gruber; Nady el-Guebaly
We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted.
Cannabis (Cannabissativa) is the most frequently used drug worldwide. It has multiple dangers, related to its power to involve abuse and dependency phenomena and to their social implications. Our study, which was carried out on a representative sample of 446 students living on the Dakar campus, aimed at measuring the prevalence of Cannabis use and at describing the main factors associated with it. We found a prevalence rate of 19.7%. Cannabis use starts relatively early, around 16-17 years. Young users are generally initiated by a close friend or relative and are motivated by curiosity for their first experience. The fact of having a grant or not and the field of study have no influence on the use of cannabis. On the other hand, religion might play a determining role, Christians seeming to be more affected than Moslems (p = 0.026). A similar prevalence among students has been noted in Kenya, but the rate is definitely lower than those found in developed countries. The identification of cannabis use predictors would make it possible to consider interesting prevention perspectives based on targeted education and on a more adequate legislation. . PMID:15217745
Previous reports have documented an improvement in night vision among Jamaican fishermen after ingestion of a crude tincture of herbal cannabis, while two members of this group noted that Moroccan fishermen and mountain dwellers observe an analogous improvement after smoking kif, sifted Cannabissativa mixed with tobacco (Nicotiana rustica). Field-testing of night vision has become possible with a portable device,
E. B. Russo; A. Merzouki; J. Molero Mesa; K. A. Frey; P. J. Bach
ABSTRACT. Background: Despite growing concern about the increased rates of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use and their effects, only limited data are available that addresses these issues. This study assessed the extent of SC product use and reported effects among a cohort of adult marijuana and tobacco users. Methods: A brief telephone interview was conducted with individuals who had given permission to be contacted for future research while screening for a cannabis/nicotine dependence medication development study (NCT01204723). Results: Respondents (N = 42; 88% participation rate) were primarily young adults, male, racially diverse, and high school graduates. Nearly all currently smoked tobacco and cannabis, with 86% smoking cannabis on 5 or more days per week. Nearly all (91%) were familiar with SC products, half (50%) reported smoking SC products previously, and a substantial minority (24%) reported current use (i.e., past month). Despite a federal ban on 5 common SCs, which went into effect on March 1, 2011, a number of respondents reported continued SC product use. Common reasons reported for use included, but were not limited to, seeking a new "high" similar to that produced by marijuana and avoiding drug use detection via a positive urine screen. The primary side effects were trouble thinking clearly, headache, dry mouth, and anxiety. No significant differences were found between synthetic cannabinoid product users (ever or current) and nonusers by demographics or other characteristics. Conclusions: Among current marijuana and tobacco users, SC product consumption was common and persisted despite a federal ban. The primary reasons for the use of SC-containing products seem to be to evade drug detection and to experience a marijuana-like high. PMID:24821356
Gunderson, Erik W; Haughey, Heather M; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Joshi, Amruta S; Hart, Carl L
Ninety-six male Ss were divided into four drug conditions; coltsfoot, placebo, marijuana low dose, and marijuana high dose. Half of the Ss smoked marijuana while listening to music in a relaxing environment, and half smoked marijuana in the same environment but had two 10-min periods of aversivenoise superimposed over the music. A subjective measure of intoxication demonstrated significant drug and
While the scientific and medical communities continue to be divided on the therapeutic benefits and risks of cannabis use, anecdotal evidence from medical users themselves suggests that using cannabis is indeed improving their quality of life by alleviating their pain and discomfort. Notwithstanding the benefits anecdotally claimed by these medical users and the existence of some scientific studies confirming their claims, criminal drug laws in all Australian and most United States jurisdictions continue to prohibit the possession, cultivation and supply of cannabis even for medical purposes. However, in contrast to Australia and most parts of the United States, the medical use of cannabis has been legal in Canada for about a decade. This article reviews these differing legal and regulatory approaches to accommodating the medical use of cannabis (namely, marijuana) as well as some of the challenges involved in legalising it for medical purposes. PMID:20329455
Cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal substances in the world. Its use has been reported to be over-represented in many psychiatric conditions and has frequently been found to predate the onset of psychiatric symptoms. However, cannabis may also have detrimental effects on the general population. Factors that predict the onset of use are receiving increased attention to
The purpose of this review is to summarize the status of DNA-based methods for the identification and individualization of marijuana. In forensics, both identification of a substance as marijuana and the subsequent individualization of a sample may be desired for casework. Marijuana identification methods in the United States primarily include biochemical tests and, less frequently, DNA-based tests. Under special circumstances, DNA-based tests can be useful. For example, if the quantity of seized marijuana is extremely small and/or biochemical tests do not detect any D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), DNA identification of plant material as Cannabis is still possible. This circumstance can arise when seeds, trace residue, tiny leaf fragments, or fine roots need to be analyzed. Methods for the individualization of marijuana include amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and short tandem repeat (STR) techniques that link an evidentiary sample to a source. Marijuana growers propagate their plants either by seed or by cloning. Seed-generated marijuana plants are expected to have unique DNA profiles analogous to a human population. Cloned marijuana plants, however, exhibit identical DNA profiles that allow for tracking of plant material derived from a common genetic lineage. The authors have validated the AFLP method for marijuana samples and are constructing a comparative database of marijuana seizure samples to estimate the expected frequency of a DNA profile match between unrelated plants. Continued development of DNA-based methods for plants can be useful for marijuana and other types of plant evidence in forensics. PMID:12808725
Miller Coyle, Heather; Palmbach, Timothy; Juliano, Nicholas; Ladd, Carll; Lee, Henry C
Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the period 1995-2002 were examined in three cities in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose), one city in Colorado (Denver), and one city in Oregon (Portland). Data were also analysed for juvenile arrestees in two of the California cities and Portland. Data on emergency department patients from the Drug Abuse Warning Network for the period 1994-2002 were examined in three metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco), one in Colorado (Denver), and one in Washington State (Seattle). The analysis followed an interrupted time-series design. No statistically significant pre-law versus post-law differences were found in any of the ADAM or DAWN sites. Thus, consistent with other studies of the liberalization of cannabis laws, medical cannabis laws do not appear to increase use of the drug. One reason for this might be that relatively few individuals are registered medical cannabis patients or caregivers. In addition, use of the drug by those already sick might "de-glamorise" it and thereby do little to encourage use among others. PMID:17689362
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of marijuana use to mortality. METHODS: The study population comprised 65171 Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program enrollees, aged 15 through 49 years, who completed questionnaires about smoking habits, including marijuana use, between 1979 and 1985. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 1991. RESULTS: Compared with nonuse or experimentation (lifetime use six or fewer times), current marijuana use was not associated with a significantly increased risk of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality in men (relative risk [RR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.39) or of total mortality in women (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.48). Current marijuana use was associated with increased risk of AIDS mortality in men (RR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.33, 2.73), an association that probably was not causal but most likely represented uncontrolled confounding by male homosexual behavior. This interpretation was supported by the lack of association of marijuana use with AIDS mortality in men from a Kaiser Permanente AIDS database. Relative risks for ever use of marijuana were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Marijuana use in a prepaid health care-based study cohort had little effect on non-AIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women.
Sidney, S; Beck, J E; Tekawa, I S; Quesenberry, C P; Friedman, G D
The medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has been controversial, especially in the United States. Marijuana for medicinal use is approved in 14 U.S. states and has recently been considered for legalization in several additional states. Given its demonstrated efficacy in symptom management, marijuana has a potential role in palliative care. This study utilized a 16-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, experience, and views of hospice professionals regarding the use of marijuana in terminally ill patients. The study results revealed that, like the general public, hospice health care providers are generally in favor of legalization of marijuana and, if legalized, would support its use in symptom management for their terminally ill patients. PMID:22077541
Uritsky, Tanya J; McPherson, Mary Lynn; Pradel, Françoise
Rationale The hyperphagic effect of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9THC) in humans and rodents is well known. However, no studies have investigated the importance of ?9THC composition and any influence other non-?9THC cannabinoids present in Cannabissativa may have. We therefore compared the effects of purified ?9THC, synthetic ?9THC (dronabinol), and ?9THC botanical drug substance (?9THC-BDS), a ?9THC-rich standardized extract comparable in composition to
Jonathan A. Farrimond; Andrew J. Hill; Benjamin J. Whalley; Claire M. Williams
Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (?5.5% ??-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597
A committee of the NAS/IOM reviewed the literature to determine any possible health hazards associated with marijuana use, to identify any potential therapeutic uses, to recommend promising research directions, and to assess federal research programs in m...
... Some FAQs about Marijuana Other Useful Resources NIDA Publications By Audience By Drug of Abuse By Drug ... Intervention Strengthens American Indian Teen Mothers’ Parenting Featured Publication Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction ...
Patients with the combination of cannabis abuse and psychosis are difficult to treat. The intoxicated state has many similarities to schizophrenia. Like other drugs with abuse potential cannabis affects the brain's reward system. It has not been possible to show major structural changes in the cerebrum, but by electron microscopy structural changes can be shown in animals especially in the hippocampus. The drug is taken in order to escape reality, and a vicious circle tending to maintain the person's abuse pattern which includes reduced energy, judgment and memory may be established. Cannabis may cause toxic psychosis, with a tendency to recurrent psychoses with continued abuse. There is no convincing support for the assumption that cannabis can cause chronic functional psychosis following cessation of abuse. Schizophrenic patients who use cannabis are often trying to reduce the discomfort caused by symptoms in the prodromal phase. By continued abuse positive psychotic symptoms are worsened. Antidepressant drugs may diminish the depressive elements of the disease. Some cannabis users are especially sensitive and develop toxic psychosis. Patients with repeated toxic psychosis may erroneously be diagnosed as schizophrenics. It is therefore important to be aware that a psychotic state may be caused by abuse of cannabis, and adjust treatment to this fact. PMID:8009723
After alcohol, marijuana is the most popular recreational drug in North America. Its effects are largely predictable in type,\\u000a but not in degree, although they do appear in a roughly dose-dependent manner. The effects discussed here make a very convincing\\u000a case for the potential for marijuana to impair driving, although as noted, the extent to which that potential is realized
The use of Cannabis, specially in Europe, is a very interesting subject for the media today. For several decades, Cannabis pharmacognosy has been more studied and new developments have appeared specially because of the cultivation of selected plants in the greenhouse and in Holland to obtain "nederwiet". Now, new research in the area of phytobiology, analysis and pharmacology has become necessary to bring scientific results for discussion on legalization of Cannabis consumption. The conclusion we can draw is that abuse of new forms by young people is dangerous for their health and disturb their behaviour. PMID:9338996
Cannabis is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We report three cases where recent and/or chronic use of marijuana led to severe cardiac dysfunction. All three patients collapsed at home and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with initial restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The mechanism of the cardiovascular collapse was different in each case. The first case presented with asystole and was found to have diffuse coronary vasospasm on coronary angiography in the hours after acute cannabis abuse. In the second case, an acute anterior infarction with occlusion of both the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left anterior descendens (LAD) was observed in a young patient without known cardiovascular risks but with chronic cannabis abuse. The third case presented at home with ventricular fibrillation presumably caused by an acute coronary syndrome due to left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion. The hetero-anamnesis of the family reported that all three patients had recently used cannabis. Toxicological screening also showed no other substance abuse than cannabis. Using these three cases, we would like to illustrate that the widespread use of cannabis is not as innocent as is believed. Cannabis use can lead to severe cardiovascular problems and sudden death, not only in people at increased cardiovascular risk, but also in young people without any medical history or risk factors. PMID:24783463
Casier, Isabelle; Vanduynhoven, Philippe; Haine, Steven; Vrints, Chris; Jorens, Philippe G
Abstract Background and objectives: Tobacco and cannabis use are both highly prevalent worldwide. Their co-use is also common in adults and adolescents. Despite this frequent co-occurrence, cessation from both substances is rarely addressed in randomized clinical trials. Given evidence that tobacco use may increase during cannabis cessation attempts, and additionally that tobacco users have poorer cannabis cessation outcomes, we explored tobacco outcomes, specifically cigarette smoking, from an adolescent cannabis cessation trial that tested the efficacy of N-acetylesteine (NAC). Methods: Cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15-21; n?=?116) interested in cannabis treatment were randomized to NAC (1200?mg bid) or matched placebo for 8 weeks. Participants did not need to be cigarette smokers or be interested in smoking cessation to qualify for inclusion. Results: Approximately 59% of enrolled participants were daily and non-daily cigarette smokers, and only differed from non-smoking participants on the compulsion sub-scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire. Among cigarette smokers who were retained in the study, there was no change in cigarettes per day for either NAC or placebo groups during the eight-week treatment phase. Being a cigarette smoker did not appear to influence the effects of NAC on cannabis abstinence, though there was a trend in the placebo group of poorer cannabis outcomes for cigarette smokers vs. non-smokers. Conclusions: No evidence was found of compensatory cigarette smoking during this cannabis cessation trial in adolescents. Further work assessing interventions to reduce both cannabis and tobacco use in this population is greatly needed. PMID:24720376
McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M
Aims To examine the relationship between cannabis use in adolescence\\/young adulthood and levels of educational attainment. Design Data were gathered over the course of a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measurements Measures analysed included (a) frequency of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood (15-25 years); (b) levels of educational achievement to age
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Annette L. Beautrais
... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Medical marijuana is promoted as a treatment for many diseases, ...
Ninety-six males Ss were divided into four drug conditions; coltsfoot, placebo, marijuana low dose, and marijuana high dose. Half of the Ss smoked marijuana while listening to music in a relaxing environment, and half smoked marijuana in the same environment but had two 10-min periods of aversive-noise superimposed over the music. A subjective measure of intoxication demonstrated significant drug and environmental group effects with suppression of self-report of intoxication being especially strong for the marijuana low dose noise group. The usual positive correlation between subjective measures and pulse rate measures of marijuana intoxication was interfered with by the noise effect. Although subjective ratings were suppressed, the noise group demonstrated significantly higher pulse rates than the music group. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of extraneous factors on marijuana intoxication, the significance of dosage in this type of research, and the nature of marijuana intoxication. PMID:406624
Background and objectives Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti?doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti?Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Methods Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. Results The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. Conclusions There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.
In several anonymous questionnaire studies of college students, marijuana use has been reported to affect sexual behavior. In general, these studies show that marijuana smoking enhances sexual pleasure and increases sexual desire. Marijuana use has also been associated with more frequent sexual activity and an increased number of sexual partners. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived
In economic terms, marijuana is an important, yet little understood and controversial commodity. According to our estimates, spending on marijuana in Australia is about twice that on wine. But this commodity, which has been used by about one-third of the population, generates no tax revenue. This paper explores economic aspects by marijuana consumption, concentrating on the estimation of the amount
Objective: Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabissativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity. Methods: During their inpatient rehabilitation programme, 57 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of cannabis-extract capsules standardized to 2.5 mg tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and
C Vaney; M Heinzel-Gutenbrunner; P Jobin; F Tschopp; B Gattlen; U Hagen; M Schnelle; M Reif
Domestic cannabis cultivation is occurring at high levels and eradication is increasing across the United States, according to the most recent eradication data. Cannabis cultivation operations currently appear to be most prevalent in western states but ar...
Background Outcome expectancy is a central construct in models of addiction and relapse. Much expectancy research has been conducted in the context of alcohol; however, less is known about the structure of expectancies for marijuana and their associations with marijuana use outcomes. Methods The data are taken from waves 3 and 4 of a longitudinal high-risk study of parents and adolescent offspring. Of those families who were retained at wave 3, 225 were high-risk and 205 were matched controls (low-risk). In the present study, we examine the factorial structure of marijuana expectancies (wave 3) in the offspring (using an instrument adapted from the alcohol literature) and test whether expectancies mediate the associations of familial risk for substance use, lifetime marijuana use in adolescence (wave 3) and current use in young adulthood (wave 4; reported approximately 5 years later). Results We quantified four marijuana expectancy factors similar to those identified in previous studies when the offspring were adolescents (Mn age=15.2) and results of our mediation models suggest that negative marijuana expectancies (but not positive expectancies) together with lifetime adolescent marijuana use completely mediated the association between familial risk and current use of marijuana during young adulthood (Mn age=20.2). Conclusion Familial risk for current marijuana use in young adulthood appears to be transmitted through two orthogonal, prospective pathways. One pathway involves marijuana use during adolescence, and the second pathway involves reduced expectancies that using marijuana will result in cognitive and behavioral impairments.
Kristjansson, Sean D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Chassin, Laurie A.
Rationale Cannabis dependence is a growing problem among individuals who use marijuana frequently, and genetic differences make some users more liable to progress to dependence. The identification of intermediate phenotypes of cannabis dependence may aid candidate genetic analysis. Promising intermediate phenotypes include craving for marijuana, withdrawal symptoms after abstinence, and sensitivity to its acute effects. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene encoding for fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has demonstrated association with substance use disorder diagnoses, but has not been studied with respect to these narrower phenotypes. FAAH is an enzyme that inactivates anandamide, an endogenous agonist for CB1 receptors (to which ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol binds). CB1 binding modulates mesocorticolimbic dopamine release, which underlies many facets of addiction. Objectives The SNP, FAAH C385A (rs324420), was examined to determine whether its variance was associated with changes in craving and withdrawal after marijuana abstinence, craving after cue exposure, or sensitivity to the acute effects of marijuana. Materials and methods Forty daily marijuana users abstained for 24 h, were presented with a cue-elicited craving paradigm and smoked a marijuana cigarette in the laboratory. Results C385A variance was significantly associated with changes in withdrawal after abstinence, and happiness after smoking marijuana in the predicted directions, was associated with changes in heart rate after smoking in the opposite of the predicted direction, and was not associated with changes in craving or other acute effects. Conclusions These data lend support to some previous association studies of C385A, but suggest that further refinement of these intermediate phenotypes is necessary.
Abstract Background: There are no efficacious pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. The effects of quetiapine are well matched to the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and could be useful in the treatment of cannabis dependence. Objectives: To evaluate quetiapine for the treatment of cannabis dependence and determine the optimal dosing. Methods: In an eight-week open-label outpatient pilot trial, we evaluated the feasibility of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence in 15 outpatients. Quetiapine was gradually titrated to 600?mg or the maximum tolerated dose. Results: The mean study retention was 6.5 weeks (±2.3), with 67% of participants completing all eight weeks of the trial. The mean maximum dose achieved was 197?mg/day (range: 25-600?mg/day). Only two of the 15 participants were able to achieve the target dose of 600?mg daily. There were no serious adverse events and no participants were discontinued from the trial due to adverse effects. The most common reported adverse effects were fatigue (80% of participants) and somnolence (47%). From baseline to week 8, the modeled overall decrease in daily dollar value of marijuana was 76.3% (CI: 63.4%, 84.7%). Over the eight weeks of the study, there was a 46.9% (CI: 11%, 68.3%) decrease in urine tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCOOH) levels. Conclusions: These preliminary results are promising in that quetiapine treatment was tolerated by cannabis-dependent patients and associated with decreased cannabis use. The recommended maximum target dose for cannabis-dependent patients is 300?mg daily. These preliminary data support further evaluation of quetiapine as a treatment for cannabis dependence. PMID:24963729
Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Mamczur, Agnieszka K; Bisaga, Adam; Nunes, Edward V; Levin, Frances R
The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer.
Kothadia, Jiten P.; Chhabra, Saurabh; Marcus, Alan; May, Michael; Saraiya, Biren; Jabbour, Salma K.
The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:22545056
Kothadia, Jiten P; Chhabra, Saurabh; Marcus, Alan; May, Michael; Saraiya, Biren; Jabbour, Salma K
ContextCannabis consumption is central to diagnosis of cannabis use disorders; yet, most research on cannabis disorders has focused just on diagnosis or criteria. The present study examines the ability of a frequency and quantity measure of cannabis use as well as cannabis abuse and dependence criteria to discriminate between individuals across the cannabis use disorder continuum.
Wilson M. Compton; Tulshi D. Saha; Kevin P. Conway; Bridget F. Grant
The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis samples from landraces, three different trial fields and seized marijuana were collected. 100g of each sample was dried, ground and quantitatively analyzed for THC, CBD and CBN contents by GC-FID. The results showed that cannabis grown during March-June which had longer vegetative stages and longer photoperiod exposure, had higher cannabinoids contents than those grown in August. The male plants grown in trial fields had the range of THC contents from 0.722% to 0.848% d.w. and average THC/CBD ratio of 1.9. Cannabis in landraces at traditional harvest time of 75 days had a range of THC contents from 0.874% to 1.480% d.w. and an average THC/CBD ratio of 2.6. The THC contents and THC/CBD ratios of cannabis in second generation crops grown in the same growing season were found to be lower than those grown in the first generation, unless fairly high temperatures and a lesser amount of rainfall were present. The average THC content in seized fresh marijuana was 2.068% d.w. while THC/CBD ratios were between 12.6 and 84.09, which is 10-45 times greater than those of similar studied cannabis samples from the previous study. However, most Thai cannabis in landraces and in trial fields giving a low log(10) value of THC/CBD ratio at below 1 may be classified as intermediate type, whereas seized marijuana giving a higher log(10) value at above 1 could be classified as drug type. Therefore, the expanded information provided by the current study will assist in the development of criteria for regulation of hemp cultivation in Thailand. PMID:21636228
The author reviews the basic features, nature of action and the effects of the canabis drugs (hashish and marijuana) on human organism. The review starts with the well known fact that these kinds of drugs are the oldest ones and the most widely known to the civilization. It reviews in details very wide effects of the canabis drugs on the mental functions as well as the clinical expression of that action, where the basic mechanisms dominate: euphorogenic, sedative and psychodelic. With a detailed description of all psychopathological phenomena that appear in the chronic hashish and marijuana addicts, where the amotivation syndrome and flash back are particularly pointed out. PMID:1366331
Marijuana Q& A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even ... at www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp. The Truth About Marijuana Slang—Weed, Pot, Grass, Reefer, Ganja, Mary Jane, ...
Approximately 80 volunteers male marijuana and alcohol users received one of four experimental treatments: (1) marijuana, (2) alcohol, (3) marijuana and alcohol, or (4) double placebo. After consumption, each subject drove a vehicle over a test course whi...
A. A. Biasotti P. Boland C. Mallory R. Peck V. C. Reeve
The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabissativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabissativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454
El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa
Neuropsychological investigations of substance abusers have reported impairments on tasks mediated by the frontal executive system, including functions associated with behavioral inhibition and decision making. The higher order or executive components which are involved in decision making include selective attention and short term storage of information, inhibition of response to irrelevant information, initiation of response to relevant information, self-monitoring of performance, and changing internal and external contingencies in order to "stay the course" towards the ultimate goal. Given the hypothesized role of frontal systems in decision making and the previous evidence that executive dysfunctions and structural brain changes exist in subjects who use illicit drugs, we applied fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques in a pilot investigation of heavy cannabis smokers and matched control subjects while performing a modification of the classic Stroop task. Marijuana smokers demonstrated significantly lower anterior cingulate activity in focal areas of the anterior cingulate cortex and higher midcingulate activity relative to controls, although both groups were able to perform the task within normal limits. Normal controls also demonstrated increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the interference condition, while marijuana smokers demonstrated a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of DLPFC activation. Similarly, although both groups performed the task well, marijuana smokers made more errors of commission than controls during the interference condition, which were associated with different brain regions than control subjects. These findings suggest that marijuana smokers exhibit different patterns of BOLD response and error response during the Stroop interference condition compared to normal controls despite similar task performance. Furthermore, DTI measures in frontal regions, which include the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral anterior cingulate white matter regions, showed no between group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of directional coherence within white matter fiber tracts, but a notable increase in trace, a measure of overall isotropic diffusivity in marijuana smokers compared to controls. Overall, results from the present study indicate significant differences in the magnitude and pattern of signal intensity change within the anterior cingulate and the DLPFC during the Stroop interference subtest in chronic marijuana smokers compared to normal controls. Furthermore, although chronic marijuana smokers were able to perform the task reasonably well, the functional activation findings suggest they utilize different cortical processes from the control subjects in order to do so. Findings from this study are consistent with the notion that substance abusers demonstrate evidence of altered frontal neural function during the performance of tasks that involve inhibition and performance monitoring, which may affect the ability to make decisions. PMID:15795138
The extra-therapeutic uses of cannabis and other age-old psychoactive plants are currently ignored or dismissed not only by the usual suspects (moral entrepreneurs, political, religious leaders and other self-proclaimed do-gooders), but also by the great majority of the academic community. Those wishing to experiment with such substances often do so at no small risk to reputation or freedom. Thus, potentially
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, especially among young people. Cannabis use is extremely commonplace and frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders that raise questions about the etiology. The use of cannabis is an aggravating factor of all psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric complications are related to the age of onset, duration of exposure and individual risk factors of the individual (mental and social health). The panic attack is the most common complication. The link with psychosis is narrow that leads to increased prevention for vulnerable populations. Cannabis is also an indicator of increased depressive vulnerability and an aggravating factor for bipolar disorder. PMID:24579344
Cannabis can have negative effects in its users, and a range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been dentified. Acute cannabis consumption is rarely lethal but it is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accident because of longer reaction time or impaired motor coordination. Chronic effects of cannabis use include generally cardiovascular and respiratory consequences but there are also oral, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and mucous, metabolic, gynecologic and obstetrical, sexual consequences, and cancer But associated tobacco smoking or other potential confounders may explain part of those somatic consequences. PMID:24579346
Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)
In this study college student subjects were grouped into four categories: (1) users of marijuana, (2) users of alcohol, (3) users of both, and (4) abstainers. It was concluded that the group using both marijuana and alcohol had the highest academic aptitude; however when compared with other groups, experienced a lower degree of academic…
Over 4400 adult internet users completed The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and measures of marijuana use. We employed an internet survey in an effort to recruit the most depressed and marijuana-involved participants, including those who might prove unwilling to travel to the laboratory or discuss drug use on the phone or in person. We compared those who consumed
Summary The active compound in herbal cannabis, D9-tetrahydro- cannabinol, exerts all of its known central effects through the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. Research on cannabinoid mechanisms has been facilitated by the availability of selective antagonists acting at CB1 recep- tors and the generation of CB1 receptor knockout mice. Particularly important classes of neurons that express high levels of CB1 receptors are
Recent studies indicate that the regular use of certain drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, is associated with biases in the processing of drug-related cues, as those cues grab attention, elicit approach and are perceived as pleasant. This study investigated whether regular cannabis users exhibit comparable cognitive biases for cannabis-related pictorial cues. Twenty-three regular cannabis users and 23 non-user controls completed a series of tasks including a visual probe task with concurrent eye movement monitoring (to measure attentional bias), a stimulus-response compatibility task (to measure implicit approach bias) and a valence rating task (to measure the perceived pleasantness of cannabis cues). Results indicated that, relative to non-users, regular cannabis users had biases to maintain their gaze on cannabis cues, to make faster approach responses towards cannabis cues, and to rate cannabis cues as pleasant. Results are generally consistent with previous findings from tobacco smokers and heavy drinkers, and the implications for incentive-motivational theories of addiction are discussed. PMID:16701963
Field, Matt; Eastwood, Brian; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin
Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043
Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C
Although cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug, duration of cannabis use is typically short, with many of those who initiate cannabis use ceasing use by their late twenties. In this paper we analyze data from a volunteer Australian cohort of 6265 male and female twins to examine whether the duration of cannabis use is an informative phenotype for
Michael T. Lynskey; Julia D. Grant; Elliot C. Nelson; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Pamela A. F. Madden; Dixie J. Statham; Nicholas G. Martin; Andrew C. Heath
Background This research examined the prevalence of drinking and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands, countries with substantially different laws and policies relating to these substances. Method Laws regarding drinking and marijuana use were rated for each country. Substance use prevalence data among 10th graders from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey conducted in each country in 2005–06 were examined. Results Laws regarding alcohol and cannabis were found to be strictest in the United States, somewhat less strict in Canada, and least strict in the Netherlands. On most measures of drinking, rates were lower in the United States than in Canada or the Netherlands. With United States as the referent, relative risks (RR) for monthly drinking were 1.30 (1.11–1.53) for Canadian boys and 1.55 (1.31–1.83) for girls, and 2.0 (1.73–2.31) for Dutch boys and 1.92 (1.62–2.27) for Dutch girls. Drunkenness was also higher among Canadian boys and girls and Dutch boys. However, rates of cannabis use did not differ between the countries, except that Dutch girls were less likely to use cannabis in the past year (RR= .67; 0.46–0.96). Conclusions The lower prevalence of adolescent drinking and drunkenness (except among Dutch girls) in the United States is consistent with the contention that strict drinking policies may limit drinking among 10th graders. However, the finding that marijuana use rates did not differ across countries is not consistent with the contention that prohibition-oriented policies deter use or that liberal marijuana policies are associated with elevated adolescent use. Based on these findings, the case for strict laws and policies is considerably weaker for marijuana than for alcohol.
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Pickett, William; Boyce, Will; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma
The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952
Marijuana smoke shares many components in common with tobacco smoke except for the presence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the psychotropic compound found only in Cannibis sativa. ?9-THC has been shown to potentiate smoke-induced oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. In the present study, our objective was to determine the effects of ?9-THC on the balance between Fas-induced apoptosis and necrosis in
Theodore A. Sarafian; Donald P. Tashkin; Michael D. Roth
Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight (1) differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; (2) how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and (3) the correlation between frequency of use in the past-month and average grams consumed per use-day. Key findings: focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanics. Further, data from a survey conducted in seven European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.
Burns, Rachel M.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Everingham, Susan S.; Kilmer, Beau
It is intriguing that during human cultural evolution man has detected plant natural products that appear to target key protein receptors of important physiological systems rather selectively. Plants containing such secondary metabolites usually belong to unique chemotaxa, induce potent pharmacological effects and have typically been used for recreational and medicinal purposes or as poisons. Cannabissativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The major psychoactive Cannabis constituent ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) potently activates the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor CB1 and also modulates the cannabinoid receptor CB2. In the last few years, several other non-cannabinoid plant constituents have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors. Moreover, certain plant natural products, from both Cannabis and other plants, also target other proteins of the endocannabinoid system, such as hydrolytic enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this commentary we summarize and critically discuss recent findings. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x
Gertsch, Jurg; Pertwee, Roger G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo
Objectives. Medical marijuana laws (MMLs) have been suggested as a possible cause of increases in marijuana use among adolescents in the United States. We evaluated the effects of MMLs on adolescent marijuana use from 2003 through 2011. Methods. We used data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and a difference-in-differences design to evaluate the effects of passage of state MMLs on adolescent marijuana use. The states examined (Montana, Rhode Island, Michigan, and Delaware) had passed MMLs at different times over a period of 8 years, ensuring that contemporaneous history was not a design confound. Results. In 40 planned comparisons of adolescents exposed and not exposed to MMLs across states and over time, only 2 significant effects were found, an outcome expected according to chance alone. Further examination of the (nonsignificant) estimates revealed no discernible pattern suggesting an effect on either self-reported prevalence or frequency of marijuana use. Conclusions. Our results suggest that, in the states assessed here, MMLs have not measurably affected adolescent marijuana use in the first few years after their enactment. Longer-term results, after MMLs are more fully implemented, might be different.
Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.
Fibre hemp may yield up to 25 t above ground dry matter per hectare (20 t stem dry matter ha?1) which may contain as much as 12 t ha?1 cellulose, depending on environmental conditions and agronomy. Its performance is affected by the onset of flowering and seed development. Effects of cultivar and management on yield and quality were tested at
P. C. Struik; S. Amaducci; M. J. Bullard; N. C. Stutterheim; G. Venturi; H. T. H. Cromack
Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)
We present the case of a 15-year-old with a cerebellar infarct that involved multiple arterial territories. It was temporally related to, and probably caused by, heavy marijuana use. While the mechanism of marijuana-associated stroke is unclear, the drug is known to cause hypotension and to impair peripheral vasomotor reflexes. We suspect that the child had diminished cerebral autoregulatory capacity and
Daniel White; David Martin; Thomas Geller; Thomas Pittman
• After considering extensive scientific and medical evidence, a New South Wales Legislative Council multiparty committee recommended that medicinal cannabis should lawfully be made available for selected-use pharmacotherapy. • The evidence indicates that cannabis has genuine medicinal utility in patients with certain neuropathic conditions, with acceptable levels of risk from mostly mild side effects. • The potential medical benefits of cannabis pharmacotherapy have largely been overlooked, with research and society's attention, in most parts of the world, being directed towards the hazards of its recreational use. • The NSW Government has since dismissed the unanimous and compassionate recommendations of their committee. PMID:24329652
Mather, Laurence E; Rauwendaal, Evert R; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne L; Wodak, Alex D
Study Objective: To determine if recently abstinent, heavy marijuana (MJ) users show differences in polysomnographic (PSG) measures compared with a drug-free control group. Design: A group of carefully selected heavy MJ users were chosen for study inclusion and matched to a drug-free control group. Questionnaire data were collected prior to cessation of MJ use. PSG studies were conducted during 2 consecutive nights after discontinuation of MJ use in our core sleep laboratory. Setting: Baltimore Maryland, General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) core sleep lab. Participants: 17 heavy MJ users discontinuing MJ use and 14 drug-free controls. Men and women were studied, 18 to 30 years. The MJ users reported no other drug use and alcohol use was negligible in both groups. Urine was positive for metabolites of cannabis only. Measurements and Results: The MJ users showed differences in PSG measures (lower total sleep times, and less slow wave sleep than the control group) on both nights; they also showed worse sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset, and shorter REM latency than the control group on Night 2. More sleep continuity parameters were significantly worse for the MJ group than the control group on Night 2 versus Night 1, indicating that sleep in the MJ group was relatively worse on Night 2 compared to Night 1. The MJ group did not show improved sleep after an adaptation night as expected. Withdrawal symptoms, craving, and depression did not appear to influence these findings. Conclusions: During discontinuation of heavy MJ use, PSG measures of sleep disturbance were detected in MJ users compared with a drug-free control group. While this preliminary study cannot identify the extent to which these group differences were present before abstinence, poor sleep quality either prior to or after MJ discontinuation could result in treatment failure for MJ users. Further investigation is necessary to determine the association between the use and cessation of MJ and sleep disturbance. Citation: Bolla KI; Lesage SR; Gamaldo CR; Neubauer DN; Funderburk FR; Cadet JL; David PM; Verdejo-Garcia A; Benbrook AR. Sleep disturbance in heavy marijuana users. SLEEP 2008;31(6):901-908.
Bolla, Karen I.; Lesage, Suzanne R.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Neubauer, David N.; Funderburk, Frank R.; Cadet, Jean Lud; David, Paula M.; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Benbrook, Amy R.
In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation. PMID:23234589
While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
Marijuana use impairs physical and mental health, cognitive abilities, career status, and social life. Heavy marijuana use critically lowers learning skills, and daily use may result in overall reduced intellectual functioning. The National Survey on Drug...
BackgroundRates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of
David J. Allsop; Melissa M. Norberg; Jan Copeland; Shanlin Fu; Alan J. Budney
The Dutch depenalization and subsequent de facto legalization of cannabis since 1976 is used here to highlight the strengths and limitations of reasoning by analogy as a guide for projecting the effects of relaxing drug prohibitions. While the Dutch case and other analogies have flaws, they appear to converge in suggesting that reductions in criminal penalties have limited effects on drug use-at least for marijuana-but that commercial access is associated with growth in the drug-using population. PMID:9311925
Originally used in Asia for the treatment of pain, spasms, nausea and insomnia, marijuana is the most consumed psychotropic drug worldwide. The interest of medical cannabis has been reconsidered recently, leading to many scientific researches and commercialization of these drugs. Natural and synthetic cannabinoids display beneficial antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in numerous diseases, however accompanied with undesirable effects due to the CB1 receptor. Present researches focus on the design of therapeutical molecules targeting the CB2 receptors, and thus avoiding central side effects and therefore psychotropic effects caused by the CB1 receptor. PMID:23732102
Marijuana has been documented to provide relief to patients in palliative care. However, healthcare providers should use caution when discussing medical marijuana use with patients. This article features a case study that reveals the complexity of medical marijuana use. For oncology nurses to offer high-quality care, examining the pros and cons of medical marijuana use in the palliative care setting is important. PMID:23899972
This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…
The influence of marijuana on the ability to perceive emotions in others was studied in 30 male volunteers who were experienced marijuana users. Subjects smoked either placebo or active marijuana containing 6 mg ?9. The Affective Sensitivity Scale, a test developed to measure the ability to perceive emotions in others, was divided at midpoint and the two halves were administered
Paul L. Clopton; David S. Janowsky; Jamie M. Clopton; Lewis L. Judd; Leighton Huey
Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n = 35 male, 35
Beth M. Anderson; Matthew Rizzo; Robert I. Block; Godfrey D. Pearlson; Daniel S. OLeary
This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:15173547
Stroke associated with drug abuse has been frequently reported, particularly in young patients. The most commonly implicated drugs include cocaine, heroine, and amphetamines. Despite its widespread abuse, cannabis associated stroke is only infrequently reported. The cause and effect association between cannabis use and stroke is not firmly established. Presuming that cannabis may cause stroke, potential pathophysiologic mechanisms are not known. In this paper, we shall review the literature linking cannabis use and stroke and possible mechanisms supporting this link. PMID:19329702
The author first describes the history of medical use of cannabis and its revival in the 1990s. He then provides an overview of the legal situation and how this affects doctors and patients if cannabis is prescribed or recommended as treatment. Subsequently, the state of the art of cannabis medication research is described and analyzed. Finally, the public and political
Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…
Cannabis is among the most widely used illicit substances. Epidemiological and neuroscientific evidence, though poorly integrated, have established a strong association between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis. Chronic cannabis use, especially of new synthetic varieties, may trigger psychosis and precipitate schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals. However, the specific pathways by which cannabis affects brain function are unclear. It seems likely that a complex genetic-environmental interaction may underlie the link between cannabis exposure and psychosis onset, with multiple genetic variations and several environmental factors (i.e., trauma or maltreatment during childhood) involved. Also, the possible role of basic symptoms in cannabis users is still not fully acknowledged. Basic symptoms may possibly be a marker for the development of full schizophrenia in cannabis users and their recognition may play a role in prevention strategies. Moreover, the differential impact of different types of cannabis has been generally overlooked and little is known about possible pharmacological treatment approaches (with antipsychotics, cannabis agonists, cannabis antagonists) for cannabis users at risk of psychosis. The aim of the present review is to open this issue with a broad introduction on the clinical and pathophysiological link between cannabis abuse and psychosis onset. PMID:22716149
Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Sepede, Gianna; De Berardis, Domenico; De Risio, Luisa; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
A symposium of over 125 scientists, held in August 1984 at the campus of Oxford University, considered the latest developments concerning cannabis research. Evidence on the mode of tetrahydrocannabinol action on the central nervous system indicates that acetylcholine turnover in the hippocampus through a GABA-ergic mechanism is of major importance, though the role of the dopaminergic or serotoninergic mechanism and involvement of prostaglandins and c-AMP is not ruled out. The use of cannabis causes prominent and predictable effects on the heart, including increased work-load, increased plasma volume and postural hypotension, which could impose threats to the cannabis users with hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or coronary arteriosclerosis. Cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol has damaging effects on the endocrine functions in both male and female of all animal species tested. Among possible mechanisms of action, it is suggested that tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts gonadal functions by depriving the testicular cells of their energy reserves by inhibition of cellular energetics, and that it stimulates androgen-binding protein secretion, which may account for oligospermia seen in chronic cannabis smokers. In addition to these direct effects on gonads, tetrahydrocannabinol interferes with hormonal secretions from the pituitary, including luteinizing hormones, follicle-stimulating hormones and prolactin. Research findings indicate that maternal and paternal exposure to cannabinoids can influence developmental and reproductive functions in the offspring, but it is difficult to separate possible teratogenic effects from subsequent gametotoxic and mutagenic potentials of cannabinoids. PMID:3914916
Cannabinoids are the constituents of the marijuana plant (cannabissativa) of which the major active ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC). Rapid progress has been achieved in marijuana research in the last five years than in the thousands of years that marijuana has been used in human history. For many decades therefore, research on the molecular and neurobiological bases of the physiological
Emmanuel S. Onaivi; Amitabha Chakrabarti; Gautam Chaudhuri
We present a case series of 6 patients who developed persistent depersonalization disorder in adolescence after consuming cannabis. In 2 of these cases, the illness course was severely disabling. Within the growing body of literature that investigates the effects of cannabis use on mental health, the association between cannabis and depersonalization disorder is widely neglected. We review the clinical characteristics of this disorder and summarize the neurobiological evidence relating it to cannabis use. This case series extends awareness about the potentially detrimental effect of cannabis use in young individuals beyond its well-documented relationship with psychosis and other psychological sequelae. PMID:22378193
Hürlimann, Franziska; Kupferschmid, Stephan; Simon, Andor E
Aim To evaluate whether venlafaxine-extended release (VEN-XR) is an effective treatment for cannabis dependence with concurrent depressive disorders. Design This was a randomized, 12 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of outpatients (n = 103) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants received up to 375 mg VEN-XR on a fixed-flexible schedule or placebo. All patients received weekly individual cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy that primarily targeted marijuana use. Settings The trial was conducted at two university research centers in the United States. Participants One hundred and three cannabis dependent adults participated in the trial. Measurements The primary outcome measures were 1) abstinence from marijuana defined as at least two consecutive urine-confirmed abstinent weeks and 2) improvement in depressive symptoms based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Findings The proportion of patients achieving a clinically significant mood improvement [50% decrease in Hamilton Depression score from baseline] was high and did not differ between groups receiving VEN-XR (63%) and placebo (69%) (X12=0.48, p-value= 0.49). The proportion of patients achieving abstinence was low overall, but was significantly worse on VEN-XR (11.8%) compared to placebo (36.5%) (X12=7.46, p-value<0.01; OR = 4.51, 95% CI: 1.53, 13.3). Mood improvement was associated with reduction in marijuana use in the placebo group (F1,179=30.49, p-value<0.01), but not the VEN-XR group (F1,186=0.02, p-value=0.89). Conclusions For depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, venlafaxine-extended release does not appear to be effective at reducing depression and may lead to an increase in cannabis use.
Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.; Agosti, Vito; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A.; Carpenter, Kenneth M.
...drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabissativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of...
...drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabissativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of...
...drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabissativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and harvesting of...
A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug by adolescents and young adults, with more males than females reporting marijuana use. The adolescent and young adult years represent a critical period for interventions to prevent marijuana use and abuse. This article reviews relevant literature, including trends in young males’ marijuana use and health effects of marijuana use. By most measures,
With regard to THC (?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychoactive constituent identified in the plant Cannabissativa L, several facts are indisputable. Cannabis remains the most commonly used drug in the UK among those who reported driving under the influence of illegal drugs in the previous 12 months. There is a significant dose-related decrement in driving performance following cannabis use; raised blood THC concentrations are significantly associated with increased traffic crash and death risk. When cannabis and alcohol are detected together, there is a greater risk to road safety than when either drug is used alone. Patterns of use are important when interpreting blood concentration data: Smoking infrequently a single cannabis cigarette leads to peak plasma THC concentrations (21-267 µg/L) causing acute intoxication. In habitual, daily users, plasma THC concentrations range from 1.0 to 11.0 µg/L and are maintained by sequestration of the drug from the tissues. These facts undoubtedly make setting thresholds for drug-driving legislation difficult but there is clearly a case for cannabis. Determining minimum blood THC concentrations at which a driver becomes sufficiently impaired to be unable to safely drive a vehicle is of particular concern given the increasing medicinal use of the drug. Internationally legislation for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is based on either a proof of impairment or a per se approach. For the latter this can be either zero-tolerance or based on concentration limits such as those used for alcohol. The different approaches are considered against current scientific evidence. PMID:24327278
This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…
This report from a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure investigates whether these drugs affect neuropsychological development at 10 years of age. Women were recruited from a medical assistance prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10,
Gale A Richardson; Christopher Ryan; Jennifer Willford; Nancy L Day; Lidush Goldschmidt
Objective With the recent debates over marijuana legalization and increases in use, it is critical to examine its role in cognition. While many studies generally support the adverse acute effects of cannabis on neurocognition, the non-acute effects remain less clear. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine relationships between recent and past cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical adult sample. Method One hundred and fifty-eight participants were recruited through fliers distributed around local college campuses and the community. All participants completed the Brief Drug Use History Form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, and neurocognitive assessment, and underwent urine toxicology screening. Participants consisted of recent users (n = 68), past users (n = 41), and non-users (n = 49). Results Recent users demonstrated significantly (p < .05) worse performance than non-users across cognitive domains of attention/working memory (M = 42.4, SD = 16.1 vs. M = 50.5, SD = 10.2), information processing speed (M = 44.3, SD = 7.3 vs. M = 52.1, SD = 11.0), and executive functioning (M = 43.6, SD = 13.4 vs. M = 48.6, SD = 7.2). There were no statistically significant differences between recent users and past users on neurocognitive performance. Frequency of cannabis use in the last 4 weeks was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and all individual cognitive domains. Similarly, amount of daily cannabis use was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and individual cognitive domains. Conclusions Our results support the widespread adverse effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning. Although some of these adverse effects appear to attenuate with abstinence, past users' neurocognitive functioning was consistently lower than non-users.
BackgroundThe prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known.
Christian Thurstone; Shane A. Lieberman; Sarah J. Schmiege
... p.m. EDT NIDA review summarizes research on marijuana’s negative health effects Comprehensive review published in the ... of science on the adverse health effects of marijuana use links the drug to several significant adverse ...
RationalePreviously, we reported that acute marijuana intoxication minimally affected complex cognitive performance of daily marijuana smokers. It is possible that the cognitive tests used were insensitive to marijuana-related cognitive effects.
Carl L. Hart; Aaron B. Ilan; Alan Gevins; Erik W. Gunderson; Kemi Role; Jana Colley; Richard W. Foltin
Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319
Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel
Objectives: Individuals with HIV constitute the largest group using cannabinoids for medicinal reasons; yet, no studies have directly compared the tolerability and efficacy of smoked marijuana and oral dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. This placebo-controlled within-subjects study evaluated marijuana and dronabinol across a range of behaviors: eating topography, mood, cognitive performance, physiologic measures, and sleep. Methods: HIV-positive marijuana smokers
Margaret Haney; Erik W. Gunderson; Judith Rabkin; Carl L. Hart; Suzanne K. Vosburg; Sandra D. Comer; Richard W. Foltin
As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. PMID:15173518
A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.
BackgroundOutcome expectancies are a key cognitive construct in the etiology, assessment and treatment of Substance Use Disorders. There is a research and clinical need for a cannabis expectancy measure validated in a clinical sample of cannabis users.
Jason P. Connor; Matthew J. Gullo; Gerald F. X. Feeney; Ross Mc D. Young
The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified version of the Contemplation Ladder, a measure of motivation to change marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents (Marijuana Ladder; ML), was related to marijuana use and treatment engagement. Participants (N=122) in this study were all incarcerated at a state juvenile correctional facility in the Northeast. Adolescents were assessed at the
James D. Slavet; L. A. R. Stein; Suzanne M. Colby; Nancy P. Barnett; Peter M. Monti; Charles Golembeske; Rebecca Lebeau-Craven
Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances in patients with a psychotic disorder and is associated with a higher risk of psychotic relapses. Identifying reasons for cannabis use and subjective effects in patients with psychotic disorders can provide insight into the functions of cannabis use, and this may lead to targeted interventions. Methods: A literature search of
In this study, we assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of the Adolescent Cannabis Check-Up (ACCU), a brief intervention for young cannabis users. For this initial feasibility study, we used an uncontrolled pre-test\\/post-test design. Participants were cannabis users aged between 14 and 19 years (n = 73) and concerned parents (n = 69). The intervention comprised an individual assessment session followed
Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls on P50 measures, prolonged duration of regular use was associated with greater impairment in sensory gating as indexed by both P50 ratio and difference scores (including after controlling for tobacco use). Long-term cannabis users were found to have worse sensory gating ratios and difference scores compared to short-term users and controls. P50 metrics did not correlate significantly with any measure of psychotic-like symptoms in cannabis users. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to cannabis results in impaired P50 sensory-gating in long-term cannabis users. While it is possible that these deficits may have pre-dated cannabis use and reflect a vulnerability to cannabis use, their association with increasing years of cannabis use suggests that this is not the case. Impaired P50 sensory-gating ratios have also been reported in patients with schizophrenia and may indicate a similar underlying pathology. PMID:23628289
There is evidence that the use of cannabis is increasing in Australia, with stable black-market prices, despite the 9-year National Campaign Against Drug Abuse, increasing expenditure to enforce the laws against cannabis use, and the seizure of large plantations of cannabis plants. Recent government data are used to estimate the conservative cost of drug-law enforcement against cannabis use as being $329m in 1991-92. Alternatives to the existing regime are examined, including expiation, decriminalization, and legalization. PMID:16818347
Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. A small, high-quality literature supports the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The smoked botanical product, however, is associated with a number of adverse medical and psychiatric consequences. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that acute use of cannabis results in impairment of every important metric related to the safe operation of a motor vehicle. Epidemiological data show associations between recent cannabis use and both psychomotor impairment and motor vehicle crashes, associations that are strengthened by the concomitant use of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Finally, data from pain clinics reveals an unusually high prevalence of cannabis use in nearly all age groups and an association between cannabis use and opioid and other substance misuse. Based on available data and expert opinion, concomitant use of cannabis and opioids is an absolute contraindication to the operation of a motor vehicle. In patients who use cannabis and are prescribed opioids, heightened vigilance for opioid- and other substance-related problems is warranted. It is appropriate to refrain from prescribing opioids to individuals using medical cannabis if there is reasonable suspicion that the combination will pose a risk to the patient or others. PMID:21133743
Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Although some aspects of memory functions are known to be acutely impaired by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC; the main active constituent of marijuana), effects on other aspects of memory are not known and the time course of functional\\u000a impairments is unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present study aimed to detail the acute and residual cognitive effects of ?9-THC in infrequent cannabis users.
Valerie H. Curran; Catherine Brignell; Sally Fletcher; Paul Middleton; John Henry
Legalization of cannabis use in Switzerland has recently been debated by the Swiss Parliament. Although legalization has not yet been decided upon, it is still the subject of impassioned public discussion. If cannabis use is legalized, an increase in consumption is to be expected. One of the manifold negative consequences for mental health will probably be an increase in the prevalence of psychoses -- not only acute, toxic psychosis but also chronic psychoses. Schizophrenic psychoses are expected to be triggered at an earlier age and to be negatively influenced in their course. This eventuality could have deleterious consequences not only for many currently healthy individuals predisposed to psychosis, but also for the disability pension. PMID:15611887
This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…
Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.
Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…
Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.
Uses survey and interview data and recent findings to consider the marijuana problem in the following areas: marijuana use at an early age and for negative reasons; drug effects leading to learning impairment and school behavior problems; young people lacking accurate information; and usage leading to other drug use. (Author/RC)
In this paper we examine the relationship between marijuana use and human capital formation by examining performance on standardized tests among a nationally representative sample of youths from the National Education Longitudinal Survey. We find that much of the negative association between cross-sectional measures of marijuana use and cognitive ability appears to be attenuated by individual differences in school attachment
Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)
Despite increasing expenditures on prevention, government survey after survey indicates that marijuana use—which comprises 90% of illicit drug use—has not been eradicated among teenagers. Today's adolescents have been exposed to the largest dose of prevention in our history. After three decades of such efforts, one must ask why young people continue to use marijuana, and why drug education has failed
Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912
Despite increasing expenditures on prevention, government survey after survey indicates that marijuana use-which comprises 90% of illicit drug use-has not been eradicated among teenagers. Today's adolescents have been exposed to the largest dose of prevention in our history. After three decades of such efforts, one must ask why young people continue to use marijuana, and why drug education has failed
Experiments were done with 75 healthy young adults to explore the neurophysiological basis of the acute marijuana intoxication state. Tests included recording the scalp EEG, visual and auditory cerebral evoked-potentials, the CNV, cerebral slow potentials related to certainty of response correctness in auditory discrimination tasks, heart rate, respiration and the galvanic skin response. All variables were recorded over 45 minutes before and 45 minutes after smoking a marijuana cigarette containing either 4.8, 9.1 or less than 0.01 mg. ?9-THC. High doses of marijuana induced a significant decrease in the peak power of the alpha rhythm and an increase in auditory evoked-response latency. The CNV increased in ampiitude after smoking marijuana in low doses and sequential CNVs showed changes consistent with sustained attention but decreased certainty about performance following either low or high dose. Marijuana interfered significantly with performance of the discrimination task itself.
Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…
Marijuana use is common in adolescence, yet neural consequences have not been well delineated. This review seeks to ascertain whether heavy marijuana use in adolescence is associated with persistent neurocognitive abnormalities, and whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the impact of chronic marijuana use than adults. Among heavy marijuana using adults, neurocognitive deficits are apparent for several days following use,
Alecia D. Schweinsburg; Sandra A. Brown; Susan F. Tapert
The “amotivational syndrome” which has been associated with marijuana use has not been examined systematically in relation to marijuana use and mental health. Light and heavy users were solicited by personal contact. They were asked to complete anonymous questionnaires which measured marijuana, alcohol and cocaine use, perceived states during marijuana intoxication, depressive symptoms in the last year, the Orientation to
Although the ability to perform complex cognitive operations is assumed to be impaired following acute marijuana smoking, complex cognitive performance after acute marijuana use has not been adequately assessed under experimental conditions. In the present study, we used a within-participant double-blind design to evaluate the effects acute marijuana smoking on complex cognitive performance in experienced marijuana smokers. Eighteen healthy research
Carl L Hart; Wilfred van Gorp; Margaret Haney; Richard W Foltin; Marian W Fischman
n this issue, Louisa Degenhardt and Wayne Hall provide an insightful and accessible overview of the literature on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis. They also present some of the policy implications of this relation. The first paper reviews the evidence for a causal relation between cannabis use during adolescence and early adulthood and subsequent diagnosis of a psychotic
Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8?mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2–8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8?mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule ‘liking' or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment.
Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W
BACKGROUND: The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. METHODS: Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes
In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance prevails. There are supposedly detrimental health effects of cannabis use but researchers debate whether they
This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…
The role of marijuana delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in controlling marijuana smoking behavior was examined in ten regular marijuana smokers. Each subject was allowed to self-administer marijuana of low, medium or high THC content freely over a 30-min period. Each potency of marijuana was color coded, and subjects smoked each potency on five separate occasions to provide the opportunity for them
This study examined a six-month prospective model of marijuana and alcohol problems among college students. Among marijuana users, there was an indirect positive association between use utility and Time 1 (T1) marijuana-related problems through T1 marijuana use, whereas there was a direct positive association between affect lability and T1 marijuana-related problems. A multi-group analysis of alcohol problems compared models for
Recent theories propose that repeated drug use is associated with attentional and evaluative biases for drug-related stimuli, and that these cognitive biases are related to individual differences in subjective craving. This study investigated cognitive biases for cannabis-related cues in recreational cannabis users. Seventeen regular cannabis users and 16 non-users completed a visual probe task which assessed attentional biases for cannabis-related words, and an implicit association test (IAT) which assessed implicit positive or negative associations for cannabis-related words. Results from the IAT indicated more negative associations for cannabis-related words in non-users compared to users. Among cannabis users, those with high levels of cannabis craving had a significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words on the visual probe task, but those with low levels of craving did not. Results highlight the role of craving in attentional biases for cannabis-related stimuli. PMID:15072814
Long-term cannabis consumers in Amsterdam, Bremen and San Francisco were asked in a detailed questionnaire about their experiences with cannabis products. The research focus was the question of how the consumption of cannabis is realized under the conditions established through different drug policies. The research utilized a sample of 522 cannabis consumers exhibiting a wide range of experiences and different
Social anxiety appears to be especially related to cannabis-related problems, yet the nature of this association remains unclear. Some data suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to problematic cannabis use. The current study examined the relations between social anxiety, cannabis use and use-related problems, and motives for cannabis use by gender among 174 (42.5% female) current (past-month) cannabis users. Among men, social anxiety was significantly, positively related to the number of cannabis-related problems and coping and conformity motives. Coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems. Among women, social anxiety was significantly related only to social motives, and was unrelated to cannabis-related problems. These findings suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to using cannabis as a means of avoidance coping (avoiding scrutiny and negative affect), which may contribute to the high rates of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:22766487
Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B
The plant Cannabissativa has a long history of medical use in the treatment of pain and spasms, the promotion of sleep, and the suppression of nausea and vomiting. However, in the early 70s cannabis was classified in the Narcotic Acts in countries all over the world as having no therapeutic benefit; therefore, it cannot be prescribed by physicians or dispensed by pharmacists. In the light of this contradictory situation an increasing number of patients practices a self-prescription with cannabis products for relieving a variety of symptoms. An anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted by the Association for Cannabis as Medicine (Cologne, Germany). During about one year 170 subjects participated in this survey; questionnaires of 128 patients could be included into the evaluation. 68% of these participants were males, 32% females, with a total mean age of 37.5 (+/- 9.6) years. The most frequently mentioned indications for medicinal cannabis use were depression (12.0%), multiple sclerosis (10.8%), HIV-infection (9.0%), migraine (6.6%), asthma (6.0%), back pain (5.4%), hepatitis C (4. 8%), sleeping disorders (4.8%), epilepsy (3.6%), spasticity (3.6%), headache (3.6%), alcoholism (3.0%), glaucoma (3.0%), nausea (3.0%), disk prolapse (2.4%), and spinal cord injury (2.4%). The majority of patients used natural cannabis products such as marihuana, hashish and an alcoholic tincture; in just 5 cases dronabinol (Marinol) was taken by prescription. About half of the 128 participants of the survey (52.4%) had used cannabis as a recreational drug before the onset of their illness. To date 14.3% took cannabis orally, 49.2% by inhalation and in 36.5% of cases both application modes were used. 72.2% of the patients stated the symptoms of their illness to have 'much improved' after cannabis ingestion, 23.4% stated to have 'slightly improved', 4.8% experienced 'no change' and 1.6% described that their symptoms got 'worse'. Being asked for the satisfaction with their therapeutic use of cannabis 60.8% stated to be 'very satisfied', 24.0% 'satisfied', 11.2% 'partly satisfied' and 4.0% were 'not satisfied'. 70.8% experienced no side effects, 26.4% described 'moderate' and 3.3% 'strong' side effects. 84.1% of patients have not felt any need for dose escalation during the last 3 months, 11.0% had to increase their cannabis dose 'moderately' and 4.8% 'strongly' in order to maintain the therapeutic effects. Thus, this survey demonstrates a successful use of cannabis products for the treatment of a multitude of various illnesses and symptoms. This use was usually accompanied only by slight and in general acceptable side effects. Because the patient group responding to this survey is presumably highly selected, no conclusions can be drawn about the quantity of wanted and unwanted effects of the medicinal use of the hemp plant for particular indications. PMID:10575286
Schnelle, M; Grotenhermen, F; Reif, M; Gorter, R W
This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive–behavioral (MET-CB) treatment, motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or a delayed treatment control group. Marijuana use and
Mark D. Litt; Ronald M. Kadden; Robert S. Stephens
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given
Julia D. Buckner; Richard G. Heimberg; Russell A. Matthews; Jose Silgado
Background Abrupt discontinuation of heavy marijuana (MJ) use is associated with self-reports of sleep difficulty. Disturbed sleep is clinically important because MJ users experiencing sleep problems may relapse to MJ use to improve their sleep quality. Few studies have used polysomnography (PSG) to characterize changes in sleep architecture during abrupt abstinence from heavy MJ use. Methods We recorded PSG measures on Nights 1, 2, 7, 8, and 13 after abrupt MJ discontinuation in 18 heavy MJ users residing in an inpatient unit. Results Across abstinence, Total Sleep Time (TST), Sleep Efficiency (SEff), and amount of REM sleep declined, while Wake after Sleep Onset (WASO) and Periodic Limb Movements (PLM) increased. Furthermore, quantity (joints/week) and duration (years) of MJ use were positively associated with more PLMs. Conclusion The treatment of sleep disturbance is a potential target for the management of cannabis use disorders since poor sleep could contribute to treatment failure in heavy MJ users.
Bolla, Karen I.; Lesage, Suzanne R.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Neubauer, David N.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Funderburk, Frank R.; Allen, Richard P.; David, Paula M.; Cadet, Jean Lud
An initiative to legalize medical access to and use of marijuana was submitted to the California Attorney General. Supporters must collect 430,000 valid signatures to include the initiative on California's 1996 ballot. The initiative allows possession, personal use, and cultivation of marijuana for a specified group of patients and exempts from punishment the patient's primary caregiver and the recommending physician. Californians for Compassionate Use views the petition as a vehicle to document public support of medical use of marijuana. Advocates are urged to write, call, or fax Californians for Compassionate Use for information on how to help gather signatures. PMID:11362878
Drawing on factors identified in the literature, this study explored in-the-moment associations of social, emotional, and temporal contexts and perceived marijuana availability with desire to use the drug, using momentary sampling methodology with young people who frequently use marijuana. Forty-one adolescent/young adult medical outpatients aged 15 to 24 years who reported using marijuana at least twice a week completed 2,912 brief questionnaires on a handheld computer in response to signals emitted at random four to six times a day for 2 weeks. The questionnaires assessed, for the moment when signaled, desire to use marijuana, location, companionship, perceived ease of getting marijuana (availability), positive affect, and negative affect. Participants reported any desire to use marijuana on 1,528 reports (55%). Companionship, perceived availability, and positive affect were independently associated with having any desire to use marijuana. Once desire to use marijuana was present, time of day, positive affect, and negative affect were independently associated with strength of desire. By collecting data in real time, in real life, this study highlights the importance of examining and intervening on emotional, environmental, and temporal contexts for youth who frequently use marijuana in order to reduce their desire to use the drug. PMID:22823544
Shrier, Lydia A; Walls, Courtney E; Kendall, Ashley D; Blood, Emily A
The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks.
The present study aims at validating the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a clinical sample of adolescent and young adult cannabis users seeking treatment. Applying a classical test theory approach using DSM-IV diagnoses as gold standard, two versions of the CAST questionnaire are compared. The sample consisted of 140 subjects aged 15–26 years (mean 18.9) recruited from two cannabis
Stéphane Legleye; Ludwig Kraus; Daniela Piontek; Olivier Phan; Céline Jouanne
Compared to those who reported a lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use, individuals who report simultaneous use of cannabis and tobacco are more likely to also report higher rates of substance-related problems and psychopathology. In a sample of young women, we examine (a) co-occurring use, or whether regular cigarette smoking is associated with increased cannabis involvement and (b) simultaneous
Arpana Agrawal; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden; Michele L. Pergadia; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Andrew C. Heath
... Marijuana Starting the Conversation Other Useful Resources NIDA Publications By Audience By Drug of Abuse By Drug ... Intervention Strengthens American Indian Teen Mothers’ Parenting Featured Publication Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction ...
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Aims Although previous twin studies have modeled the association between drug initiation and abuse, none has included the obvious risk factor of drug availability. Our aim is to determine whether the genetic and environmental risk factors for cannabis availability also generate variation in cannabis initiation and\\/or progression to DSM-IV symptoms of abuse. Design We used multi-stage modeling, also known as
Nathan A. Gillespie; Michael C. Neale; Kenneth S. Kendler
Regular smoking of marijuana by itself causes visible and microscopic injury to the large airways that is consistently associated with an increased likelihood of symptoms of chronic bronchitis that subside after cessation of use. On the other hand, habitual use of marijuana alone does not appear to lead to significant abnormalities in lung function when assessed either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, except for possible increases in lung volumes and modest increases in airway resistance of unclear clinical significance. Therefore, no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been established. Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use. Although regular marijuana smoking leads to bronchial epithelial ciliary loss and impairs the microbicidal function of alveolar macrophages, evidence is inconclusive regarding possible associated risks for lower respiratory tract infection. Several case reports have implicated marijuana smoking as an etiologic factor in pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum and bullous lung disease, although evidence of a possible causal link from epidemiologic studies is lacking. In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco. PMID:23802821
The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319
Arterberry, Brooke J; Treloar, Hayley R; Smith, Ashley E; Martens, Matthew P; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M
Objective: This paper evaluates evidence for two hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis: (i) that heavy cannabis use causes a ‘cannabis psychosis’, i.e. a psychotic disorder that would not have occurred in the absence of cannabis use and which can be recognised by its pattern of symptoms and their relationship to cannabis use; and (ii) that cannabis
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…
Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.
Although alcohol and nicotine administration studies have demonstrated that manipulating subjects’ expectancies regarding drug content affects drug response, research with marijuana has not adequately studied drug expectancy effects. The present pilot study was the first to evaluate the credibility and effect of expectancy manipulation on subjective measures and smoking patterns using a marijuana administration balanced-placebo design (BPD). In a 2
Jane Metrik; Damaris J. Rohsenow; Peter M. Monti; John McGeary; Travis A. R. Cook; Harriet de Wit; Margaret Haney; Christopher W. Kahler
The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769
Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C
The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.
Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.
Synthetic cannabinoids, the psychoactive components of the Cannabissativa (marijuana) and their endogenous counterparts, act through two G protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2. The endocannabinoids are metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Previous research has described the impact of cannabis consumption on pregnancy, potential roles of endocannabinoids and abnormalities of FAAH expression in recurrent miscarriage and pregnancy. However, the
Synthetic cannabinoids, the psychoactive components of the Cannabissativa (marijuana) plant and their endogenous counterparts, act through two G protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2. The endocannabinoids are metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Previous research has described the impact of cannabis consumption on pregnancy, potential roles of endocannabinoids and abnormalities of FAAH expression in recurrent miscarriage and pregnancy. However,
Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use.
Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.
The phenomenon of depersonalization during cannabis usage (intoxication) is commonly known. However, its appearance after drug stoppage is relatively unknown. This article reviews the literature on depersonalization after cannabis withdrawal and discusses three representing cases demonstrating the severity of the problem. Clinical features are described as well as effects on functioning and the long-term nature of this disorder. The treatment approach in each case is also presented. PMID:15889607
Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence\\u000a within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth\\u000a century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and\\u000a has remained easily obtainable on the
Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20?mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4?°C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20?mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20?mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20?mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20?mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana. PMID:23609132
Background: The lifestyle risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in North Africa are not known. Methods: From 2002 to 2005, we interviewed 636 patients and 615 controls from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, frequency-matched by centre, age, sex, and childhood household type (urban/rural). Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of lifestyles with NPC risk, controlling for socioeconomic status and dietary risk factors. Results: Cigarette smoking and snuff (tobacco powder with additives) intake were significantly associated with differentiated NPC but not with undifferentiated carcinoma (UCNT), which is the major histological type of NPC in these populations. As demonstrated by a stratified permutation test and by conditional logistic regression, marijuana smoking significantly elevated NPC risk independently of cigarette smoking, suggesting dissimilar carcinogenic mechanisms between cannabis and tobacco. Domestic cooking fumes intake by using kanoun (compact charcoal oven) during childhood increased NPC risk, whereas exposure during adulthood had less effect. Neither alcohol nor shisha (water pipe) was associated with risk. Conclusion: Tobacco, cannabis and domestic cooking fumes intake are risk factors for NPC in western North Africa.
Feng, B-J; Khyatti, M; Ben-Ayoub, W; Dahmoul, S; Ayad, M; Maachi, F; Bedadra, W; Abdoun, M; Mesli, S; Bakkali, H; Jalbout, M; Hamdi-Cherif, M; Boualga, K; Bouaouina, N; Chouchane, L; Benider, A; Ben-Ayed, F; Goldgar, D E; Corbex, M
Chronic cannabis use is associated with residual negative effects on measures of executive functioning. However, little previous work has focused specifically on executive processes involved in performance monitoring in frequent cannabis users. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of performance monitoring in chronic cannabis users. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs sensitive to performance monitoring, were recorded from 30 frequent cannabis users (mean usage=5.52 days/week) and 32 cannabis-naïve control participants during a speeded stimulus discrimination task. The “oddball” P3 ERP was recorded as well. Users and controls did not differ on the amplitude or latency of the ERN; however, Pe amplitude was larger among users. Users also showed increased amplitude and reduced latency of the P3 in response to infrequent stimuli presented during the task. Among users, urinary cannabinoid metabolite levels at testing were unrelated to ERP outcomes. However, total years of cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 latency and positively with P3 amplitude, and age of first cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 amplitude. The results of this study suggest that chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in neural activity related to the processing of motivationally-relevant stimuli (P3) and errors (Pe).
Fridberg, Daniel J; Skosnik, Patrick D; Hetrick, William P; O'Donnell, Brian F
Aims To use selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the molecular species emitted by heated 'street' cannabis plant material, especially targeting ammonia. Materials and methods Samples of 'street' cannabis leaf, held under a UK Home Office licence, were prepared by finely chopping and mixing the material. The samples were then heated in commercially available devices. The air
Roger N. Bloor; Tianshu S. Wang; P. Špan?l; David Smith
At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…
Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems.
Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.
... Study Links Casual Marijuana Use to Changes in Brain The brain regions are tied to motivation, emotion and reward, ... 2014) Tuesday, April 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Brain Diseases Drugs and Young People Marijuana TUESDAY, April ...
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BackgroundWhereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking.
Jane Metrik; Nichea S. Spillane; Adam M. Leventhal; Christopher W. Kahler
Stresses the fact that the use of marijuana is increasing in widespread use among America's young people. Presents to the parents the views of young people on their own marijuana use. Primary audience: general public, especially parents.
Marijuana continues to rise in popularity, especially among the youth of our nation. Legalization at this time seems rather remote, however, a dilemma exists today with the millions of Americans ignoring the law and using marijuana to varying degrees. The...
At least five studies report elevated schizotypy scores in cannabis users. The current research confirms higher schizotypy scores in regular cannabis users. Nevertheless, further analyses reveal that select items on the brief version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire do not function comparably in current and former users. Multiple statistical approaches confirmed this problem, including the Mantel-Haenszel statistic, Rasch difficulty estimates, a logistic regression approach, the Breslow-Day (BD) statistic, and a combined decision rule using Mantel-Haenszel and BD together. Cannabis users appear to misinterpret at least one item, "I sometimes use words in unusual ways" making them more likely to endorse it even if they are no more schizotypal than the former users. Users might consider cannabis-related slang as an unusual use of words. Removing problematic items does not decrease the internal consistency of the measure, but eliminates the significant difference between current and former users. These results suggest that links between cannabis use and schizotypy require cautious interpretation and may arise from measurement problems. PMID:16953519
House resolution H.J. Res.117 discourages the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes and supports enforcement of current Federal drug laws. The resolution clearly states that the benefits of marijuana are unclear. Several states have put forth initiatives to approve the use of marijuana for individuals who have serious or terminal conditions. Further research on the medical use of marijuana is being conducted by the National Academy of Sciences. PMID:11365938
The present investigation examined the relationships between motives for cannabis use and negative consequences associated with cannabis use following a brief intervention. The sample consisted of 205 adolescent cannabis users (66.3% male), who were recruited in high schools and randomly assigned to a brief two-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or an educational feedback control (EFC). Results supported the hypothesis that using cannabis to cope with negative affect would predict the number of problems and dependence symptoms related to cannabis use, after controlling for age, gender, years and frequency of cannabis use, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Significant interactions between internalizing behavior problems and the coping motive showed that using to cope was associated with a higher number of cannabis dependence symptoms among adolescents reporting lower levels internalizing behavior problems. Findings support the potential utility of conducting further research to explore the coping motive as an important indicator of problematic cannabis use.
Towe, Sheri L.; Stephens, Robert S.; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.
Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among young adults in the United States, with 27.8 percent of persons aged 18 to 25 using marijuana at least once in the past year and 4.3 percent using marijuana on a daily basis in the past year. The Nati...
Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Changes in smoking behavior in response to a change in marijuana potency were measured in marijuana users. A marijuana cigarette containing 1.2% or 3.9% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was smoked on separate days by ten experienced users. Puff volume, duration and number, interpuff interval, inhalation volume and duration were averaged for each cigarette. The high potency cigarettes were smoked with more puffs
Ronald I. Herning; William D. Hooker; Reese T. Jones
In 2005, 6.8 percent of youths aged 12 to 17 used marijuana in the past month, and 3.5 percent had used cigars with marijuana in them (blunts) in the past month. Among youths, past month use of both marijuana and blunts increased with age and was more lik...
Marijuana policy analyses typically focus on the relative costs and benefits of present policy and its feasible alternatives. This Essay addresses a prior, threshold issue: whether marijuana criminal laws abridge fundamental individual rights, and if so, whether there are grounds that justify doing so. Over 700, 000 people are arrested annually for simple marijuana possession, a small but significant proportion
The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified version of the Contemplation Ladder, a measure of motivation to change marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents (Marijuana Ladder; ML), was related to marijuana use and treatment engagement. Participants (N=122) in this study were all incarcerated at a state juvenile correctional facility in the Northeast. Adolescents were assessed at the beginning of their incarceration, 2 months into their incarceration, and 3 months after their release. There was a significant negative relationship between ML scores and marijuana use and a significant positive relationship between ML scores and treatment engagement. When controlling for prior marijuana use and age, ML scores at baseline significantly added to the prediction of marijuana use and treatment engagement among incarcerated adolescents. Results support the concurrent validity and the predictive validity of the ML. This measure has the potential to provide important information for Juvenile Justice Facilities that might aid in treatment planning and discharge planning for incarcerated adolescents. In addition, researchers may find a quick visual analog measure of motivation to change marijuana use with good psychometric properties useful. PMID:16289930
Slavet, James D; Stein, L A R; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca
Despite the widespread use of cannabis among young people, little research attention has been given to the development of psychometrically sound measures specific to cannabis related problems in this group. The aim of this study was to explore the reliability, validity and factor structure of a multi-dimensional measure of cannabis-related problems among adolescents. The Adolescent Cannabis Problems Questionnaire (CPQ-A) was
Greg Martin; Jan Copeland; Stuart Gilmour; Peter Gates; Wendy Swift
This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service
INTRODUCTION: CANNABIS CONTINUES TO AFFECT MENTAL HEALTH. ITS ABUSE IS ON RISE GLOBALLY. IN CANADA A RISE BY 30% IN LAST TEN YEARS HAS BEEN OBSERVED IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. INTERRELATIONSHIP OF CANNABIS WITH PSYCHOSIS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA IS A COMPLEX ONE. CANNABIS IS HIGHLY COMORBID WITH PSYCHOSIS, & RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY AND OUTCOME. IT POSES SEVERAL CHALLENGES IN UNDERSTANDING
Over the past ten years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescent has dramatically increased. Today it's becoming one of the main public health problems. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: the leaves and the resin. These substances have a high concentration of tetrahydroxycannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Resent research has permitted to understand how the cannabinoid system works:
O. Phan; M. Corcos; N. Girardon; S. Nezelof; P. Jeammet
Background: In this research, the ‘natural history’ of cannabis dependence is probed, using data from a large epidemiological sample of cannabis users followed from 1981 through 1996, until most of these users had passed through the empirically derived period of risk for developing cannabis dependence. Methods: The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area research group sampled, recruited, and assessed 3481 adults age
While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study,
This survey estimates the frequency of various adverse effects of the use of the drug cannabis. A sample of 1000 New Zealanders aged 18–35 years were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on cannabis use and associated problems. The questionnaire was derived from criteria for the identification of cannabis abuse which are analagous to criteria commonly used to diagnose alcoholism.
Cannabis is now emerging from a period of prohibition and being revisited as a potential source of treatments for conditions ill served by synthetic substances. Previous research focussed primarily on effects produced by synthetic cannabinoids such as THC, or cannabis of unknown cannabinoid content. Chemovars of cannabis characterized by high content of specific cannabinoids (primarily, but not only THC and
In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370
Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H
Background: Population-based surveys demonstrate cannabis users are more likely to use both illicit and licit substances, compared with non-cannabis users. Few studies have examined the substance use profiles of cannabis users referred for treatment. Co-existing mental health symptoms and underlying cannabis-related beliefs associated with these profiles remains unexplored. Methods: Comprehensive drug use and dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis) data were collected on a sample of 826 cannabis users referred for treatment. Patients completed the General Health Questionnaire, Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire, Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Positive Symptoms and Manic-Excitement subscales of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Latent class analysis was performed on last month use of drugs to identify patterns of multiple drug use. Mental health comorbidity and cannabis beliefs were examined by identified drug use pattern. Results: A three-class solution provided the best fit to the data: (1) cannabis and tobacco users (n?=?176), (2) cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol users (n?=?498), and (3) wide-ranging substance users (n?=?132). Wide-ranging substance users (3) reported higher levels of cannabis dependence severity, negative cannabis expectancies, lower opportunistic, and emotional relief self-efficacy, higher levels of depression and anxiety and higher manic-excitement and positive psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, co-morbid psychopathology, and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment.
Connor, Jason P.; Gullo, Matthew J.; Chan, Gary; Young, Ross McD.; Hall, Wayne D.; Feeney, Gerald F. X.
This study reports the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and other cannabis-related problems in a large cohort (n=1253) of first-year college students, 17 to 20 years old, at one large public university in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Interviewers assessed past-year cannabis use, other drug use, and cannabis-related problems (including DSM-IV criteria for CUD). The prevalence of CUD was
Kimberly M. Caldeira; Amelia M. Arria; Kevin E. O'Grady; Kathryn B. Vincent; Eric D. Wish
ObjectiveWhile previous studies questioned the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS), recent research provided increasing evidence of a number of clinical symptoms after cessation of frequent cannabis consumption. The aim of this study is to prospectively assess the course of CWS in a sample of cannabis-dependent inpatients and to provide an estimate of the proportion of subjects experiencing CWS.
U. W. Preuss; A. B. Watzke; J. Zimmermann; J. W. M. Wong; C. O. Schmidt
Psychotic symptoms have theoretically been linked to semantic memory impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Little is known of the effects of cannabis, the world's most popular illicit drug, on semantic memory and whether they are linked to the psychotomimetic states elicited by the drug. Thirty-six cannabis users were tested whilst under the influence of cannabis. They were then tested again
Celia J. A. Morgan; Emily Rothwell; Helen Atkinson; Oliver Mason; H. Valerie Curran
We outline and evaluate competing explanations of three relationships that have consistently been found between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs, namely, (1) that cannabis use typically precedes the use of other illicit drugs; and that (2) the earlier cannabis is used, and (3) the more regularly it is used, the more likely a young person is
Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). “Known Provenance” samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.
Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.
Theoretical models of addiction suggest that a substance use disorder represents an imbalance between hypersensitive motivational processes and deficient regulatory executive functions. Working-memory (a central executive function) may be a powerful predictor of the course of drug use and drug-related problems. Goal of the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to assess the predictive power of working-memory network function for future cannabis use and cannabis-related problem severity in heavy cannabis users. Tensor independent component analysis was used to investigate differences in working-memory network function between 32 heavy cannabis users and 41 nonusing controls during an N-back working-memory task. In addition, associations were examined between working-memory network function and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Behavioral performance and working-memory network function did not significantly differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, among heavy cannabis users, individual differences in working-memory network response had an independent effect on change in weekly cannabis use 6 months later (?R(2) = 0.11, P = 0.006, f(2) = 0.37) beyond baseline cannabis use (?R(2) = 0.41) and a behavioral measure of approach bias (?R(2) = 0.18): a stronger network response during the N-back task was related to an increase in weekly cannabis use. These findings imply that heavy cannabis users requiring greater effort to accurately complete an N-back working-memory task have a higher probability of escalating cannabis use. Working-memory network function may be a biomarker for the prediction of course and treatment outcome in cannabis users. PMID:24038570
Cousijn, Janna; Wiers, Reinout W; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E
Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed.
Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.
This paper investigates the link between cannabis depenalisation and crime using individual-level panel data for England and Wales from 2003 to 2006. We exploit the declassification of cannabis in the UK in 2004 as a natural experiment. Specifically, we use the fact that the declassification changed expected punishments differently in various age groups due to thresholds in British criminal law and employ a difference-in-differences type design using data from the longitudinal version of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. Our findings suggest essentially no increases in either cannabis consumption, consumption of other drugs, crime and other forms of risky behaviour. PMID:24937326
Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557
Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana.
Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC) were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results Both taxometric methods provided support for a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence. Conclusion Although the MAMBAC results were not entirely unequivocal, the majority of evidence favored a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence.
The legalization of cannabis for medicinal purposes is becoming increasingly widespread worldwide. The anticipated growing ease of access to cannabis may create an increased risk for passive and/or active ingestion by children. We report a case of a 1.5-year-old infant who presented with unexplained coma that was later proved to be associated with the ingestion of cannabis. This case highlights the importance of considering cannabis ingestion in the differential diagnosis of infantile and toddler coma and the need for public education regarding the risks of childhood exposure in the light of the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes and its greater availability. PMID:21062357
Amirav, Israel; Luder, Anthony; Viner, Yuri; Finkel, Martin
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.
Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692
Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A
One hundred and seventy-six plants of 22 different lots of Cannabissativa L., grown at the Botanical Garden of Siena (Italy) were chromatographically analysed in order to define the cannabinoid content in their leaves. The content of the major cannabinoids, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and cannabichromene, determined weekly in vegetative and floral leaves enabled the determination of the chemical types of the plants, according to Turner's classification. The plants were easily distinguishable in drug, intermediate and fiber types. The cannabinoid characteristic of each type remains predominant, as compared with the other cannabinoids, throughout the whole period of growth, including the floral stage and after harvesting. On this basis, the predominant concentration of a specific cannabinoid can be used reliably for forensic application concerning drug-suspected material in very young plants. PMID:6698450
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
This study adapted and extended M. L. Cooper’s (1994) Drinking Motives Measure to examine marijuana motives among 299 college students. An exploratory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 5-factor marijuana motives model, resulting in enhancement, conformity, expansion, coping, and social motives. Analyses supported the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the 5 marijuana motives. Marijuana motives were significant predictors of marijuana
Jeffrey Simons; Christopher J. Correia; Kate B. Carey; Brian E. Borsari
Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current
Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022
In many Western jurisdictions cannabis, unlike most other psychoactive drugs, cannot be prescribed to patients even in cases where medical professionals believe that it would ease the patient's pain or anxiety. The reasons for this prohibition are mostly ideological, although medical and moral arguments have been formulated to support it. In this paper, it is argued that freedom, properly understood, provides a sound ethical reason to allow the use of cannabis in medicine. Scientific facts, appeals to harm and autonomy, and considerations of symbolic value cannot consistently justify prohibitions. PMID:15289511
The use of smoked marijuana as a therapeutic agent is presently a matter of considerable debate in the United States. Many people suffering from a variety of disorders maintain that it is necessary for their adequate treatment. Yet, the evidence to support claims is insufficient for FDA approval. An interim solution is proposed which would allow patients referred by their
The report investigates the role of the family in drug abuse among its members by studying intensively the families of a small number of adolescents involved in heavy use of marijuana. The authors' aims are 'first to explore through psychodynamic techniqu...
While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study, 805 students completed an online survey designed to assess cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use indicative of a disorder, and frequency of experiencing prospective memory failures. The results showed small to moderate sized correlations between cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use, and prospective memory. However, a series of mediation analyses revealed that correlations between problems with cannabis use and prospective memory were driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory. For the second study, 48 non-users (who had never used cannabis), 48 experimenters (who had used cannabis five or fewer times in their lives), and 48 chronic users (who had used cannabis at least three times a week for one year) were administered three objective prospective memory tests and three self-report measures of prospective memory. The results revealed no objective deficits in prospective memory associated with chronic cannabis use. In contrast, chronic cannabis users reported experiencing more internally-cued prospective memory failures. Subsequent analyses revealed that this effect was driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory as well as by use of alcohol and other drugs. Although our samples were not fully characterized with respect to variables such as neurological disorders and family history of substance use disorders, leaving open the possibility that these variables may play a role in the detected relationships, the present findings indicate that cannabis use has a modest effect on self-reported problems with prospective memory, with a primary problem with retrospective memory appearing to underlie this relationship.
Regarding the association between internalizing problem behaviour and cannabis use in adolescents and young adults, several studies were published in recent time. Using cross-sectional data from adolescent and young adult cannabis users of the project "CAN Stop" (n = 239; age 14-23), associations between internalizing problem behaviour, cannabis effects expectancies, number of psychosocial problems and severity of dependence were analysed with an age- and gender-sensitive perspective. By describing young cannabis users, we seek to deepen the understanding of the association between cannabis use and internalizing problem behaviour. Cannabis users with normal-range YSR/YASR-profiles, internalizing problem behaviour, externalizing problem behaviour or combined problems differ significantly regarding their age of first cannabis use, age of regular cannabis use and number of both cannabis and alcohol use days. Regarding cannabis effects expectancies, cannabis users with externalizing problem behaviour show a broader variation of positive expectancies. Internalizing problems were associated with impairing and sedating effects expectancies. PMID:24707768
The present study aims at validating the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a clinical sample of adolescent and young adult cannabis users seeking treatment. Applying a classical test theory approach using DSM-IV diagnoses as gold standard, two versions of the CAST questionnaire are compared. The sample consisted of 140 subjects aged 15-26 years (mean 18.9) recruited from two cannabis treatment centers. Gold standard diagnoses were assessed using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview-Light. Internal structure and consistency of the CAST were assessed by principal component analysis and Cronbach's ?. Optimal thresholds were defined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Both the binary and the full test version revealed unidimensional structures with moderate to satisfactory internal consistency (? = 0.66 and 0.73). Screening properties were unsatisfactory when the CAST was compared against cannabis dependence. With regard to cannabis use disorders, both test versions yielded comparable and good sensitivity and specificity at cut-off 3 (binary: 92.2%, 66.7%) and 6 (full: 93.0%, 66.7%). Overall, the full CAST may be used for screening cannabis use disorders in clinical settings. Further research may use validation methods that do without gold standard. PMID:22472963
Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.
Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin
The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production â€“ legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others â€“ utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated
This paper outlines the ethical arguments used in the Australian debate about whether or not to relax the prohibition on cannabis use by adults. Over the past two decades a rising prevalence of cannabis use in the Australian population has led to proposals for the decriminalization of the personal use of cannabis. Three states and territories have removed criminal penalties for personal use while criminal penalties are rarely imposed in the remaining states. Libertarian arguments for legalization of cannabis use have attracted a great deal of media interest but very little public and political support. Other arguments in favour of decriminalization have attracted more support. One has been the utilitarian argument that prohibition has failed to deter cannabis use and the social costs of its continuation outweigh any benefits that it produces. Another has been the argument from hypocrisy that cannabis is less harmful than alcohol and so, on the grounds of consistency, if alcohol is legally available then so should cannabis. To date public opinion has not favoured legalization, although support for the decriminalization of personal cannabis use has increased. In the long term, the outcome of the debate may depend more upon trends in cannabis use and social attitudes among young adults than upon the persuasiveness of the arguments for a relaxation of the prohibition of cannabis. PMID:9374007
Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer. PMID:17437626
Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment.
Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha
Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303) were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC), a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group services. Results suggest that medical cannabis patients seek more information about various substances, including cannabis. Dispensaries can help to decrease gaps in substance education and clinical services and fulfill unmet clinical desires. More research is necessary in additional medical cannabis dispensaries in different geographic settings with different service delivery models.
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Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7?years p?0.0001), more often male (77 vs. 54%, p?=?0.02) and had been hospitalized for the first time in psychiatry earlier (24.3 vs. 31.3 p?=?0.003). Eighty-eight percent of cannabis consumers were dependent on cannabis. They were more often dependent on opiates (17 vs. 0%) and alcohol (32 vs. 7.4%, p?=?0.001) and presented compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p?=?0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. Conclusion: 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment.
Until recently, relatively little research has focused on the treatment of marijuana abuse or dependence; however, marijuana use disorders are now receiving increased attention. This paper reviews the initial clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of outpatient treatments for adult marijuana dependence. Findings from five controlled trials of psychotherapeutic interventions suggest that this disorder appears responsive to the same types of treatment as other substance dependencies. Moreover, these initial studies suggest that many patients do not show a positive treatment response, indicating that marijuana dependence is not easily treated. Strengths and weaknesses of the data are presented. Preliminary data from less controlled studies relevant to the treatment of marijuana dependence are discussed to suggest future research areas. Although very few studies on treatment for marijuana abuse and dependence have been completed, the initial reports identify promising treatment approaches and demonstrate a need for more research on the development of effective interventions. PMID:12867212
There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…
Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.
Parents and their teenage children were questioned about medical marijuana and whether they believed that passage of medical marijuana laws in their states would increase teenage use of marijuana for non-medical purposes. A 24-question written survey was distributed separately to teenager\\/parent pairs who visited 1 of 2 suburban general pediatric offices located in Vienna, Virginia or Mason, Ohio. Completed surveys
Richard H. Schwartz; Meghan N. Cooper; Marife Oria; Michael J. Sheridan
Abstract Introduction: Suicide is among the 10 most common causes of death in the United States. Researchers have identified a number of factors associated with completed suicide, including marijuana use, and increased land elevation. Colorado is an ideal state to test the strength of these associations. The state has a completed suicide rate well above the national average and over the past 15 years has permitted first the medical and, as 2014, the recreational use of marijuana. Objectives: To determine if there is a correlation between medical marijuana use, as assessed by the number of medical marijuana registrants and completed suicides per county in Colorado. Methods: The number of medical marijuana registrants was used as a proxy for marijuana use. Analysis variables included total medical marijuana registrants, medical marijuana dispensaries per county, total suicide deaths, mechanism of suicide death, gender, total suicide hospitalizations, total unemployment, and county-level information such as mean elevation and whether the county was urban or rural. Analysis was performed with mixed model Poisson regression using generalized linear modeling techniques. Results: We found no consistent association between the number of marijuana registrants and completed suicide after controlling for multiple known risk factors for completed suicide. Conclusion: The legalization of medical marijuana may not have an adverse impact on suicide rates. Given the concern for the increased use of marijuana after its legalization, our negative findings provide some reassurance. However, this conclusion needs to be examined in light of the limitations of our study and may not be generalizable to those with existing severe mental illness. This finding may have significant public health implications for the presumable increase in marijuana use that may follow legalization. PMID:24949839
Rylander, Melanie; Valdez, Carolyn; Nussbaum, Abraham M
The extra-therapeutic uses of cannabis and other age-old psychoactive plants are currently ignored or dismissed not only by the usual suspects (moral entrepreneurs, political, religious leaders and other self-proclaimed do-gooders), but also by the great majority of the aca- demic community. Those wishing to experiment with such substances often do so at no small risk to reputation or freedom. Thus,
MDMA use is commonly accompanied by use of other substances, most notably cannabis. Both MDMA and cannabis have probable effects on cognition. This paper reviews research into long-term effects on cognition which are likely to represent neurotoxicity. Research is hampered by numerous confounds and methodological difficulties. With recent cannabis use there is both an acute and a residual effect on cognition, making it important to have a significant abstinence period from cannabis when studying effects of MDMA in recreational users of both substances. It would appear that MDMA does indeed have subtle long-term effects on complex memory and executive functions that are independent of cannabis and may remain with abstention. This is consistent with evidence of disruption of the serotonin system in animal and human studies. Chronic effects on cognition due to cannabis are less consistently demonstrated, but more sensitive tests including electrophysiological measures have revealed long-term deficits in attention.
The respiratory health effects from tobacco smoking are well described. Cannabis smoke contains a similar profile of carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke but is inhaled more deeply. Although cannabis smoke is known to contain similar harmful and carcinogenic substances to tobacco smoke, relatively little is understood regarding the respiratory health effects from cannabis smoking. There is a need to integrate research on cannabis and respiratory health effects so that gaps in the literature can be identified and the more consistent findings can be consolidated with the purpose of educating smokers and health service providers. This review focuses on several aspects of respiratory health and cannabis use (as well as concurrent cannabis and tobacco use) and provides an update to (i) the pathophysiology; (ii) general respiratory health including symptoms of chronic bronchitis; and (iii) lung cancer. PMID:24831571
Despite twin studies showing that 50–70% of variation in DSM-IV cannabis dependence is attributable to heritable influences, little is known of specific genotypes that influence vulnerability to cannabis dependence. We conducted a genomewide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Association analyses of 708 DSM-IV cannabis dependent cases with 2,346 cannabis exposed nondependent controls was conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. None of the 948,142 SNPs met genomewide significance (p < E?8). The lowest p-values were obtained for polymorphisms on chromosome 17 (rs1019238 and rs1431318, p-values at E?7) in the ANKFN1 gene. While replication is required, this study represents an important first step towards clarifying the biological underpinnings of cannabis dependence.
Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Hinrichs, Anthony; Grucza, Richard; Saccone, Scott F.; Krueger, Robert; Neuman, Rosalind; Howells, William; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Cloninger, Robert; Dick, Danielle M.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Pugh, Elizabeth; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Rice, John P.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Bierut, Laura J.
On 23 October 2004, Health Canada released proposed amendments to the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) for public comment. The amendments are intended to respond to consumer concerns about the onerous bureaucratic requirements for obtaining legal permission to possess and cultivate marijuana for medical purposes, and to address the need for a safe, reliable, legal source of medical marijuana. Under the proposed amendments, police forces throughout Canada will be able to access limited information about people authorized to possess marijuana, people licensed to produce marijuana, and legal grow operations. PMID:15801111
A national poll reveals widespread support for the medical use of marijuana. The American Civil Liberties Union polled 1001 registered voters and found that eighty percent approve of marijuana use to relieve pain symptoms. A majority also favored decriminalization. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) says that although 36 states have passed laws supporting medical use of marijuana, these laws cannot be implemented until the Federal government changes the drug's classification from a Schedule I to a Schedule II controlled substance, which would allow physicians to prescribe it. PMID:11363053
The present investigation examined two theoretically relevant aspects of marijuana motives using the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45, 265–273] among 141 (78 female) young adults (Mage=20.17, S.D.=3.34). The first objective
Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Michael J. Zvolensky; Amit Bernstein
Aim: To model the impact of rising rates of cannabis use on the incidence and prevalence of psychosis under four hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Methods: The study modelled the effects on the prevalence of schizophrenia over the lifespan of cannabis in eight birth cohorts: 1940–1944, 1945–1949, 1950–1954, 1955–1959, 1960–1964, 1965–1969, 1970–1974, 1975–1979. It derived predictions
Despite increasing expenditures on prevention, government survey after survey indicates that marijuana use--which comprises 90% of illicit drug use--has not been eradicated among teenagers. Today's adolescents have been exposed to the largest dose of prevention in our history. After three decades of such efforts, one must ask why young people continue to use marijuana, and why drug education has failed to bring about a marijuana-free teenage America. Drug education falls short because it is based on a "no-use" premise, scare tactics and top-down teaching. Such programs do not educate, and may even be counterproductive for those who choose to say "maybe" or "sometimes," or "yes." Moreover, drug education, as has been the case since its advent, is based on politics rather than science--an enormous taxpayer drain with few demonstrative results. A new strategy for drug education requires a pragmatic view that accepts the ability of teenagers, if educated honestly and in ways they trust, to make wise decisions leading, if not to abstinence, to moderate, controlled, and safe use. PMID:9692382
A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest a revision of the theory. As part of this, we propose a stretch of the sociological approach represented by Becker and followers in order to include, not only recreational drug use, but also use for which young people have sought treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use. PMID:24444848
Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461
Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L
BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using
Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García
Results:Individuals who were cannabis dependent had odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt that were 2.5to2.9timeshigherthanthoseoftheirnon-cannabis- dependent co-twin. Additionally, cannabis dependence was associated with elevated risks of MDD in dizygotic but not in monozygotic twins. Those who initiated can- nabis use before age 17 years had elevated rates of sub- sequent suicide attempt (odds ratio, 3.5 (95% confi- dence interval,
Michael T. Lynskey; Anne L. Glowinski; Alexandre A. Todorov; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Pamela A. F. Madden; Elliot C. Nelson; Dixie J. Statham; Nicholas G. Martin; Andrew C. Heath
Aim of this paper is to investigate the psychobiological reactions to experimentally induced negative emotional states in\\u000a active marijuana-dependent smokers and whether changes in emotional reactivity were reversed by prolonged abstinence. Twenty-eight\\u000a patients were randomly included into group A (fourteen active marijuana-dependent smokers) or group B (fourteen abstinent\\u000a marijuana-dependent subjects). Emotional response evaluation of group B subjects was assessed after
Lorenzo Somaini; Matteo Manfredini; Mario Amore; Amir Zaimovic; Maria Augusta Raggi; Claudio Leonardi; Maria Lidia Gerra; Claudia Donnini; Gilberto Gerra
Medical use of cannabis has become increasingly widespread due to state laws sanctioning its use. The extent of use was estimated by surveying official patient registries, private patients' groups, and physicians specializing in cannabis medicine. As of May, 2002, five states with official registration programs reported a total of over 3,400 patients, ranging from a high of 79 patients per
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world, and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to
Mehmet Sofuoglu; Dawn E. Sugarman; Kathleen M. Carroll
This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids) as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive). Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.
Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rapid relapse). The participants in this study included 170 adolescents and young adults, including 104 with cannabis dependence, 32 with cannabis abuse, and 34 with cannabis use without dependence or abuse. All of these subjects demonstrated current depressive symptoms and cannabis use, and most demonstrated current DSM-IV major depressive disorder and current comorbid cannabis dependence. These subjects had presented for treatment for either of two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving fluoxetine. Cannabis withdrawal was the most commonly reported cannabis dependence criterion among the 104 subjects in our sample with cannabis dependence, being noted in 92% of subjects, using a two-symptom cutoff for determination of cannabis withdrawal. The most common withdrawal symptoms among those with cannabis dependence were craving (82%), irritability (76%), restlessness (58%), anxiety (55%), and depression (52%). Cannabis withdrawal symptoms (in the N=170 sample) were reported to have been associated with rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rapid relapse). These findings suggest that cannabis withdrawal should be included as a diagnosis in the upcoming DSM-V, and should be listed in the upcoming criteria list for the DSM-V diagnostic category of cannabis dependence.
Cornelius, Jack R.; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher; Wood, D. Scott; Clark, Duncan B.
Psychoactive drugs are often widely used before tolerance and dependence is fully appreciated. Tolerance to cannabis-induced cardiovascular and autonomic changes, decreased intraocular pressure, sleep and sleep EEG, mood and behavioral changes is acquired and, to a great degree, lost rapidly with optimal conditions. Mechanisms appear more functional than metabolic. Acquisition rate depends on dose and dose schedule. Dependence, manifested by withdrawal symptoms after as little as 7 days of THC administration, is characterized by irritability, restlessness, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, sweating, salivation, increased body temperature, altered sleep and waking EEG, tremor, and weight loss. Mild and transient in the 120 subjects studied, the syndrome was similar to sedative drug withdrawal. Tolerance to drug side effects can be useful. Tolerance to therapeutic effects or target symptoms poses problems. Clinical significance of dependence is difficult to assess since drug-seeking behavior has many determinants. Cannabis-induced super sensitivity should be considered wherever chronic drug administration is anticipated in conditions like epilepsy, glaucoma or chronic pain. Cannabis pharmacology suggests ways of minimizing tolerance and dependence problems. PMID:6271820
Rationale A single 90-mg dose of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates effects of smoked cannabis in humans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate whether repeated daily 40-mg doses of rimonabant can attenuate effects of smoked\\u000a cannabis to the same extent as a single higher (90 mg) dose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Forty-two male volunteers received one of three oral drug
Marilyn A. Huestis; Susan J. Boyd; Stephen J. Heishman; Kenzie L. Preston; Denis Bonnet; Gerard Le Fur; David A. Gorelick
Many medical, ethical, legal and political issues have been raised by legislation in California removing criminal penalties for the medical use of marijuana. The California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) has taken an addiction medicine perspective on the use of marijuana as medicine in an effort to create a neutral framework for dealing with these issues. As part of this
marijuana smoking may be magnified by the greater depo- sition of smoke particulates in the lung due to the differing manner in which marijuana is smoked. Whereas THC causes modest short-term bronchodilation, regular mari- juana smoking produces a number of long-term pul- monary consequences, including chronic cough and spu- tum, histopathologic evidence of widespread airway in- flammation and injury and
Four recent developments highlight that people continue to face significant legal and administrative barriers to using marijuana for medical purposes--despite the existence of the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR), enacted by the federal government, as a result of court rulings, to enable people who require marijuana for medical purposes to exercise their constitutional right to such medicine. PMID:16805005
This study focuses on measuring the spirituality of alcohol and marijuana users, using the new and exclusively Czech measuring tool, the Prague Spiritual Questionnaire (PSQ). The data from 155 respondents shows that users of both marijuana and alcohol scored significantly higher in the mysticism dimension of spirituality than those who only drank alcohol. People who mentioned that the specified spiritual
Self-reports from 704 college students were content analyzed and used to develop the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire and Cocaine Effect Expectancy Questionnaire. Responses were examined using exploratory and confirmatory principle components analysis. Six marijuana expectancies (34.6% of variance) were identified: (a) cognitive and behavioral impairment, (b) relaxation and tension reduction, (c) social and sexual facilitation, (d) perceptual and cognitive enhancement,
A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.
Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.
Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…
Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…
Alcohol and marijuana are frequently used together, yet there has been little study of how the presence of one drug might affect consumption of the other. The present study examined the effects of alcohol pretreatments on marijuana self-administration in a group of 15 males and 5 females who were users of both drugs. During evening sessions in a recreational setting,
BACKGROUND: There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic
Joan L Bottorff; Joy L Johnson; Barbara M Moffat; Tamsin Mulvogue