Note: This page contains sample records for the topic cao target on-line from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Transformation invariant on-line target recognition.  

PubMed

Transformation invariant automatic target recognition (ATR) has been an active research area due to its widespread applications in defense, robotics, medical imaging and geographic scene analysis. The primary goal for this paper is to obtain an on-line ATR system for targets in presence of image transformations, such as rotation, translation, scale and occlusion as well as resolution changes. We investigate biologically inspired adaptive critic design (ACD) neural network (NN) models for on-line learning of such transformations. We further exploit reinforcement learning (RL) in ACD framework to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We exploit two ACD designs, such as heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP) to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We obtain extensive statistical evaluations of proposed on-line ATR networks using both simulated image transformations and real benchmark facial image database, UMIST, with pose variations. Our simulations show promising results for learning transformations in simulated images and authenticating out-of plane rotated face images. Comparing the two on-line ATR designs, HDP outperforms DHP in learning capability and robustness and is more tolerant to noise. The computational time involved in HDP is also less than that of DHP. On the other hand, DHP achieves a 100% success rate more frequently than HDP for individual targets, and the residual critic error in DHP is generally smaller than that of HDP. Mathematical analyses of both our RL-based on-line ATR designs are also obtained to provide a sufficient condition for asymptotic convergence in a statistical average sense. PMID:21571610

Iftekharuddin, Khan M

2011-06-01

2

A chromodomain protein encoded by the arabidopsis CAO gene is a plant-specific component of the chloroplast signal recognition particle pathway that is involved in LHCP targeting.  

PubMed Central

A recessive mutation in Arabidopsis, named chaos (for chlorophyll a/b binding protein harvesting-organelle specific; designated gene symbol CAO), was isolated by using transposon tagging. Characterization of the phenotype of the chaos mutant revealed a specific reduction of pigment binding antenna proteins in the thylakoid membrane. These nuclear-encoded proteins utilize a chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) system to reach the thylakoid membrane. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes possess a cytoplasmic SRP containing a 54-kD protein (SRP54) and an RNA. In chloroplasts, the homolog of SRP54 was found to bind a 43-kD protein (cpSRP43) rather than to an RNA. We cloned the CAO gene, which encodes a protein identified as Arabidopsis cpSRP43. The product of the CAO gene does not resemble any protein in the databases, although it contains motifs that are known to mediate protein-protein interactions. These motifs include ankyrin repeats and chromodomains. Therefore, CAO encodes an SRP component that is unique to plants. Surprisingly, the phenotype of the cpSRP43 mutant (i.e., chaos) differs from that of the Arabidopsis cpSRP54 mutant, suggesting that the functions of the two proteins do not strictly overlap. This difference also suggests that the function of cpSRP43 is most likely restricted to protein targeting into the thylakoid membrane, whereas cpSRP54 may be involved in an additional process(es), such as chloroplast biogenesis, perhaps through chloroplast-ribosomal association with chloroplast ribosomes.

Klimyuk, V I; Persello-Cartieaux, F; Havaux, M; Contard-David, P; Schuenemann, D; Meiherhoff, K; Gouet, P; Jones, J D; Hoffman, N E; Nussaume, L

1999-01-01

3

Chemical investigations of isotope separation on line target units for carbon and nitrogen beams  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are of significant interest in a number of applications. Isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to CO{sub x} and NO{sub x} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. These materials are potential construction materials for the above-mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermochromatography setup with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the production of tracers for atmospheric chemistry (PROTRAC) facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland.

Fraanberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Koester, U. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland) and University of Berne, 3008 Berne (Switzerland); ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2006-03-15

4

A Method for the On-Line Use of Off-Line Derived Remappings of Iterative Automatic Target Recognition Tasks onto a Particular Class of Heterogeneous Parallel Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on a particular application domain (iterative automatic target recognition tasks) and an associated specific class of dedicated heterogeneous parallel hardware platforms. For the computational environment considered, a methodology is presented for the on-line operating system to decide heuristically whether to perform a remapping of the application onto the platform based on information generated from input data by

John R. Budenske; Ranga S. Ramanujan; Howard Jay Siegel

1998-01-01

5

The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme  

PubMed Central

The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving ?-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl C?-C? double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted ?cao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the ?cao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products.

Diaz-Sanchez, Violeta; F. Estrada, Alejandro; Limon, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

6

The oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa is a resveratrol cleavage enzyme.  

PubMed

The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving ?-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl C?-C? double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted ?cao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the ?cao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Estrada, Alejandro F; Limón, M Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

2013-09-01

7

Production of molecular ions in the integrated target/ion-source of an isotope-separation-on-line system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of some molecular ions in the OSIRIS target/ion-source system is described. The target, 235U on graphite cloth, has been exposed to two different chemical reactants. When exposing the target to carbon tetrafluoride, we have obtained an efficient production of metal-flouride ions of a large number of elements, i.e. Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, In, Sn, Ba, and the lanthanides. When the target is exposed to Al-vapor, good yields of the ions AlBr+ and All+ are obtained.

Hoff, P.; Jacobsson, L.; Johansson, B.; Aagaard, P.; Rudstam, G.; Zwicky, H.-U.

1980-06-01

8

An on-line learning tracking of non-rigid target combining multiple-instance boosting and level set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual tracking algorithms based on online boosting generally use a rectangular bounding box to represent the position of the target, while actually the shape of the target is always irregular. This will cause the classifier to learn the features of the non-target parts in the rectangle region, thereby the performance of the classifier is reduced, and drift would happen. To avoid the limitations of the bounding-box, we propose a novel tracking-by-detection algorithm involving the level set segmentation, which ensures the classifier only learn the features of the real target area in the tracking box. Because the shape of the target only changes a little between two adjacent frames and the current level set algorithm can avoid the re-initialization of the signed distance function, it only takes a few iterations to converge to the position of the target contour in the next frame. We also make some improvement on the level set energy function so that the zero level set would have less possible to converge to the false contour. In addition, we use gradient boost to improve the original multi-instance learning (MIL) algorithm like the WMILtracker, which greatly speed up the tracker. Our algorithm outperforms the original MILtracker both on speed and precision. Compared with the WMILtracker, our algorithm runs at a almost same speed, but we can avoid the drift caused by background learning, so the precision is better.

Chen, Mingming; Cai, Jingju

2013-10-01

9

Accurate Procedure for Calibrating the CAO Optical Hygrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two hygrometers of the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) (Russia) were calibrated with respect to the partial pressure of water vapor. Optical hygrometers from the CAO are designed for measuring water vapor at heights above 10 km. They use the fluores...

J. Gumbel U. Waelchli M. Kretova

1992-01-01

10

Development of new CaO based sorbent materials for CO 2 removal at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on developing a CO2 sorbent with high sorption capacity (higher than 6mol\\/kg of sorbent) and long life-time. The target value of the sorption capacity was attained by screening and testing two different microporous CaO precursors, Ca(OH)2 and Ca(CH3COO)2. Between them, calcined calcium acetate showed the highest CO2 uptake ability, 50% increase of the weight of the sorbent

Christina S. Martavaltzi; Angeliki A. Lemonidou

2008-01-01

11

Are Lateral Electronic Portal Images Adequate for Accurate On-Line Daily Targeting of the Prostate? Results of a Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report was to evaluate the magnitude of the error that would be introduced if only a lateral (LAT) portal image, as opposed to a pair of orthogonal images, was used to verify and correct daily setup errors and organ motion in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of prostate cancer. The 3-dimensional (3D) coordinates of gold markers from 12 consecutive prostate patients were reconstructed using a pair of orthogonal images. The data were re-analyzed using only the LAT images. Couch moves from the 2-dimensional (2D)-only data were compared with the complete 3D data set. The 2D-only data provided couch moves that differed on average from the 3D data by 2.3 {+-} 3.0, 0.0 {+-} 0.0, and 0.8 {+-} 1.0 mm in the Lat, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Along AP and SI axes, the LAT image provided positional information similar to the orthogonal pair. The error along the LAT axis may be acceptable provided lateral margins are large enough. A LAT-only setup protocol reduces patient treatment times and increases patient throughput. In most circumstances, with exceptions such as morbidly obese patients, acquisition of only a LAT image for daily targeting of the prostate will provide adequate positional precision.

Lometti, Michael W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Physics and Astronomy Department, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: Lometti@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Thurston, Damon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Physics and Astronomy Department, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA (United States); Aubin, Michele; Bock, Andrea; Verhey, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lockhart, James M.; Bland, Roger [Physics and Astronomy Department, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2008-04-01

12

On-Line Expeditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On-line expeditions explores the ocean depths by introducing deep-sea research with interactive features, photos, audio and video clips and middle/high school classroom participation. The topics covered include deep sea geology and hydrothermal vents; history of deep-sea exploration and technology; hydrography and chemical oceanography; marine life and more. Teachers can access a resource guide and activities. The period of time covered is from 2000 to 2004.

13

On-Line Expeditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On-line expeditions explores the ocean depths by introducing deep-sea research with interactive features, photos, audio and video clips and middle/high school classroom participation. The topics covered include deep sea geology and hydrothermal vents; history of deep-sea exploration and technology; hydrography and chemical oceanography; marine life and more. Teachers can access a resource guide and activities. The period of time covered is from 2000 to 2004.

2010-11-22

14

Psychiatry On-Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of psychiatry is one that is vast and rather complex, and fortunately for academics and practitioners in the field, the Psychiatry On-Line Web site provides a well-conceived international forum for the discipline. Edited and maintained since 1994 by Dr. Ben Green (a licensed psychiatrist in the United Kingdom), the site features peer-reviewed articles, papers, and case reports from around the world. Part of the Priory group, Psychiatry On-Line contains links to other germane online journals, including the Italian and Brazilian counterparts to the English-language version of Psychiatry On-Line. Visitors will want to browse the archives of previously featured papers, which are thematically organized under topics ranging from affective disorders to substance abuse. The general public will find the section Psychiatry in the Cinema of note, as Dr. Green offers commentary on the depiction of persons with psychiatric conditions (such as schizophrenia) in films like "A Beautiful Mind" and "As Good as it Gets."

15

On-line surfactant monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This group has developed a process to extract metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The process uses water soluble polymers to complex metal ions. The metal/polymer complex is concentrated by ultrafiltration and the metals are recovered by a pH adjustment that frees the metal ions. The metal ions pass through the ultrafiltration membrane and are recovered in a concentrated form suitable for reuse. Surfactants are present in one of the target waste streams. Surfactants foul the costly ultrafiltration membranes. It was necessary to remove the surfactants before processing the waste stream. This paper discusses an on-line device the authors fabricated to monitor the process stream to assure that all the surfactant had been removed. The device is inexpensive and sensitive to very low levels of surfactants.

Mullen, K.I.; Neal, E.E.; Soran, P.D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-04-01

16

Caos en el mercado cambiario mexicano. Aplicación de la teoría del caos en los tipos de cambio  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo estudia la dinámica cambiaria en México bajo el enfoque de una metodología poco conocida: la Teoría del Caos o, en términos de nuestra ciencia, la Economía Dinámica Caótica. Dado lo relativamente reciente de esta metodología, se presentará de manera clara y lo más rigurosamente posible sus bases teóricas, metodologías y campos de aplicación reciente; lo cual permitirá

Julián Ibarra Onofre

2004-01-01

17

CaO dispersed on carbon as an SO 2 sorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-containing carbons were tested as low-temperature sorbents for SO2. CaO particles dispersed on carbon were prepared by thermal decomposition of calcium acetate. Samples with calcium contents ranging from 1.5 to 8.0 wt% were analysed. CO2 chemisorption was used to characterize the area of the CaO particles available to interact with and retain SO2. CaO surface areas confirm that CaO dispersed

Marcia J. Muñoz-Guillena; M. C. Macías-Pérez; Angel Linares-Solano; Concepción Salinas-Martínez de Lecea

1997-01-01

18

On-Line Planarity Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-line planarity-testing problem consists of performing the following operations on a planar graph G: (i) testing if a new edge can be added to G so that the resulting graph is itself planar; (ii) adding vertices and edges such that planarity is preserved. An efficient technique for on- line planarity testing of a graph is presented that uses O(n)

Giuseppe Di Battista; Roberto Tamassia

1996-01-01

19

Luminescence properties of deformed CaO crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In deformed CaO crystals, the predominant optical-absorption band at 270 nm and the corresponding luminescence band at 450 nm have been investigated. The absorption coefficient increases linearly with deformation up to ~5% whereas the luminescence intensity saturates earlier. Thermal annealing indicates that appreciable decrease in the absorption begins at ~600 K. In contrast, the luminescence intensity diminishes very rapidly at temperatures not much above room temperature. Time-resolved luminescence indicates that the 450-nm band is composed of two bands: a 475-nm band with lifetimes of <3 ns and ~10 ?s, and a 440-nm band with a lifetime of ~1 ms at room temperature. In a test for laser action no optical gain was observed in a deformed CaO crystal.

Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y.; Ballesteros, C.; Liu, Hanli; Williams, G. P., Jr.; Rosenblatt, G. H.; Williams, R. T.; Gellermann, W.

1993-03-01

20

On-line Processing of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlighting relevant information in a discourse context is a major aim of spoken language communication. Prosodic cues such as focal prominences are used to fulfill this aim through the pragmatic function of prosody. To determine whether listeners make on-line use of focal prominences to build coherent representations of the informational structure of the utterances, we used the brain event-related potential

Cyrille Magne; Corine Astésano; Anne Lacheret-Dujour; Michel Morel; Kai Alter; Mireille Besson

2005-01-01

21

On-Line Retrieval II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is concerned with the implementation of two interrelated computer systems: an automatic document analysis and classification package, and an on-line interactive information retrieval system which utilizes the information gathered during the automatic classification phase. Well-known techniques developed by Salton and Dennis have been…

Kurtz, Peter; And Others

22

The Role of CaO in the Ziegler–Natta Catalyst for Propylene Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A certain amount of CaO enhanced the activity of Ziegler–Natta catalyst during propylene polymerization, but decreased isotacticity.\\u000a The results indicated that CaO accelerated the initial polymerization rates and improved catalyst against deactivation without\\u000a effects on melting point, crystallinity and morphology of polypropylene. The electron spin resonance (ESR) results revealed\\u000a that CaO facilitated the reduction of Ti4+ species.

Kitti Tangjituabun; Bunjerd Jongsomjit; Piyasan Praserthdam

2006-01-01

23

Electronic Energy Transfer on CaO Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We excite low-coordinated surface sites of nanostructured CaO samples using tunable UV laser pulses and observe hyperthermal O-atom emission indicative of an electronic excited-state desorption mechanism. The O-atom yield increases dramatically with photon energy, between 3.75 and 5.4 eV, below the bulk absorption threshold. The peak of the kinetic energy distribution does not increase with photon energy in the range 3.9 to 5.15 eV. These results are analyzed in the context of a laser desorption model developed previously for nanostructured MgO samples. The data are consistent with desorption induced by exciton localization at corner-hole trapped surface sites following either direct corner excitation or diffusion and localization of excitons from higher coordinated surface sites.

Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

2008-09-28

24

Instrumentation Manuals On-Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This database will serve as an international clearing house for observatory manuals and information on how to access them. At present, CFHT, STScI, and IRTF are participating in this project. It is the author's intention that each observatory will submit electronically a pre-formatted template which is now available on NCSA Mosaic (URL http://www.cfht.hawaii.edu/html/obs-manuals.html). The template describes the instrumentation manual in the following manner: location, version, revision, institution, description wavelength region, field, keywords, contact person, size of document, figures, tables and availability. In addition the template provides the user with a direct link to the manual if it is on-line. The project author will contact the individual or institution in charge of the template at six month intervals in order to insure the manual's accuracy. It is hoped the availability of this service will encourage all observatories to make information about their manuals available electronically.

Bryson, E.

25

Thermal reactions of aromatics with CaO. Technical progress report, September 1, 1981April 30, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in this period focussed on understanding the calcination chemistry of CaO and its relation to the activity of CaO for pyrolysis of aromatic compounds. The main objectives are to arrive at a set of optimal calcination conditions under which to prepare CaO samples for systematic studies of the thermal reactions of aromatics with CaO, and to relate the chemical

J. P. Longwell; C. K. Lai; G. C. Williams; W. A. Peters

1982-01-01

26

NSI NIC on-Line System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NSI NIC on-line system is described in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: NSI history; the ADFTO's other on-line services; the current system; and the next generation of NSI NIC.

B. Lev

1991-01-01

27

Techniques of on-line monitoring and diagnosis for transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformer is crucial for the energy conversion and transmission in the process of power transmission and distribution, and plays an important role in the security of grid. On-line monitoring and diagnostics provides a promising platform not only to help the operators to manage transformer in a targeted fault repair and maintenance manner, but also to avoid fatal accidents. This

GuangMing Zhang; GuoLian Jiang; ZhiXun Xie

2011-01-01

28

Expanding Academic Vocabulary with an Interactive On-Line Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…

Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana

2005-01-01

29

Target  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to an isolated target sequence. The target sequence is a splice variant of PDE5 called a PDE5a1, a component of which is presented as SEQ ID No 1. The identified target sequence of the present invention may be used to as a target to identify agents (such as modulators) useful in the prevention and/or treatment of a disease associated with scarring and/or fibrosis or to selectively identify smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells in samples of normal and diseased tissue from individuals.

2004-09-21

30

CaO interaction in the staged combustion of coal  

SciTech Connect

The LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) process offers special potential for reducing NO/sub x/ and SO/sub x/ by at least 50 percent in coal combustion. This is to be accomplished by adding limestone with fuel and/or air in a low NO/sub x/ burner. This program has been directed to defining the chemistry and kinetics necessary to optimize sulfur capture in LIMB combustion. More specifically, this program has attempted to clarify the role of calcium sulfide in LIMB chemistry. When limestone is added in a staged burner, there is a strong possibility that under certain circumstances CaS is produced in the reducing (fuel-rich) zone of the burner. Since CaS is more stable than CaSO/sub 4/, this affords the opportunity to (1) operate the burner at a higher temperature, 2200 to 2500 F, (2) pass the CaS rapidly through the high temperature zone (before dissociation), and (3) complete the combustion in a lean (air-rich) region where the sulfur is finally retained in CaSO/sub 4/. For these reasons this program has concentrated on the high temperature chemistry and kinetics of CaS. To achieve the program objective, the program was divided into three tasks. These involved (1) a study of CaS formation, (2) a brief examination of CaS oxidation, and (3) a laboratory examination of the combustion of coal in the presence of CaO under first stage, fuel-rich conditions. In the most general sense, the study has shown that the formation of CaS in the reducing zones of the burner may be restricted by competing kinetics and thermodynamics. The addition of lime in LIMB will require special care to optimize the ability to capture sulfur. 36 references, 44 figures, 10 tables.

Levy, A.; Merryman, E.L.; Rising, B.W.

1983-12-19

31

Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content  

PubMed Central

Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min?1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal.

Pintana, Pakamon

2013-01-01

32

Catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by methane over CaO catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by methane was studied over CaO catalyst in a bubbling fluidized bed in\\u000a the temperature range of 800–900 °C, in which NO cannot be reduced by CH4 without CaO catalyst. The nitric oxide conversion was found to depend on oxygen and CH4 feed concentration, and also on temperature. In addition, the presence of

Wei Xu; Huiling Tong; Changhe Chen; Xuchang Xu

2008-01-01

33

Fully digit on-line networks  

SciTech Connect

Research in computer architecture in the last decade has been driven largely by the motivation to overcome the Von Neumann bottleneck. This paper describes the design and use of one such architecture-fully digit on-line networks. First, digit on-line algorithms and processing are defined. The key advantage to digit on-line processing is that it allows a digit serial, most significant digit first, type of data flow. Processing of the most significant operand digits starts immediately and generation of the most significant result digits soon follows. The minimum set of primitive logic operations required to implement a digit on-line processing component in VLSI are outlined. Then digit on-line networks consisting of many of these digit on-line components are examined. Finally, two different network configurations are discussed and compared. 15 references.

Irwin, M.J.; Owens, R.M.

1983-04-01

34

Competitive algorithms for on-line problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line problem is one in which an algorithm must handle a sequence of requests, satisfying each request without knowledge of the future requests. Examples of on-line problems include scheduling the motion of elevators, finding routes in networks, allocating cache memory, and maintaining dynamic data structures. A competitive algorithm for an on-line problem has the property that its performance on

Mark S. Manasse; Lyle A. McGeoch; Daniel Dominic Sleator

1988-01-01

35

On-line monitoring of incinerator emissions  

SciTech Connect

As part of efforts to develop an on-line emissions monitor to detect specific organic compounds for incinerators, the authors tested a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled with a long-path cell (LPC). A mixture of toluene, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene with elemental ratio C:H:Cl = 3:3.1:0.9 was incinerated in a methane/air flame. The effluent was continuously passed through a heated long-path cell. Eleven target compounds were simultaneously analyzed: methane, toluene, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, ethylene, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. During the testing, the incinerator temperature and the excess air ratio were deliberately changed to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions in the incinerator. Test results indicate that the FTIR/LPC system can successfully follow concentration changes in the emissions that are associated with the change in the incinerator operations. In addition to carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and benzene have been found to be major products of incomplete combustion of the mixture. In this paper, the authors also discuss problems related to obtaining representative calibration standards and to developing adequate methods for continuous monitoring of emissions.

Mao, Zhuoxiong; Demirgian, J.C.; Hwang, E.

1993-07-01

36

Optical on line techniques for nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

Optical on line techniques enable non intrusive physical measurements in harsh environments (high temperature, high pressure, radioactivity, ...). Optical absorption spectrometries such as UV-Visible, FTIR, CRDS have been successfully used to study gas phase speciation in different nuclear applications. LIBS which relies on laser matter interactions is a on line optical technique for solids and liquids elementary analysis. (authors)

Doizi, D. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM (France); Pailloux, A.; Maury, C.; Sirven, J. B.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J. L.; Rosset, C. D. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, DANS/DPC (France); Hartmann, J. M. [CNRS., UMR 7583, LISA, Creteil (France)

2011-07-01

37

Thermodynamic analysis on solid-state reduction of CaO particles dispersed in Mg–Al alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AZ61B alloy powder composite with Al2Ca fine dispersoids was developed by using CaO additive particles as raw materials. For synthesis of Al2Ca in the matrix, CaO particles were elementally and uniformly mixed with AZ61B alloy chips via ECABMA process. The mechanism in formation of Al2Ca intermetallics was investigated by XRD and SEM–EDS analysis when AZ61B alloy green compacts containing CaO

Katsuyoshi Kondoh; Junji Fujita; Junko Umeda; Hisashi Imai; Keitaro Enami; Masaki Ohara; Takanori Igarashi

2011-01-01

38

On-line bipartite matching made simple  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the classic on-line bipartite matching problem studied by Karp, Vazirani, and Vazirani (8) and provide a simple proof of their result that the Ranking algorithm for this problem achieves a competitive ratio of 1 1=e.

Benjamin E. Birnbaum; Claire Mathieu

2008-01-01

39

On-line chemical composition analyzer development  

SciTech Connect

This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

Garrison, A.A.

1993-01-01

40

A fully on-line adaptive BCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viable fully on-line adaptive brain computer interface (BCI) is introduced. On-line experiments with nine naive and able-bodied subjects were carried out using a continuously adaptive BCI system. The data were analyzed and the viability of the system was studied. The BCI was based on motor imagery, the feature extraction was performed with an adaptive autoregressive model and the classifier

C. Vidaurre; A. Schloogl; R. Cabeza; R. Scherer; G. Pfurtscheller

2006-01-01

41

On-line range prediction system, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-line range prediction system is designed for providing a prediction of the target range in the case of a laser data dropout. It consists of real time implementation of a Kalman filter on an IBM PC/AT equipped with necessary hardware. The system was set up and tested at Crows Landing in the Fall of 1987. The improvements made on the on-line range prediction system during 1988 are examined. Solutions are proposed and discussed to the several problems encountered during system tests. Then, the improvements made on the filter software are explained, namely, accounting for the time lag and providing data continously. Finally, the ideas are mentioned that can be considered in the future.

Levan, Nhan

1988-01-01

42

The Cracking Experiment Research of Tar by CaO Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tar from rice husk gasification for power generation was taken as an example to be catalytically cracked by CaO catalyst. The experimental results showed the cracking efficiency of tar greatly increased from 28.66% by thermal cracking to 65.6% by catalytic cracking, the gas compositions from tar being cracked were H2, CO, CH4, and CO2, and the H2 was a majority of them. The DSC and XRT analysis revealed that the deposit carbon could be found after tar was catalytically cracked and the deposit carbon efficiency could reach 30.51%. The SEM photographs of CaO catalyst used as catalyst showed that the CaO catalyst was enwrapped by the deposit carbon and decreased its catalytic activity, at the same time, the pressure drop of gas passing through catalyst bed increased because of the deposit carbon, it was different for us to operate the cracking reactor of tar and CaO catalyst in the cracking reactor must be regenerated for its stable operation.

Lit, X. H.; Mi, T.; We, Z. S.; Chen, Y. F.; Wu, Q. X.

43

An analysis of the effect of carbonation conditions on CaO deactivation curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in developing high temperature CO2 capture looping systems using CaO as a regenerable sorbent. The evolution of the sorbent properties with the number of cycles plays an important role in the design of these systems. One of the key variables to be determined is the sorbent's CO2 carrying capacity at the end of the so

B. Arias; J. C. Abanades; G. S. Grasa

2011-01-01

44

The Cao Method for Determining the Minimum Embedding Dimension of Sea Clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify whether sea clutter has chaotic character or not, the minimum embedding dimension and time delay in phase space reconstruction are needed. This paper discusses two defects of false nearest neighbors (FNN) for calculating embedding dimension: noise sensitivity and effect of subjective parameter. It was confirmed that Cao method could overcome these limitations and settle on a suitable embedding

Xiaoke Xu; Xiaoming Liu; Xiaonan Chen

2006-01-01

45

Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.  

PubMed

Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol. PMID:22905508

Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

2012-06-01

46

Effect of specific surface area on the reactivity of CaO with SOâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of reaction of calcined limestone with SOâ and Oâ was measured at conditions that eliminate all resistances not associated with the CaO grain surface. Reactivity increased with the square of the BET surface area when grain size was varied as an experimental parameter. The observed effects of surface area and temperature account for the SOâ capture reported for

R. H. Borgwardt; K. R. Bruce

1986-01-01

47

On-line atomic data access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser-produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology enables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users over the INTERNET. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

Schultz, David R.; Nash, Jeffrey K.

1996-07-01

48

CO 2 chemisorption at Ca and CaO surfaces: a study with MIES, UPS(HeI) and XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES) in combination with UPS(HeI) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to study chemisorption of CO 2 on Ca and CaO films at room temperature. Ca surfaces were prepared by evaporating Ca films (ca 20 nm thickness) on a clean Si(111) surface; information on the topological structure of the Ca film was obtained with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). CaO films were produced by exposing Ca films to O 2 or N 2O. Ca surfaces exposed to CO 2 become terminated by carbonate complexes (CO 2-3) while features typical for (Ca-O) bonds are detected underneath the surface. A closed carbonate layer forms also when a CaO film is exposed to CO 2. The strong reactivity of the CaO surface against CO 2 is in agreement with recent results of cluster calculations.

Ochs, D.; Braun, B.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.; Kempter, V.

1998-11-01

49

On-Line Multi-view Forests for Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A successful approach to tracking is to on-line learn discriminative classifiers for the target objects. Although these tracking-by-detection\\u000a approaches are usually fast and accurate they easily drift in case of putative and self-enforced wrong updates. Recent work\\u000a has shown that classifier-based trackers can be significantly stabilized by applying semi-supervised learning methods instead\\u000a of supervised ones. In this paper, we propose

Christian Leistner; Martin Godec; Amir Saffari; Horst Bischof

2010-01-01

50

On line chemical composition of analyzer development  

SciTech Connect

This status report details progress made on the development of an on-line chemical analyzer. Dynamic studies of the distillation column, approval of testing plans, installation of a sample cell and raman analyzer, design of computerized control systems are described. Information on seminars and published papers is also included. (GHH)

Not Available

1992-01-01

51

Teaching Graudate Nutrition Courses on Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we decided to go on line with our graduate courses we had to select the presentation platform. Additional software was used to assemble the course components and plan for more than one mode of presentation in case technical difficulties eliminated use of one mode.The platform selected was SERF(TM) by the University of Delaware. This platform allows a course author

E. S. Farrior; M. L. Gallagher

1999-01-01

52

Competitive Optimal On-Line Leasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider an on-line player who needs some equipment (e.g., a computer) for an initially unknown number of periods. At the start of each period it is determined whether the player will need the equipment during the current period and the player has two options: to pay a leasing fee c and rent the equipment for the period, or to buy

Ran El-yaniv; R. Kaniel; Nathan Linial

1999-01-01

53

Eye-hand coordination in on-line visuomotor adjustments.  

PubMed

When we perform a visually guided reaching action, the brain coordinates our hand and eye movements. Eye-hand coordination has been examined widely, but it remains unclear whether the hand and eye motor systems are coordinated during on-line visuomotor adjustments induced by a target jump during a reaching movement. As such quick motor responses are required when we interact with dynamic environments, eye and hand movements could be coordinated even during on-line motor control. Here, we examine the relationship between online hand adjustment and saccadic eye movement. In contrast to the well-known temporal order of eye and hand initiations where the hand follows the eyes, we found that on-line hand adjustment was initiated before the saccade onset. Despite this order reversal, a correlation between hand and saccade latencies was observed, suggesting that the hand motor system is not independent of eye control even when the hand response was induced before the saccade. Moreover, the latency of the hand adjustment with saccadic eye movement was significantly shorter than that with eye fixation. This hand latency modulation cannot be ascribed to any changes of visual or oculomotor reafferent information as the saccade was not yet initiated when the hand adjustment started. Taken together, the hand motor system would receive preparation signals rather than reafference signals of saccadic eye movements to provide quick manual adjustments of the goal-directed eye-hand movements. PMID:24346260

Abekawa, Naotoshi; Inui, Toshio; Gomi, Hiroaki

2014-05-01

54

Materials compatibility during the chlorination of molten CaCl/sub 2/. CaO salts. [CaCl/sub 2/. CaO salt  

SciTech Connect

As part of our effort to develop a semicontinuous PuO/sub 2/ reduction process, we are investigating promising materials for containing a 900/sup 0/C molten CaCl/sub 2/ . CaO chlorination reaction. We want the material to contain this reaction and to be reusable. We tested candidate materials in a simulated salt (no plutonium) using anhydrous HCl as the chlorinating agent. Data are presented on the performance of 36 metals and alloys, 9 ceramics, and 3 coatings.

Rense, C.E.C.; Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Ferran, M.D.

1987-01-01

55

On-line controlled documents: Lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

Placing Controlled Documents on-line on a computer network seems like the solution to many problems, one being distribution, with a path toward a paperless office. However, many problems presented themselves as we were designing the system and placing the documents on-line. Although we planned and established a Process Management Team to help work out the bugs, we still encountered many obstacles in the process. This presentation will cover the ``trials and tribulations`` of placing Controlled Documents on a computer network at three different sites. We will discuss the process we went through, the problems we encountered, the software we used, and how we got management to buy into the process.

Cochrell, R.C.; Steele, C.M.

1995-06-01

56

On-Line Technology Information System (OTIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

13 slides\\u000aDocument Provider Notes: Seminar Title: Introduction to the ESM Guidelines Document and the On-Line Technology Information System; Date: 3\\/12\\/2003; Time: 10:30 AM; Location: Stewart Center Rm 202.\\u000aComments: This seminar will cover two areas of interest for the ALS NSCORT: the Equivalent System Mass Guidelines Document, which is newly drafted by members of the ALS Systems Integration, Modeling,

Julie A. Levri; Richard Boulanger; John A. Hogan; Luis Rodriguez

2003-01-01

57

Thermal diffusivity of sintered 12CaO×7Al2O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal diffusivity and free carrier diffusion coefficient of 12CaO× 7 Al{2}O{3} (C12A7) sintered for different times in air or hydrogen followed by treatment with UV light were determined from photoacoustic phase and amplitude spectra obtained using the photoacoustic method with a transmission detection configuration. The influence of the sintering time on the values of the obtained parameters was analyzed and also the different sintering procedures.

Nikoli?, P. M.; Lukovi?, D. T.; Savi?, S. M.; Milovanovi?, A. M.; Uki?, S. R.; Nikoli?, M. V.; Stamenovi?, B.

2008-01-01

58

Characteristics of HCN removal using CaO at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation on the removal of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) using calcium oxide (CaO) was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at temperature ranging from 300 to 1173 K, and the original HCN was produced during the pyrolysis of pyridine. Effects of temperature, volume space velocity, and initial HCN concentration on HCN removal were discussed. The results of temperature-programmed experiments show that temperature is the main factor affecting HCN removal. With the formation of CO, HCN starts to decrease from 473 K, and remains unchanged from 673 to 873 K. At 873 K, there is a further decrease in HCN without CO formation, and when temperature is higher than 1023 K, HCN is removed completely. In the isothermal experiments, CaCN{sub 2} was detected at 723 K, but at higher temperatures of 923 and 1123 K, there was no CaCN{sub 2} in the solid residues, and the nitrogen in the removed HCN was equal to that in the formed N{sub 2}. This indicates that at a lower temperature CaO is consumed to remove HCN, CaO + 2HCN {yields} CaCN{sub 2} + CO + H{sub 2}; but at a higher temperature, CaO acts as a catalyst for HCN removal, 2C{sub i}H{sub j} + 2HCN {yields} N{sub 2} + (j + 1 - k)H{sub 2} + 2C{sub I} + 1H{sub k}. The investigation on the removal efficiency shows that there is a critical temperature and a critical volume space velocity at which the HCN removal efficiency is able to reach up to 100%. 41 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Houzhang Tan; Xuebin Wang; Congling Wang; Tongmo Xu [Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi (China). State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering

2009-03-15

59

Test av on-line driftoptimering, etapp 2. (Testing of on-line operation optimization).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two interesting techniques for on-line operation optimisation are tested and further evaluated. The two techniques are multivariate modelling with PLS (Project of Latent Structures, the Simca-method), and process identification (the Eurosim-method). The p...

J. Wilde H. Harnevie B. G. Bergdahl

1994-01-01

60

Porous carbon material containing CaO for acidic gas capture: preparation and properties.  

PubMed

A one-step process for the preparation of CaO-containing porous carbons is described. Mixtures of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with natural limestone were pyrolyzed and thus hybrid sorbents could be easily obtained. The polymeric material and the mineral served as a carbon precursor and CaO delivering agent, respectively. We discuss effects of the preparation conditions and the relative amounts of the raw materials used for the preparations on the porosity of the hybrid products. The micropore areas and volumes of the obtained products tended to decrease with increasing CaO contents. Increase in the preparation temperature entailed a decrease in the micropore volume, whereas the mesopore volume increased. The pore creation mechanism is proposed on the basis of thermogravimetric and temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The prepared CaO-containing porous carbons efficiently captured SO2 and CO2 from air. Washing out of CaO from the hybrid materials was confirmed as a suitable method to obtain highly porous carbon materials. PMID:23743266

Przepiórski, Jacek; Czy?ewski, Adam; Pietrzak, Robert; Toyoda, Masahiro; Morawski, Antoni W

2013-12-15

61

The adsorption of oxygen and water on Ca and CaO films studied with MIES, UPS and XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastable induced electron spectroscopy (MIES), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to study the adsorption of water on Ca and CaO films as well as the adsorption of oxygen on Ca films. Ca films are prepared by evaporation of Ca onto clean Si(1 0 0) substrates. CaO films are produced by Ca evaporation in an oxygen atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 400 °C. Gas adsorption on the Ca films at room temperature, both for oxygen and water, is initiated by complete dissociation of the impinging molecules leading to the formation of Ca-O bonds. Exposure to water furthermore leads to the formation of hydroxyl groups via hydrogen abstraction from water forming a complete surface layer. Hydroxyl groups are also formed upon exposure of CaO films to water, but to a significantly smaller amount compared to Ca films exposed to water.

Bebensee, F.; Voigts, F.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.

2008-05-01

62

Action Research and Evaluation On Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Action research consists of a family of research methodologies which pursue action and research outcomes at the same time. Areol, action research and evaluation on line, is a 14-week public course offered each semester as a public service by Southern Cross University and the Southern Cross Institute of Action Research. There are four orientation sessions. The first will give students some idea of the commitment in time that it may take to engage properly in the program. The second overviews the program. The third discusses the setting up of learning groups as an associated activity.

63

A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing on-line

Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

2012-01-01

64

Self-healing of defects in CaO coatings on V-5%Cr5%Ti in liquid lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt % dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600°C. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional

J. H. Park; T. F. Kassner

1994-01-01

65

The adsorption of oxygen and water on Ca and CaO films studied with MIES, UPS and XPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastable induced electron spectroscopy (MIES), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to study the adsorption of water on Ca and CaO films as well as the adsorption of oxygen on Ca films. Ca films are prepared by evaporation of Ca onto clean Si(100) substrates. CaO films are produced by Ca evaporation in an oxygen atmosphere

F. Bebensee; F. Voigts; W. Maus-Friedrichs

2008-01-01

66

Correlations for the combustible sulfur contents of Turkish coals from sulfur forms and CaO analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and combustible sulfur, CaO, ash and sulfur forms in 19 selected Turkish coals with widely varying characteristics (from bituminous coal to low-grade lignite) were determined according to ASTM standards. The total sulfur, combustible sulfur and CaO contents (wt% db) varied over wide ranges: 0.5–12.9, 0.25–12.8 and 0.4–14.1 respectively. Correlations based on the pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur forms gave

Davut Uzun; Sibel Özdo?an

1997-01-01

67

Modification of CaO by organic alumina precursor for enhancing cyclic capture of CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas  

SciTech Connect

The modification of CaO sorbent with organic alumina precursor to enhance the sorption capacity during cyclic capture is demonstrated in this study. The results indicate that during the 10 min sorption time for each cycle, the CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of original CaO sorbent is significantly decreased from 0.27 to 0.19 and 0.12 g CO{sub 2}/g sorbent after 5 and 60 cycles, respectively. On the other hand, the organic alumina modified CaO has a fresh capacity of 0.22 g CO{sub 2}/g sorbent, it increases to 0.24 g CO{sub 2}/g sorbent after 5 cycles, and then decreases to around 0.15 g CO{sub 2}/g sorbent after 60 cycles. When increasing the sorption time to 60 min at the 66th cycle, the sorption capacity of original CaO is 0.2, whereas it is 0.26 g CO{sub 2}/g sorbent for organic alumina modified CaO. The results demonstrate that by adding only 5% by weight of Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 3}3 species into the CaO sorbent, the CO{sub 2} sorption capacity can be enhanced up to similar to 27% by weight.

Chen, Y.T.; Karthik, M.; Bai, H. [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15

68

The adsorption of CO 2 and CO on Ca and CaO films studied with MIES, UPS and XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES), Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to study the adsorption of CO 2 and CO on Ca and CaO films. Ca films are prepared by evaporation of Ca onto clean Si(1 0 0) substrates. CaO films are produced by Ca evaporation in an oxygen atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 670 K. CO 2 interaction with the Ca films is initiated by dissociation of the impinging molecules leading to the formation of Ca-O bonds. These Ca-O bonds are subsequently consumed in the formation of a closed CaCO 3 layer on top of the surface. CO interaction with the Ca surfaces also leads to the dissociation of the molecule and the formation of Ca-O bonds. We find evidence for the subsequent formation of CO32- complexes on top of the surface. On CaO surfaces, both CO 2 and CO lead to the formation of a closed CaCO 3 top layer, though displaying very different reaction rates.

Voigts, F.; Bebensee, F.; Dahle, S.; Volgmann, K.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.

2009-01-01

69

On-line and Mobil Learning Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

2012-12-01

70

On-line consolidation of thermoplastic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An on-line consolidation system, which includes a computer-controlled filament winding machine and a consolidation head assembly, has been designed and constructed to fabricate composite parts from thermoplastic towpregs. A statistical approach was used to determine the significant processing parameters and their effect on the mechanical and physical properties of composite cylinders fabricated by on-line consolidation. A central composite experimental design was used to select the processing conditions for manufacturing the composite cylinders. The thickness, density, void content, degree of crystallinity and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured for each composite cylinder. Micrographs showed that complete intimate contact and uniform fiber-matrix distribution were achieved. The degree of crystallinity of the cylinders was found to be in the range of 25-30%. Under optimum processing conditions, an ILSS of 58 MPa and a void content of <1% were achieved for APC-2 (PEEK/Carbon fiber) composite cylinders. An in-situ measurement system which uses a slip ring assembly and a computer data acquisition system was developed to obtain temperature data during winding. Composite cylinders were manufactured with eight K-type thermocouples installed in various locations inside the cylinder. The temperature distribution inside the composite cylinder during winding was measured for different processing conditions. ABAQUS finite element models of the different processes that occur during on-line consolidation were constructed. The first model was used to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient for the hot-air heat source. A convective heat transfer coefficient of 260 w/msp{2°}K was obtained by matching the calculated temperature history to the in-situ measurement data. To predict temperature distribution during winding an ABAQUS winding simulation model was developed. The winding speed was modeled by incrementally moving the convective boundary conditions around the outer surface of the composite cylinder. A towpreg heating model was constructed to predict the temperature distribution on the cross section of the incoming towpreg. For the process-induced thermal stresses analysis, a thermoelastic finite element model was constructed. Using the temperature history obtained from thermal analysis as the initial conditions, the thermal stresses during winding and cooling were investigated.

Shih, Po-Jen

71

On-line tritium production monitor  

DOEpatents

A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

Mihalczo, J.T.

1993-11-23

72

On-line tritium production monitor  

DOEpatents

A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

73

University of British Columbia: Fish On Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of British Columbia, this website contains Fish On Line, a draft guide for teaching and learning about ichthyology. The "guide provides a structure and case study material for a computer-based course in ichthyology for upper undergraduates and graduate students in biology or environmental science. The key resource made accessible through this guide is FishBase, a large database on the biology of fish, available on CD-ROM (for Windows operating system) and on the Internet (www.fishbase.org/search.cfm)." The site provides brief introductory sections to the field of ichthyology and to FishBase, as well as chapters on Evolution, Morphology, Reproduction, and more. The site also offers supplementary exercises accompanying each chapter, and an extensive list of related links.

74

On-line process control monitoring system  

DOEpatents

An on-line, fiber-optic based apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a chemical substance at a plurality of locations in a chemical processing system comprises a plurality of probes, each of which is at a different location in the system, a light source, optic fibers for carrying light to and from the probes, a multiplexer for switching light from the source from one probe to the next in series, a diode array spectrophotometer for producing a spectrum from the light received from the probes, and a computer programmed to analyze the spectra so produced. The probes allow the light to pass through the chemical substance so that a portion of the light is absorbed before being returned to the multiplexer. A standard and a reference cell are included for data validation and error checking.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Van Hare, David R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1992-01-01

75

Gated Treatment Delivery Verification With On-Line Megavoltage Fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and clinically demonstrate the use of on-line real-time megavoltage (MV) fluoroscopy for gated treatment delivery verification. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage fluoroscopy (MVF) image sequences were acquired using a flat panel equipped for MV cone-beam CT in synchrony with the respiratory signal obtained from the Anzai gating device. The MVF images can be obtained immediately before or during gated treatment delivery. A prototype software tool (named RTReg4D) was developed to register MVF images with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiograph images generated from the treatment planning system based on four-dimensional CT. The image registration can be used to reposition the patient before or during treatment delivery. To demonstrate the reliability and clinical usefulness, the system was first tested using a thoracic phantom and then prospectively in actual patient treatments under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Results: The quality of the MVF images for lung tumors is adequate for image registration with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiographs. The MVF was found to be useful for monitoring inter- and intrafractional variations of tumor positions. With the planning target volume contour displayed on the MVF images, the system can verify whether the moving target stays within the planning target volume margin during gated delivery. Conclusions: The use of MVF images was found to be clinically effective in detecting discrepancies in tumor location before and during respiration-gated treatment delivery. The tools and process developed can be useful for gated treatment delivery verification.

Tai An, E-mail: atai@mcw.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Christensen, James D.; Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Khamene, Ali [Imaging and Visualization Department, Siemens AG, Princeton, NJ (United States); Boettger, Thomas [Oncology Care Systems, Siemens AG, Heidelberg (Germany); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2010-04-15

76

An on-line replanning scheme for interfractional variations.  

PubMed

Ability of online adaptive replanning is desirable to correct for interfraction anatomic changes. A full-scope replanning/reoptimization with the current planning techniques takes too long to be practical. A novel online replanning strategy to correct for interfraction anatomic changes in real time is presented. The scheme consists of three steps: (1) rapidly delineating targets and organs at risk on the computed tomography of the day by modifying original planning contours using robust tools in a semiautomatic manner, (2) online segment aperture morphing (SAM) (adjusting beam/ segment apertures) by applying the spatial relationship between the planning target contour and the apertures to the new target contour, and (3) performing segment weight optimization (SWO) for the new apertures if necessary. The entire scheme was tested for direct-aperture-based IMRT on representative prostate and abdomen cases. Dose volume histograms obtained with the online scheme are practically equivalent to those obtained with full-scope reoptimization. For the days of small to moderate organ deformations, only the SAM is necessary, while for the large deformation days, both SAM and SWO are required to adequately account for the deformation. Both the SAM and SWO programs can be completed within 1 min, and the overall process can be completed within 10 min. The proposed SAM-SWO scheme is practically comparable to full-scope reoptimization, but is fast enough to be implemented for on-line adaptive replanning, enabling dose-guided RT. PMID:18777921

Ahunbay, Ergun E; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Guang-Pei; Narayanan, Sreeram; Yu, Cedric; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X Allen

2008-08-01

77

Evolutionary Changes in Chlorophyllide a Oxygenase (CAO) Structure Contribute to the Acquisition of a New Light-harvesting Complex in Micromonas*?  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyll b is found in photosynthetic prokaryotes and primary and secondary endosymbionts, although their light-harvesting systems are quite different. Chlorophyll b is synthesized from chlorophyll a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO), which is a Rieske-mononuclear iron oxygenase. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of CAO among photosynthetic organisms elucidated changes in the domain structures of CAO during evolution. However, the evolutionary relationship between the light-harvesting system and the domain structure of CAO remains unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we investigated the CAO structure and the pigment composition of chlorophyll-protein complexes in the prasinophyte Micromonas. The Micromonas CAO is composed of two genes, MpCAO1 and MpCAO2, that possess Rieske and mononuclear iron-binding motifs, respectively. Only when both genes were introduced into the chlorophyll b-less Arabidopsis mutant (ch1-1) was chlorophyll b accumulated, indicating that cooperation between the two subunits is required to synthesize chlorophyll b. Although Micromonas has a characteristic light-harvesting system in which chlorophyll b is incorporated into the core antennas of reaction centers, chlorophyll b was also incorporated into the core antennas of reaction centers of the Arabidopsis transformants that contained the two Micromonas CAO proteins. Based on these results, we discuss the evolutionary relationship between the structures of CAO and light-harvesting systems.

Kunugi, Motoshi; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ayumi

2013-01-01

78

Microporous crystal 12CaO x 7Al(2)O(3) encaging abundant O(-) radicals.  

PubMed

Extremely high concentrations (>1020 cm-3) of active oxygenic radicals, O- and O2-, have been created in the zeolitic crystal, 12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7), which can accommodate anions in its cavities. An increase in oxygen pressure and a decrease in water vapor pressure at high temperature enhance the formation of the radicals. The oxidation of Pt is observed on the surface of the material as a result of reaction with the active oxygens. PMID:11817934

Hayashi, Katsuro; Hirano, Masahiro; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

2002-02-01

79

Adsorption and dissociation kinetics of alkanes on CaO(100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption kinetics of ethane, butane, pentane, and hexane on CaO(100) have been studied by multi-mass thermal desorption (TDS) spectroscopy. The sample cleanliness was checked by Auger electron spectroscopy. A molecular and dissociative adsorption pathway was evident for the alkanes, except for ethane, which does not undergo bond activation. Two TDS peaks appeared when recording the parent mass, which are assigned to different adsorption sites/configurations of the molecularly adsorbed alkanes. Bond activation leads to desorption of hydrogen and several alkane fragments assigned to methane and ethylene formation. Only one TDS feature is seen in this case. Formation of carbon residuals was absent.

Chakradhar, A.; Liu, Y.; Schmidt, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, U.

2011-08-01

80

Economic Analysis of On-Line Music: Choice Between On-Line and Traditional Music Shops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze the interaction between on-line and traditional music shops in order to understand the economic changes taking place in the music market. Music has been enjoyed since the emergence of human civilization, but until very recently only live performances could be experienced. The record industry emerged less than 100 years ago, in 1910.

Toshiaki Takita

2006-01-01

81

On-line manipulation of small area demographic data: AmericanProfile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the way in which users interact with the computer in an on-line environment is presented. The method is designed specifically to provide both a friendly and highly productive means of communicating user requirements. Unlike systems which are targeted toward either novice computer users or experienced programmers, the approach we take is well suited for all levels

Garry S. Meyer

1981-01-01

82

On-line manipulation of small area demographic data: AmericanProfile sm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the way in which users interact with the computer in an on-line environment is presented. The method is designed specifically to provide both a friendly and highly productive means of communicating user requirements. Unlike systems which are targeted toward either novice computer users or experienced programmers, the approach we take is well suited for all levels

Garry S. Meyer

1981-01-01

83

Towards On-line Treatment Verification Using cine EPID for Hypofractionated Lung Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for on-line treatment verification using cine EPID (electronic portal imaging device) images for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy based on a machine learning algorithm. Hypofractionated lung radiotherapy has high precision requirement, and it is essential to effectively monitor the target making sure the tumor is within beam aperture. We model the treatment verification problem as a two-class

Xiaoli Tang; Tong Lin; Steve Jiang

2008-01-01

84

Mediterranean lifestyle: nutritional education on-line.  

PubMed

Our goal is to spread on-line the Italian Weekly Pyramid, a tool designed to convey both portion size and frequency of food intake. The Pyramid is referring to the "Well-being Index" (WI) as a unit for an adequate lifestyle. The user can verify his weekly lifestyle by participating to a "game" based on food/beverages consumption and time assigned to physical activity. The site has been visited by 15920 individuals, of whom 4033 completed the game. Self-selected sample, not representative of the Italian population. The data collected included WI consumption by gender for each food group compared to WI suggested. Statistical data evaluation has been performed with the SPSS inc.13 program, without applying any statistical significance to the results. The sample showed a varied eating pattern; all the food groups were consumed almost daily, albeit in much lower quantities with regards to the suggested WI. Fruit and vegetable consumption was higher in women, while men showed a higher intake of meat and cut meats. The percentage of the participants consuming more WI with respect to the recommended amounts was very low for fruit, vegetable, pasta and bread, while was much higher as regards energy dense food. PMID:20169828

del Balzo, V; Scanu, A; Dernini, S; Palmieri, O; Cannella, C

2009-01-01

85

MAGNETIC BEHAVIOR OF IRON IONS IN THE P2O5·CaO GLASS MATRIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of xFe2O3·(100-x)-[P2O5·CaO] glasses with 0CaO glass matrix, the Fe2+ ion content is higher than that of the Fe3+ ions for glasses with x?10 mol%. For the glasses with x>35 mol%, the evaluated values of the ?eff indicate either the presence of Fe+ ions or the coordination influence on the magnetic moment of iron ions, but the presence of small quantities of the antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic interactions between iron ions in studied temperature range cannot be excluded. The high temperature susceptibility results indicate that the iron ions are isolated or participate in dipole-dipole interactions for glasses with x?35 mol% and are antiferromagnetically coupled for higher contents of Fe2O3.

ARDELEAN, I.; ANDRONACHE, C.; P??CU??, P.

86

Exciton-driven highly hyperthermal O-atom desorption from nanostructured CaO  

SciTech Connect

We report qualitatively new highly-hyperthermal (HHT) oxygen atom emission from nanostructured CaO excited by 6.4 eV nanosecond laser pulses. The kinetic energy distribution of emitted O-atoms peaks at 0.7 eV, which is over four times greater than previously observed. Excitation of MgO and CaO nanostructures with UV laser pulses is known to result in thermal and hyperthermal emission of oxygen atoms when photons with energies below and above the band gap, respectively, are used. The highly energetic atomic desorption we observe, following bulk excitation, challenges the conventional view that bulk excitation can only induce thermal desorption. Using density functional theory and an embedded cluster method, we propose a mechanism for this HHT feature based on the interaction of surface holes with bulk excitons. These experimental and theoretical results suggest that specific atomic desorption mechanisms in wide-bandgap materials can be controlled by selective electronic excitation of not only the surface but also the bulk of these materials

Sushko, Petr V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

2011-01-27

87

Nb-doped CaO: an efficient electron donor system.  

PubMed

Transition metal atoms incorporated into insulating materials (oxides in particular) can deeply modify their adsorption properties. In particular, charge transfer to adsorbed species can be induced by the presence of substitutional dopants, which introduce new electronic states in the band gap of the host crystal. Here we show, by means of density functional theory calculations, that Nb represents an excellent dopant to turn the rather inactive CaO(100) surface into an electron-rich support. The charge transfer ability of the doped material is shown by comparing the adsorption properties of the electronegative Au atoms on pure and Nb-doped CaO. While in the first case the CaO-Au bonding is relatively weak and the Au atom is essentially neutral, in the Nb-doped system a much stronger adhesion is found due to a net charge transfer from the Nb dopant and to the formation of a gold anion. This mechanism occurs also for Nb in high oxidation states. Nb is thus an excellent modifier of the calcium oxide properties. PMID:24935643

Prada, Stefano; Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

2014-08-01

88

Ab initio study of CaO. The importance of atomic correlation and a bondlength question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensively correlated ab initio potential energy and dipole moment curves are calculated for the X 1? +, a 3?, A 1? +, and 3? + states of CaO over the range 3.0 au ? R ? 6.0 au. The calculations are the first which correctly predict that X 1? + is the ground state of CaO. Vertical spectra, adiabatic spectra, spectroscopic constants, curve crossings, and dipole moments are determined. The 3? + results are apparently the first accurate values available. The dipole moment function is a linear function of bondlength for the ? states and 3? +. Two extrema occur in the dipole moment function of X 1? +. Combined with experimental results, this suggests that ?(X 1? +) exhibits a maximum near Re in the heavy alkaline earth monoxides. The ?(A 1? +) increases sharply near Re. The X 1? + calculations require special attention near Re: Localized ionic entities are involved which have different MO configurations and different correlation requirements. A second-order theory which correctly describes atomic correlation is necessary. The ab initio bondlengths are systematically larger than the experimental bondlengths by amounts that are greater than the expected accuracy limits of the calculations. This overestimation is also observed in KF, KCl and KOH, but ab initio bondlengths of the lighter metal alkali halides and alkaline earth monoxides agree closely with experiment. It appears that the core electrons must be responsible, possibly because of explicit core correlation requirements and/or relativistic corrections.

England, Walter B.

1980-11-01

89

Calcium precursors for the production of CaO sorbents for multicycle CO2 capture.  

PubMed

A screening of potential calcium precursors for the production of CaO sorbents for CO(2) capture at high temperature was conducted in this work. The precursors studied include microsized calcium carbonate (CC-CaO), calcium hydroxide (CH-CaO), nanosized (<70 nm) calcium carbonate (CC70 nm-CaO), nanosized (<160 nm) calcium oxide (CaO160 nm-CaO), calcium acetate hydrate (CA-CaO), calcium l-lactate hydrate (CL-CaO), calcium formate (CF-CaO), calcium citrate tetrahydrate (CCi-CaO), and calcium d-gluconate monohydrate (CG-CaO). The capture capability of these sorbents was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for multiple capture cycles. CG-CaO exhibited the best capacity for capturing CO(2) with a 1-min conversion of 65.9% and a 30-min conversion of 83.8% at the ninth cycle. Subsequently, a further parametric study was conducted to examine the effect of reaction conditions such as reaction temperature (550-750 degrees C) and CO(2) gas concentration (1-15%) on the capture capacity of CG-CaO. The sorbent CG-CaO also showed a much lower decomposition temperature and higher predicted residual conversion after prolonged cycles, compared with CC-CaO. PMID:20030311

Liu, Wenqiang; Low, Nathanael W L; Feng, Bo; Wang, Guoxiong; Diniz da Costa, João C

2010-01-15

90

Epilogue: A Cautionary Note about On-Line Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Warns that the effectiveness of on-line assessment can be mitigated by several factors: unrealistic appraisal of the potential of on-line education, enforcement of a code of conduct, computer and telecommunication skills bias, and other limitations of on-line media. (EV)

Bothel, Richard Thomas

2002-01-01

91

On-Line Control Systems in Power Plants 1982. Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents contributions to the discussion on on-line power plant control, i.e. modern concepts of on-line control, projecting, failure detection, improvements in on-line control documentation, design of modern control rooms, and operating experi...

1982-01-01

92

Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion lumber degenerative disc disease: meta-analysis randomized controlled trials Review published: 2014. Bibliographic details: Rayo MJ Cao SS  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion lumber degenerative disc disease: meta-analysis randomized controlled trials Review published: 2014. Bibliographic details: Rayo MJ Cao SS ?

93

A conception of formation and operation of CaO coating in regime of self-healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on analysis of test results and literature data, a phenomenological model of components interaction in Li[Ca]-V[O] system is proposed. The model demonstrates a cyclic process. Each cycle consists of: I - oxygen transfer from vanadium into lithium; II - CaO layer grows and simultaneously titanium oxides dissolve and oxygen and titanium spreading into solid solution; III - liquid metal penetration into solid metal according to the mechanism of reactionary diffusion accompanied by triple oxide formation; IV - decay of a meta-stable triple oxide and recovering of CaO layer. Within the framework of the proposed model the possible behavior of a CaO coating under isothermal condition is considered.

Yeliseyeva, O. I.; Chernov, V. M.; Potapenko, M. M.; Tsaran, T. V.

2004-08-01

94

Self-healing of defects in CaO coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium  

SciTech Connect

In-situ electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt % dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at >360{degrees}C.

Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

1994-11-01

95

Corundum, rutile, periclase, and CaO in Ca,Al-rich inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites.  

PubMed

Four calcium,aluminum-rich inclusions from four carbonaceous chondrites-Allende, Acfer 082, Acfer 086, and Acfer 094-were studied by transmission electron microscopy. All inclusions contained at least two of the oxides periclase (MgO), rutile (TiO2), calcium oxide (CaO), and corundum (Al2O3). The oxides (50 to 200 nanometers in size) were found inside and at grain boundaries of the constituent minerals of the inclusions. Determining how these oxides formed may provide insight about condensation processes in the early solar nebula and the origin of refractory inclusions in chondrites. Formation of these oxides by exsolution is considered unlikely. An origin by kinetically controlled condensation appears more probable. PMID:8662462

Greshake, A; Bischoff, A; Putnis, A; Palme H

1996-05-31

96

Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity of peh-hue-juwa-chi-cao in male rats.  

PubMed

Peh-hue-juwa-chi-cao (PHJCC) is a common commercial name for the herbal extract of either Hedyotis diffusa (HD), H. corymbosa (HC), or Mollugo pentaphylla (MP). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of these three extracts in rats. The results indicated that extracts of HC, HD and MP possess anti-inflammatory activity, and that MP has the greatest inhibition against carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the hepatoprotective study, results indicated that the three plant extracts significantly reduced the acute elevation of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (sGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (sGPT) concentration, and alleviated the degree of liver damage 24 hours after the intraperitoneal administration of hepatotoxins. PMID:12230011

Lin, Chun-Ching; Ng, Lean-Teik; Yang, Jenq-Jer; Hsu, Yu-Fang

2002-01-01

97

Effect of the substitution of M2O3 (M = La, Y, In, Ga, Al) for CaO on the bioactivity of 2.5CaO x 2SiO2 glass.  

PubMed

Glasses were prepared whose compositions are defined by the following general formula: (2.5 - x)CaO x x/3M2O3 x 2SiO2 (0 < or = x < or = 0.6) (M = Ga, Al, In). Their bioactivity was studied "in vitro" by soaking the glasses in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The consequent formation of calcium phosphate layer was studied by means of electron microscopy (EM) equipped with an energy-dispersive system (EDS) for elemental analysis and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The results are compared to the literature relative to the substitution of La2O3 and Y2O3 for CaO. It is observed that, in general, the substitution of M2O3 for CaO in the binary CaO-SiO2 glass composition progressively reduces the ability to form a calcium phosphate layer on the surfaces exposed to simulated body fluid (SBF). The composition limit can be related to the ionic field strength of the substituting cation and to the CaO content of the base glass. According to the mechanism reported in the literature a silica gel-like surface layer initially forms on the surfaces exposed to SBF. The observed results can be attributed to the effect of the substitution of M2O3 for CaO on the acidic properties of the silanolic groups. PMID:11771691

Branda, F; Arcobello-Varlese, F; Costantini, A; Luciani, G

2002-02-01

98

Adding Persuasion into On-line Bargaining Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face-to-face bargaining process, people usually persuade opponents to accept offers by various strategies. It is a challenge to exhibit such persuasion capability in the on-line automated bargaining process for e-trade. In this paper, we propose a multi-agent architecture to perform on-line bargaining activities with persuasion capability. We demonstrate the usability of fuzzy technique to implement the on-line bargaining

Shiu-li Huang; Yufei Yuan; Fu-ren Lin

99

Semi-Supervised On-Line Boosting for Robust Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, on-line adaptation of binary classifiers for tracking have been investigated. On-line learning allows for simple\\u000a classifiers since only the current view of the object from its surrounding background needs to be discriminiated. However,\\u000a on-line adaption faces one key problem: Each update of the tracker may introduce an error which, finally, can lead to tracking\\u000a failure (drifting). The contribution of

Helmut Grabner; Christian Leistner; Horst Bischof

2008-01-01

100

ChemScan-an on-line ultraviolet spectral process analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ChemScan is a product line of ultraviolet, on-line process analyzers that grew out of a NASA SBIR program targeted at on-line monitoring of plant nutrient solutions as part of the NASA CELSS program. The original goal for NASA was to provide on-line measurement of all the hydroponic plant nutrients necessary to develop and maintain a plant growth facility in space. Two different spectrometric techniques were applied to provide on-line measurements of all plant nutrients. One technology, ultraviolet absorption spectrometry, provided on-line measurements of nitrate, iron, and some of the transition metal nutrients. This technology not only demonstrated a capability to meet these CELSS needs but has now been incorporated into a family of commercial analytical instruments used for environmental process monitoring and control applications. A second technology, Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES), also originated in this same NASA SBIR, is still at an earlier stage of development and is expected to reach the market in the next 18-24 months.

Beemster, Bernard J.; Schlager, Kenneth J.

1996-03-01

101

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on- line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development

J. D. Miller; C. L. Lin; G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel; Barbara Marin

2001-01-01

102

On the On-line Number of Snacks Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the number of snacks problem (NSP), which was originally proposed by our team, an on-line player is given the task of deciding how many shares of snacks his noshery should prepare each day. The on-line player must make his decision and then finish the preparation before the customers come to his noshery for the snacks; in other words, he

Weimin Ma; Jane You; Yinfeng Xu; James Liu; Kanliang Wang

2002-01-01

103

Game theory, on-line prediction and boosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the close connections between game the- ory, on-line prediction and boosting. After a brief review of game theory, we describe an algorithm for learning to play repeated games based on the on-line prediction methods of Littlestone and War- muth. The analysis of this algorithm yields a sim- ple proof of von Neumann's famous minmax theo- rem, as well

Yoav Freund; Robert E. Schapire

1996-01-01

104

On-line Performance Assessment Using Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On-line performance assessment was developed to maximize the usefulness of performance assessment and to minimize the time and labor costs incurred. This paper reports on the development of an on-line performance assessment instrument, focusing on the establishment and validation of the scoring rubric and its implementation in the Rasch model, the…

Stahl, John; And Others

105

Are On-Line Data Bases in Your Library's Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Today there are over 900 on-line data banks available for public access. Most microcomputers can use them through the aid of a modem and communication program. Major public information utilities that offer access to these on-line data bases are growing and expanding. The Source, a data base utility…

Deacon, Jim

1983-01-01

106

Rig Evaluation of the On-Line Ferrograph.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on-line ferrograph has been rig evaluated using the dynamic foam apparatus. The on-line ferrograph appears to be operational based upon determination of the effect of operational temperature and pressures. The unit has the required sensitivity as indic...

P. W. Centers

1980-01-01

107

Issues Affecting Teaching On-Line: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography identifies issues affecting the on-line teaching environment by assembling a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies. Studies in the bibliography are divided into two major categories: (1) topical studies, which contain papers that focus primarily on one issue affecting teaching on-line (student…

Thompson, Kelvin

108

System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

109

On the Power of Randomization in On-Line Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against in adaptive adversary, we show that the power of randomization in on-line algorithms is severely limited! We prove the existence of an efficient “simulation” of randomized on-line algorithms by deterministic ones, which is best possible in general. The proof of the upper bound is existential. We deal with the issue of computing the efficient deterministic algorithm, and show that

Shai Ben-david; Allan Borodin; Richard M. Karp; Gábor Tardos; Avi Wigderson

1994-01-01

110

Evaluation of a Reactor On-Line Uncertainty Monitoring System  

SciTech Connect

Robust control designs were developed to better match experimental conditions available in the TRIGA reactor. A first-order weighting function is specified for each operating range in the robust design to limit the maximum tracking error. Inclusion of the performance-weighting function as the on-line filter is discussed as a possible on-line performance-monitoring method. The scheme to evaluate an on-line uncertainty monitoring system for a robust reactor controller is shown. TRIGA reactor experiments were conducted to evaluate on-line performance-monitoring techniques. It is concluded that the observed robust-control performance-monitoring characteristics can be incorporated in an on-line decision-making process to choose appropriate robust control selection and enforcement.

Edwards, Robert M.; He, Weidong

2001-06-17

111

On-line contextual influences during reading normal text: A multiple-regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line contextual influences during reading were examined in a series of multiple-regression analyses conducted on a large-scale corpus of eye-movement data, using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to assess the degree of contextual constraints exerted on a given target word by the immediately prior word and by the prior sentence fragment. A decrease in inspection time was observed as contextual constraints

Joel Pynte; Boris New; Alan Kennedy

2008-01-01

112

Verb agreements during on-line sentence processing in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line “word detection” paradigm was used to assess the comprehension of thematic and transitive verb agreements during sentence processing in individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, n=15) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD, n=14). AD, FTD, and control participants (n=17) were asked to listen for a word in a sentence. Unbeknownst to the participants, the target word followed an agreement

Catherine C. Price; Murray Grossman

2005-01-01

113

Provisioning on-line games: a traffic analysis of a busy counter-strike server  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a 500 million packet trace of a popular on-line, multi-player, game server. The results show that the traffic behavior of this heavily loaded game server is highly predictable and can be attributed to the fact that current game designs target the saturation of the narrowest, last-mile link. Specifically, in order to maximize the interactivity

Wu-chang Feng; Francis Chang; Wu-chi Feng; Jonathan Walpole

2002-01-01

114

Cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2-CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-CaO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2, CaCl2-CaO and equimolar CaCl2-NaCl-CaO was studied by cyclic voltammograms and constant potential polarization at temperatures of 1123 to 1173 K on molybdenum and titanium electrodes. The diffusion coefficient of Ca2+ (CaO) in molten CaCl2-CaO was calculated from the linear relationship between the square root of scan rate and the peak current density. The deposition potentials and the potential temperature coefficient of CaO in molten CaCl2-0.5mol%CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-0.5mol%CaO were also obtained from their cyclic voltammograms. The result shows that CaO is more easily reduced than CaCl2. The addition of NaCl in molten CaCl2-CaO induces the underpotential electrodeposition of CaO.

Wang, Shu-Lan; Wang, Wei; Li, Shi-Chao; Cao, Shan-Hui

2010-12-01

115

Heavy doping of H - ion in 12CaO·7Al 2O 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12CaO·7Al 2O 3 (C12A7, mayenite), which has a nanoscale porous structure that can accommodate extraframework species such as hydride (H -), oxide (O 2-), hydroxide (OH -) ions, and electrons, has been doped with H - ions to investigate its effects as dominant extraframework species. Chemical doping with CaH 2 enables the concentration of H - ions to reach almost the theoretical maximum. The concentration of H - ions is characterized by optical absorption intensity ascribed to photoionization of H - ions, and 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. Persistent electron generation, which is accompanied by the formation of an F+ absorption band and electrical conductivity, by irradiation with ultraviolet light at room temperature increases as the H - ion doping increases until it reaches half the theoretical maximum and then decreases as the H - ion concentration increases further. This dependence indicates that both H - and O 2- ions are necessary for the generation of persistent electrons.

Hayashi, Katsuro

2011-06-01

116

Chemical analysis of the Chinese herbal medicine Gan-Cao (licorice).  

PubMed

Gan-Cao, or licorice, is a popular Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata. The main bioactive constituents of licorice are triterpene saponins and various types of flavonoids. The contents of these compounds may vary in different licorice batches and thus affect the therapeutic effects. In order to ensure its efficacy and safety, sensitive and accurate methods for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of saponins and flavonoids are of significance for the comprehensive quality control of licorice. This review describes the progress in chemical analysis of licorice and its preparations since 2000. Newly established methods are summarized, including spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), electrochemistry, and immunoassay. The sensitivity, selectivity and powerful separation capability of HPLC and CE allows the simultaneous detection of multiple compounds in licorice. LC/MS provides characteristic fragmentations for the rapid structural identification of licorice saponins and flavonoids. The combination of HPLC and LC/MS is currently the most powerful technique for the quality control of licorice. PMID:18703197

Zhang, Qingying; Ye, Min

2009-03-13

117

Antioxidant activity of extracts of peh-hue-juwa-chi-cao in a cell free system.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine preparations, Hedyotis diffusa (HD), Hedyotis corymbosa (HC) and Mollugo pentaphylla (MP) are often used interchangeably under the name of "Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao (PHJCC)." Although studies have been conducted to characterize the therapeutic activities of these different plant species, their antioxidant activity has never been investigated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of these three different plant materials. At a concentration of 10 mg/ml, results showed that HD possesses the strongest inhibition on the FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, followed by HC and MP. MP showed a weak anti-lipid peroxidation activity at 1 and 3 mg/ml. Using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analysis, the order of superoxide anion scavenging activity was HC > HD > MP. However, MP was found to have the greatest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity compared to HC and HD. In conclusion, all three species used as PHJCC in Taiwan exhibited different antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities; these differences could explain, at least in part, the variation in therapeutic properties of PHJCC products in the market. PMID:15344417

Lin, Chun-Ching; Ng, Lean-Teik; Yang, Jenq-Jer

2004-01-01

118

Industrial on-line bulk analysis using nuclear techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial need for on-line determination of various parameters such as ash content, concentrations of slagging elements (Al, Ca, Si, Fe), concentration of environmentally hazardous S etc., has led into the development of several on-line nuclear techniques. Characteristic examples of these techniques along with their successes and limitations are presented. The need to determine on-line the concentration of a number of elements excitable through different neutron techniques (inelastic scattering, thermal capture, neutron activation) brings into the forefront the use of pulsed neutron generators. The coal industry, cement industry and organizations with concern for hidden explosives could benefit from the development of such devices.

Vourvopoulos, G.

1991-05-01

119

Mechanism of expansion of concrete due to the presence of dead-burnt CaO and MgO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mechanism has been proposed to explain the delayed expansions, due to the presence of dead-burnt CaO or MgO, of Portland cement based materials. The mechanism is based on the crystal growth pressure, the solubility of hydroxide crystals, their growth habits and diffusion of Ca2+ and Mg2+ through the electrical double layer which forms round cement hydration products. In

S. Chatterji

1995-01-01

120

Electronic conductivities of commercial ZrO 2 + 3 to 4 wt pct CaO electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentiostatic electrochemical experiments with liquid metal electrodes have been analyzed to provide values for the mixed\\u000a electrical conduction parameters (PMion, o?o, Oo , Po,P\\u000a o, and E O,C.) associated with commercial-grade ZrO2 + 3 to 4 wt pct CaO electrolytes. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values for the open-circuit cell voltage,E o. c., for relatively high oxygen concentrations in

Lawrence M. Friedman; Karl E. Oberg; William M. Boorstein; Robert A. Rapp

1973-01-01

121

Optical design of CAOS: a high-resolution spectropolarimeter for the Catania Astrophysical Observatory 0.91-m telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAOS (Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectrograph) is a high-resolution (R~60,000), fiber fed, bench-mounted, prism cross-dispersed, white-pupil R-4 echelle spectrograph with polarimetric capabilities, for the 0.91m telescope on Mt. Etna. Wavelengths from 390 to 710 nm are covered in one-shot with a 2Kx2K 13.5 micron CCD. Inherent high efficiency of the spectrograph and optimum matching between fibers and spectrograph will allow high

Paolo Spano; F. Leone; Salvatore Scuderi; Santo Catalano; Filippo M. Zerbi

2004-01-01

122

CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal\\/structural interface in fusion first-wall\\/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600°C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted

J. H. Park; T. F. Kassner

1996-01-01

123

Theory of F centers in the alkaline-earth oxides MgO and CaO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of a theoretical study of the electronic structure of isolated anion vacancies (F-center-like defects) in the alkaline-earth oxides MgO and CaO using the multiple-scattering-theory-based muffin-tin Green's-function method. These ab initio calculations are valence-charge self-consistent for the vacancy and first shell of cation neighbors but, at present, do not include effects due to atomic relaxation around the vacancy

Barry M. Klein; Warren E. Pickett; Larry L. Boyer; R. Zeller

1987-01-01

124

Identification of CaSO sub 4 formed by reaction of CaO and SO sub 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injection of calcium-based sorbents into coal-fired boilers for reaction with, and reduction in the levels of, sulfur dioxide (SOâ) in the flue gas has undergone considerable research and development. Significant effort has also been made in developing models for the overall reaction CaO + SOâ + 1\\/2 Oâ â CaSoâ in order to better predict the effects of system

B. K. Gullett; K. R. Bruce

1989-01-01

125

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of CaO on Coal-Ash Slagging on Refractory Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

For that current power plants mainly use low-quality coal as fuel, Lengshui river coal ash as base-ash, separately make up ash-sample with CaO content of 10%, 20%, 30% or 40%, then measure the DT, ST, HT and FT of ash-sample by placing them at SDAF2000b ash melting point tester; spread ash upon SiC and aluminum refractory, calcined for 20 hrs

Yuan Jun; Chen Donglin; Tao Hualong; Pei Xiaochong

2009-01-01

126

Crossover from two- to three-dimensional gold particle shapes on CaO films of different thicknesses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of Au particles on Mo(001)-supported CaO films has been investigated as a function of film thickness by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Whereas, monolayer Au islands develop in the low-thickness regime [1-25 monolayers (ML)], formation of three-dimensional (3D) deposits is revealed above 40-ML film thickness. The two-dimensional (2D) growth morphology is ascribed to a charge transfer out of the CaO/Mo support into the adparticles, resulting in a reinforcement of the Au-CaO interface interaction and a strong preference for a wetting growth of gold. In the limit of ultrathin films, this charge transfer is governed by electron tunneling from the Mo substrate into the Au islands and is driven by the different Fermi levels of both systems. Although tunneling transport breaks down beyond 5-10-ML film thickness, the signature of charge-mediated Au growth remains detectable for even thicker films. This finding suggests the presence of intrinsic charge centers in the CaO film that are able to donate electrons to the gold. We relate these donor centers to Mo ions that spontaneously have diffused from the Mo support into the CaO lattice during growth. Given the low mobility of Mo in the oxide matrix, the donor concentration diminishes with film thickness and, hence, the ability of the CaO to transfer electrons into the Au deposits. Consequently, the 2D growth behavior of Au changes into the 3D regime that is characteristic for metals on inert oxide surfaces. Spectroscopic characterization of the Au particles revealed pronounced electron quantization and Coulomb charging effects due to the reduced island size.

Shao, Xiang; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

2012-03-01

127

NNDC (National Nuclear Data Center) on-Line Services Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes and describes how to access the on-line services available from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The services are available free of cost to US Department of Energy, its contractors...

C. L. Dunford T. W. Burrows J. K. Tuli

1987-01-01

128

Assessing the Usability of On-Line Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores user interface and instructional design of on-line materials. Examines such criteria as accessibility, aesthetic appeal, consistency and layout, customizability and maintainability, help and support documentation, intimacy and presence, and metaphors and maps. (EV)

Mehlenbacher, Brad

2002-01-01

129

On-Line Texture Diagnostics for Coated Conductor Manufacture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Phase I project was undertaken to assess the feasibility of implementing a particular diagnostic method for characterizing the crystallographic texture of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors on-line during their reel-to-reel conti...

2002-01-01

130

On-Line New Event Detection, Clustering, and Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, we discuss and evaluate solutions to text classification problems associated with the events that are reported in on-line source of news. We present solutions to three related classification problems: new event detection, event clustering, a...

R. Papka

1999-01-01

131

Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics.  

PubMed

Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2-6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

Feng, Jun-Juan; Cui, Liang-Wei; Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

2014-01-01

132

Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population.

Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

2014-01-01

133

CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium  

SciTech Connect

Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400--420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance. which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes(e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {ge}360{degrees}C.

Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

1996-02-01

134

Effect of FeO and CaO on the Sulfide Capacity of the Ferronickel Smelting Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of FeO and CaO on the sulfide capacity in MgO-SiO2-FeO based slags equilibrating with Fe-Ni alloys at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) was investigated. The sulfide capacity in the MgO-SiO2-FeO and MgO-SiO2-CaO-FeO slags increased with higher FeO content and higher temperatures due to an increase in the activity of O2- and a decrease in the activity coefficient of sulfide ion in slag. The sulfide capacity of the MgO-SiO2-CaO-FeO slag also increased with an increase in the CaO content due largely to the increase in the activity of O2-. Furthermore, CaO and FeO seem to be more effective than MgO in increasing the sulfide capacity in the MgO-SiO2-CaO-FeO slag system. In addition, the comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical estimate using the modified empirical optical basicity showed relatively good linear agreement.

Kim, Ki Deok; Huh, Wan Wook; Min, Dong Joon

2014-06-01

135

Canopy spectral and chemical diversity from lowland to tree line in the Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests. Results from one lowland site in the Peruvian Amazon suggests both an environmental and an evolutionary component of canopy trait development however, the degree to which larger environmental differences influence diversity in canopy traits and their respective spectroscopic signatures across remains poorly understood. The spectranomics approach explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies providing the basis for analysis, while high-fidelity, airborne remote sensing measurements extend plot-level data to landscape-scale, achieving a comprehensive view of the region. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to sample a large region of the Western Amazon Basin in southeastern Peru, extending from lowlands to tree line in the Andean mountains. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between environmental gradients and canopy chemical and spectral diversity. Results suggest strong environmental control with additional phylogenetic influence over canopy spectral and chemical properties, particularly those related to structure, defense and metabolic function. Data from CAO-VSWIR extends the large range in canopy chemical and spectral diversity related to environmental factors across the Western Amazon Basin.

Martin, R. E.; Asner, G. P.

2012-12-01

136

Using On-Line Sensors in Statistical Process Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As manufacturing technology moves toward more computerized automation, statistical process control (SPC) techniques must adapt to keep pace with the new environment and take advantage of the development in automated on-line sensors. In this paper, a two-phase procedure is proposed for combining an on-line sensor and a control chart to improve statistical process control decisions. In phase 1 of this

Linguo Gong; Wushong Jwo; Kwei Tang

1997-01-01

137

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of

J. D. Miller

1999-01-01

138

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of

C. L. LIN; G. H. LUTTRELL; G. T. ADEL; JAN D. MILLER

1998-01-01

139

Development of an On-Line Coal Washability Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of

C. L. Lin; G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel; Jan D. Miller

1998-01-01

140

Development of an On-Line Coal Washability Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of

Jan D

1997-01-01

141

On-line error compensation of coordinate measuring machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line error compensation system for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) is described, which is based on three laser optical Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Measurement Systems (MDFM systems), each for one axis of CMMs. Twelve of the twenty-one error components associated with a CMM are measured on-line by these MDFM systems. The remaining error components are measured by off-line methods which use commercially available

P. S. Huang; J. Ni

1995-01-01

142

Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst.  

PubMed

Calcium oxide-loaded porous materials have shown promise as catalysts in transesterification. However, the slow diffusion of bulky triglycerides through the pores limited the activity of calcium oxide (CaO). In this work, bimodal meso-macroporous silica was used as a support to enhance the accessibility of the CaO dispersed inside the pores. Unimodal porous silica having the identical mesopore diameter was employed for the purpose of comparison. Effects of CaO content and catalyst pellet size on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were investigated. The basic strength was found to increase with increasing the CaO content. The CaO-loaded bimodal porous silica catalyst with the pellet size of 325?m achieved a high %FAME of 94.15 in the first cycle, and retained an excellent %FAME of 88.87 after five consecutive cycles. PMID:24525218

Witoon, Thongthai; Bumrungsalee, Sittisut; Vathavanichkul, Peerawut; Palitsakun, Supaphorn; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

2014-03-01

143

Dip coated 12CaO·7Al 2O 3 thin films through sol–gel process using metal alkoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent nanostructured 12CaO·7Al2O3 thin films with cubic structure have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates via the sol–gel dip coating using the precursor sol solution at low temperature. The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties of the 12CaO·7Al2O3 films and powder were studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. Optical

P. M. Chavhan; Anubha Sharma; R. K. Sharma; Gurmeet Singh; N. K. Kaushik

2010-01-01

144

Micelle-Assisted Synthesis of Al2O3·CaO Nanocatalyst: Optical Properties and Their Applications in Photodegradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol  

PubMed Central

Calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles are known to exhibit unique property due to their high adsorption capacity and good catalytic activity. In this work the CaO nanocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), as a templating agent. The as-synthesized nanocatalysts were further used as substrate for the synthesis of alumina doped calcium oxide (Al2O3·CaO) nanocatalysts via deposition-precipitation method at the isoelectric point of CaO. The Al2O3·CaO nanocatalysts were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, TEM, and FESEM techniques. The catalytic efficiencies of these nanocatalysts were studied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP), which is an industrial pollutant, spectrophotometrically. The effect of surfactant and temperature on size of nanocatalysts was also studied. The smallest particle size and highest percentage of degradation were observed at critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The direct optical band gap of the Al2O3·CaO nanocatalyst was found as 3.3?eV.

Imtiaz, Ayesha; Khaleeq-ur-rahman, Muhammad; Adnan, Rohana

2013-01-01

145

Micelle-assisted synthesis of Al2O3·CaO nanocatalyst: optical properties and their applications in photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol.  

PubMed

Calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles are known to exhibit unique property due to their high adsorption capacity and good catalytic activity. In this work the CaO nanocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), as a templating agent. The as-synthesized nanocatalysts were further used as substrate for the synthesis of alumina doped calcium oxide (Al2O3·CaO) nanocatalysts via deposition-precipitation method at the isoelectric point of CaO. The Al2O3·CaO nanocatalysts were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, TEM, and FESEM techniques. The catalytic efficiencies of these nanocatalysts were studied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP), which is an industrial pollutant, spectrophotometrically. The effect of surfactant and temperature on size of nanocatalysts was also studied. The smallest particle size and highest percentage of degradation were observed at critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The direct optical band gap of the Al2O3·CaO nanocatalyst was found as 3.3?eV. PMID:24311980

Imtiaz, Ayesha; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Khaleeq-ur-rahman, Muhammad; Adnan, Rohana

2013-01-01

146

Engagement of parents in on-line social support interventions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what the relevant research informs us about which parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability are likely to engage in an on-line social support program and why they choose to be engaged. The review included 16 peer-reviewed research reports about on-line social support offered to parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability. It was conducted using scoping review approaches recommended by H. Arskey and L. O'Malley (2005). A key finding of this review is that it appears that the development of on-line social support interventions for parents may not have integrated what is known in the field of Internet technology as necessary to engage users. This has implications for nurses wishing to provide on-line social support for parents. As well, it highlights future directions for research, including investigations of which parents are likely to engage in on-line social support interventions and the features of the intevention that will attract and sustain them as participants. PMID:22710151

Paterson, Barbara L; Brewer, Joan; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

2013-04-01

147

An on-line NMR technique with a programmable processor  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to determine molecular content of materials, mainly in laboratory measurements. The reduced cost of fast computer processors, together with recent break throughs in digital signal processor technology, has facilitated the on-line use of NMR by allowing modifications of the available technology. This paper describes a system and an algorithm for improving the on-line operations. It is base on the time-domain NMR signal detected by the controller and some prior knowledge of chemical signal patterns. The desired signal can be separated from a composite signal by using an adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter. This technique would be useful for upgrading process procedures in on-line manufacturing.

Razazian, K.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C. [and others

1995-07-01

148

Making the most of on-line recruiting.  

PubMed

Ninety percent of large U.S. companies are already recruiting via the Internet. By simply logging on to the Web, company recruiters can locate vast numbers of qualified candidates for jobs at every level, screen them in minutes, and contact the most promising ones immediately. The payoffs can be enormous: it costs substantially less to hire someone on-line, and the time saved is equally great. In this article, Peter Cappelli examines some of the emerging service providers and technologies--matchmakers, job boards, hiring management systems software, and applicant-screening mechanisms that test skills and record interests. He also looks at some of the strategies companies are adopting as they enter on-line labor markets. Recruiting needs to be refashioned to resemble marketing, he stresses. Accordingly, smart companies are designing Web pages, and even product ads, with potential recruits in mind. They're giving line managers authority to hire so that candidates in cyberspace aren't lost. They're building internal on-line job networks to retain talent. Integrating recruiting efforts with overall marketing campaigns, especially through coordination and identification with the company's brand, is the most important thing companies can do to ensure success in on-line hiring. Along the way, Cappelli sounds two cautionary notes. First, a human touch, not electronic contact, is vital in the last steps of a successful hiring process. Second, companies must make sure that on-line testing and hiring criteria do not discriminate against women, disabled people, workers over 40, or members of minority groups. When competition for talent is fierce, companies that master the art and science of on-line recruiting will be the ones that attract and keep the best people. PMID:11246921

Cappelli, P

2001-03-01

149

On-line Gibbs learning. I. General theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a model of on-line learning, the on-line Gibbs algorithm (OLGA), which is particularly suitable for supervised learning of realizable and unrealizable discrete valued functions. The learning algorithm is based on an on-line energy function E that balances the need to minimize the instantaneous error against the need to minimize the change in the weights. The relative importance of these terms in E is determined by a parameter ?, the inverse of which plays a similar role as the learning rate parameters in other on-line learning algorithms. In the stochastic version of the algorithm, following each presentation of a labeled example the new weights are chosen from a Gibbs distribution with the on-line energy E and a temperature parameter T. In the zero-temperature version of OLGA, at each step, the new weights are those that minimize the on-line energy E. The generalization performance of OLGA is studied analytically in the limit of small learning rate, i.e., ?-->?. It is shown that at finite temperature OLGA converges to an equilibrium Gibbs distribution of weight vectors with an energy function which is equal to the generalization error function. In its deterministic version OLGA converges to a local minimum of the generalization error. The rate of convergence is studied for the case in which the parameter ? increases as a power law in time. It is shown that in a generic unrealizable dichotomy, the asymptotic rate of decrease of the generalization error is proportional to the inverse square root of presented examples. This rate is similar to that of batch learning. The special cases of learning realizable dichotomies or dichotomies with output noise are also treated.

Sompolinsky, H.; Kim, J. W.

1998-08-01

150

An on-line replanning method for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Daily setup for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy (RT) can vary randomly due to neck rotation and anatomy change. These differences cannot be totally corrected by the current practice of image guided RT with translational repositioning. The authors present a novel rapid correction scheme that can be used on-line to correct both interfractional setup variation and anatomy change for HN RT. The scheme consists of two major steps: (1) Segment aperture morphing (SAM) and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO). SAM is accomplished by applying the spatial relationship between the apertures and the contours of the planning target and organs at risk (OARs) to the new target and OAR contours. The new target contours are transferred from planning target contours to the CT of the day by means of deformable registration (MIMVISTA). The dose distribution for each new aperture was generated using a planning system with a fast dose engine and hardware and was input into a newly developed SWO package using fast sequential quadratic programming. The entire scheme was tested based on the daily CT images acquired for representative HN IMRT cases treated with a linac and CT-on-Rails combo. It was found that the target coverage and/or OAR sparing was degraded based on the CT of the day with the current standard repositioning from rigid registration. This degradation can be corrected by the SAM/SWO scheme. The target coverage and OAR sparing for the SAM/SWO plans were found to be equivalent to the original plan. The SAM/SWO process took 5-8 min for the head and neck cases studied. The proposed aperture morphing with weight optimization is an effective on-line approach for correcting interfractional patient setup and anatomic changes for head and neck cancer radiotherapy. PMID:19928108

Ahunbay, Ergun E; Peng, Cheng; Godley, Andrew; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X Allen

2009-10-01

151

Alternative smoothing algorithms for on-line estimation problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, much emphasis has been placed on the Kalman filter to solve on-line estimation problems. Smoothers, which determine state estimates at a certain time t using measurements between 0 and T, have been used primarily in off-line estimation schemes. This paper presents alternative forms of smoothers that can be used for on-line estimation problems. The alternative smoothing algorithms provide state estimates which are more refined than Kalman filtered state estimates. The alternative smoothing algorithms are illustrated in two examples. The first example considers a linear discrete-time system while the second example considers a nonlinear continuous-time system with discrete-time measurements.

Baumgartner, Eric T.

1991-01-01

152

On-line access to geoscience bibliographic citations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On-line geoscience bibliographic citations and access points to citations are exponentially increasing as commercial, non-profit, and government agencies worldwide publish materials electronically. On-line bibliographic tools capture cited works, and open access content allows for freely obtained citations and documents. For this newsletter, citations from the numerous journals and books listed in the "Recent Papers" section of the EXPLORE newsletters from 2008-2011 were used to provide freely-accessible web sites to determine the availability of bibliographic information.

Wild, Emily C.

2012-01-01

153

On-line measurement of heat of combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

1988-01-01

154

Influence of high-temperature steam on the reactivity of CaO sorbent for CO? capture.  

PubMed

Calcium looping is a high-temperature CO(2) capture technology applicable to the postcombustion capture of CO(2) from power station flue gas, or integrated with fuel conversion in precombustion CO(2) capture schemes. The capture technology uses solid CaO sorbent derived from natural limestone and takes advantage of the reversible reaction between CaO and CO(2) to form CaCO(3); that is, to achieve the separation of CO(2) from flue or fuel gas, and produce a pure stream of CO(2) suitable for geological storage. An important characteristic of the sorbent, affecting the cost-efficiency of this technology, is the decay in reactivity of the sorbent over multiple CO(2) capture-and-release cycles. This work reports on the influence of high-temperature steam, which will be present in flue (about 5-10%) and fuel (?20%) gases, on the reactivity of CaO sorbent derived from four natural limestones. A significant increase in the reactivity of these sorbents was found for 30 cycles in the presence of steam (from 1-20%). Steam influences the sorbent reactivity in two ways. Steam present during calcination promotes sintering that produces a sorbent morphology with most of the pore volume associated with larger pores of ?50 nm in diameter, and which appears to be relatively more stable than the pore structure that evolves when no steam is present. The presence of steam during carbonation reduces the diffusion resistance during carbonation. We observed a synergistic effect, i.e., the highest reactivity was observed when steam was present for both calcination and carbonation. PMID:22191682

Donat, Felix; Florin, Nicholas H; Anthony, Edward J; Fennell, Paul S

2012-01-17

155

Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

2013-08-01

156

On-Line QRS Complex Detection Using Wavelet Filtering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a new QRS complex detection algorithm that can be applied in various on-line FCC processing systems The algorithm is performed in two steps: first a wavelet transform filtering is applied to the signal, then QRS complex localization is...

L. Szilagyi Z. Benyo S. M. Szilagyi L. Nagy

2001-01-01

157

On-line QRS complex detection using wavelet filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new QRS complex detection algorithm that can be applied in various on-line ECG processing systems. The algorithm is performed in two steps: first a wavelet transform filtering is applied to the signal, then QRS complex localization is performed using a maximum detection and peak classification algorithm. The algorithm has been tested in two phases. First QRS

L. Szilagyi; Z. Benyo; S. M. Szilagyi; A. Szlavecz; L. Nagy

2001-01-01

158

Using AE monitoring for on-line crack detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring of a feed nozzle on a heat cracking tower and butt weld seams between the piping and flanges in the high pressure reforming process of an ammonia plant was conducted with a two-channel waveform recorder and an AE analyzer. To avoid degradation of the PZT sensors from high temperature, two sensors were separately attached to

Zhang

1988-01-01

159

On-line data reconciliation in chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of massbalance and the information carried by massflows in the form of components, temperature and pressure strongly effect product quality, plant safety and plant profitability.The paper reports our experience with ON-LINE data reconciliation gathered since 1989, on two chemical plants.

Dominik Dempf; Thomas List

1998-01-01

160

On-Line Marketing-Communication In Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the total domestic advertisement cake the internet has a steadily growing slice. The reasons of turning towards the on-line communication we can look for in the change of the consumer habits and the development of the technical side. Due to the media noise consumers become indifferent, the development of digital technology breaking up the media consumption habits, these trends

Krisztina Taralik

2011-01-01

161

On-Line Testing Technique for Artillery Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the system the multi-parameters intelligent testing platform is the core. It had realized the intelligent process for measuring out data for the first time. The optimization result can get the conclusions of abrasion grade, mechanic damages, the disfigurements of material and the ablation degree. The on-line intelligent detecting and measuring platform system can widely be used in factories in

Baoxing Bai; Yunhai Hao

2009-01-01

162

Yeast Transcriptional Module Identification Based on Line Manifold  

Microsoft Academic Search

A living cell can carry out complex biological functions dependent on its transcriptional regulatory modules. Therefore, identifying transcriptional regulatory modules is very important for understanding cell function and its transcription mechanism. In this paper, a novel algorithm based on line manifold clusters and a linear mixture framework is presented for transcriptional regulatory module identification. A combined dissimilarity is constructed by

Gangguo Li; Zhengzhi Wang

2010-01-01

163

Self-Checking on-Line Testable Static RAM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a fault-tolerant random access memory for use in fault-tolerant computers. It comprises a plurality of memory chips each comprising a plurality of on-line testable and correctable memory cells disposed in rows and columns for holding individually ...

S. Chau D. Rennels

1990-01-01

164

On-line optical process control in steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work shows that modern optical techniques, in conjunction with atomic and molecular spectroscopy, are valuable tools for on-line control of the Creusot-Loire-Uddeholm converter for alloy steelmaking. The optical technique has been closely investigated in relation to the reduction step of the process, and the resultant observations point towards a variety of applications in several steelmaking processes.

Persson, W.; Wendt, W.; Bertheussen, H.

1989-10-01

165

On-line trajectory clustering for anomalous events detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a trajectory clustering algorithm suited for video sur- veillance systems. Trajectories are clustered on-line, as the data are collected, and clusters are organised in a tree-like structure that, augmented with probability infor- mation, can be used to perform behaviour analysis, since it allows the identification of anomalous events.

Claudio Piciarelli; Gian Luca Foresti

2006-01-01

166

Towards a Rhetoric of On-line Tutoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic mail-based tutoring of undergraduate writing students upsets the temporal basis of the face-to-face paradigm for writing tutorials. Taking place in real time in a specified place, the face-to-face tutorial session has a beginning, middle and end. Further, the session must have a tangible point. By contrast, in on-line tutoring, time is…

Coogan, David

167

The On-Line Processing of Unaccusativity in Greek Agrammatism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the on-line processing of unaccusative and unergative sentences in a group of eight Greek-speaking individuals diagnosed with Broca aphasia and a group of language-unimpaired subjects used as the baseline. The processing of unaccusativity refers to the reactivation of the postverbal trace by retrieving the mnemonic representation…

Peristeri, Eleni; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria; Tsapkini, Kyrana

2013-01-01

168

On-Line Critiques in Collaborative Design Studio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the Design Collaboration Model (DCM) was developed to provide a medium for the on-line collaboration of the design courses. The model was based on the situated and reflective practice characteristics of the design process. The segmentation method was used to analyse the design process observed both in the design diaries and the…

Sagun, Aysu; Demirkan, Halime

2009-01-01

169

Power system network modeling for on-line analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line power system analysis enables to make power mode-related decision based on information available at real time. The quality of the studies and efficiency of power system operation are closely associated with the accuracy of the power system models. Accurate and quick decision based on analysis on real time data has been necessary for making operational plan under the deregulation

Abhimanyu Gartia; Nallarasan; S. P. Barnwal; G. Madhukar

2009-01-01

170

Assessment of an On-Line Educational Administration Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An on-line education administration course was evaluated using Seven Lessons Learned by Graham, Cagiltay, Lim, Craner, and Duffy (2001 ) as the framework. The framework was found to be useful in revealing areas of strengths and weaknesses in offering virtual education administration courses. The evaluation provided information that clear…

Kim, Lori

2004-01-01

171

On-line partial discharge detection in cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an on-line PD (partial discharge) detection technique applicable to power cables. The method can be applied to both wire screen and solid shielded cables. In wire screen shielded cables, PD components with frequencies <100 MHz can be detected at distances over 150 m from the source, PD activity with levels as low as 20 pC can be

N. H. Ahmed; N. N. Srinivas

1998-01-01

172

Development of an on-Line Gold Analyser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on-line analyser to monitor the gold in solutions from the carbon-in-pulp process is described. The automatic system is based on the delivery of filtered samples of the solutions to a distribution valve for measurement by flameless atomic-absorption sp...

R. V. D. Robert G. T. W. Ormrod

1982-01-01

173

The Nearness of You: Students & Teachers Writing On-Line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a guide to using new computer technologies in innovative ways to teach writing, particularly imaginative writing. The book shows how on-line technology can be a positive tool in the classroom, if the focus is on the users of the technology and the technology is integrated into the curriculum. The book is divided into five sections and…

Edgar, Christopher, Ed.; Wood, Susan Nelson, Ed.

174

Soft sensors development for on-line bioreactor state estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a fermentation process, variables such as concentrations are determined by off-line laboratory analysis, making this set of variables of limited use for control purposes. However, these variables can be on-line estimated using soft sensors. The objective of this study is to present the state of the art of state estimator techniques. Special attention was given to filtering techniques, namely

Adilson José de Assis; Rubens Maciel Filho

2000-01-01

175

Emotional states control for on-line game avatars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although detailed animation has already been achieved in a number of Multi-player On-line Games (MOGs), players have to use text commands to control emotional states of avatars. Some systems have been proposed to implement a real-time automatic system facial expression recognition of players. Such systems can then be used to control avatars emotional states by driving the MOG's \\

Ce Zhan; Wanqing Li; Farzad Safaei; Philip Ogunbona

2007-01-01

176

On-line corrosion monitoring for process plant control  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line corrosion monitoring (OLCM) is finding increasing use as an important monitor and control in the chemical and other process industries, from the inception of a new chemical process through operation of the commercial plant. The important OLCM techniques are reviewed. Examples of using OLCM for process control are given. The techniques used in OLCM include the following: electrical resistance

Bovankovich

1994-01-01

177

Automatically Deriving Structured Knowledge Bases From On-Line Dictionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an automated strategy which exploits on-line dictionaries to construct a richly- structured lexical knowledge base. In particular, we show how the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) can be used to build a directed graph which captures semantic associations between words. The result is a huge and highly interconnected network of words linked by arcs labeled with semantic

William Dolan; Stephen D. Richardson; Lucy Vanderwende

1993-01-01

178

On line production costs monitoring in energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new tool for on line thermal and pumping plant production cost monitoring recently developed in the Energy Management System at the ENEL National Control Centre in Rome, Italy.Instantaneous production and marginal costs are computed at unit level by means of the active power telemeasurements received at NCC from power plants and data about cost curves and

G. Castellano; G. Moreschini; D. Scapeccia; A. Serrani

1997-01-01

179

Children's On-Line Processing of Scrambling in Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in…

Suzuki, Takaaki

2013-01-01

180

An on-line digital autocorrelator for speckle interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interesting centro-symmetric observations which can benefit from speckle interferometry with autocorrelation include accurate measurements of angular diameters of stars and asteroids, and high resolution measurements of close binary stars leading to the precise determinations of their orbital elements and to the possible detection of perturbations from unseen companions in the systems. A description is presented of an on-line digital autocorrelator

P. R. Vokac

1977-01-01

181

On-Line Services in Medicine and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development and operation of MEDLINE which was initiated by the National Library of Medicine in 1971. This is the first generally accessible, on-line, national and international information retrieval service, and allows almost instantaneous searching of over 400,000 citations from the world's biomedical serial literature. (JR)

McCarn, Davis B.; Leiter, Joseph

1973-01-01

182

Students' Off-Line and On-Line Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the knowledge construction processes of novice programmers using parentheses and quotes in hypermedia; identifies characteristics of successful and unsuccessful students working off- and on-line. The strategies of perceptual matching and computer feedback were used in both settings to interpret of the information presented. (Author/AEF)

Davis, Elizabeth A.; And Others

1995-01-01

183

Modeling On-Line Art Auction Dynamics Using Functional Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the price dynamics of on-line art auc- tions of modern Indian art using functional data analysis. The purpose here is not just to understand what determines the final prices of art objects, but also the price movement during the entire auction. We identify several factors, such as artist characteristics (established or emerging artist; prior sales

Srinivas K. Reddy; Mayukh Dass

184

The On-Line Audit Revisited: Yale University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yale University's on-line examination of accounting and administrative systems is discussed. Program goals are to review financial management systems at the university to identify weaknesses in internal controls, and to fulfill all audit requirements of federal grants and contracts. After outlining the quarterly audit cycle, advantages of the…

Weldon, Albert R., Jr.; And Others

1984-01-01

185

On-line mass storage system functional design document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional system definition for an on-line high density magnetic tape data storage system is provided. This system can be implemented in a multi-purpose, multi-host environment, and satisfy the requirements of economical data storage in the range of 2 to 50 billion bytes.

Earnest, D.

1975-01-01

186

On-line single-particle analysis of multicomponent aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the properties of atmospheric aerosols is crucial to solving problems related to climate and human health. Conventionally. an aerosol sample is collected prior to chemical analysis. Possible contamination and chemical reactions during the collection and preparation processes may lead to inaccurate results from actually how the aerosol particles exist in the atmosphere. An on- line technique (Rapid Single-particle Mass

Zhaozhu Ge

1998-01-01

187

An optimal algorithm for preemptive on-line scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of on-line scheduling jobs on m identical parallel machines where preemption is allowed. The goal is to minimize the makespan. We derive an approximation algorithm with worst-case guarantee mm\\/(mm ? (m ? 1)m) for every m ? 2, which increasingly tends to e\\/(e ? 1) ? 1.58 as m ? ?. Moreover, we prove that for

Bo Chen; André van Vliet; Gerhard J. Woeginger

1995-01-01

188

On-line monitoring of plan execution: A distributed approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces and formalizes a distributed ap- proach for the model-based monitoring of the execution of a plan, where concurrent actions are carried on by a team of mobile robots in a partially observable environment. Each robot is monitored on-line by an agent that has the task of tracking all the possible evol utions both under nominal and faulty

Roberto Micalizio; Pietro Torasso

2007-01-01

189

A User-Oriented on-Line Data System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on-line programming system for use by non-programmers is described. The system is designed for information retrieval from form oriented files, information processing, and display. Actual use of the system is described and user comments are included. (A...

J. M. Alderige D. M. LaMar F. R. Matel S. M. Stratakos R. G. Wiley

1967-01-01

190

On-line measurement of heat of combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate

S. K. Chaturvedi; H. Chegini

1988-01-01

191

Optimal On-Line Walking Pattern Generation for Biped Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 2D walking pattern generation method is proposed for biped robots in this paper. The key feature of the proposed method is to obtain an optimal walking pattern on-line with the largest stability in the sense of zero moment point (ZMP) subject to the constraints of torque and velocity of the joint actuators. With the aids of a 3-link

Hao Chen; Shuwen Pan; Rong Xiong; Jun Wu

2010-01-01

192

Characterization of 12CaO x 7Al2O3 doped indium tin oxide films for transparent cathode in top-emission organic light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

12CaO x 7Al2O3, insulator (C12A7) doped indium tin oxide (ITO) (ITO:C12A7) films were fabricated using a radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering system with ITO and C12A7 targets. The qualitative and quantitative properties of ITO:C12A7 films, as a function of C12A7 concentration, were examined via X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray scattering as well as by conducting atomic force microscopy. The work function of ITO:C12A7 (1.3%) films of approximately 2.8 eV obtained by high resolution photoemission spectroscopy measurements make them a reasonable cathode for top-emission organic light-emitting diodes. PMID:24245291

Jung, Chul Ho; Hwang, In Rok; Park, Bae Ho; Yoon, Dae Ho

2013-11-01

193

On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For intermediate and high risk prostate cancer, both the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are included in the clinical target volume. Internal motion patterns of these two organs vary, presenting a challenge for adaptive treatment. Adaptive techniques such as isocenter repositioning and soft tissue alignment are effective when tumor volumes only exhibit translational shift, while direct re-optimization of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan maybe more desirable when extreme deformation or differential positioning changes of the organs occur. Currently, direct re-optimization of the IMRT plan using beamlet (or fluence map) has not been reported. In this study, we report a novel on-line re-optimization technique that can accomplish plan adjustment on-line. Deformable image registration is used to provide position variation information on each voxel along the three dimensions. The original planned dose distribution is used as the 'goal' dose distribution for adaptation and to ensure planning quality. Fluence maps are re-optimized via linear programming, and a plan solution can be achieved within 2 min. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated with a clinical case with large deformation. Such on-line ART process can be highly valuable with hypo-fractionated prostate IMRT treatment. Abstract and preliminary data presented at 49th AAPM Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA, July 2007.

Wu, Q. Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang, Zhiheng; Mathayomchan, Boonyanit; Chankong, Vira; Yoo, Sua; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang

2008-02-01

194

On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy.  

PubMed

For intermediate and high risk prostate cancer, both the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are included in the clinical target volume. Internal motion patterns of these two organs vary, presenting a challenge for adaptive treatment. Adaptive techniques such as isocenter repositioning and soft tissue alignment are effective when tumor volumes only exhibit translational shift, while direct re-optimization of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan maybe more desirable when extreme deformation or differential positioning changes of the organs occur. Currently, direct re-optimization of the IMRT plan using beamlet (or fluence map) has not been reported. In this study, we report a novel on-line re-optimization technique that can accomplish plan adjustment on-line. Deformable image registration is used to provide position variation information on each voxel along the three dimensions. The original planned dose distribution is used as the 'goal' dose distribution for adaptation and to ensure planning quality. Fluence maps are re-optimized via linear programming, and a plan solution can be achieved within 2 min. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated with a clinical case with large deformation. Such on-line ART process can be highly valuable with hypo-fractionated prostate IMRT treatment. PMID:18199909

Wu, Q Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang, Zhiheng; Mathayomchan, Boonyanit; Chankong, Vira; Yoo, Sua; Lee, W Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang

2008-02-01

195

Thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of 12CaO?7Al2O3 electride with a cage structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (?) of electron-doped light-metal oxide 12CaO?7Al2O3 (C12A7 electride) with a subnanometer-sized cage structure are reported on single crystals with various electron concentrations (Ne) . The semiconducting C12A7 electride exhibits n -type conduction with the highest ? value of -100?VK-1 at 300 K. The ? exhibits an amorphouslike T2 dependence at low temperatures and varies between 2.3 and 4.5Wm-1K-1 at 300 K. This is an order-of-magnitude lower than that of the constituents, CaO (15Wm-1K-1) and Al2O3 (30Wm-1K-1) . These properties are attributed to the cage structure, suggesting that the semiconducting electride should be regarded as a phonon glass and electron crystal material. The thermoelectric performance of electrides evaluated by a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) shows an optimized value of 2×10-3 at 300 K for the semiconducting electride with Ne of 5×1020cm-3 .

Kim, Sung Wng; Tarumi, Ryuichi; Iwasaki, Hideo; Ohta, Hiromichi; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

2009-08-01

196

First-principles calculations of water-based surfactant-assisted growth of polar CaO(111) oxide film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite many attempts to grow rocksalt (111) oxide surfaces, the growth of an atomically flat polar oxide film with an arbitrary thickness still remains challenging because of surface roughening during the growth process, such as faceting into neutral 100surface planes. This seemingly unavoidable behavior leads to a grainy morphology and diminished functionality. Here, we present a first-principles investigation of the surfactant-assisted growth of polar CaO(111) film in the presence of a water-based surfactant, both from thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. We show that water molecules not only supply a surfactant by depositing hydrogen on the surface throughout the growth process, but also supply oxygen atoms as an elemental constituent in the film growth, i.e. water oxygen atoms are easily inserted into the top surface layer of the growing film. We suggest that adding water surfactants to conventional synthesis techniques leads to the continuous presence of hydrogen atoms in the surface region during the growth process, which efficiently quenches polarity and dynamically stabilizes the growth of the polar surface, and thus facilitates the growth of defect-free CaO(111) films with arbitrary thickness.

Tan, Xin; Zapol, Peter

2013-03-01

197

Calorimetric determination of energetics of solid solutions of UO 2+ x with CaO and Y 2O 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative study of thermodynamic properties of solid solutions of UO 2+ x with divalent and trivalent oxides is important for predicting the behavior of oxide fuel. Although early literature work measured vapor pressure in some of these solid solutions, direct calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of formation have been hampered by the refractory nature of such oxides. First measurements of the enthalpies of formation in the systems UO 2+ x-CaO and UO 2+ x-YO 1.5, obtained by high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry, are reported. Both systems show significantly negative (exothermic) heats of formation from binary oxides (UO 2, plus O 2 and CaO or YO 1.5, as well as from UO 2 plus UO 3 and CaO or YO 1.5), consistent with reported free energy measurements in the urania-yttria system. The energetic contributions of oxygen content (oxidation of U 4+) and of charge balanced ionic substitution as well as defect clustering are discussed. Behavior of urania-yttria is compared to that of corresponding systems in which the tetravalent ion is Ce, Zr, or Hf. The substantial additional stability in the solid solutions compared to pure UO 2+ x may retard, in both thermodynamic and kinetic sense, the oxidation and leaching of spent fuel to form aqueous U 6+ and solid uranyl phases.

Mazeina, Lena; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Greenblatt, Martha

2008-02-01

198

Generation of hydrogen from polyvinyl chloride by milling and heating with CaO and Ni(OH)2.  

PubMed

This work discusses an alternative process option for the treatment of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by producing hydrogen (H(2)) gas, at the same time fixing chlorine for proper environmental control. In the first-stage, a milling operation is performed in a planetary ball mill to obtain a mixture of PVC sample with CaO and Ni(OH)(2) to be used as feed in the second-step, involving heating of the milled product. Analyses by thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) showed H(2), CH(4), CO and CO(2) as main constituents. The results clearly show that addition of Ni(OH)(2) to provide nickel as catalyst and CaO as adsorbent to fix CO(2) and HCl gases generated during heating, assisted in clean H(2) generation with concentration near 90% at temperatures between 450 and 550 degrees C. Analyses of solids after heating by X-ray diffraction and TG-DTA techniques showed both CaOHCl and CaCO(3) as main phases in the product. This process could be developed to treat PVC wastes together with other polymers and/or plastic wastes for production of H(2) gas. PMID:19231073

Tongamp, William; Zhang, Qiwu; Shoko, Miyagi; Saito, Fumio

2009-08-15

199

Charge competition with oxygen molecules determines the growth of gold particles on doped CaO films.  

PubMed

The influence of gas-phase oxygen on the growth of Au nanoparticles on Mo-doped CaO films has been investigated by means of low temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Whereas at ideal vacuum conditions, only 2D Au islands develop on the oxide surface, the fraction of 3D deposits increases with increasing O2 pressure until they become the dominant species in 106 mbar oxygen. The morphology crossover arises from changes in the interfacial electron flow between Mo donors in the CaO lattice and different ad-species on the oxide surface. In the absence of 02 molecules, the donor electrons are predominately transferred to the Au ad-atoms, which consequently experience enhanced binding to the oxide surface and agglomerate into 2D islands. In an oxygen atmosphere, on the other hand, a substantial fraction of the excess electrons is trapped by adsorbed O2 molecules, while the Au atoms remain neutral and assemble into tall 3D particles that are typical for non-doped oxides. Our experiments demonstrate how the competition for charge between different adsorbates governs the physical and chemical properties of doped oxides, so widely used in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:24015581

Cui, Yi; Huang, Kai; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

2013-01-01

200

Astronomy On-Line Programme Enters "hot Week"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World's Biggest Astronomy WWW-Event Attracts Thousands of Students The Astronomy On-line Programme (See ESO Press Release 09/96 of 18 June 1996) began officially on 1 October and is now about to enter its most intense phase, known as the Hot Week . On 18 - 22 November, an estimated 4000 astronomy-interested, mostly young people in Europe and on four other continents will get together during five days in what - not unexpected - has become the world's biggest astronomy event ever organised on the World Wide Web. This carefully structured Programme is carried out in collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the European Southern Observatory and the European Commission, under the auspices of the Fourth European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. The Programme has already had a most visible impact on the school education of natural sciences in various countries; for instance, the Internet-connection of schools has been advanced in some, in order to allow groups to participate. There have been numerous contacts among the groups across the borders and there are clear signs that many Astronomy On-line participants have progressed to use the impressive possibilities of the Web in an efficient and structured way. There has been a lively media interest in Astronomy On-line all over Europe and it is expected to increase during the next week. The current status of Astronomy On-line It is obvious that the pilot function of the Astronomy On-line Programme in the use of the Web has been very effective and that the associated dissemination of astronomical knowledge has been successful. At this time, more than 650 groups have registered with Astronomy On-line. Most come from 31 different European countries and a few dozen groups are located in North and South America as well as in Asia and Australia. Together they have experienced the steady build-up of Astronomy On-line over the past weeks, by means of numerous contributions from a large number of teachers, amateur astronomers and others interested in this field of science. The Astronomy On-line concept is that of a well-structured marketplace with a number of different shops which cater to the participants with a great variety of interesting and educational activities. These range from the availability of useful links to educational and scientific Web sites all around the world, collaborative projects where many participants in different countries work together to achieve an astronomical result and, not the least, the possibility to submit observing programmes to a dozen telescopes at 10 major observatories, including La Silla in Chile. In the early phases of Astronomy On-line , coordinated observations were performed of a lunar eclipse on 27 September and a partial solar eclipse on 12 October. Both events attracted many hundreds of observers from groups in almost all European countries and provisional reports have already been published on the Web. Many beautiful photographs and interesting reports about the activities of the individual groups are also available at their special Web sites. The Hot Week will last from Monday to Friday, 18-22 November and the time interval from 15:00-21:00 UT (16:00 - 22:00 Central European Time) will be the busiest. During this period, a variety of activities will take place. For instance, the groups will have the opportunity to contact professional astronomers at many observatories. They will also be invited to follow the other developments, e.g. the astronomical observations. The resulting images will immediately be made available on the Web. There will also be a Final Event involving all the groups. How to obtain more information about Astronomy On-line Astronomy On-line may be accessed through: http://www.eso.org/astronomyonline/ and http://www.algonet.se/~sirius/eaae.htm. National Astronomy On-line Committees have been established in many European countries. They have set up National Astronomy On-line Web-sites which can be reached directly from the sites indicated above. Information about the indivi

1996-11-01

201

On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking  

SciTech Connect

The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

1990-01-01

202

On-line metrology with conoscopic holography: beyond triangulation.  

PubMed

On-line non-contact surface inspection with high precision is still an open problem. Laser triangulation techniques are the most common solution for this kind of systems, but there exist fundamental limitations to their applicability when high precisions, long standoffs or large apertures are needed, and when there are difficult operating conditions. Other methods are, in general, not applicable in hostile environments or inadequate for on-line measurement. In this paper we review the latest research in Conoscopic Holography, an interferometric technique that has been applied successfully in this kind of applications, ranging from submicrometric roughness measurements, to long standoff sensors for surface defect detection in steel at high temperatures. PMID:22399984

Alvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, Jose M; Frade, María; Marina, Jorge; Ojea, Guillermo

2009-01-01

203

Quick ECG Analysis for On-Line Holter Monitoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided bedside patient monitoring requires real-time analysis of vital functions. On-line Holter monitors need reliable and quick algorithms to perform all the necessary signal processing tasks. This paper presents the methods that were conceptualized and implemented at the development of such a monitoring system at Medical Clinic No. 4 of Targu-Mures. The system performs the following ECG signal processing steps:

László Szilágyi; Sándor M. Szilágyi; G. Fordos; Zoltán Benyó

2006-01-01

204

On-line semi-supervised multiple-instance boosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent dominating trend in tracking called tracking-by-detection uses on-line classifiers in order to redetect objects over succeeding frames. Although these methods usually deliver excellent results and run in real-time they also tend to drift in case of wrong updates during the self-learning process. Recent approaches tackled this problem by formulating tracking-by-detection as either one-shot semi-supervised learning or multiple instance

Bernhard Zeisl; Christian Leistner; Amir Saffari; Horst Bischof

2010-01-01

205

On-line signal processing using J-DSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Java-DSP (J-DSP) on-line laboratory software has been developed from the ground up at Arizona State University to support the computer lab portion of the senior-level DSP course. J-DSP provides capabilities for web-based DSP simulations that can be run using a PC with a Java-enabled browser. J-DSP is accompanied by exercises that actively engage students in several concepts including Z-transforms,

Andreas Spanias; Venkatraman Atti; Antonia Papandreou-Suppappola; Khawza Ahmed; Moushumi Zaman; Thrassos Thrasyvoulou

2004-01-01

206

A reactor core on-line monitoring program - COMP  

SciTech Connect

A program named COMP is developed for on-line monitoring PWRs' in-core power distribution in this paper. Harmonics expansion method is used in COMP. The Unit 1 reactor of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (Daya Bay NPP) in China is considered for verification. The numerical results show that the maximum relative error between measurement and reconstruction results from COMP is less than 5%, and the computing time is short, indicating that COMP is capable for online monitoring PWRs. (authors)

Wang, C. [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing, 100029 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Building 1, Compound No.29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100029 (China); Wu, H.; Cao, L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)

2012-07-01

207

On-line Simulation and Traffic Forecast: Applications and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an approach to forecast vehicular traffic using a micro-simulator. In order to provide network-wide in- formation about the current traffic state a cellular automa- ton traffic flow model is combined with measured data. The framework is applied to the freeway network of North Rhine-Westphalia, where data from about 3,500 loop detec- tors are available and provided on-line minute

Roland Chrobok; Andreas Pottmeier; Sigurður F. Marinósson; Michael Schreckenberg

2002-01-01

208

COCA: A Secure Distributed On-line Certification Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract COCA is a fault-tolerant and secure on-line certification authority that has been built and deployed both in a local area network and in the Internet. Extremely weak assumptions characterize environments in which COCA’s protocols execute correctly: no assumption is made about execution speed and message delivery delays; channels are expected to exhibit only inter- mittent reliability; and with 3t

Lidong Zhou; Fred B. Schneider; Robbert van Renesse

2000-01-01

209

On-Line Simulation of Block-Diagram Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a general approach to the on-line simulation of block-diagram systems. These systems may be analog, digital, or hybrid; memory or memoryless; explicit or implicit (i.e., possessing loops of memoryless elements); vector or scalar; or of a more specialized nature, such as dynamic systems with integrators as memory elements; and simulation may be conducted in one

M. L. Dertouzos; M. E. Kaliski; K. P. Polzen

1969-01-01

210

On-line kinematics reasoning for reconfigurable robot drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system for a mobile robot typically assumes fixed kinematics according to the drive’s geometry and functionality. Faults in the system, for example a blocked steering actuator, will then lead to an undesired behaviour, unless one takes care of specific single and\\/or multiple faults explicitly. We present a novel model-programmed procedure for on-line kinematics reasoning that allows a robot

Michael W. Hofbaur; Mathias Brandstötter; Cchristoph Schorghuber; Gerald Steinbauer

2010-01-01

211

Electrochemistry combined on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a variety of methods to couple electrochemistry on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (EC/ES-MS) are presented, and the fundamental and analytical utility of this hybrid technique is illustrated. The major problems encountered in coupling EC and ES-MS are discussed, and means to overcome them are presented. Three types of electrochemical flow cells, viz., a thin-layer electrode flow-by cell, a tubular electrode flow-through cell, and a porous electrode flow-through cell, are discussed in regard to their suitability for this coupling. Methods for coupling each of these electrochemical cells on-line with ES-MS, either floated at or decoupled from the ES high voltage and controlled by a constant current supply, a constant potential supply, or a potentiostat are presented. Three applications are used to illustrate the utility and versatility of the EC/ES-MS combination: (1) the ionization of neutral analytes (i.e., perylene) for detection by ES-MS, (2) the study of the products of electrode reactions (i.e., nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin oxidation products), including relatively short-lived products (i.e., {Beta}-carotene oxidation products), and (3) the enhanced determination of metals (i.e., elemental silver) achieved by coupling anodic stripping voltammetry on-line with ES-MS. 52 refs., 6 figs.

Zhou, F.; Berkel, G.J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-10-15

212

Problem formulation, metrics, open government, and on-line collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem formulation leading to effective environmental management, including synthesis and application of science by government agencies, may benefit from collaborative on-line environments. This is illustrated by two interconnected projects: 1) literature-based evidence tools that support causal assessment and problem formulation, and 2) development of output, outcome, and sustainability metrics for tracking environmental conditions. Specifically, peer-production mechanisms allow for global contribution to science-based causal evidence databases, and subsequent crowd-sourced development of causal networks supported by that evidence. In turn, science-based causal networks may inform problem formulation and selection of metrics or indicators to track environmental condition (or problem status). Selecting and developing metrics in a collaborative on-line environment may improve stakeholder buy-in, the explicit relevance of metrics to planning, and the ability to approach problem apportionment or accountability, and to define success or sustainability. Challenges include contribution governance, data-sharing incentives, linking on-line interfaces to data service providers, and the intersection of environmental science and social science. Degree of framework access and confidentiality may vary by group and/or individual, but may ultimately be geared at demonstrating connections between science and decision making and supporting a culture of open government, by fostering transparency, public engagement, and collaboration.

Ziegler, C. R.; Schofield, K.; Young, S.; Shaw, D.

2010-12-01

213

Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis  

SciTech Connect

This was a four-year grant that was given a no cost extension for one more year. The purpose of the grant was to develop a pulsed neutron-based technique that could measure on-line all the major and minor elements in coal. Such measurements would allow the continuous monitoring of bulk parameters such as coal heating value (BTU/lb), volatile matter, moisture etc., deemed important to the coal industry. Such parameters, along with the continuous measurement of elements such as sulfur and sodium, are of major economic and environmental concern, and their measurement would assist in a more efficient use of the coal-fired boilers, as well as limiting emissions controlled by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It was hoped that this study would lead to the development of a technique able to create a marketable product, an On-Line Elemental Coal Analyzer. The study was separated in the following major parts: (1) Devise an efficient system for the detection of gamma rays; (2) Prior to experimentation, perform modeling and simulations for items such as detector shielding, coal sample configuration, and neutron tube collimation; (3) Develop a computer code for data reduction and analysis; (4) Measure the elemental composition of various coal samples; and (5) Design a prototype, on-line elemental coal analyzer, based on the PFTNA principle.

NONE

1999-02-01

214

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

SciTech Connect

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on- line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and U.S. coal producers have joined with the University of Utah and to undertake the development of an X-ray CT-based on- line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. Each project participant brought special expertise to the project in order to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Data collected to date suggest that this new technology is capable of serving as a universal analyzer that can not only provide washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis, and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

J.D. Miller; C.L. Lin; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; Barbara Marin

2001-06-26

215

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

SciTech Connect

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

J.D. Miller

1999-09-30

216

Development of an On-Line Coal Washability Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and Cyprus-Amax Coal Company have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project will involve development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from three coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

C. L. Lin; G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel; Jan D. Miller.

1998-03-31

217

Development of an On-Line Coal Washability Analyzer.  

SciTech Connect

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and Cyprus-Amax Coal Company have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of an x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project will involve development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from three coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

Miller, Jan D.

1997-09-03

218

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

SciTech Connect

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

C.L. LIN; G.H. LUTTRELL; G.T. ADEL; JAN D. MILLER

1998-03-31

219

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER  

SciTech Connect

Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

C.L. Lin; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; Jan D. Miller

1999-03-31

220

Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.  

PubMed

The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour. PMID:11371287

Zimitat, Craig

2001-03-01

221

The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database.  

PubMed

The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database (FCDB) was launched on http://www.czfcdb.cz in December 2010 as a main freely available channel for dissemination of Czech food composition data. The application is based on a complied FCDB documented according to the EuroFIR standardised procedure for full value documentation and indexing of foods by the LanguaL™ Thesaurus. A content management system was implemented for administration of the website and performing data export (comma-separated values or EuroFIR XML transport package formats) by a compiler. Reference/s are provided for each published value with linking to available freely accessible on-line sources of data (e.g. full texts, EuroFIR Document Repository, on-line national FCDBs). LanguaL™ codes are displayed within each food record as searchable keywords of the database. A photo (or a photo gallery) is used as a visual descriptor of a food item. The application is searchable on foods, components, food groups, alphabet and a multi-field advanced search. PMID:23601403

Machackova, Marie; Holasova, Marie; Maskova, Eva

2013-10-01

222

Solution of MgO, CaO, and TiO[sub 2] in [alpha]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3  

SciTech Connect

Atomistic simulation methods are used to predict the preferred solution mechanisms and their associated energies. Both full- and partial-charge models are discussed. It was found that defect clustering always results in a significant lowering of the solution energies but does not change the preferred solution reaction of any of the oxides. The large size of the Ca[sup 2+] ion results not only in a higher solution energy (lower solubility) for CaO compared to MgO but also to a different preferred compensation mechanism. The predicted energy for the cosolution of MgO and TiO[sub 2] is dramatically smaller than for either oxide separately. Conversely, whereas solution of TiO[sub 2] aids the solution of CaO, additions of CaO do not support TiO[sub 2] solution.

Grimes, R.W. (Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (United Kingdom). Davy Faraday Research Lab.)

1994-02-01

223

The rates of desulfurization of liquid iron by solid CaO and CaO-saturated liquid iron oxide at 1600‡c  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of desulfurization of Fe-O-S melts by CaO crucibles and by CaO-saturated liquid iron oxide have been measured at\\u000a 1600 ‡C. It was found that irons containing 1.62 wt pct and 0.64 wt pct sulfur and 0.070 wt pct oxygen are desulfurized by\\u000a a reaction with the containing CaO crucible which does not involve the formation of a CaS

A. Saelim; D. R. Gaskell

1983-01-01

224

Efficient on-line setup correction strategies using plan-intent functions  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) delivery systems on-line set-up correction strategies have gained in popularity. Usually, the correction workload of these strategies is high compared to off-line strategies as daily setup corrections have to be performed based on a predefined action level. In this work, it is proposed that on-line strategies must not only be judged in terms of workload but also in terms of efficacy. While workload can be easily predicted for such strategies, the efficacy must ultimately reflect the efficiency with which the original treatment plan intent is met. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tradeoff between workload and efficacy of three different on-line set-up correction strategies: The common fixed action level strategy and two novel on-line setup correction strategies, i.e., a dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraint and an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) score strategy that aim directly for better compliance with original treatment plan intent. All strategies were reformulated in terms of a score function that reflected treatment plan intent. A retrospective study was conducted on 5 prostate patients (7-field conformal, 79.8 Gy, 42 fractions). PTV margins were 10 mm except in the posterior direction (7 mm). The original treatment plan intent for these patients was defined using a set of DVH constraints. The results show that the on-line setup correction strategy based on a fixed action level of 3 mm resulted in a considerable correction workload. For larger action levels, a dose benefit (in terms of EUD) in the rectum and bladder was observed for all patients which is clinically ''fortuitous'' but difficult to take advantage of. In contrast, the application of the two novel strategies generally resulted in a controlled decrease of the dose to the rectum and the bladder with a smaller workload. It is concluded that using information about target anatomy and the planned dose distribution allows the design of specific correction strategies that are better tailored to the individual patient and that comply effectively with initial treatment plan intent.

Keller, Harry; Jaffray, David A.; Rosewall, Tara; White, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

2006-05-15

225

Key-linked on-line databases for clinical research.  

PubMed

Separating patient identification data from clinical data and/or information about biomaterial samples is an effective data protection measure, especially in clinical research employing "on-line", i.e., web-based, data capture. In this paper, we show that this specialised technique can be generalised into a network architecture of interconnected on-line databases potentially serving a variety of purposes. The basic idea of this approach consists of maintaining logical links, i.e., common record keys, between corresponding data structures in pairs of databases while keeping the actual key values hidden from clients. For client systems, simultaneous access to corresponding records is mediated by temporary access tokens. At the relational level, these links are represented by arbitrary unique record keys common to both databases. This architecture allows for integration of related data in different databases without replicating or permanently sharing this data in one place. Each participating on-line database can determine the degree of integration by specifying linkage keys only for those data structures that may be logically connected to other data. Logical links can de designed for specific use cases. In addition, each database controls user access by enforcing its own authorisation scheme. Another advantage is that individual database owners retain considerable leeway in adapting to changing local requirements without compromising the integration into the network. Beyond protecting individual subject identification data, this architecture permits splitting a cooperatively used data pool to achieve many kinds of objectives. Application examples could be clinical registries needing subject contact information for follow-up, biomaterial banks with or without genetic information, and automatic or assisted integration of data from electronic medical records into research data. PMID:22874246

Müller, Thomas H

2012-01-01

226

Mechanisms of oxygen ion diffusion in a nanoporous complex oxide 12CaO•7 Al2 O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a theoretical analysis of O2- diffusion mechanisms in a nanoporous complex oxide 12CaO•7Al2O3 (C12A7). This material can be viewed as a positively charged framework, arranged in subnanometer sized cages, hosting extra-framework O2- ions occupying one in six cages. Using both classical molecular-dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations we demonstrate that the diffusion of O2- species is dominated by the exchange of framework and extra-framework O2- ions rather than by an interstitial diffusion mechanism. The results allow us to rationalize the origins of the experimentally observed high oxide ion conductivity of C12A7 and the stability of its lattice under positive ion-beam irradiation.

Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Hayashi, Katsuro; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

2006-01-01

227

Growth of shaped 12CaO×7Al 2O 3 crystals by the micro-pulling down method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12CaO×7Al 2O 3 (C12A7) single crystals have been successfully grown by the micro-pulling down method for the first time. Single and transparent C12A7 crystal was obtained with radio-frequency heating ?-PD system. Phase stability is discussed as a function of oxygen concentration in the growth atmosphere. A minimum 1.0 Vol% O 2 with nitrogen atmosphere yields C12A7 phase. The distribution of Ca, Al and O elements at cross-section part was investigated by the electron probe microanalysis. The crystal composition deviation could be controlled by reducing O 2 gas concentration to 1.0 Vol%.

Liu, Lijuan; Kagamitani, Yuji; Ehrentraut, Dirk; Yokoyama, Chiaki; Fukuda, Tsuguo

2009-01-01

228

High electron doping to a wide band gap semiconductor 12CaO.7Al2O3 thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-density electrons (~1.9×1021 cm-3) were doped into a polycrystalline film of a wide band gap (~7 eV) semiconductor 12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7) by an in situ postdeposition reduction treatment using an oxygen-deficient C12A7 overlayer. The resultant film exhibits metallic conduction with a Hall mobility of ~2.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a conductivity of ~800 S cm-1. Optical analyses indicate that most of the doped electrons behave as free carriers with an effective mass of 0.82me and the estimated in-grain mobility is 5.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, which agrees reasonably with the value obtained for high-quality single crystals.

Miyakawa, Masashi; Hirano, Masahiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

2007-04-01

229

Periodic Hartree-Fock study of B1 ? B2 reactions: phase transition in CaO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic Hartree-Fock method has been used to sample the potential energy hypersurface of CaO to determine a collective reaction pathway between the low-pressure (NaCl) and high-pressure (CsCl) phases. The predicted transition pressure, 68 GPa, is in good agreement with both experimental data and previous theoretical studies. At low pressure the enthalpy ( E + PV) surface presents only one minimum corresponding to the B1 (NaCl) structure. A second minimum appears at the B2 (CsCl) geometry when the pressure is increased. The transformation kinetics is estimated using the Johnson-Mehl model coupled to random nucleation and interface-controlled growth. Independently of the interfacial energy, the kinetics is highly pressure dependent. A pressure hysteresis loop is predicted. The results presented are in qualitative agreement with available data.

D'Arco, Philippe; Jolly, Luc-Henri; Silvi, Bernard

1992-08-01

230

An on-line reference-trajectory generator for smooth motion of impulse-controlled industrial manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial manipulators driven by impulse-controlled servo motors commonly follow prescribed reference-trajectories which enable smooth movements (no discontinuity in acceleration profile). On-line generation of such smooth trajectories as a consequence of new target-settings during the motion, however, still suffers from the high computational effort for calculating an optimum solution, as far as the maximum limiting values of velocity, acceleration and jerk

Steven Liu

2002-01-01

231

On-line heat flux measurements improve the culture medium for the growth and productivity of genetically engineered CHO cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasingly competitive commercial production of target proteins by hybridoma and genetically engineered cells,\\u000a there is an urgent requirement for biosensors to monitor and control on-line and in real time the growth of cultured cells.\\u000a Since growth is accompanied by an enthalpy change, heat dissipation measured by calorimetry could act as an index for metabolic\\u000a flow rate. Recombinant CHO

Yue H. Guan; Richard B. Kemp

1999-01-01

232

Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

1987-12-10

233

On-line corrosion monitoring for process plant control  

SciTech Connect

On-line corrosion monitoring (OLCM) is finding increasing use as an important monitor and control in the chemical and other process industries, from the inception of a new chemical process through operation of the commercial plant. The important OLCM techniques are reviewed. Examples of using OLCM for process control are given. The techniques used in OLCM include the following: electrical resistance (ER); linear polarization resistance (LPR); corrosion potential (E[sub corr]); electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); zero-resistance ammetry (ZRA); and electrochemical noise measurement (ENM).

Bovankovich, J.C. (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States))

1994-11-01

234

Framework on an On-Line Regulations Expert Permit Server  

SciTech Connect

This is a cooperative project between the Oil and Gas Compact Commission (OIGCC) and the oil and gas industry to use computerized communication technology as a means of providing information from state agencies. A major effort is the development of a framework for an on-line regulatory compliance and permit server system. Other aspects included provide feedback to state regulatory agencies with recommendations suggesting where procedures or regulations could be simplified or streamlined, identifying overlapping regulations, and surveying the needs of the IOGCC states in the area of emerging issues where sharing of regulatory procedures among the states might be useful.

Christine Hansen

1997-12-31

235

Change from conventional haemodiafiltration to on-line haemodiafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

urea rebound ) 1.12±0.17 vs 1.26±0.20 (P <0.01), BUN time average concentration ( TAC ) 44.4±9 vs Background. On-line haemodiafiltration (HDF ) is a technique which combines diVusion with elevated con- 40.6±10 mg\\/dl (P <0.05) and protein catabolic rate (PCR) 1.13±0.22 vs 1.13±0.24 g\\/kg (NS). There was vection and uses pyrogen-free dialysate as a replace- ment fluid. The purpose of

Francisco Maduell; Carlos del Pozo; Hector Garcia; Laura Sanchez; Julio Hdez-Jaras; Maria D. Albero; Consuelo Calvo; Isidro Torregrosa; Victor Navarro

236

On-line learning and generalization in coupled perceptrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study supervised learning and generalization in coupled perceptrons trained on-line using two learning scenarios. In the first scenario the teacher and the student are independent networks and both are represented by an Ashkin-Teller perceptron. In the second scenario the student and the teacher are simple perceptrons but are coupled by an Ashkin-Teller-type four-neuron interaction term. Expressions for the generalization error and the learning curves are derived for various learning algorithms. The analytical results find excellent confirmation in numerical simulations.

Bollé, D.; Kozlowski, P.

2002-03-01

237

GOLD⢠Genomes OnLine Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free for academic and non-commercial use, the Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) is an internet "resource for comprehensive access to information regarding complete and ongoing genome projects around the world. GOLD provides the largest available and most detailed monitoring of genome sequencing projects." This recently updated database presently contains 173 Published Complete Genomes (including 4 chromosomes, 445 Prokaryotic Ongoing Genomes, and 384 Eukaryotic Ongoing Genomes (including 8 chromosomes). The GOLD search engine allows users to search by Domain, Status, Institution, Phylogeny, and more. This site also contains GOLD-specific Links, related Other Links, and links to References, Statistics, and GOLD News.

238

Dry mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatites from DCPD and CaO: influence of instrumental parameters on the reaction kinetics.  

PubMed

Mechanochemistry is a possible route to synthesize calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) with an expected molar calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) ratio +/-0.01. To optimize the experimental conditions of CDHA preparation from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium oxide by dry mechanosynthesis reaction, we performed the kinetic study varying some experimental parameters. This kinetic study was carried out with two different planetary ball mills (Retsch or Fritsch Instuments). Results obtained with the two mills led to the same conclusions although the values of the rate constants of DCPD disappearance and times for complete reaction were very different. Certainly, the origin of these differences was from the mills used, thus we investigated the influence of instrumental parameters such as the mass and the surface area of the balls or the rotation velocity on the mechanochemical reaction kinetics of DCPD with CaO. Results show that the DCPD reaction rate constant and the inverse of the time for complete disappearance of CaO both vary linearly with (i) the square of the rotation velocity, (ii) the square of eccentricity of the vial on the rotating disc and (iii) the product of the mass by the surface area of the balls. These observations comply with theoretical models developed for mechanical alloying. The consideration of these four parameters allows the transposition of experimental conditions from one mill to another or the comparison between results obtained with different planetary ball mills. These instrumental parameters have to be well described in papers concerning mechanochemistry or when grinding is an important stage in a process. PMID:14643588

Mochales, Carolina; El Briak-BenAbdeslam, Hassane; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Terol, Alain; Planell, Josep A; Boudeville, Philippe

2004-01-01

239

Uranium determination on-line using remote fiber fluorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote Fiber Fluorimetry (RFF) is being developed at Savannah River Laboratory for the on-line determination of uranium in plant process streams. A prototype system suitable for plant use has been designed and is being built. RFF has four major components: a laser, an optical fiber, an optrode, and a detector. Essentially, an optical fiber carries laser radiation from a laser to a process sampling point. An optrode (the optical analog of an electrode) couples the laser light into a sample solution. Fluorescence from the sample is collected by the optrode and goes back through the same fiber to a detector. Using an RFF system, the analysis can be made both simply and safely. The laser and detector are placed at a convenient remote location, such as the control room. Optical fibers run from the laser to either the sample aisle or process tanks. Multiplexing makes it possible to analyze several different sampling positions with one laser and detector. The incentives for demonstrating this technology include reduced analysis time and decreased sample load for the laboratory. Since RFF is a remote on-line technique, sample handling is avoided. Analysis time is five minutes (versus the four-hour minimum needed now), and the control laboratory has a decreased sample load. Finally, RFF could easily be incorporated into a large-scale process control system.

Malstrom, R. A.

240

Pulsed Neurton Elemental On-Line Material Analyzer  

DOEpatents

An on-line material analyzer which utilizes pulsed neutron generation in order to determine the composition of material flowing through the apparatus. The on-line elemental material analyzer is based on a pulsed neutron generator. The elements in the material interact with the fast and thermal neutrons produced from the pulsed generator. Spectra of gamma-rays produced from fast neutrons interacting with elements of the material are analyzed and stored separately from spectra produced from thermal neutron reactions. Measurements of neutron activation takes place separately from the above reactions and at a distance from the neutron generator. A primary passageway allows the material to flow through at a constant rate of speed and operators to provide data corresponding to fast and thermal neutron reactions. A secondary passageway meters the material to allow for neutron activation analysis. The apparatus also has the capability to determine the density of the flowed material. Finally, the apparatus continually utilizes a neutron detector in order to normalize the yield of the gamma ray detectors and thereby automatically calibrates and adjusts the spectra data for fluctuations in neutron generation.

Vourvopoulos, George (Bowling Green, KY)

2002-08-20

241

Advances in fuel management and on-line core monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF) has developed and implemented advanced core power distribution monitoring methods for BWRs and PWRs based on the three dimensional nodal simulator codes used for incore fuel management design and analysis. The use of these methods has resulted in a more accurate assessment of the core power distribution and corresponding increased operating margins. These increased margins allow for more economical fuel cycle designs. Since the initial application in 1982, ANF has made enhancements to the incore monitoring system. These enhancements have permitted more rapid analysis of local power changes, power distribution projections during ascent to full power and on-line statistical analysis of the incore detector signal. The on-line analysis implemented in BWRs has also been developed for application PWRs. In the future, reactors are expected to operate with longer fuel cycles, more aggressive low radial leakage loadings, load follow and use higher burnup fuel. These advances will require more burnable neutron absorbers and more sophisticated fuel designs. To accommodate these advances, the fuel management methodologies and measurement system will require improvements. The state-of-the-art methods provided by ANF provide incore monitoring systems compatible with these expected needs.

Stout, R.B.; Hansen, L.E.; Patten, T.W.

1988-01-01

242

On-line eddy-current crack monitor: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research work conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute under contract number RP1894-1, Eddy Current On-Line Monitoring for Crack Detection. The project investigated the feasibility of using electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to monitor rotating metallic components of turbine-generators for incipient failures in an on-line mode. Turbine-generator components of particular interest were shafts, tubine discs, and generator retaining rings. Both electromagnetic analysis and laboratory experiments played a part in evaluating eletromagnetic NDE techniques for this application. This research project showed that electromagnetic NDE methods can feasibly detect and image surface-penetrating flaws in metallic objects rotating at the high peripheral speeds found in turbine-generators. A demonstration system using electromagnetic techniques was developed and produced color images in real-time of flaws in rotating laboratory test models. The system was also successfully demonstrated on a growing crack in a rotating shaft. Application of this technique to real turbine-generators will require additional effort. This report concludes with recommendations for adapting the demonstration system for use in a power plant.

Bedrosian, G.; Chari, M.V.K.; Fealey, J.A.; Sober, T.J.

1988-04-01

243

On-line diagnosis of sequential systems, 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formal model is introduced which can serve as the basis for a theoretical investigation of on-line diagnosis. Within this model a fault of a system S is considered to be a transformation of S into another system S prime at some time tau. The resulting faulty system is taken to be the system which looks like S up to time tau and like S prime thereafter. The on-line diagnosis of systems which are structurally decomposed and represented as a network of smaller systems is also investigated. The fault set considered is the set of unrestricted component faults; namely, the set of faults which only affect one component of the network. A characterization of networks which can be diagnosed using a combinational detector is obtained. It is further shown that any network can be made diagnosable in the above sense through the addition of one component. In addition, a lower bound is obtained on the complexity of any component, the addition of which is sufficient to make a particular network combinationally diagnosable.

Sundstrom, R. J.

1975-01-01

244

The ion sources for the GSI on-line separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance and the high-temperature technology of a modular ion source system with long lifetime, comprising a FEBIAD and a thermal ion source is described. Both sources have a variable-temperature and variable-material option for the catcher. The problems with the entrance window of the ion source at high temperature are discussed. The compact design of the FEBIAD source and the effective heat shielding result in a cold-spot temperature of ˜1900°C with 400 W of power input. The intrinsic delay is of the order of 10 ms. The off-line ionization efficiency is 23% for krypton, 48% for xenon and 76% for mercury, the total ion current being less than 10 ?A. The thermoionizer is an electron bombardment heated tungsten body of 0.3 cm 3 volume permitting temperatures up to 2500°C under on-line conditions. The on-line overall efficiencies for a large variety of isotopes is presented for both sources, reaching up to ˜40% within the halflife range from 50 ms to several minutes.

Kirchner, R.; Burkard, K. H.; Hüller, W.; Klepper, O.

245

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR-OXYGEN SPECIES RESULTING FROM THE REACTION OF SO2 WITH CAO AND CACO3  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) has been used to investigate the reaction of SO2 in He with CaO and CaCO3 particles at temperatures between 25 and 900 C. SO2 reacts with CaC at 25 C, while the reaction of Ca-CO3 with SO2 is first evident at 550 C ...

246

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

SciTech Connect

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

2013-12-15

247

Chlorophyll antenna size adjustments by irradiance in Dunaliella salina involve coordinate regulation of chlorophyll a oxygenase ( CAO ) and Lhcb gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the mechanism of irradiance-dependent adjustments in the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis, we addressed the regulation of expression of genes encoding a variety of chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes and that of the Lhcb genes in the model organism Dunaliella salina. Among the chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes tested, only the chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) gene responded to changes in the level

Tatsuru Masuda; Ayumi Tanaka; Anastasios Melis

2003-01-01

248

FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement, an on-line research and education information service  

SciTech Connect

The FEDIX Annual Status Report provides details regarding an on-line information project designed, developed and implemented by Federal Information Exchange, Inc., a diversified information services company. This document details the project design activities, summarizes the developmental phases of the project and describes the implementation activities generated to fulfill the project's objectives. The information contained in this document illustrates FIE's continuing commitment to serve as the link that facilitates the dissemination of federal information to the education community. This report reviews the project accomplishments and describes intended service enhancements.

Rodman, J.A.

1992-01-01

249

Multiresidue herbicide analysis in soil:? subcritical water extraction with an on-line sorbent trap.  

PubMed

We evaluated the feasibility of extracting selectively and rapidly herbicide residues in soils by hot water and collecting analytes with a Carbograph 4 solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge set on-line with the extraction cell. Phenoxy acid herbicides and those nonacidic and acidic herbicides which are often used in combination with phenoxy acids were selected for this study. Five different soil samples were fortified with target compounds at levels of 100 and 10 ng/g (30 ng/g of clopyralid and picloram) by following a procedure able to mimic weathered soils. Herbicides were extracted with water at 90 °C and collected on-line by the SPE cartridge. After the cartridge was disconnected from the extraction apparatus, analytes were recovered by stepwise elution to separate nonacidic herbicides from acidic ones. The two final extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an electrospray ion source. At the lowest spike level considered, analyte recoveries ranged between 81 and 93%, except those for 2,4-DB and MCPB, which were 63%. For 16 herbicides out of 18, the ANOVA test showed recoveries were not dependent on the type of soil. The method detection limit was in the 1.7-10 ng/g range. For the analytes considered, method comparison showed this extraction method was overall more efficient than Soxhlet and sonication extraction techniques. PMID:21662752

Crescenzi, C; D'Ascenzo, G; Di Corcia, A; Nazzari, M; Marchese, S; Samperi, R

1999-06-01

250

Optic ataxia as a deficit specific to the on-line control of actions.  

PubMed

Optic ataxia is characterized by inaccuracies in body movements under visual control, and is a common consequence of damage to the posterior parietal lobes in humans. It is argued here that optic ataxia can be characterized as a deficit in the visual on-line guidance of actions, with action planning remaining relatively intact. This contrasts with the common view of optic ataxia as representing a deficit in the transformations that take place between visual inputs and motor outputs. Evidence in support of the planning-control view comes from the pattern of spared and disrupted behaviors in patients with optic ataxia. It is shown that spared behaviors are those that emphasize planning, whereas disrupted behaviors are those that emphasize control. In particular, recent studies have highlighted the inability of a patient with optic ataxia to make on-line adjustments to targets that change position during the movement. Taken in sum, the data from patients with optic ataxia is more consistent with the planning-control interpretation of optic ataxia than with the visuomotor transformation interpretation. PMID:14505686

Glover, Scott

2003-08-01

251

All About Frozen Ground, an Educational On-line Resource for K-12 Students and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do you design a site that will meet the needs of teachers and students and actually be used in the classroom, when there are millions of Web sites competing for their attention? Many science centers, including the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), strive to meet the informational needs of the general public without specifically targeting educators, who desire Web material that is prepackaged for use in the classroom. In creating a new educational Web site, we wanted to develop our materials to ensure the content is used by educators in the classroom, seeking collaborators beyond our organization. Noting a lack of on-line information geared to the public on frozen ground and its significance to global climate, we are developing a Web site, All About Frozen Ground, to assist K-12 students, teachers and the public to understand frozen ground, its relation to the climate system, and its impact on engineering in cold regions. NSIDC partnered with scientists, writers, teachers, and an evaluator to make certain the content meets science standards and the requirements and interests of teachers and their students. Following accepted evaluation procedures, we will test the material in the classroom and through on-line surveys, and use the feedback to improve the Web site and its accompanying educational materials.

Sheffield, E.; Zhang, T.

2008-12-01

252

A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao ( D?ng Chóng Xià C?o) and Related Bioactive Ingredients.  

PubMed

The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either "yartsa gunbu" or "DongChongXiaCao ( D?ng Chóng Xià C?o)" ("winter worm-summer grass"), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as "soft gold" in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of "DongChongXiaCao" is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp., and Cordyceps sp. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1(st), 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name "H. sinensis" has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

2013-01-01

253

Infrared laser ablation sample transfer for on-line liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated an on-line laser ablation sampling system and coupling of the system to liquid chromatography (LC) using an infrared (IR) laser to ablate and transfer materials into a flowing solvent stream. With this approach, samples are deposited on a microscope slide mounted on a translation stage and ablated in transmission geometry using a pulsed mid-IR laser. The ablated material is captured in an exposed flowing solvent stream that carries the ablated material to the electrospray source. Post-ablation separation is accomplished using a capillary column downstream of the capture zone. The performance of the system was assessed using peptide and protein mixtures ablated from the target and analyzed with and without LC separation. PMID:23019163

Park, Sung-Gun; Murray, Kermit K

2012-10-01

254

On-line collection and transfer of radioactive noble gas isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques have been developed for on-line collection and transfer to a measurement cell of rare noble gas isotopes. A low-energy isotope separator beam is stopped in a foil. After collection, the foil is heated, and the noble gas atoms are cryopumped to a cold finger and then transferred with a buffer gas to a measurement cell. This has been tested with 120Xe produced from a 120Cs beam at the TRIUMF ISAC facility, and greater than 40% efficiency for transfer from the foil to the cell has been demonstrated. The technique will be used for electric dipole moment measurements with radon isotopes and may also be useful for other measurements with gaseous targets including laser spectroscopy.

Nuss-Warren, S. R.; Tardiff, E. R.; Warner, T.; Ball, G.; Behr, J. A.; Chupp, T. E.; Coulter, K. P.; Hackman, G.; Hayden, M. E.; Pearson, M. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.

2004-11-01

255

On-line collection and transfer of radioactive noble gas isotopes for radon EDM measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus has been developed for on--line collection and transfer to a measurement cell of radon isotopes for optical pumping studies and electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements. Specific isotopes are predicted to have large atomic EDMs due to nuclear octupole deformation or vibration resulting in enhanced sensitivity to CP violation. A low energy isotope separator beam is stopped in a foil. After collection, the foil is heated and the noble gas atoms are cryopumped to a cold finger and then transferred with a buffer gas to a measurement cell. The apparatus has been tested with ^120Xe produced from a ^120Cs beam at the TRIUMF ISAC facility, and greater than 40% efficiency for transfer from the foil to the cell has been demonstrated. The apparatus may also be useful for other measurements with gaseous targets including laser spectroscopy and precision half--life measurements.

Nuss-Warren, Sarah; Tardiff, Eric; Warner, Tim; Ball, Gordon; Behr, John; Chupp, Tim; Coulter, Kevin; Hackman, Greg; Hayden, Michael; Pearson, Matthew; Phillips, Andrew; Smith, Martin; Svensson, Carl

2004-05-01

256

Singular perturbation techniques for on-line optimal flight path control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a partial evaluation on the use of singular perturbation methods for developing computer algorithms for on-line optimal control of aircraft. The evaluation is based on a study of the minimum time intercept problem using F-4 aerodynamic and propulsion data as a base line. The extensions over previous work on this subject are that aircraft turning dynamics (in addition to position and energy dynamics) are included in the analysis, the algorithm is developed for a moving end point and is adaptive to unpredictable target maneuvers, and short range maneuvers that do not have a cruise leg are included. Particular attention is given to identifying those quantities that can be precomputed and stored (as a function of aircraft total energy), thus greatly reducing the onboard computational load. Numerical results are given that illustrate the nature of the optimal intercept flight paths, and an estimate is given for the execution time and storage requirements of the control algorithm.

Calise, A. J.

1979-01-01

257

Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes  

SciTech Connect

Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

1983-01-01

258

An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

Litt, Jonathan S.

1990-01-01

259

A versatile apparatus for on-line emission channeling experiments  

SciTech Connect

The concept and functionality of an apparatus dedicated to emission channeling experiments using short-lived isotopes on-line at ISOLDE/CERN is described. The setup is assembled in two functional blocks – (a) base stand including beam collimation, implantation and measurement chamber, cryogenic extension, and vacuum control system and (b) Panmure goniometer extension including maneuvering cradle and sample heating furnace. This setup allows for in situ implantation and sample analysis in the as-implanted state and upon cooling down to 50 K and during annealing up to 1200 K. The functionality of the setup will be illustrated with the example of establishing the lattice location of {sup 56}Mn probes implanted into GaAs.

Silva, M. R. [Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G. [Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal) [Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Unidade de Física e Aceleradores, IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Amorim, L. M.; Pereira, L. M. C. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU, Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU, Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-07-15

260

On line quantification of crystal surfaces by stereo imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shape of an interface while a crystal is growing inside a crystal growth furnace is an important measurement to assess the crystal quality on-line. If the crystal surface can be visualized by video or x ray imaging, the interface shape can be determined by the stereo image processing techniques. This paper presents a methodology to determine the shape of the solid-melt interface by stereo based imaging techniques while the crystal is growing inside a transparent furnace. The methodology generates qualitative shape information provided that a good pair of stereo images of the interface can be captured. For a quantitative shape description, i.e., for the determination of interface points with respect to a fixed coordinate frame, both cameras must be calibrated. This paper illustrates the methodology for qualitative shape determination of lead bromide crystal interface.

Batur, Celal

1992-01-01

261

On-Line Robust Modal Stability Prediction using Wavelet Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification has been used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins is reduced with parametric and nonparametric time- frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data is used to reduce the effects of external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability are also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrates improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime. Guidelines and computation times are presented to show the efficiency and practical aspects of these procedures for on-line implementation. Feasibility of the method is shown for processing flight data from time- varying nonstationary test points.

Brenner, Martin J.; Lind, Rick

1998-01-01

262

Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

1999-04-20

263

Enabling the On-line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side effect of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant, This paper concerns the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations, The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

2005-01-01

264

Enabling the On-Line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side fleet of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant. This paper concern the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations. The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

2005-01-01

265

A simple and accurate on-line data acquisition program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method is presented by which photometric data may be obtained to any given reasonable accuracy with a telescope equipped with a small on-line computer. The method is based on Poisson statistics, and takes account of the errors present if the sky signal is comparable to that from the star, and of short-term variations in the transparency or sky background. The program monitors the incoming data and calculates the required number of integrations on (sky + star) and on sky. It informs the observer if any untoward event is occurring. The method should be ideal for persons in possession of, or having access to, a telescope equipped with a small home or office computer which is capable of communication with the photometer.

Fitzgerald, M. P.; Shelton, I.

1982-12-01

266

Association of Teachers of Mathematics: Resources OnLine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM), based in the United Kingdom, "believes in providing teachers with the resources to help them develop their mathematics teaching in creative and broad-thinking ways." This section on Resources OnLine offers a variety of resources, some of which are available only by purchase online. Some of the free online resources include sample files and programs from ATM CDs on spreadsheets and Interactive Mathematics, as well as some games involving shapes and probability. Films available in Macromedia Flash Player format demonstrate topics such as Polygons, Exploring Halves, Tangrams, and Euclid's Pythagoras Proof. A link to ATM's Convex Polyhedra Website shows 50 of the convex polyhedra that can be made with regular polygons and groups them into 10 families and some suggested activities to try using the images. Some articles from ATM Journals are also available online.

267

SBR on-line monitoring by set-point titration.  

PubMed

The applicability of set-point titration for monitoring biological processes has been widely demonstrated in the literature. Based on published and on-going experiences, some operating procedures have been specifically developed to be applied to SBRs, so that real-time information about the process and/or the influent can be obtained. This, in turn, would allow plant operators to select the most appropriate actions properly and timely. Five operating modes are described for the monitoring of (1) influent toxicity, (2) influent N-content, (3) nitrification capacity, (4) end of the nitrification reaction, and (5) nitrate effluent concentration, and are currently tested on the on-line titrator TITAAN (TITrimetric Automated ANalyser) which is in operation on a pilot scale SBR. PMID:16722107

Fiocchi, N; Ficara, E; Canziani, R; Luccarini, L; Ciappelloni, F; Ratini, P; Pirani, M; Mariani, S

2006-01-01

268

Development of an on-line bioterrorism preparedness course.  

PubMed

To reach a large audience of public health workers and others interested in learning more about bioterrorism and emergency preparedness, an on-line, Web-based, certificated course entitled "Terrorism, Preparedness and Public Health: An Introduction" was planned, developed, and implemented. Interactivity and other user-friendly devices helped it gain acceptance. To date (May 2005), more than 6,000 people from all 50 states and some foreign countries have registered for the course, and about 2,400 have passed an exam for a certificate of completion. We believe the success of this course is related to the strength and accuracy of the content and its historical perspective; to the quality of the technical development, including multiple levels of interactivity, ease of use, and a printed completion certificate; and to the use of real case studies and the lack of dramatic overstatement. PMID:16205533

Westphal, Robert G; Jewell, Susan; Skawinski, Edward

2005-11-01

269

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by methane in the presence of oxygen over CaO catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by methane in the presence of oxygen was studied over CaO catalyst in the temperature range 550--850 C. The nitric oxide conversion-versus-temperature profile was found to depend on oxygen feed concentration, while the selectivity to N{sub 2} formation was found to be 100% and independent of oxygen feed concentration in the range 1--10 mol%. The kinetic study has shown that the reaction order with respect to NO and CH{sub 4} is 1.0 and 0.5, respectively. On the other hand, the reaction order with respect to O{sub 2} was found to be slightly positive for O{sub 2} feed concentrations up to 1 mol% and slightly negative at higher concentrations. The apparent activation energy of the reaction in the presence of oxygen was found to be 14.6 kcal/mol. The addition of 2.5 mol% CO{sub 2} and 5 mol% H{sub 2}O in the feed stream had a considerable inhibiting effect on NO conversion in the range 550--650 C, while a small inhibiting effect of CO{sub 2} and a positive effect of H{sub 2}O were observed in the range 700--850 C. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NO revealed the presence of two well-resolved NO peaks in the temperature range 250--650 C, a behavior also observed during a temperature-programmed oxidation experiment under O{sub 2}/He flow. However, during temperature-programmed surface reaction under CH{sub 4}/He flow the NO desorption spectrum showed a significant shift of the stronger adsorbed NO species toward lower temperatures. Preadsorbed CO{sub 2} on the CaO surface was found to largely affect the chemisorption of NO and its desorption kinetics during TPD. The amount of deposited carbon-containing species on the catalyst surface during reaction was determined with transient titration experiments and it was found to be small.

Fliatoura, K.D.; Verykios, X.E. [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Costa, C.N.; Efstathiou, A.M. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Natural Sciences] [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Natural Sciences

1999-04-25

270

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides users with information that assists them in specifying, installing, calibrating, maintaining and monitoring the subsequent performance of on-line residual chlorine analyzers in wastewater treatment plants. An on-line residual chlorine analyzer must have, am...

271

7 CFR 42.135 - Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection. 42.135 Section 42.135 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures § 42.135 Normal,...

2010-01-01

272

Strong enhancement of superconductivity in inorganic electride 12CaO·7Al2O3:e- under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the pressure dependence of the superconductivity of the inorganic electride 12CaO·7Al2O3:e- (C12A7:e-) single crystal through the ac-susceptibility measurement under high pressure. C12A7:e- has the cage structure and the density of states derived from the cages may play an important role in the superconductivity. The superconducting transition temperature ( T c) is ˜ 0.2 K at ambient pressure and monotonically increases up to 1.79 K at 4.7 GPa. The upper critical field H c2 and - dH c2/ dT at T c, in proportion to the density of states (DOS) at Fermi energy becomes larger under high pressure. The superconductivity in C12A7:e- is mediated by the electron-phonon interaction, and the increase of Tc with pressure may arise from a peak structure of the DOS of cage conduction band.

Tanaka, Shigeki; Kato, Tomoki; Miyake, Atsushi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Kim, Sung Wng; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

2013-08-01

273

From insulator to electride: a theoretical model of nanoporous oxide 12CaO.7Al2O3.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel inorganic electride stable at room temperatures has been obtained by reducing a complex nanoporous oxide 12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7) in a Ca atmosphere (Matsuishi, S.; Toda, Y.; Miyakawa, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kamiya, T.; Hirano, M.; Tanaka, I.; Hosono, H. Science 2003, 301, 626). In this system, up to 2.3 x 1021/cm3 electrons can be accommodated in a three-dimensional network of cages formed by a positively charged oxide framework. We demonstrate theoretically that at all concentrations, ne, the electrons are neither associated with specific atoms nor fully delocalized. At low ne, the electrons are isolated from each other and resemble the color centers in insulating materials. They are well localized in some of the lattice cages and yield strong inhomogeneous lattice distortions that provide polaron-type cage-to-cage electron hopping. As ne increases, the electrons form a denser electron gas and become more evenly spread over all available lattice cages. At sufficiently high ne, the system becomes metallic but still retains partially localized character of the conducting electrons. We describe the nature of the electronic states at the Fermi level and predict the changes in the optical and magnetic properties of this system as a function of ne. PMID:17243831

Sushko, Peter V; Shluger, Alexander L; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

2007-01-31

274

Features and mechanism of H- anion emission from 12 CaO x 7 Al2O3 surface.  

PubMed

The hydrogen anion (H-) and other anionic species (O-, OH-, e-) in the gas phase, emitted from the synthesized crystal surface of 12 CaO x 7 Al2O3-H- (C12A7-H-), have been observed. The emission intensity of all the anionic species strongly depends on the sample surface temperature and the extraction field. H- has the highest emission branch ratio, and the extraction field can reduce its apparent activation energy. H- emission current at a microA/cm2-level has been achieved, which is about 4 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained from the thermal desorption process of CaH2. The observed anions of H- and OH- are attributed to their migration from the C12A7-H- cages onto the surface [i.e., Y-(cages) --> Y-(surface) --> Y-(gas phase) (Y = H, OH)]. The weak O- and electron emission would both arise from the dissociation of O2-: O2-(surface) --> O-(surface) + e-(surface) --> O-(gas phase) + e-(space). PMID:16852484

Huang, Fan; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lian; Dong, Ting; Tu, Jing; Torimoto, Yoshifumi; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Li, Quanxin

2005-06-23

275

Spectroscopic characterization of a multiband complex oxide: Insulating and conducting cement 12CaO·7Al2O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7) is a wide band gap insulator, but conductivity can be realized by introducing oxygen deficiency. Currently, there are two competing models explaining conductivity in oxygen-deficient C12A7, one involving the electron transfer via a “cage conduction band” inside the nominal band gap, the other involving electron hopping along framework lattice sites. To help resolve this debate, we probe insulating and conducting C12A7 with x-ray emission, x-ray absorption, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, which provide a full picture of both the valence and conduction band edges in these materials. These measurements suggest the existence of a narrow conduction band between the main conduction and valence bands common in both conducting and insulating C12A7 and support the theory that free electrons in oxygen-deficient C12A7 occupy the low-energy states of this narrow band. Our measurements are corroborated with density functional theory calculations.

McLeod, J. A.; Buling, A.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Sushko, P. V.; Neumann, M.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Kim, S.-W.; Hosono, H.; Moewes, A.

2012-01-01

276

Insulator -- polaron conductor -- metal transitions in a complex oxide 12CaO.7Al2O3.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments have demonstrated that a complex nano-porous oxide 12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7) built of positively charged sub-nanometer cages can be converted from a transparent insulator to a transparent conductor by H2 doping followed by UV-light irradiation with 4--4.5 eV photons [1]. This irradiation induces optical absorption bands with maxima at 0.4 eV and 2.8 eV and high concentrations of unpaired electrons. We use ab initio calculations to reveal the mechanism of photo-induced insulator--conductor transition and the role of H atoms in this process and to elucidate the transport properties of the electrons in this system as a function of electron concentration. Our theoretical modeling suggests that at concentration below 10^20 cm-3 electrons are responsible for the polaron type electrical conductivity with the activation energy close to 0.1 eV as well as for the optical absorption at 0.4 eV and 2.8 eV [2]. We demonstrate that, as the electron concentration exceeds 10^20 cm-3, the character of electronic conductivity changes from polaron type to metallic. [1] K. Hayashi et al., Nature 419, 462 (2002). [2] P.V. Sushko, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 126401 (2003); P.V. Sushko et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 092101 (2005).

Sushko, P.; Shluger, A.; Stoneham, A.; Hayashi, K.; Matsuishi, S.; Hirano, M.; Hosono, H.

2006-03-01

277

Preparation and visible emission of Er-doped 12CaO x 7Al2O3 powder.  

PubMed

Er(3+)-doped 12CaO x 7Al2O3 (C12A7:Er3+) powders were prepared using the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectra and absorption spectra showed that C12A7:Er3+ powder had been obtained. Sharp and intense Er(3+)-related emission from C12A7:Er3+ powder with different Er3+ concentrations in the visible region at room temperature was investigated by analyzing the local structure of Ca atoms in C12A7, and it revealed that cation sites with low symmetry of the host were beneficial to the photoluminescence of Er3+ ions. The emission lines were attributed to two types of Er3+ centers, isolated Er3+ ions and complex centers formed by aggregation of Er3+ ions. The PL intensity might be affected by free oxygen species relative to Er3+ ions formed by charge compensation. The inverse temperature dependent luminescence from the upper level of 2H11/2 state and that from the lower level of 4S3/2 state implied that the thermalization or thermal equilibrium of electrons between the two closely emission states occurred. PMID:18468174

Wang, D; Liu, Y X; Liu, Y C; Xu, C S; Shao, C L; Li, X H

2008-03-01

278

Characterization and luminescence of Eu3+ ions doped 12CaO 7Al2O3 nanopowders.  

PubMed

Eu3+ ions doped 12CaO 7Al2O3 (C12A7) powders with different Eu3+ concentrations were prepared by sol-gel combined with solid state reaction method. The results of XRD and Raman spectra showed that single cubic phase polycrystalline C12A7:Eu3+ powders were prepared. The absorption peaks attributed to f-f transition of Eu3+ ion can be observed, indicating that Eu3+ had been incorporated into C12A7 lattice site. Visible PL peaks around 578, 588, 614 nm were ascribed to 5D0 --> 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2) transitions of Eu3+ under the excitation of 488 nm line. The PL of C12A7:Eu3+ showed the strongest emission intensity at Eu3+ concentration of 0.5 at%. Two different types of Eu3+ centers were identified by the two lines from 5D0 --> 7F0 transition emission. The doping mechanism of C12A7:Eu3+ might be attributed to Eu3+ ions substitution for two types of Ca2+ lattice sites in C12A7. The temperature dependent PL spectra of Eu-doped C12A7 were measured in the range from 100 to 300 K under the excitation of 488 nm laser line. The PL intensities as a function of temperature were well fitted by using a unified theoretical model, considering thermal activation and nonradiative energy transfer processes. PMID:22413328

Liu, C G; Liu, Y X; Wang, D; Yan, D T; Xu, C S

2011-11-01

279

Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydroxide ion formation in 12 CaO x 7 Al2O3.  

PubMed

We have examined the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydroxide (OH-) ions that formed in cages of 12 CaO x 7 Al2O3 (C12A7) with nanoporous structures. It is confirmed using thermogravimetric-evolved gas analyses (TG-EGA) that hydration in C12A7 is mediated by a reaction between an oxide (O2-) ion in the cage and an H2O molecule in the atmosphere to form two OH- ions in the cages. To simply and exactly quantify the OH- content from infrared absorption measurements of OH-stretching band, we propose a method combined with a thermodynamic analysis, allowing the simultaneous determination of the molar extinction coefficient of the OH-band, enthalpy, and entropy for the hydration. Hydration enthalpy in C12A7 is extremely high compared with other oxides and was enhanced by the marked instability of O2- ion in the cage. Consequently, high solubility of OH- ion is retained up to unusually high temperatures. Furthermore, we determined diffusion coefficients of species relevant to the hydration process and demonstrated that inward diffusion of OH- ions is the rate-determining process. PMID:16852465

Hayashi, Katsuro; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

2005-06-23

280

Photoluminescence from Au ion-implanted nanoporous single-crystal 12CaO•7Al2O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implantation of Au+ ions into a single crystalline 12CaO•7Al2O3 (C12A7) was performed at high temperatures with fluences from 1×1014 to 3×1016cm-2 . This material is composed of positively charged sub-nanometer-sized cages compensated by extra-framework negatively charged species. The depth profile of concentrations of Au species was analyzed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The measured optical spectra and ab initio embedded cluster calculations show that the implanted Au species are stabilized in the form of negative Au- ions below the fluences of ˜1×1016cm-2 (Au volume concentration of ˜2×1021cm-3 ). These ions are trapped in the cages and exhibit photoluminescence (PL) bands peaking at 3.05 and 2.34eV at temperatures below 150K . At fluences exceeding ˜3×1016cm-2 , the implanted Au atoms form nano-sized clusters. This is manifested in quenching of the PL bands and creation of an optical absorption band at 2.43eV due to the surface plasmon of free carriers in the cluster. The PL bands are attributed to the charge transfer transitions (Au0+e-?Au-) due to recombination of photo-excited electrons (e-) , transiently transferred by ultraviolet excitation into a nearby cages, with Au0 atoms.

Miyakawa, Masashi; Kamioka, Hayato; Hirano, Masahiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Matsunami, Noriaki; Hosono, Hideo

2006-05-01

281

Characterization and optical transition in tb-doped 12CaO x 7Al2O3 powders.  

PubMed

Tb-doped 12CaO x 7Al2O3 (C12A7:Tb3+) powders with strong green emission were prepared using the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy and absorption spectra showed that C12A7:Tb3+ powders with grain size of 200-300 nm were synthesized. Porous powders could be formed as the concentration of Tb3+ was 5 at%. The absorption band around 209 nm was attributed to the host lattice absorption, and the bands around 255 nm and 274 nm were related to the 4f-5d transitions of Tb3+. The absorption intensity of the visible region was enhanced due to the presence of one 100 nm-diameter hole in every grain of C12A7:Tb3+ powders. The emission spectra showed noticeable influence of Tb-Tb cross relaxation, which favored the green photoluminescence (PL) over the blue PL. The study on the concentration quenching indicated that the energy transfers depopulating the 5D3 and 5D4 levels were assigned to the mechanisms of electric dipole-dipole and exchange interaction, respectively. PMID:20355639

Xue, L L; Liu, Y X; Xu, C S; Liu, Y C; Zhao, C J; Zhang, X T

2010-03-01

282

Photoluminescence of Au - formed in 12CaO · 7Al 2O 3 single crystal by Au +-implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au + ion implantation with fluences from 1 × 10 14 to 3 × 10 16 cm -2 into 12CaO · 7Al 2O 3 (C12A7) single crystals was carried out at a sample temperature of 600 °C. The implanted sample with the fluence of 1 × 10 15 cm -2 exhibited photoluminescence (PL) bands peaking at ˜3.1 and ˜2.3 eV at ?150 K when excited by He-Cd laser (325 nm). This was the first observation of PL from C12A7. These two PL bands are possibly due to intra-ionic transitions of an Au - ion having the electronic configuration of 6 s2, judged from their similarities to those reported on Au - ions in alkali halides. However, when the concentration of the implanted Au ions exceeded the theoretical maximum value of anions encaged in C12A7 (˜2.3 × 10 21 cm -3), surface plasmon absorption appeared in the optical absorption spectrum, suggesting Au colloids were formed at such high fluences. These observations indicate that negative gold ions are formed in the cages of C12A7 by the Au + implantation if an appropriate fluence is chosen.

Miyakawa, M.; Kamioka, H.; Hirano, M.; Kamiya, T.; Hosono, H.

2006-09-01

283

Role of MgO and CaO promoters in Ni-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions of CO and carbon  

SciTech Connect

The roles of Mg and Ca promoters in Ni-catalyzed hydrogasification of carbon were investigated with emphasis on nickel dispersion and nickel-carbon interactions during gasification. The dispersion of nickel on carbon, which was estimated by means of XRD, H{sub 2}-TPD, and CO methanation test, was (Ni + Mg){much gt}(Ni + Ca)>Ni. The increased dispersions of nickel by the Mg and Ca added were found to result in the enhanced Ni-C interaction, which was monitored through the desorption of CO from oxygen remaining on carbon, and, therefore, in the promotions of Ni-catalyzed lower-temperature gasification at 400-700 C. The Ca promoter was likely to give surface CaO(COO) species upon heating up to 550 C and release CO{sub 2} above {approximately} 650 C. The CO{sub 2} released is efficiently converted by the nickel adjacent to CaO into CO to create Ni-(O)-C species above 700 C, resulting in acceleration of Ni-catalyzed gasification above 700 C. In situ oxygen transfer to Ni/C during reaction is the most important role played by the Ca promoter.

Haga, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Junichi; Suzuki, Kyosuke; Nishiyama, Yoshiyuki ( Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))

1992-03-01

284

CO{sub 2} capture capacity of CaO in long series of carbonation/calcination cycles  

SciTech Connect

Calcium oxide can be an effective sorbent to separate CO{sub 2} at high temperatures. When coupled with a calcination step to produce pure CO{sub 2}, the carbonation reaction is the basis for several high-temperature CO{sub 2} capture systems. The evolution with cycling of the capture capacity of CaO derived from natural limestones is experimentally investigated in this work. Long series of carbonation/calcination cycles (up to 500) varying different variables affecting sorbent capacity have been tested in a thermogravimetric apparatus. Calcination temperatures above T > 950{sup o}C and very long calcination times accelerate the decay in sorption capacity, while other variables have a comparatively modest effect on the overall sorbent performance. A residual conversion of about 7-8% that remains constant after many hundreds of cycles and that seems insensitive to process conditions has been found. This residual conversion makes very attractive the carbonation/calcination cycle, by reducing (or even eliminating) sorbent purge rates in the system. A semiempirical equation has been proposed to describe sorbent conversion with the number of cycles based on these new long data series.

Grasa, G.S.; Abanades, J.C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

2006-12-20

285

Dielectric properties of (CuO, CaO2, and BaO)y/CuTl-1223 composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized (CuO, CaO2, and BaO)y/Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-? (y = 0, 5%, 10%, 15%) composites by solid-state reaction and characterized them by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dc-resistivity, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric properties, such as real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and ac-conductivity of these composites were studied by capacitance and conductance measurements as a function of frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz) and temperature (78 to 300 K). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic behavior of the superconductor phase and the structure of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-? are nearly undisturbed by doping with nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy images show the improvement in the intergranular linking between the superconducting grains occurring with increasing nanoparticle concentration. Microcracks are healed up with these nanoparticles, and superconducting volume fraction is also increased. Dielectric properties of these composites strongly depend on the frequency and temperature. Zero resistivity critical temperature and dielectric properties show opposite trends with the addition of nanoparticles to the Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-? superconductor matrix.

Mumtaz, M.; Kamran, M.; Nadeem, K.; Jabbar, Abdul; Khan, Nawazish A.; Saleem, Abida; Tajammul Hussain, S.; Kamran, M.

2013-07-01

286

Spectroscopic Characterization of a Multiband Complex Oxide: Insulating and Conducting Cement 12CaO·7Al?O?  

SciTech Connect

Natural 12CaO·7Al?O? (C12A7) is a wide band gap insulator, but conductivity can be realized by introducing oxygen deficiency. Currently, there are two competing models explaining conductivity in oxygen-deficient C12A7, one involving the electron transfer via a “cage conduction band” inside the nominal band gap, the other involving electron hopping along framework lattice sites. To help resolve this debate, we probe insulating and conducting C12A7 with x-ray emission, x-ray absorption, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, which provide a full picture of both the valence and conduction band edges in these materials. Thesemeasurements suggest the existence of a narrow conduction band between themain conduction and valence bands common in both conducting and insulating C12A7 and support the theory that free electrons in oxygen-deficient C12A7 occupy the low-energy states of this narrow band. Our measurements are corroborated with density functional theory calculations.

McLeod, John A.; Buling, A.; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Sushko, Petr V.; Neumann, N.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Kim, S. W.; Hosono, H.; Moewes, Alexander

2012-01-13

287

EnviroNET: On-line information for LDEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EnviroNET is an on-line, free-form database intended to provide a centralized repository for a wide range of technical information on environmentally induced interactions of use to Space Shuttle customers and spacecraft designers. It provides a user-friendly, menu-driven format on networks that are connected globally and is available twenty-four hours a day - every day. The information, updated regularly, includes expository text, tabular numerical data, charts and graphs, and models. The system pools space data collected over the years by NASA, USAF, other government research facilities, industry, universities, and the European Space Agency. The models accept parameter input from the user, then calculate and display the derived values corresponding to that input. In addition to the archive, interactive graphics programs are also available on space debris, the neutral atmosphere, radiation, magnetic fields, and the ionosphere. A user-friendly, informative interface is standard for all the models and includes a pop-up help window with information on inputs, outputs, and caveats. The system will eventually simplify mission analysis with analytical tools and deliver solutions for computationally intense graphical applications to do 'What if...' scenarios. A proposed plan for developing a repository of information from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for a user group is presented.

Lauriente, Michael

1993-01-01

288

Using on-line altered auditory feedback treating Parkinsonian speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease tend to have dysarthric speech that is hesitant, accelerated, and repetitive, and that is often resistant to behavior speech therapy. In this pilot study, the speech disturbances were treated using on-line altered feedbacks (AF) provided by SpeechEasy (SE), an in-the-ear device registered with the FDA for use in humans to treat chronic stuttering. Eight PD patients participated in the study. All had moderate to severe speech disturbances. In addition, two patients had moderate recurring stuttering at the onset of PD after long remission since adolescence, two had bilateral STN DBS, and two bilateral pallidal DBS. An effective combination of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered feedback was selected for each subject and provided via SE worn in one ear. All subjects produced speech samples (structured-monologue and reading) under three conditions: baseline, with SE without, and with feedbacks. The speech samples were randomly presented and rated for speech intelligibility goodness using UPDRS-III item 18 and the speaking rate. The results indicted that SpeechEasy is well tolerated and AF can improve speech intelligibility in spontaneous speech. Further investigational use of this device for treating speech disorders in PD is warranted [Work partially supported by Janus Dev. Group, Inc.].

Wang, Emily; Verhagen, Leo; de Vries, Meinou H.

2005-09-01

289

On line sensing of weld penetration using infrared thermography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to apply new sensing techniques, artificial intelligence, and robotics to improve the welding process through control of penetration depth and width parameters. By producing a constant depth and width of penetration through on line control, the quality and strength of welds may be improved to a new level of reliability previously unobtainable. Experimental data presented in this paper indicate that depth and width of penetration can be monitored by infrared thermography and hence controlled dynamically during the weld process. Infrared thermography is used to monitor surface temperature distributions in the vicinity of the molten metal pool. Characteristics of temperature distributions perpendicular to the direction of arc travel are analyzed and correlated with weld bead width and depth as measured by destructive examination after the weld production. The results show that there is a linear relationship between peak weld plate surface temperature and depth of penetration. Additionally, surface puddle width is found to be directly correlated to measured distance separating solidus temperatures of the molten metal as measured by infrared thermography.

Wang, Y.; Chin, B.A.

1986-01-01

290

On-Line Loss of Control Detection Using Wavelets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wavelet transforms are used for on-line detection of aircraft loss of control. Wavelet transforms are compared with Fourier transform methods and shown to more rapidly detect changes in the vehicle dynamics. This faster response is due to a time window that decreases in length as the frequency increases. New wavelets are defined that further decrease the detection time by skewing the shape of the envelope. The wavelets are used for power spectrum and transfer function estimation. Smoothing is used to tradeoff the variance of the estimate with detection time. Wavelets are also used as front-end to the eigensystem reconstruction algorithm. Stability metrics are estimated from the frequency response and models, and it is these metrics that are used for loss of control detection. A Matlab toolbox was developed for post-processing simulation and flight data using the wavelet analysis methods. A subset of these methods was implemented in real time and named the Loss of Control Analysis Tool Set or LOCATS. A manual control experiment was conducted using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator for a large transport aircraft, in which the real time performance of LOCATS was demonstrated. The next step is to use these wavelet analysis tools for flight test support.

Brenner, Martin J. (Technical Monitor); Thompson, Peter M.; Klyde, David H.; Bachelder, Edward N.; Rosenthal, Theodore J.

2005-01-01

291

On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling  

DOEpatents

This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

1999-08-10

292

On-line preconcentration methods for capillary electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

The limits of detection (LOD) for capillary electrophoresis (CE) are constrained by the dimensions of the capillary. For example, the small volume of the capillary limits the total volume of sample that can be injected into the capillary. In addition, the reduced pathlength hinders common optical detection methods such as UV detection. Many different techniques have been developed to improve the LOD for CE. In general these techniques are designed to compress analyte bands within the capillary, thereby increasing the volume of sample that can be injected without loss of CE efficiency. This on-line sample preconcentration, generally referred to as stacking, is based on either the manipulation of differences in the electrophoretic mobility of analytes at the boundary of two buffers with differing resistivities or the partitioning of analytes into a stationary or pseudostationary phase. This article will discuss a number of different techniques, including field-amplified sample stacking, large-volume sample stacking, pH-mediated sample stacking, on-column isotachophoresis, chromatographic preconcentration, sample stacking for micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and sweeping.

Osbourn, Damon M.; Weiss, David J.; Lunte, Craig E.

2008-01-01

293

On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

Swerdlow, Harold P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wittwer, Carl T. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1999-01-01

294

Enterprise utilization of "always on-line" diagnostic study archive.  

PubMed

To meet demands for enterprise image distribution, an "always on-line" image storage archive architecture was implemented before soft copy interpretation. It was presumed that instant availability of historical diagnostic studies would elicit a substantial utilization. Beginning November 1, 2000 an enterprise distribution archive was activated (Stentor, SanFrancisco, CA). As of August 8, 2001, 83,052 studies were available for immediate access without the need for retrieval from long-term archive. Image storage and retrieval logs for the period from June 12, 2001 to August 8, 2001 were analyzed. A total of 41,337 retrieval requests were noted for the 83,052 studies available as August 8, 2001. Computed radiography represented 16.8% of retrieval requests; digital radiography, 16.9%; computed tomography (CT), 44.5%; magnetic resonance (MR), 19.2%; and ultrasonography, 2.6%. A total of 51.5% of study retrievals were for studies less than 72 hours old. Study requests for cases greater than 100 days old represented 9.9% of all accessions, 9.7% of CT accessions, and 15.4% of MR accessions. Utilization of the archive indicates a substantial proportion of study retrievals for studies less than 72 hours after study completion. However, significant interest in historical CT and MR examinations was shown. PMID:12105703

McEnery, Kevin W; Suitor, Charles T; Thompson, Stephen K; Shepard, Jeffrey S; Murphy, William A

2002-01-01

295

AMADEUS on-line trigger and filtering methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMADEUS is a system designed to investigate the method of acoustic particle detection for high energy neutrinos and the acoustic environment in the deep sea as part of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. In this context, six local clusters of six acoustic sensors each were integrated into the ANTARES infrastructure. The first three clusters have been taking data since December 2007 and the second three since the completion of ANTARES in May 2008. In the paper, the methods used for the on-line triggering and filtering of the data acquired with the AMADEUS set-up are described. On-shore, a dedicated computer-cluster is used to control the off-shore DAQ hardware, to process and store the acoustic data arriving from the sensors. On this cluster different data filtering schemes and triggers are implemented. Transient signals are selected by a variable threshold, which is self-adjusting to the changing conditions of the deep sea. For bipolar pulses—the characteristic acoustic signature of a neutrino—a pattern recognition is used based on cross-correlating the output of the sensors with a pre-defined bipolar pulse. To study the characteristics of the ambient noise in the deep sea an amount of unfiltered data is stored in regular intervals.

Neff, M.; Anton, G.; Graf, K.; Hößl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Richardt, C.

2009-06-01

296

Ion guide method for on-line isotope separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ISOL technique, the ion guide method for isotope separation, has been developed. The method is based on thermalization of primary recoil ions from nuclear reactions in helium and on their transfer by helium flow through a differential pumping system into the accelerating stage of an isotope separator. With this approach, separation times in the submillisecond region are achievable for all elements. The ion guide has no ionizer but instead exploits charge exchange mechanisms related to nuclear reactions and recoil thermalization processes. Operation takes place at room temperature and the simple construction involves no components that can wear out. These properties ensure smooth and stable operating conditions. The overall separation efficiencies measured for heavy nuclides produced by light-ion reactions are up to 10%. The shortest-lived activity identified in an on-line separation is the 182-?s isomeric state of 207Bi. The production rate of the mass separated 440-?s isomeric state of 43Sc is ? 2 × 10 3 ions/?C.

Ärje, J.; Äystö, J.; Taskinen, P.; Honkanen, J.; Valli, K.

1987-05-01

297

An On-Line Document Clustering Method Based on Forgetting Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of on-line information services, information tech- nologies for on-line information processing have been receiving much attention recently. Clustering plays important roles in various on-line applications such as extraction of use- ful information from news feeding services and selection of relevant documents from the incoming scientific articles in digital libraries. In on-line environments, users generally have interests

Yoshiharu Ishikawa; Yibing Chen; Hiroyuki Kitagawa

2001-01-01

298

An investigation on evaluation of students’ achievement in on-line teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line teaching applications are very limited in Turkish higher education system. Most of the staff who wants to benefit from on-line teaching technologies in their courses, neither can use these technologies nor evaluate the students’ achievement effectively. Text based instructional materials, asynchronous communication techniques and inappropriate evaluation methods have made poor the quality of the on-line teaching in on-line courses.

Vahide Cana

2010-01-01

299

On-line optimization model design of gasoline blending system under parametric uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line optimization model design is one of the most important works for gasoline blending system because of its direct controlling to distributed control system (DCS). A new on-line optimization model using chance constraint stochastic program is presented in this paper. Different from former on-line models, the new one has the ability to process the parametric uncertainty during on-line gasoline blending,

Wei Wang; Zefei Li; Qiang Zhang; Yankai Li

2007-01-01

300

A radioactive target/ion source for material research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radioactive target/ion source for material research has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy, China. With a proton ion beam from the HI-13 tandem as the primary beam, the low intensity radioactive ion beam is generated on line. The first aim of the source is to produce a radioactive ion beam of 62Zn+ which will serve as nuclear probe in material research. The main features and current status of the source are presented in this article.

Cui, B.; Li, L.; Ma, Y.; Wang, R.; Jiang, W.

2004-05-01

301

On Line Instruction: An Opportunity to Re-Examine and Re-Invent Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the reasons the author agreed to teach a hybrid, on-line course last summer was specifically to either challenge or confirm her negative perceptions about on-line instruction. In order to continue to be an outspoken critic whenever administrators encouraged developing on-line courses for what she assumed were pecuniary considerations, she…

Rosenthal, Irene

2011-01-01

302

Women Physicians Are Early Adopters of On-Line Continuing Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet,…

Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B.

2003-01-01

303

The 1-way on-line coupled atmospheric chemistry model system MECO(n) - Part 2: On-line coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, highly flexible model system for the seamless dynamical down-scaling of meteorological and chemical processes from the global to the meso-? scale is presented. A global model and a cascade of an arbitrary number of limited-area model instances run concurrently in the same parallel environment, in which the coarser grained instances provide the boundary data for the finer grained instances. Thus, disk-space intensive and time consuming intermediate and pre-processing steps are entirely avoided and the time interpolation errors of common off-line nesting approaches are minimised. More specifically, the regional model COSMO of the German Weather Service (DWD) is nested on-line into the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 within the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. ECHAM5 and COSMO have previously been equipped with the MESSy infrastructure, implying that the same process formulations (MESSy submodels) are available for both models. This guarantees the highest degree of achievable consistency, between both, the meteorological and chemical conditions at the domain boundaries of the nested limited-area model, and between the process formulations on all scales. The on-line nesting of the different models is established by a client-server approach with the newly developed Multi-Model-Driver (MMD), an additional component of the MESSy infrastructure. With MMD an arbitrary number of model instances can be run concurrently within the same message passing interface (MPI) environment, the respective coarser model (either global or regional) is the server for the nested finer (regional) client model, i.e., it provides the data required to calculate the initial and boundary fields to the client model. On-line nesting means that the coupled (client-server) models exchange their data via the computer memory, in contrast to the data exchange via files on disk in common off-line nesting approaches. MMD consists of a library (Fortran95 and some parts in C) which is based on the MPI standard and two new MESSy submodels, MMDSERV and MMDCLNT (both Fortran95) for the server and client models, respectively. MMDCLNT contains a further sub-submodel, INT2COSMO, for the interpolation of the coarse grid data provided by the server models (either ECHAM5/MESSy or COSMO/MESSy) to the grid of the respective client model (COSMO/MESSy). INT2COSMO is based on the off-line pre-processing tool INT2LM provided by the DWD. The new achievements allow the setup of model cascades for zooming (down-scaling) from the global scale to the lower edge of the meso-? scale (?1 km) with a very high degree of consistency between the different models and between the chemical and meteorological boundary conditions.

Kerkweg, A.; Jöckel, P.

2011-06-01

304

The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F

2012-05-31

305

The effect of Al2O3, CaO, Cr2O3 and MgO on devitrification of silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of doping on devitrification of vitreous silica was studied at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Dispersion of dopants on a molecular scale was accomplished via a sol-gel technique. All dopants accelerated the devitrification of silica but to different degrees. The most active was CaO followed by MgO, Al2O3, and Cr2O3. Pure silica and silica containing Cr2O3 and Al2O3 devitrified to alpha-cristobalite only, whereas silica doped with CaO and MgO produced alpha-quartz and alpha-cristobalite. It appears that prolonged heat treatment would cause alpha-quartz to transform to alpha-cristobalite.

Zaplatynsky, Isidor

1988-01-01

306

Preparation of CaO as OLED getter material through control of crystal growth of CaCO{sub 3} by block copolymers in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

As the starting materials of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) getter, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) particles with various shapes and crystal structures have been successfully prepared with additives (L64 or PEGPG), which contain blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO). These CaCO{sub 3} particles were calcinated into highly crystalline calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles with high capacity of water adsorption up to 14.23 wt.%. The CaCO{sub 3} and CaO particles prepared at various conditions were characterized using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method.

Park, Jae-Hyung [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong-Geun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr

2009-01-08

307

First-principles calculations of surfactant-assisted growth of polar CaO(111) oxide film: The case of water-based surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfactant-assisted growth of polar CaO(111) oxide film in the presence of water-based surfactant is studied by first-principles calculations both from thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. We show that the water molecules not only supply a surfactant by depositing hydrogen on the surface throughout the growth process, but also supply oxygen atoms as an elemental constituent in the film growth with rather small energy barriers, i.e. water oxygen atoms are easily inserted in the top surface layer of the growth film during the wet oxidation process. Adding the water surfactants to conventional synthesis techniques leads to the continuous presence of hydrogen atoms in the surface region during the growth process, which efficiently quenches polarity and dynamically stabilizes the growth of the polar surface, and thus facilitates the growth of defect-free CaO(111) films with arbitrary thickness.

Tan, Xin; Zapol, Peter

2012-07-01

308

The Vibrational Frequencies of CaO2, ScO2, and TiO2: A Comparison of Theoretical Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibrational frequencies of several states of CaO2, ScO2, and TiO2 are computed at using density functional theory (DFT), the Hatree-Fock approach, second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and the complete-active-space self-consistent-field theory. Three different functionals are used in the DFT calculations, including two hybrid functionals. The coupled cluster singles and doubles approach including the effect of unlinked triples, determined using perturbation theory, is applied to selected states. The Becke-Perdew 86 functional appears to be the cost effective method of choice, although even this functional does not perform well for one state of CaO2. The MP2 approach is significantly inferior to the DFT approaches.

Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Chertihin, George V.; Andrews, Lester; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

309

Comparison of phosgene, chlorine, and hydrogen chloride as reagents for converting molten CaO. CaCl/sub 2/ to CaCl/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

One method at Los Alamos for preparing impure plutonium metal from the impure oxide is by batch reduction with calcium metal at 850/sup 0/C in a CaCl/sub 2/ solvent. The solvent salt from this reduction is currently discarded as low-level radioactivity waste only because it is saturated with the CaO byproduct. We have demonstrated a pyrochemical technique for converting the CaO to CaCl/sub 2/ thereby incorporating solvent recycling into the batch reduction process. We will discuss the effectiveness of HCl, Cl/sub 2/, and COCl/sub 2/ as chlorinating agents and recycling actual spent process solvent salts. 6 refs., 8 figs.

Fife, K.W.

1985-01-01

310

Role of Y2O3, CaO, MgO additives on structural and microstructural behavior of zirconia/mullite aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconia mullite (MUZ), Y2O3-MUZ, CaO-MUZ and MgO-MUZ composites, synthesized through plasma fusion technique, are becoming important due to their commercial scale of production within five minutes of plasma treatment from sillimanite, zircon and alumina mixture. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the monoclinic zirconia phase in MUZ composite whereas mixed monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic phases of zirconia have been observed in Y2O3, CaO, MgO added MUZ composites. The Y2O3, CaO and MgO additives act as sintering aids to favour the transformation and stabilisation of tetragonal and cubic zirconia phases at room temperature. These additives also play a key role in the development of various forms of microstructure to achieve dense MUZ composites.

Mishra, D. K.; Prusty, Sasmita; Mohapatra, B. K.; Singh, S. K.; Behera, S. N.

2012-07-01

311

Comparison of phosgene, chlorine, and hydrogen chloride as reagents for converting molten CaO. CaCl/sub 2/ to CaCl/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

One method used at Los Alamos for preparing impure plutonium metal from the impure oxide is batch reduction with calcium metal at 850/sup 0/C in a CaCl/sub 2/ solvent. The solvent salt from this reduction is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste only because it is saturated with the CaO by-product. We have demonstrated a pyrochemical technique for converting the CaO to CaCl/sub 2/, thereby incorporating solvent recycle into the batch reduction process. We discuss the effectiveness of HCl, Cl/sub 2/, and COCl/sub 2/ as chlorinating agents and present initial data on regenerating and recycling actual, spent-solvent salts. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; McCormick, E.D.

1985-09-01

312

Pure CaO, MgO (Periclase), TiO2 (Rutile), and Al2O3 (Corundum) in Ca,Al-rich Inclusions from Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed on four Ca,Al-rich inclusions (two Type A, one Type B, and a spinel-perovskite spherule) from the carbonaceous chondrites Allende (CV3), Acfer 082 (CV3), Acfer 086 (CV3), and Acfer 094 (unique). Two Type A and one Type B inclusion contain the pure oxide phases rutile (TiO2) and CaO. Within a spinel-perovskite spherule from Acfer 094 periclase (MgO) and corundum (Al2O3) were found coexisting with rutile and CaO. The oxides were found as tiny single grains (50-200 nm) of rounded morphologies inside and at grain boundaries of constituent minerals of the CAIs. We suggest that these oxides are primary condensation products which did not react during the condensation process with the remaining nebular gas to form other oxides or silicates.

Greshake, A.; Bischoff, A.; Putnis, A.

1996-03-01

313

On-line, adaptive state estimator for active noise control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic characteristics of airframe structures are expected to vary as aircraft flight conditions change. Accurate knowledge of the changing dynamic characteristics is crucial to enhancing the performance of the active noise control system using feedback control. This research investigates the development of an adaptive, on-line state estimator using a neural network concept to conduct active noise control. In this research, an algorithm has been developed that can be used to estimate displacement and velocity responses at any locations on the structure from a limited number of acceleration measurements and input force information. The algorithm employs band-pass filters to extract from the measurement signal the frequency contents corresponding to a desired mode. The filtered signal is then used to train a neural network which consists of a linear neuron with three weights. The structure of the neural network is designed as simple as possible to increase the sampling frequency as much as possible. The weights obtained through neural network training are then used to construct the transfer function of a mode in z-domain and to identify modal properties of each mode. By using the identified transfer function and interpolating the mode shape obtained at sensor locations, the displacement and velocity responses are estimated with reasonable accuracy at any locations on the structure. The accuracy of the response estimates depends on the number of modes incorporated in the estimates and the number of sensors employed to conduct mode shape interpolation. Computer simulation demonstrates that the algorithm is capable of adapting to the varying dynamic characteristics of structural properties. Experimental implementation of the algorithm on a DSP (digital signal processing) board for a plate structure is underway. The algorithm is expected to reach the sampling frequency range of about 10 kHz to 20 kHz which needs to be maintained for a typical active noise control application.

Lim, Tae W.

1994-01-01

314

The Eclipsing Binary On-Line Atlas (EBOLA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conjunction with the upcoming release of \\it Binary Maker 3.0, an extensive on-line database of eclipsing binaries is being made available. The purposes of the atlas are: \\begin {enumerate} Allow quick and easy access to information on published eclipsing binaries. Amass a consistent database of light and radial velocity curve solutions to aid in solving new systems. Provide invaluable querying capabilities on all of the parameters of the systems so that informative research can be quickly accomplished on a multitude of published results. Aid observers in establishing new observing programs based upon stars needing new light and/or radial velocity curves. Encourage workers to submit their published results so that others may have easy access to their work. Provide a vast but easily accessible storehouse of information on eclipsing binaries to accelerate the process of understanding analysis techniques and current work in the field. \\end {enumerate} The database will eventually consist of all published eclipsing binaries with light curve solutions. The following information and data will be supplied whenever available for each binary: original light curves in all bandpasses, original radial velocity observations, light curve parameters, RA and Dec, V-magnitudes, spectral types, color indices, periods, binary type, 3D representation of the system near quadrature, plots of the original light curves and synthetic models, plots of the radial velocity observations with theoretical models, and \\it Binary Maker 3.0 data files (parameter, light curve, radial velocity). The pertinent references for each star are also given with hyperlinks directly to the papers via the NASA Abstract website for downloading, if available. In addition the Atlas has extensive searching options so that workers can specifically search for binaries with specific characteristics. The website has more than 150 systems already uploaded. The URL for the site is http://ebola.eastern.edu/.

Bradstreet, D. H.; Steelman, D. P.; Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.

2004-05-01

315

Biomass gasification with steam in fluidized bed: Effectiveness of CaO, MgO, and CaO-MgO for hot raw gas cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrading of the raw hot gas from a bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier is studied using cheap calcined minerals or rocks downstream from the gasifier. Biomass gasification is made with steam (not air) at 750--780 C and about 0.5--1.0 kg of biomass\\/h. Calcined solids used are dolomite (MgO-CaO), pure calcite (CaO), and pure magnesite (MgO). Variables studied have been

Jesús Delgado; María P. Aznar; José Corella

1997-01-01

316

CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal\\/structural interface in fusion first-wall\\/blanket applications. Electrical resistance of CaO coatings that were produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li containing 0.5-85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600°C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted

J. H. Park; T. F. Kassner

1995-01-01

317

CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V?Cr?Ti alloys in liquid lithium system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal\\/structural interface in fusion first-wall\\/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V?5%Cr?5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5–85 wt% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600°C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted

J.-H. Park; T. F. Kassner

1996-01-01

318

Kinetics of SO{sub 2} sorption from air by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO  

SciTech Connect

Removal of sulfur dioxide from gases, which is an important problem, can be accomplished by various methods, in particular, by low-temperature adsorption and high-temperature chemical uptake. This communication presents data on the kinetics of sorption of sulfur dioxide from air by alumina and calcium oxide. Sorption and chemical uptake of SO{sub 2} from air by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO have been studied.

Vitvitskii, A.I.; Voronina, E.V. [Russian Scientific Center, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-01-20

319

Solution derived 12CaO·7Al 2O 3 thin films on MgO(1 0 0) substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7) is known as a component of alumina cement and shows various remarkable properties: generation of high oxidizing power using oxygen radical O?, high electric conductivity (?1500Scm?1) for the electron clathrated one, etc. Most of the C12A7 thin film fabrication processes reported have been based on PLD method so far, which require high vacuum level and high energy consumption.

Naonori Sakamoto; Yuki Matsuyama; Masahito Hori; Naoki Wakiya; Hisao Suzuki

2010-01-01

320

Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates by PO(OH) x (OBut) 3?x and CaO 2 C 2 H 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an alkoxide solution route to synthesize Ca phosphates was developed. For the precursors, a CaO2C2H4 solution was prepared by dissolving Ca metal powder into ethylene glycol, and a PO(OH)x(OBut)3-x solution was prepared by dissolving P2O5 inton -butanol under reflux conditions. In order to obtain a mixed solution of the two precursors, acetic acid was used as an

Wenjian Weng; J. L. Baptista

1997-01-01

321

Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activities of metallic oxide (ZnO, MgO and CaO) powders against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were quantitatively evaluated by measuring the change in electrical conductivity of the growth medium caused by bacterial metabolism (conductimetric assay). The obtained conductivity curves were analyzed using the growth inhibition kinetic model proposed by Takahashi for calorimetric evaluation, and the metallic oxides were determined

J. Sawai

2003-01-01

322

Identification of CaSO sub 4 formed by reaction of CaO and SO sub 2 (journal article). Report for October 1988March 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injection of calcium-based sorbents into coal-fired boilers for reaction with, and reduction in the levels of, sulfur dioxide (SOâ) in the flue gas has undergone considerable research and development. Significant effort has also been made in developing models for the overall reaction CaO + SOâ + 1\\/2 Oâ <-> CaSOâ in order to better predict the effects of system

B. K. Gullett; K. R. Bruce

1989-01-01

323

A Compton imaging algorithm for on-line monitoring in hadron therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hadron therapy, a subject of study by the ENVISION project, promises to provide enhanced accuracy in the treatment of cancer. The Bragg-peak, characteristic of the hadron-beam structure provides larger dose to the tumor while being able to spare surrounding tissue - even tissues in the beam-path, beyond the tumor-site. However, increased dose gradients require more precise treatment, as small beam misalignment can result in dose to healthy, often delicate, surrounding tissue. The requirement for accuracy necessitates imaging during therapy, yet the lack of a transmitted beam makes this difficult. The particulate beam interacts with the target material producing neutrons, positron emitting isotopes and a broad spectra of gamma radiation. Photons from positron-annihilation allow in-beam PET to provide on-line measurements of dose deposition during therapy. However, ib-PET suffers from low statistics and lost projections due to low sensitivity and detector constraints respectively. Instead, Compton imaging of gamma radiation is proposed to provide on-line monitoring for hadron therapy. Compton imaging suffers similarly from low statistics, especially, as is the case here, when incident energy is unknown. To surmount this problem, a method of Compton image reconstruction is proposed and tested using simulated data, which reconstructs incident energy along with the spatial variation in emission density. Through incident energy estimation, a larger range of measurements are available for image-reconstruction - greatly increasing the sensitivity of the system. It is shown in this preliminary study that, even with few statistics, a reasonable estimate of the beam path is calculable.

Gillam, J. E.; Lacasta, C.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Candela Juan, C.; Llosá, G.; Solevi, P.; Barrio, J.; Rafecas, M.

2011-03-01

324

CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V?Cr?Ti alloys in liquid lithium system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V?5%Cr?5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600°C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420°C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was ? 10 6 ? at 400°C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700°C changed the coating layer resistance, which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at ? 360°C.

Park, J.-H.; Kassner, T. F.

1996-10-01

325

CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium system  

SciTech Connect

Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Electrical resistance of CaO coatings that were produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li containing 0.5-85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance, which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {>=}360{degrees}C.

Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

1995-09-01

326

Oxidation Studies of SiAlON/MgAlON Ceramics with Fe2O3 and CaO Impurities, Part I: Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T he oxidation behaviors of composites SiAlON/MgAlON phases (?-SiAlON, 15R-SiAlON and MgAlON) synthesized from the residue during the leaching treatment of salt cake and corresponding synthetic samples were investigated in air by thermogravimetric measurements. Combined kinetics, viz. linear law + arctan law + parabolic law, are used to describe the kinetics of oxidation in isothermal mode. The oxidation studies reveal the effects of impurities, namely, Fe2O3 and CaO, present in the salt cake residue. The addition of Fe2O3 results in a lower activation energy and more aggressive oxidation. The addition of CaO caused the shrinkage during the synthesis and liquid formation during the oxidation above 1673 K (1400 °C). The impurities of CaO and Fe2O3 in the leaching residue can result in an aggressive oxidation at low temperature and a protective oxidation at temperatures above the eutectic point.

Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Teng, Lidong; Seetharaman, Seshadri

2013-02-01

327

The rates of desulfurization of liquid iron by solid CaO and CaO-saturated liquid iron oxide at 1600‡c  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rates of desulfurization of Fe-O-S melts by CaO crucibles and by CaO-saturated liquid iron oxide have been measured at 1600 ‡C. It was found that irons containing 1.62 wt pct and 0.64 wt pct sulfur and 0.070 wt pct oxygen are desulfurized by a reaction with the containing CaO crucible which does not involve the formation of a CaS product layer. The rate of desulfurization reaction is controlled by diffusion of sulfur in the iron melt, and a value of 6.7 ±1.7 × 10-5 cm2 per second was obtained for the diffusion coefficient of sulfur in liquid iron. Iron containing 0.088 wt pct sulfur and 0.070 wt pct oxygen is not desulfurized by solid CaO. The rate of desulfurization of liquid iron containing 0.088 wt pct sulfur and 0.070 wt pct oxygen by CaO-saturated liquid iron oxide is significantly greater than that calculated on the assumption of diffusion control in the metal phase, and evidence is presented in support of speculation that the reaction rate is enhanced by Marangoni turbulence at the slag-metal interface. The addition of 4 wt pct CaF2 to the CaO-saturated liquid iron oxide has no influence on the rate of desulfurization of the melt.

Saelim, A.; Gaskell, D. R.

1983-06-01

328

On-line Geoscience Data Resources for Today's Undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadening the experience of undergraduates can be achieved by enabling free, unrestricted and convenient access to real scientific data. With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) serves as the integrated data portal for various NSF-funded projects and provides free public access and preservation to a wide variety of marine and terrestrial data including rock, fluid, biology and sediment samples information, underway geophysical data and multibeam bathymetry, water column and multi-channel seismics data. Users can easily view the locations of cruise tracks, sample and station locations against a backdrop of a multi-resolution global digital elevation model. A Search For Data web page rapidly extracts data holdings from the database and can be filtered on data and device type, field program ID, investigator name, geographical and date bounds. The data access experience is boosted by the MGDS use of standardised OGC-compliant Web Services to support uniform programmatic interfaces. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/), a free MGDS data visualization tool, supports map-based dynamic exploration of a broad suite of geosciences data. Built-in land and marine data sets include tectonic plate boundary compilations, DSDP/ODP core logs, earthquake events, seafloor photos, and submersible dive tracks. Seamless links take users to data held by external partner repositories including PetDB, UNAVCO, IRIS and NGDC. Users can generate custom maps and grids and import their own data sets and grids. A set of short, video-style on-line tutorials familiarises users step- by-step with GeoMapApp functionality (http://www.geomapapp.org/tutorials/). Virtual Ocean (http://www.virtualocean.org/) combines the functionality of GeoMapApp with a 3-D earth browser built using the NASA WorldWind API for a powerful new data resource. MGDS education involvement (http://www.marine-geo.org/, go to Education tab) includes the searchable Media Bank of images and video; KML files for viewing several MGDS data sets in Google Earth (tm); support in developing undergraduate- level teaching modules using NSF-MARGINS data. Examples of many of these data sets will be shown.

Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; Arko, R.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Leung, A.; Bonckzowski, J.

2008-12-01

329

Analysis of hexavalent chromium in Colla corii asini with on-line sample pretreatment valve-switching ion chromatography.  

PubMed

An ion chromatography (IC) system with on-line sample pretreatment using valve-switching technique was developed for the determination of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in Colla corii asini. Colla corii asini is a complicated sample with organics as main matrix. In this work, a polymer-based reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column. Via valve-switching technique, sample solution with target ions were eluted from a collection loop to analytical columns, with matrix eliminated on-line. Under the optimized separation conditions, the method showed good linearity (r=0.9998) in the range of 0.004-1.0mg/L and satisfactory repeatability (RSD<3%, n=6). The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.4?g/L (S/N=3). The average spiked recoveries of Cr(VI) were 93.4-102.0%. The result showed that the on-line sample pretreatment IC system was convenient and practical for the determination of trace Cr(VI) in Colla corii asini samples. PMID:23891376

Yang, Yuling; He, Jie; Huang, Zhongping; Zhong, Naifei; Zhu, Zuoyi; Jiang, Renyu; You, Jinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Zhu, Yan; He, Shiwei

2013-08-30

330

The design of an on-line monitor in IMAGO system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using mobile agents to implement distributed applications is a new trend in network computing in these years. In order to show the performance as well as execution status of a mobile agent system, an on-line system monitor is required. This paper proposes a new on-line monitor strategy in IMAGO (intelligent mobile agent gliding-online) system. The IMAGO on-line monitor captures run-time

Ning Dai; Xining Li

2005-01-01

331

On-line haemodiafiltration. Safety and efficacy in long-term clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

with on-line HDF. The study covers two aspects: first,0.5±0.4 ml\\/min in the remaining patients. analysis of the population treated, and second evalu- ation of the microbiological safety and efficacy of high-flux HDF used routinely. On-line HDF, treatment schedule and operational conditions The treatment schedule was based on three HDF sessions\\/week for all patients with a session lasting 3-4 h. On-line

B. Canaud; J. Y. Bosc; H. Leray-Moragues; F. Stec; A. Argiles; M. Leblanc; C. Mion

332

Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

2011-09-30

333

Building robust appearance models using on-line feature selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many tracking applications, adapting the target appearance model over time can improve performance. This approach is most popular in high frame rate video applications where latent variables, related to the objects appearance (e.g., orientation and pose), vary slowly from one frame to the next. In these cases the appearance model and the tracking system are tightly integrated, and latent variables are often included as part of the tracking system's dynamic model. In this paper we describe our efforts to track cars in low frame rate data (1 frame / second), acquired from a highly unstable airborne platform. Due to the low frame rate, and poor image quality, the appearance of a particular vehicle varies greatly from one frame to the next. This leads us to a different problem: how can we build the best appearance model from all instances of a vehicle we have seen so far. The best appearance model should maximize the future performance of the tracking system, and maximize the chances of reacquiring the vehicle once it leaves the field of view. We propose an online feature selection approach to this problem and investigate the performance and computational trade-offs with a real-world dataset.

Porter, R.; Loveland, R.; Rosten, E.

2007-04-01

334

Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited).  

PubMed

A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented. PMID:24593628

Marsh, B A

2014-02-01

335

A strategy for high-speed countercurrent chromatography purification of specific antioxidants from natural products based on on-line HPLC method with radical scavenging assay.  

PubMed

We have proposed a novel and first strategy of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) purification for the efficient and effective discovery of antioxidant from natural product based on on-line HPLC method with radical scavenging assay. To achieve a strategy for HSCCC purification, the antioxidants in materials are identified by on-line HPLC with DPPH radical scavenging assay. Then, the optimal condition of target peaks would be investigated for the two-phase solvent system, and purified by HSCCC. In this study, the specific antioxidants in red cabbage, perilla and elderberry pigments were evaluated by on-line HPLC with DPPH radical scavenging assay, and purified by HSCCC technique. Specific antioxidants could be rapidly pinpointed in complex mixtures by on-line HPLC with DPPH radical scavenging assay. Then, the optimal two-phase solvent systems were investigated using these HPLC peaks. Finally, the purification of these nine antioxidants form three mixtures were performed by HSCCC. Using mass spectrometric analysis, these antioxidants were confirmed to cyanidin-based anthocyanin from red cabbage and elderberry pigments, and luteolin-based flavones from perrilla pigment. Due to the advantages derived from on-line HPLC with DPPH radical scavenging assay and HSCCC technique, a rapid, efficient and effective strategy has been developed for the discovery of antioxidants from natural products. PMID:23442686

Inoue, Koichi; Baba, Erika; Hino, Tomoaki; Oka, Hisao

2012-10-15

336

Limits on Line Bisector Variability for Stars with Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an analysis of high-resolution synoptic spectra of ten F- and G-type stars, seven of which exhibit periodic radial velocity variations due to the presence of one or more substellar companions. We searched for subtle periodic variations in photospheric line asymmetry, as characterized by line bisectors. In principle, periodic variations in line asymmetry observed at lower spectral resolution could mimic the radial velocity signature of a companion, but we find no significant evidence of such behavior in our data. Observations were obtained from 1998 March to 1999 February using the National Solar Observatory (NSO) 1.52-m McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope Facility on Kitt Peak in conjunction with the solar-stellar spectrograph, achieving a resolving power of 1.2x10(exp5). To characterize line asymmetry, we first measured line bisectors for the unblended Fe I photospheric line at 625.26 nm. To improve sensitivity to small fluctuations, we then combined points in each bisector to form a velocity displacement with respect to the line core. We searched for periodic variations in this displacement, finding no substantial difference between stars with substellar companions and those without reported companions. We find no correlation between bisector velocity displacement and the known orbital phase of substellar companions around our target stars. Simulations of a periodic signal with noise levels that mimic our measurement errors suggest that we can exclude bisector variations with amplitudes greater than about 20 m/s. These results support the conclusion that extrasolar planets best explain the observed periodic variations in radial velocity.

Povich, M. S.; Giampapa, M. S.; Valenti, J. A.; Tilleman, T.; Barden, S.; Deming, D.; Livingston, W. C.; Pilachowski, C.

2000-01-01

337

High-intensity atomic oxygen radical anion emission mechanism from 12CaO·7Al 2O 3 crystal surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12CaO · 7Al 2O 3 (C12A7) crystal is an interesting material where a large amount of O -(c) and O 2-(c) can be formed and trapped in the cages when it is sintered in dry oxygen. The emissive features of this material including the emission species, temperature dependence, field dependence, emission branch ratio, emission stability, the effects of water on the emission intensity, have been investigated. The temperature and oxygen pressure dependences of the electrical conductivity have also been measured. The mechanisms of the O - emission have been discussed based on the investigations of the emission and electrical conductivity features.

Li, Quanxin; Hosono, Hideo; Hirano, Masahiro; Hayashi, Katsuro; Nishioka, Masateru; Kashiwagi, Hideo; Torimoto, Yoshifumi; Sadakata, Masayoshi

2003-03-01

338

Thermal reactions of aromatics with CaO. Technical progress report, September 1, 1980-April 30, 1981. [Compounds tested -1-methylnaphthalene, toulene, benzene, n-heptane  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed near atmospheric pressure for the temperature range 550 to 950/sup 0/C. Helium carrier gas containing 3 mole % of the vapor phase reactant was passed through approximately 5.5-cm-deep, 0.7-cm-ID packed beds containing calcium oxide or quartz (for comparison studies). Contact times were approximately 2 s and around 5 mg of pure compound were fed in each run. Reaction products and unreacted feed were collected and analyzed. Carbon balances were performed on selected runs. The effects of CaO source and the method of CaO preparation were also investigated. Extents of conversion, and product distributions for n-heptane cracking were similar for calcium oxide and for quartz. However, the temperature for removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from the helium hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of calcium oxide was reduced 140 to 180/sup 0/C from that with quartz. The temperature required for 20% conversion of each compound in the presence of calcium oxide and quartz respectively were: 1 - methylnaphthalene - 570 and 750/sup 0/C; toluene - 685 and 825/sup 0/C; benzene 750 and 890/sup 0/C; and n-heptane 585 and 610/sup 0/C. The reactivity of the aromatics increased with addition of a methyl group or a second aromatic ring to the molecule. Coke is the major product from the reaction of each aromatic. Methane yields from 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were lower in the reactions over calcium oxide. On a unit weight basis calcium oxide obtained by calcining calcium hydroxide at final reaction temperatures was more active for benzene cracking than CaO obtained by calcining limestone. Calcium oxide cracking activity declines as coke is deposited on its surface but may be at least partially regenerated by burning off the coke. Apparent activation energies obtained by fitting a single reaction first order decomposition model to the data were lower for aromatics cracking over CaO compared to quartz but the opposite effect was found for n-heptane.

Longwell, J.P.; Ellig, D.L.; Krasniak, S.; Lai, S.C.K.; Williams, G.C.; Peters, W.A.

1981-07-01

339

Sol–gel derived 6CaO·6SrO·7Al 2O 3 thin films using metal alkoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel 6CaO·6SrO·7Al2O3 (C6S6A7) thin films were deposited onto soda lime glass substrate using calcium, strontium, aluminium isopropoxide and 2-methoxy ethanol as starting materials via sol–gel dip coating technique. The electrical and optical properties of C6S6A7 films were investigated for films sample annealed at 450°C for 2h in air and hydrogen (H2) atmosphere, respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transformed

P. M. Chavhan; Anubha Sharma; R. K. Sharma; CheolGi Kim; N. K. Kaushik

2011-01-01

340

Case Study: Collaborative Creation of an On-Line Degree Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty collaboratively developed an on-line Bachelor of Science degree in Consumer Science and Merchandising (CSM). Part-time faculty and technical support services supported the four-member team. Small grants assisted in the creation and redesign of all CSM major courses for on-line delivery. Issues of appropriate learning strategies, student…

Stewart, Barbara L.; Norwood, Marcella; Ezell, Shirley; Waight, Consuelo

2006-01-01

341

An Effective Way of Teaching Early Childhood Education On-Line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of a Temple University course on curriculum in early childhood education that provides 60 percent of instruction on-line. Includes information on course design, instructional methods, course implementation, and student course evaluation. Found that students' views about on-line instruction were positive overall and that…

Guha, Smita

2001-01-01

342

On-Line Monitoring of Large Petri Net Models Under Partial Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the on-line monitoring of large systems modeled as Petri Nets under partial observation. The plant observation is given by a subset of transitions whose occurrence is (always) acknowledged by emitting a label received by the monitoring agent at the time of the occurrence. Other transitions not in this subset are silent (unobservable). Usually on-line applications require

George Jiroveanu; René K. Boel; Behzad Bordbar

2008-01-01

343

Biologicaly inspired on-line generation of complex movements using primitives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility of using primitives for on-line generation of complex movements that ensure motion of bipedal humanoid robots in unstructured environment where on-line generation of motion is required. Primitives represent simple movements that are either reflex or learned. Each primitive has its parameters and constraints that are determined on the basis of

Branislav Borovac; Mirko Rakovic; Milutin Nikolic

2011-01-01

344

The Anatomy of Program Design for an On-Line Business Management Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does one design an on-line course to bridge theory and practice? How can the feedback of on-going stakeholder (student and administration) be incorporated into the design process to enhance quality? This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of designing an on-line management course recognized as best practice for a "well organized…

Barger, Bonita

2008-01-01

345

Report on On-Line Trial Test for Fourth-Grade Students -- May 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On-line trial testing for fourth-grade students was an exploratory study realized as a part of the project "Developing annual test of students' achievement in Nature & Society" realized by Institute for Education Quality and Evaluation. Main ideas of the study were to explore possibilities for on-line testing at national level in Serbia, and to…

Verbic, Srdjan; Tomic, Boris; Kartal, Vesna

2010-01-01

346

Interactive On-Line Continuing Medical Education: Physicians' Perceptions and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Although research in continuing medical education (CME) demonstrates positive outcomes of on-line CME programs, the effectiveness of and learners' satisfaction with interpersonal interaction in on-line CME are lower. Defined as faculty-learner or learner-learner interpersonal interaction, this study explores physicians' perceptions…

Sargeant, Joan; Curran, Vernon; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ferrier, Suzanne; Allen, Michael; Kirby, Frances; Ho, Kendall

2004-01-01

347

Standardizing Evaluation of On-Line Continuing Medical Education: Physician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Reflection on Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Physicians increasingly earn continuing medical education (CME) credits through on-line courses, but there have been few rigorous evaluations to determine their effects. The present study explores the feasibility of implementing standardized evaluation templates and tests them to evaluate 30 on-line CME courses. Methods: A time…

Casebeer, Linda; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl; Reilly, Michael; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Rabin, Andrew; Zheng, Shimin; Karp, Simone; Myers, Lloyd

2004-01-01

348

Practical experience and results with an advanced on-line gasoline blend optimization system  

SciTech Connect

Refinery profit margins increased significantly by using the on-line gasoline blend optimization system which allows considerable savings resulting from octane give-away reduction, appreciably enhanced butane utilization, optimum use of the available blend components, and increased operating flexibility by elimination of reblends. The experience with this advanced on-line blending system is described in this paper.

Serpemen, Y.; Baumeister, K.H.; Hubel, A.; Raichel, P. (Veba Oel Entwicklungs-Gessellschaft mbH, Gelsenkirchen (DE))

1989-01-01

349

Pulse interferences elimination and classification of on-line UHF PD signals for power transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw on-line monitoring PD data for transformers consist of true PD signals as well as several kinds of interference signals too. Among the interference signals, pulse type interference signals are the most difficult to eliminate. In this paper, we propose a set of practical pulse type interference signals elimination method for an on-line UHF PD monitoring system of a 500

Tang Zhiguo; Wang Caixiong; Li Chengrong; Zhao Dianquan; Xu Runguang

2008-01-01

350

College Students' Choice Modeling of Taking On-Line International Business Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand students' choice behavior of taking on-line international business courses, a survey study is conducted to collect information regarding students' actual choices of taking on-line courses and potential factors that may have impacts on students' choices of online learning. Potential factors such as enrollment status, demographic…

Yeh, Robert S.

2006-01-01

351

On-Line Literature Search and Full Articles in the NASA ADS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ADS provides free world-wide on-line access to over 2.2 million abstracts and over 1 million scanned pages of the astronomical and planetary literature plus over 4 million links to other relevant on-line information at http://ads.harvard.edu. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

2001-01-01

352

High School Open On-Line Courses (HOOC): A Case Study from Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first implementation of complete high school, open on-line courses (HOOC) aiming to support the training and basic scientific knowledge of young students from the Liceo Ginnasio Dante Alighieri in Gorizia, Italy, is discussed. Using the open source and automated recording system openEyA, HOOC give a student the opportunity to watch on-line, at…

Canessa, Enrique; Pisani, Armando

2013-01-01

353

Improvement plans for the RHIC/AGS on-line model environments  

SciTech Connect

The on-line models for Relativistic Ion Collider (RHIC) and the RHIC pre-injectors (the AGS and the AGS Booster) can be thought of as containing our best collective knowledge of these accelerators. As we improve these on-line models we are building the framework to have a sophisticated model-based controls system. Currently the RHIC on-line model is an integral part of the controls system, providing the interface for tune control, chromaticity control, and non-linear chromaticity control. What we discuss in this paper is our vision of the future of the on-line model environment for RHIC and the RHIC preinjectors. Although these on-line models are primarily used as Courant-Snyder parameter calculators using live machine settings, we envision expanding these environments to encompass many other problem domains.

Brown,K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tepikian, S.

2009-08-31

354

Targets Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This directory is intended to serve as a quick-look reference of target information. Section 1 describes target command and control systems, while section 2 discusses specific aerial, land, seaborne, and tow targets. Appendixes contain government points o...

1988-01-01

355

[Target infrared detection in target spray].  

PubMed

Crops in agriculture and forestry are normally planted discretely. The chemical sprayed between crops would cause great waste and serious environment pollution. Therefore realization of the precision spray has great significance. This research discussed the method to realize automatic target detection using infrared detect technology. The infrared can avoid the interference of the visible light effectively and the response speed is very fast. Therefore it can be used to implement non-tough detection. Photoelectric detection systems based on infrared detect technology are normally stable, reliable, low cost, simple structure, and easy to be practically utilized. Therefore it is widely used in the on-line real time detection field. Its key point is to determinate the characteristic wavelength or wave band. The infrared lights emitted from the infrared light emitting diode were irradiated to the detected objects. The reflected infrared lights could be received by the photoelectric device. Then control signal was triggered and automatic target spray was realized. Code-division infrared detection circuit was used in the system. Modulated pulse infrared signals using different coding were used in different photodetector units in the built system so as to eliminate the light path interference between different detector units and other light signal interferences. Therefore the interference capacity of the system is high. The test results showed that the automatic target spray equipment set up in the study could detect crop targets automatically. The light wavelength used in the test is 850 nm. The detection range was tunable within 0.1-0.5 m. The least targets detectable distance was less than 0.3 m. PMID:19123390

Deng, Wei; He, Xiong-kui; Zhang, Lu-da; Zeng, Ai-jun; Song, Jian-li; Zou, Jian-jun

2008-10-01

356

The effects of Mn2+ doping on the luminescence properties of 12CaO 7Al2O:Eu2+ nanocrystal phosphor.  

PubMed

The long lasting blue phosphorescence (LLP) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) after ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature in 12CaO 7Al2O3:xEu2+, yMn2+ (x = 0, 0.001; y = 0, 0.01) prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method were observed. It was shown that novel oxide 12CaO 7Al2O3:Eu2+, Mn2+ (C12A7:Eu2+, Mn2+) with unique nanocage structure can store energy when irradiated with 365 nm photons. And photon energy can be subsequently released by exposed to 980 nm light. The codopant Mn2+ enhances the intensity of the persistent phosphorescence and PSL due to the existence of more shallow and new deeper electron traps in C12A7: Eu2+, Mn2+. A model for energy storing and recovering and the detailed mechanism of PSL are presented through comparing with the luminescence properties of the co-doped C12A7:Eu2+, Mn2+ and C12A7:Eu2+. PMID:22413331

Yan, X L; Liu, Y X; Yan, D T; Zhu, H C; Liu, C G; Xu, C S

2011-11-01

357

Surface defects and their impact on the electronic structure of Mo-doped CaO films: an STM and DFT study.  

PubMed

The functionality of doped oxides sensitively depends on the spatial distribution of the impurity ions and their interplay with compensating defects in the lattice. In our combined scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) study, we analyze defects occurring in Mo-doped CaO(001) films at the atomic scale. By means of topographic imaging, we identify common point and line defect in the doped oxide, in particular Mo donors and compensating Ca vacancies. The influence of charged defects on the oxide electronic structure is analyzed by STM conductance spectroscopy. The experimentally observed defect features are connected to typical point defects in the CaO lattice by means of DFT calculations. Apart from the identification of individual defects, our study reveals a pronounced inhomogeneity of the oxide electronic structure, reflecting the uneven spatial distribution of dopants in the lattice. Our results provide the basis for a better understanding of adsorption and reaction patterns on doped oxides, as widely used in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:24837555

Cui, Yi; Shao, Xiang; Prada, Stefano; Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Nilius, Niklas

2014-06-01

358

Phase equilibria in the system HfO[sub 2]-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-CaO  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on phase equilibria in the system HfO[sub 2]-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-CaO which were studied in the temperature range 1250[degrees] to 2850[degrees]C by both experimental methods (X-ray phase analysis at 20[degrees] to 2000[degrees]C, petrography, annealing and quenching, differential thermal analysis in He at temperatures to 2500[degrees]C, thermal analysis in air using a solar furnace at temperatures to 3000[degrees]C, and electron microprobe X-ray analysis) and theoretical means (development of a mathematical model for the liquidus surface by means of the reduced polynomial method). Phase equilibria were determined by the structure of the restricting binary systems. No ternary compounds were found. The liquidus was characterized by the presence of six four-phase, invariant equilibria. Solid solutions were based on monoclinic (M), tetragonal (T), and cubic (F) modifications of HfO[sub 2]; C and H forms of Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]; CaO; and CaHfO[sub 3] that crystallized in two polymorphous modifications, namely, the cubic and rhombic perovskite-type structure.

Andrievskaya, E.R.; Lopato, L.M. (Inst. of Materials Science Problems, 252142 Kiev, Ukraine (USSR))

1992-11-01

359

Moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) model-based automatic target recognition: search technology for a robust ATR  

Microsoft Academic Search

DARPA\\/Air Force Research Laboratory Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) program is developing state-of-the-art model based vision approach to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). The model-based approach requires using off-line developed target models in an on-line hypothesize-and-test manner to compare predicted target signatures with image data and output target reports. Central to this model-based ATR

Joseph R. Diemunsch; John Wissinger

1998-01-01

360

On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography, with emphasis on modern bioanalysis and miniaturized systems.  

PubMed

On-line solid phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography (LC) allows for automated, sensitive, precise and selective bioanalysis. It is a common feature in miniaturized- or nano LC systems, which are well suited for applications requiring high sensitivity and/or treatment of limited samples (laser micro-dissection samples, rare cancer stem cells, etc.). Traditionally, particles with reversed phase (RP) functional groups are used for the columns in SPE-LC systems. There is however an expanding diversity in SPE-LC combinations applied to meet today's bioanalytical challenges. Current online SPE-LC combinations employ, e.g. porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) materials for metabolomics and glycomics, restricted access media (RAM) columns coupled with nano LC for peptidomics, immunoaffinity trap columns for targeted proteomics and metal oxide affinity phases for phosphopeptide analysis. However, issues can arise when combining different phases in on-line SPE-LC, e.g. due to solvent incompatibilities between enrichment/separation principles and sample solvent requirements. Consequences can be low recovery and poor resolution, or need for additional instrumentation. On-line SPE-LC with very narrow columns (10-20 ?m inner diameters) can be appropriate to obtain maximum sensitivity and information. In such highly miniaturized systems, non-particulate columns are arguably more suited (e.g. monolithic or porous layer open tubular (PLOT) columns) as e.g. hardware contributions resulting in extra column volumes are reduced. Basic SPE-LC systems can be configured/modified to perform quite complex analytical operations, and certain columns, configurations and hardware can improve robustness. PMID:23746991

Rogeberg, Magnus; Malerod, Helle; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Aass, Cecilie; Wilson, Steven Ray

2014-01-01

361

A Study of On-Line Use of Job Information in Employment Service Local Offices. Volume I: An On-Line Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was an experiment in the use of an on-line placement system in Boulder, Colorado. The experiment permitted applicants to request information from a terminal on any job stored on the computer. Every long term job order received by the local offic...

M. S. Cohen

1975-01-01

362

An artificial intelligence framework for on-line transient stability assessment of power systems  

SciTech Connect

A new framework is proposed to tackle the on-line transient stability problem of power systems. Based on artificial intelligence, it successively makes use of an inductive inference method to automatically build decision rules, and a deductive inference method to apply them on-line. This paper attempts to lay the foundations of an inductive inference method, where the rules explicitly relate a system's stability with relevant static parameters of it. A simple but realistic power system is treated to illustrate important features of the method and to suggest how the derived decision rules could be used on-line.

Wehenkel, L.; VanCutsem, T.; Ribbens-Pavella, M.

1989-05-01

363

First on-line results from the CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) beam line at ISOLDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) experiment at the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, CERN, has been constructed for high-sensitivity laser spectroscopy measurements on radioactive isotopes. The technique determines the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spin and changes in mean-square charge radii of exotic nuclei via measurement of their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts. In November 2011 the first on-line run was performed using the CRIS beam line, when the hyperfine structure of 207Fr was successfully measured. This paper will describe the technique and experimental setup of CRIS and present the results from the first on-line experiment.

Procter, T. J.; Flanagan, K. T.

2013-04-01

364

The ASDC Multi Mission Interactive Archive: on line analysis of the Swift/XRT data  

SciTech Connect

We present the Swift/XRT Interactive Archive and the On-line Analysis tool developed at the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) as part of the Multi Mission Interactive Archive. The On-line Analysis enables to run the Swift/XRT software task ''xrtpipeline'' on any desired XRT observation present in the Swift data archive maintained at ASDC, directly on the web. On-line imaging (with XIMAGE), spectral (with XSPEC) and timing data analysis (with LCURVE) can be performed. At the same time, spectra, light curves, effective area, exposure map and response matrix are promptly available for download to the user for any off-line analysis.

Stratta, G.; Capalbi, M.; Perri, M. [ASDC, via G. Galilei, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Giommi, P. [ASI-ASDC c/o ESRIN, Via G. Galilei, I-00040, Frascati (Italy)

2010-10-15

365

Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA. [Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements (< 1200/sup 0/C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter /sup 37/Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..beta..-..gamma.. experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system.

Moltz, D M; Aysto, J; Cable, M D; Parry, R F; Haustein, P E; Wouters, J M; Cerny, J

1980-01-01

366

A test-bench for isotope separator on-line of Beijing radioactive ion-beam facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test-bench for isotope separator on-line of Beijing radioactive ion-beam facility (BRISOL) has been built in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The test-bench consists of target station, charge exchange cell, mass separator, quadrupole, hexapole, multipole and beam diagnostic system. It is nearly the same configuration as the first stage of BRISOL and all these components will be used on the BRISOL. A series of experiments have been carried out on this test-bench, and the primary results showed that all the components worked well. A Li+ beam has been generated from the positive surface-ionization source and its emittance and the transmission of the beam line have been measured. The design, construction and experimental results of this test-bench have been presented.

Tang, Bing; Ma, Ruigang; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Lihua; Ma, Yingjun; Cui, Baoqun; Jiang, Weisheng

2013-12-01

367

Flux Synthesis for the on-Line Surveillance of Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary briefly describes the development of a calculational method suitable for on-line reactivity and power distribution monitoring (RPDM). Underlying the development of this calculational method is the expansion of the neutron flux in a complete s...

F. C. Difilippo D. G. Cacuci B. A. Worley

1984-01-01

368

On-line Vibration Diagnostics of the Optical Elements at BL-28 of the Photon Factory  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed the data of encoders attached to optical elements and developed an on-line vibration diagnostics system of the monochromator. After eliminating the vibration source we have been able to improve the performance of the monochromator.

Maruyama, T.; Kashiwagi, T. [TOYAMA Co., Ltd., 4-13-16 Hibarigaoka, Zama-shi, Kanagawa 228-0003 (Japan); Kikuchi, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Kubota, M.; Ono, K. [KEK-PF, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2007-01-19

369

Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2007-01-01

370

Continuous On-Line Coal Analysis Research and Development Limited Partnership Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the power generation industry, on-line coal analysis systems vary from relatively simple ones that determine basic characteristics such as sulfur, ash, or moisture to sophisticated ones that provide complete elemental analyses. The report is a direct r...

G. C. Hurlbert

1985-01-01

371

Introduction to the On-Line Use of Computers in Electrochemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to the on-line use of computers in various electrochemical applications is discussed. Some background is given and an indication of how the computer communicates with and controls external experiments is presented. (Author)

R. A. Osteryoung

1972-01-01

372

On-line monitoring of mercury and hydrogen chloride in hot gases from coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

A variety of analytical techniques which may be applicable to monitoring Hg or HCl in METC gasifier streams were identified. Potential approaches for on-line analysis of Hg and HCl are discussed in detail.

Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Buttermore, W.H.

1993-09-01

373

On-line chemical composition analyzer development. Status report, February 1, 1993--April 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

Garrison, A.A.

1993-06-01

374

Application of Neural Networks in Multiple Sensor Fusion for on-Line Tool Wear Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, high quality and productivity have become more and more important for Intelligent Manufacturing System (IMS). The on-line monitoring of tool condition is one of the key component in modern manufacturing. Traditional approach for tool wear...

K. Jia L. Zheng Z. Luo B. Zhang

1993-01-01

375

MHTGR steam generator on-line heat balance, instrumentation and function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instrumentation is used to measure the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) steam generator dissimilar metal weld temperature during start-up testing. Additional instrumentation is used to determine an on-line heat balance which is maintain...

R. E. Klapka W. W. Howard K. T. Etzel M. Basol N. U. Karim

1991-01-01

376

Quantitative in vivo measurements using microdialysis on-line with capillary zone electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system which couples microdialysis with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) on-line is used to monitor ascorbate and lactate in the caudate nucleus of rat brain. On-line interface of microdialysis probe and electrophoresis capillary, along with the high mass sensitivity of CZE, allows the probe to be operated at flow rates as low as 40 nl\\/min. Under these conditions, the relative

Mark W. Lada; Robert T. Kennedy

1995-01-01

377

ON-LINE METABOLIC FLUX ANALYSIS IN A PHB PRODUCTION PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-based algorithm is presented for the on-line monitoring of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and intracellular metabolic fluxes in mixed microbial cultures producing Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The method assumes the knowledge of the metabolic reactions and the respective material and energetic balances. The on-line availability of dissolved O2 , dissolved CO2, pH and off-gas concentrations of O2 and CO2 provides a

João Dias; Mário Eusébio; Luísa Serafim; Adrian Oehmen; Maria A. M. Reis; Rui Oliveira

2007-01-01

378

First structures on RyantoRainbow Line. Hframe structure on Line 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

First structures on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line. H-frame structure on Line 1 (right) has historic porcelain suspension insulators and H-frame structure on Line 2 (center) has two historic porcelain insulators and one modern non-ceramic insulator. View to north - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

379

Analysis of basic hair dyes by HPLC with on-line post-column photochemical derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of basic hair dyes (raw materials and colourant formulations). The performance of the method was enhanced by introducing post-column on-line photochemical derivatisation in combination with a Diode Array Detector. On-line photoderivatisation provided an effective way of selectively transforming the analytes to compounds with different spectral properties. For each analyte

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. DiPietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

380

On-line monitoring and control of animal-cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line analysis and control of biotechnological processes is still the stepchild in industry. In general, only parameters as dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH and temperature are controlled on-line. Important parameters as substrate and inhibitor concentrations are only measured offline. Controlling these parameters could not only result in more efficient production and higher product quality, but could also save manpower. The attitude in

Pol van der J. J

1996-01-01

381

Dynamics of On-Line Ash Monitors in Monitoring and Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line ash monitors have been in use for many years in coal industry. Their operation is usually based on the scattering or the absorption of incident gamma radiation, and the derived ash value is the result of a time-averaged measurement. The natural radiation method is also used in on-line ash content measurements. A review of the ash monitors applied in

Stanislaw Cierpisz; Adam Heyduk

2002-01-01

382

On-line tuning of fuzzy-neural network for adaptive control of nonlinear dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the adaptive fuzzy-neural controllers tuned on- line for a class of unknown nonlinear dynamical systems are proposed. To approximate the unknown nonlinear dynamical systems, the fuzzy-neural approximator is established. Furthermore, the control law and update law to tune on-line both the B-spline membership functions and the weighting factors of the adaptive fuzzy-neural controller are derived. Therefore, the

Yih-guang Leu; Tsu-tian Lee; Wei-yen Wang

1997-01-01

383

A Statistical Sampler for a New On-Line Analog Test Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work shows a new strategy to the on-line test of analog circuits. The technique presents a very low analog overhead and it is completely digital. In the System-on-Chip (SoC) environment the on-line test can be developed by using processing power already available in the system. As all the signal processing is done in the digital domain, it allows use

Marcelo Negreiros; Luigi Carro; Altamiro Amadeu Susin

2003-01-01

384

A Statistical Sampler for a New On-line Analog Test Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a new strategy to the on-line test of analog circuits is presented. The technique presents a very low analog overhead and it is completely digital. For the System-on-Chip (SoC) environment, this allows the implementation of on-line test using processing power already present in the system. As all the signal processing is done in the digital domain, it

Marcelo Negreiros; Luigi Carro; Altamiro Amadeu Susin

2002-01-01

385

On-Line Analytical Techniques for Monitoring Crystallisation Processes of Organic Speciality Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine on-line batch crystallisation processes a new integrated batch process engineering laboratory has been established providing facilities for the on-line measurement and control of:•reactant supersaturation via ATR-FTIR spectroscopy;•crystal size via acoustic attenuation spectroscopy;•particle perfection and polymorphic form via X-ray diffraction;•crystallisation on-set and meta-stable zone width via UV vis spectroscopic turbidometric measurements.These facilities are complemented via assessment of

Mike Baker; Zhiyi Cao; David Dale; Peter Erk; Leslie Ford; Heidi Groen; David Latham; Robert B. Hammond; Xiaojun Lai; Kangping Liang; David Merrifield; Patricia Mougin; Raymond Oliver; Duncan Roberts; Kevin J. Roberts; Nicolas Savelli; Alastair Thomas; Graeme White; Derek Wilkinson; Will Wood

2001-01-01

386

On-Line Bookstore System Based on JSP and JavaBean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This system is a small electronic commerce system- On-line bookstore system based on JSP and JavaBean, has self-contained onstage and background processing function, can make readers register and login, query and scan booklist, order and modify order form, view and issue message and so on, may provide convenient on-line shopping environment for the user, conforms to domestic popular electronic commerce

Bei Ru; Xueyong Li; Lei Zhang

2010-01-01

387

On line Routing per Mobile Phone A Case on Subsequent Deliveries of Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an on-going fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving\\u000a dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods\\u000a is mobile communication technology. Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable\\u000a integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system

Thomas Bieding; Simon Görtz; Andreas Klose

388

The Research of Zinc-Air Battery On-line Detection System Based on Embedded  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly presents zinc-air battery on-line detection system. The research of the on-line detection system was based on zinc-air battery production line. Using arm embedded microprocessor as the detection system core. Using sensors detect material, humidity and temperature, roller pressure in the production process, design the hardware and software platform of this detection system, and achieve the function of

Chen Qiang; Li Lei; Zhou Jing; Xiao Yanjun

2009-01-01

389

The Usability of On-line Archival Resources: The Polaris Project Finding Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study examines how the Florida State University Libraries’ Claude Pepper Library planned the first phase of the Pepper OnLine Archival Retrieval and Information System (POLARIS) Project—the development of an on-line finding aid and search engine—to provide electronic access to its unique resources. It also demonstrates how the project staff studied the research usability of the Pepper Collection finding

Burt Altman; John R. Nemmers

2001-01-01

390

Determination of antibiotic compounds in water by on-line SPE-LC\\/MSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to provide an improved approach for the analysis of antibiotics, which normally exist at low concentration in complex matrices such as receiving streams of wastewater treatment plant discharge. The analytical method developed in this study combines an existing pretreatment technique of solid-phase extraction (SPE) with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC\\/MSD) through on-line connection. The on-line connection suppressed

Keun-Joo Choi; Sang-Goo Kim; Chang-won Kim; Seung-Hyun Kim

2007-01-01

391

Development of an on-line monitoring system for mental corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the linear polarization method and the weak polarization method, a new on-line monitoring system for metal corrosion was developed, and the metal corrosion rate and polarization resistance was on-line measured and real-time displayed. Compared with the result obtained with a constant potential meter, the monitoring system have many advantages, such as stable performance, prompt measuring velocity and credible

Lingfang Sun; Jing Li; Shujuan Zhang

2008-01-01

392

On-Line Signature Verification Based on Wavelet Transform to Extract Characteristic Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line signature verification is one of the most accepted means for personal verification. This paper proposes an on-line\\u000a signature verification method based on Wavelet Transform (WT). Firstly, the method uses wavelet transform to exact characteristic\\u000a points of 3-axis force and 2-dimension coordinate of signature obtained by the F-Tablet. And then it builds 5-dimension feature\\u000a sequences and dynamically creates multi-templates using

LiPing Zhang; ZhongCheng Wu

393

Automated Medical Citation Records Creation for Web-Based On-Line Journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid expansion and utilization of the Internet and Web technologies, there is an increasing number of on-line medical journals. On-line journals pose new challenges in the areas of automated document analysis and content extraction, database citation records creation, data mining, and other document related applications. New techniques are needed to capture, classify, analyze, extract, modify, and reformat Web-based

Daniel X. Le; Loc Q. Tran; Joseph Chow; Jongwoo Kim; Susan E. Hauser; Chan W. Moon; George R. Thoma

2001-01-01

394

On-Line Diagnosis of Faulty Insulators Based on Improved ART2 Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an improved ART2 neural network is applied to on-line diagnosis of faulty insulators. Deterioration of insulator\\u000a is a gradual phenomenon. Thus, the cluster centers tend to drift during the process of recognizing on-line monitor signals.\\u000a The drifts of cluster centers cause wrong judgments. In order to solve this problem, an initial layer is settled in layer\\u000a F2.

Hailong Zhang; Weimin Guan; Genzhi Guan

2008-01-01

395

DSP-based fully digital control of an on-line UPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a DSP-based fully digital-controlled single-phase on-line uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system. All the control functions for an on-line UPS, which includes power-on start-up control, input stage power factor control, battery charging and boosting control, output stage AC voltage regulation, and shutdown control, are realized by using a single-chip DSP controller. A multiple

Ya-Tsung Feng; Che-Hung Lai; Shiu-Yung Lin; Eric Chen; Ying-Yu Tzou

2001-01-01

396

False Error Vulnerability Study of On-line Soft Error Detection Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With technology scaling, vulnerability to soft errors in random logic is increasing. There is a need for on-line error detection\\u000a and protection for logic gates even at sea level. The error checker is the key element for an on-line detection mechanism.\\u000a We compare three different checkers for error detection from the point of view of area, power and false error

M. Kiran Kumar Reddy; Bharadwaj S. Amrutur; Rubin A. Parekhji

2010-01-01

397

On-line and bulk analysis of coal and metalliferous ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal and mineral processing operations can be controlled more economically if information on process variables is obtained continuously. Much of this information can be provided by nuclear techniques. Recent Australian developments in on-line nuclear gauges are reviewed. Techniques have been developed, field tested and commercialised for the on-line analysis of ash and moisture in coal and for the in-stream determination

B. D. Sowerby

1988-01-01

398

The Body Matrix: A Phenomenological Exploration of Student Bodies On-line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores student experiences of their bodies in an asynchronous on-line learning environment, web-based computer conference (WCC), using hermeneutic phenomenology as a research method. Students in the study experience their bodies to be both here, seated in front of their computers, and there, on-line. The language they use to describe their experience of body includes metaphors around sound, vision,

Paulette Robinson

2000-01-01

399

Laser photoacoustic ethene detection from human air as on-line biomarker for lipid peroxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace gas emission from human lungs or skin can be an indication of specific physiological processes inside the body. The advantage of studying these molecular gases is that they can be performed on-line, non-invasively and quickly, when using detectors with the appropriate sensitivity. To determine whether ethene could be used as an on-line biomarker for lipid peroxidation, the exhaled air of human subjects was analyzed by means of laser-based trace gas detection.

Berkelmans, R.; Kuiper, K.; te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Scheepers, P.; Hollander, P.; Parker, D. H.; Harren, F. J. M.

1999-03-01

400

On-line deconjugation of glucuronides using an immobilized enzyme reactor based upon ?-glucuronidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immobilized enzyme reactor based upon ?-glucuronidase (BG–IMER) has been developed for the on-line deconjugation of substrates. The activity of the BG–IMER and its applicability to on-line deconjugation was investigated. The BG–IMER was coupled to a reversed-phase column (C8 or C18) and the latter column was used to separate substrates and products eluted from the ?-glucuronidase reactor. The activity of

Marika Pasternyk Di Marco; Guy Felix; Vincent Descorps; Murray P Ducharme; Irving W Wainer

1998-01-01

401

On-line measurement of pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal in pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Running conditions of pulverized coal pipes and mills are of greatly effecting on the combustion and safely operation of utilities in coal-fired power plants. However, there are less effective ways to on-line measure or diagnose the pipes or mills. Based on light fluctuation method, the on-line measurement of size and concentration of pulverized coal were presented in this work. Moreover, the velocity of pulverized coal in pipes was measured by cross correlation method. A novel on-line monitoring system was designed with above measurement principles. The on-line monitoring system was applied to measure pulverized coal pipes and mills in-situ in a 1000MW ultra supercritical unit. The unit had 48 pulverized coal pipes and adopted three-layer opposed firing pattern. The experimental results showed the on-line monitoring system can simultaneously measure the size, concentration and velocity of pulverized coal in different coal pipes accurately and quickly. Using these parameters, the running condition of pulverized coal pipes and mills can be diagnosed. Therefore, this work provided a practical method and instrument for on-line monitoring technology of pulverized coal pipes and mills.

Zhi-hai, Jia; Xue-liang, Fan; Jun-feng, Li; Xiao-shu, Cai; Ji-ze, Liu; Xiao, Cong; Jing-chen, Jia

2009-02-01

402

Bunched release of gases from oxide targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targets made out of oxides of the alkaline earth metals have been shown at ISOLDE to be among the fastest targets for production of radioactive beams of the rare gas elements. In addition oxide target materials release nitrogen and seem to be the only ones which may release the element carbon due to its oxidation to the high temperature stable CO gas. Thick targets of MgO and CaO have been studied in connection with their use at the 1 GeV pulsed proton beam from the PS-BOOSTER synchrotron. It is shown that the 2.4 ?s short proton pulse causes a pronounced bunched release with short delay of these elements which gives rise to 100-200 ms wide pulses of radioactive ion beams. Pulse shapes and overall yields of ion beams of He, Ne and Ar isotopes are studied as function of temperature and proton pulse intensity. For carbon and nitrogen also the release as function of the observed ionic species C+, CO+, N+ and N2+ is discussed.

Ravn, H. L.; Catherall, R.; Evensen, A. H. M.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Tengblad, O.; Barker, J.; Drumm, P.; Hagebø, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

1996-04-01

403

Sputter target  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

Gates, Willard G. (Kansas City, MO); Hale, Gerald J. (Overland Park, KS)

1980-01-01

404

First Measurements of Time-Dependent Nucleation as a Function of Composition in Na2O.2CaO.3SiO2 Glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first measurements in any system of the composition dependence of the time-dependent nucleation rate are presented Nucleation rates of the stoichiometric crystalline phase, Na2O.2CaO.3SiO2, from quenched glasses made with different SiO2 concentrations were determined as a function of temperature and glass composition. A strong compositional dependence of the nucleation rates and a weak dependence for the induction times are observed. Using measured values of the liquidus temperatures and growth velocities as a function of glass composition, these data are shown to be consistent with predictions from the classical theory of nucleation, assuming a composition-dependent interfacial energy.

Kelton, K. F.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi

1996-01-01

405

Generation of negative ions in the gas phase from a 12CaO.7Al2O3 membrane-coated ceramic heater under atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7) crystal is able to generate strong and high purity oxygen anion (O-) beam under reduced pressure. However, the emission of O- or related species under atmospheric pressure has not been evaluated. In this study, the characteristics of negative ion species emissions from the C12A7 membrane-coated ceramic heater under atmospheric pressure were investigated by quadrupole mass spectrometer. Negative ion species were confirmed to be emitted even under atmospheric pressure. It was supposed that the detected negative ion clusters, such as O-(H2O)n, O2-(H2O)n, and CO4-(H2O)n, were generated by the reaction of negative ions emitted from the heater with impurities in He gas.

Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Shima, Akio; Nishioka, Masateru; Sadakata, Masayoshi

2008-12-01

406

Electronic insulator-conductor conversion in hydride ion-doped 12CaO.7Al2O3 by electron-beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report formation of persistent carrier electrons in hydride ion (H-)-incorporated 12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7) by electron-beam irradiation. The electrical conductivity of H--doped C12A7 single crystals increases with the electron-beam irradiation dose, accompanied with a green coloration attributable to a carrier electron formation. A 25 keV electron beam with a dose of ~500 ?C cm-2 fully converts the conductivity in surface layers to the depth of ~4 ?m. Carrier electron formation is most likely due to electron-hole pairs generated in the electron excitation volume and subsequent energy transfer to the H- ions. The estimated carrier formation yield per an incident electron is ~30. These findings may enable a fine patterning of the conductive area without photomasks and photoresists.

Hayashi, Katsuro; Toda, Yoshitake; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Minako; Tanaka, Isao; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Hosono, Hideo

2005-01-01

407

Evidence for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-type superconducting behavior in the electride (CaO)12(Al2O3)7:e- from heat capacity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat capacity of the single crystalline electride of (CaO)12(Al2O3)7:e- (C12A7:e-) with Tc=0.2K was larger than that of electron-undoped C12A7 in the temperature range 0.085-5K , reflecting the metallic nature of the electride. A superconducting transition was detected as a heat capacity jump ?Cp=3.4mJmol-1K-1 , and the profile and magnitude of ?Cp agreed well with those expected from the BCS theory. The electron-phonon coupling constant (?˜0.46) and Debye temperature (?D˜630K) were much larger than those for alkali metals having s -like conduction electrons as in the present electride, suggesting that electrides having a rigid structure will be a class of BCS superconductors.

Kohama, Yoshimitsu; Kim, Sung Wng; Tojo, Takeo; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Atake, Tooru; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

2008-03-01

408

Effect of H2O on NO Reduction over NSR Catalyst 12CaO·7Al2O3/10%K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel NOx storage/reduction catalyst 12CaO·7Al2O3/10%K, defined as C12A7/K, was prepared, which possesses good NOx storage/reduction ability with a high sulfur-tolerance. The effect of H2O on the NO reduction features over the C12A7/K catalyst was investigated. The NO conversion and the N2 selectivity were measured as a function of temperature and H2O concentration. In the presence of 1.2% H2O, both the NO conversion and the N2 selectivity significantly decrease at lower temperature region (< 500°C). At temperatures over 500°C, however, the NO reduction is only slightly influenced by H2O. The species of NO3-/NO2- are confirmed as main storage components in the C12A7/K catalyst, which are further reduced into N2 by H2 under the reduction conditions.

Gao, Ai-mei; Wang, Hua-jing; Tu, Jing; Li, Quan-xin

2006-12-01

409

Photoinduced generation of electron anions in H-doped nanoporous oxide 12CaO.7Al2O3: Toward an optically controlled formation of electrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest, on the basis of detailed ab initio calculations of both ground and photoexcited states of H-doped 12CaO.7Al2O3 (C12A7:H), that stable high-conductivity regions can be optically generated in this insulating system. Each H- ion in C12A7:H can, under photoirradiation at 3.8-4.5 eV, produce up to two electrons and a proton that binds to the lattice network and forms OH-. Mobile electrons play a role of anions in this system. They move over subnanosized cages of the C12A7 lattice via polaron hopping. The insulating state is reversibly restored upon heating to 300 °C.

Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Hayashi, Katsuro; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

2005-02-01

410

Nanoblock coupling effect in iodine intercalated [Bi(0.82)CaO(2)](2)[CoO(2)](1.69) layered cobaltite.  

PubMed

We report on the structural, microstructural, and electronic properties of iodine intercalated [Bi0.82CaO2]2[CoO2]1.69 misfit cobaltite. We first prove through a detailed and careful structural study that the block layer structure can be modified in the desired way. Iodine enters the material between the [BiO] double layers, and the c-cell parameter of the pristine compound is elongated by 3.6 Angstrom. On the basis of this result, we point out the coupling between the block-layer structure and the transport properties. Additionally, we provide in-depth commentary and discussion of some extra results, clarifying some doping effects in the quasi-2D studied phase. Finally, we also propose some expressions that might be useful to material scientists for the tuning of the properties of such compounds. PMID:17323941

Guilmeau, E; Pollet, M; Grebille, D; Hervieu, M; Muguerra, H; Cloots, R; Mikami, M; Funahashi, R

2007-03-19

411

Performance of CaO and MgO for the hot gas clean up in gasification of a chlorine-containing (RDF) feedstock.  

PubMed

Calcined limestone (CaO) and calcined dolomite (CaO.MgO) were tested at bench scale to study their usefulness in cleaning hot raw gas from a fluidized bed gasifier of a synthetic or simulated refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with a high (3 wt%) content in chlorine. In the gas cleaning reactor two main reactions occurred simultaneously: the elimination of HCl and the elimination of tar by steam reforming. The elimination of HCl formed CaCl2 and MgCl2 with melting points below the high (above 800 degrees C) temperatures required for the simultaneous tar elimination reaction. So, the CaO-based particles progressively melted and the catalytic gas cleaning reactor became a compact, agglomerated or glued, cake. Therefore, the life and usefulness of the CaO-based solids used was very low. Nevertheless, and to further avoid these problems, some positive guidelines for future research are proposed here. PMID:18372172

Corella, José; Toledo, José M; Molina, Gregorio

2008-11-01

412

Moving Target Information Exploitation Electronic Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the MTIX E-Learning contract was to develop and deliver electronic On-Line Learning (OLL) capabilities for Moving Target Information eXploitation (MTIX) users and operators. OLL allows MTIX users to have their own personal mentor 24 hours...

A. Spina

2005-01-01

413

Daily targeting of intrahepatic tumors for radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: A system has been developed for daily targeting of intrahepatic tumors using a combination of ventilatory immobilization, in-room diagnostic imaging, and on-line setup adjustment. By reducing geometric position uncertainty, as well as organ movement, this system permits reduction of margins and thus potentially higher treatment doses. This paper reports our initial experience treating 8 patients with focal liver tumors

James M Balter; Kristy K Brock; Dale W Litzenberg; Daniel L McShan; Theodore S Lawrence; Randall Ten Haken; Cornelius J McGinn; Kwok L Lam; Laura A Dawson

2002-01-01

414

On the magnetic and spectroscopic properties of high-valent Mn3CaO4 cubanes as structural units of natural and artificial water-oxidizing catalysts.  

PubMed

The Mn(IV)3CaO4 cubane is a structural motif present in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II and in water-oxidizing Mn/Ca layered oxides. This work investigates the magnetic and spectroscopic properties of two recently synthesized complexes and a series of idealized models that incorporate this structural unit. Magnetic interactions, accessible spin states, and (55)Mn isotropic hyperfine couplings are computed with quantum chemical methods and form the basis for structure-property correlations. Additionally, the effects of oxo-bridge protonation and one-electron reduction are examined. The calculated properties are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data. It is established that all synthetic and model Mn(IV)3CaO4 cubane complexes have the same high-spin S = (9)/2 ground state. The magnetic coupling conditions under which different ground spin states can be accessed are determined. Substitution of Mn(IV) magnetic centers by diamagnetic ions [e.g., Ge(IV)] allows one to "switch off" specific spin sites in order to examine the magnetic orbitals along individual Mn-Mn exchange pathways, which confirms the predominance of ferromagnetic interactions within the cubane framework. The span of the Heisenberg spin ladder is found to correlate inversely with the number of protonated oxo bridges. Energetic comparisons for protonated models show that the tris-?-oxo bridge connecting only Mn ions in the cubane has the lowest proton affinity and that the average relaxation energy per additional proton is on the order of 18 kcal·mol(-1), thus making access to ground states other than the high-spin S = (9)/2 state in these cubanes unlikely. The relevance of these cubanes for the OEC and synthetic oxides is discussed. PMID:23527603

Krewald, Vera; Neese, Frank; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

2013-04-17

415

Phase equilibria and crystal chemistry of the CaO-1/2 >Nd2O3-CoOz system at 885 °C in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the CaO-1/2 >Nd2O3-CoOz system at 885 °C in air has been determined. The system consists of two calcium cobaltate compounds that have promising thermoelectric properties, namely, the 2D thermoelectric oxide solid solution, (Ca3-xNdx)Co4O9-z (0?x?0.5), which has a misfit layered structure, and Ca3Co2O6 which consists of 1D chains of alternating CoO6 trigonal prisms and CoO6 octahedra. Ca3Co2O6 was found to be a point compound without the substitution of Nd on the Ca site. The reported Nd2CoO4 phase was not observed at 885 °C. A ternary (Ca1-xNd1+x)CoO4-z (x=0) phase, or (CaNdCo)O4-z, was found to be stable at this temperature. A solid solution region of distorted perovskite (Nd1-xCax)CoO3-z (0?x?0.25, space group Pnma) was established. In the peripheral binary systems, while a solid solution region was identified for (Nd1-xCax)2O3-z (0?x?0.2), Nd was not found to substitute in the Ca site of CaO. Six solid solution tie-line regions and six three-phase regions were determined in the CaO-Nd2O3-CoOz system in air.

Wong-Ng, W.; Laws, W.; Talley, K. R.; Huang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Martin, J.; Kaduk, J. A.

2014-07-01

416

Synthesis of SiO2 and CaO rich calcium silicate systems via sol-gel process: Bioactivity, biocompatibility, and drug delivery tests.  

PubMed

Silica and calcium silicate amorphous materials, mixed with sodium ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The amorphous nature of the gels was ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The bioactivity of the synthesized materials has been put into evidence by the appearance of a crystal of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the samples soaked in a fluid simulating the composition of the human blood plasma, as detected through FTIR measurements and SEM micrographs. The present work refers to a series of in-vitro biocompatibility tests, which has been performed on silicate and CaO rich calcium silicate gel-glasses, to study the cell behavior when seeded on 1 cm(2) material fragments, introduced into an in-vitro culture system. 3T3 cell lines have been used and the viability has been evaluated by WST-8 test. The composition of the adopted glasses can be expressed by the following general formula: x CaO• (1?-?x) SiO2 with x?=?0.00; 0.30; 0.40; 0.50; 0.60. Subsequently, release kinetics in a simulate body fluid (SBF) has been investigated. The amount of sodium ampicillin released has been detected by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The release kinetics has appeared to occur in more than one stage. All data have shown that those materials could be used as drug delivery bioactive systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3087-3092, 2014. PMID:24123774

Catauro, M; Papale, F; Roviello, G; Ferone, C; Bollino, F; Trifuoggi, M; Aurilio, C

2014-09-01

417

7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

2009-01-01

418

7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

2010-01-01

419

ISAC targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility was designed and constructed to allow irradiation of thick targets with up to 100 A proton beam intensities. Since beginning operation in 1998, beam intensities on ISAC targets have progressively increased toward the 100 A design limit. Routine operation with p + intensities up to 75 A is currently possible for both refractory metal target materials and for composite metal carbide materials; full 99 A p + intensity has been achieved for Nb foil target material. Consideration must be given to the beam power deposition, the power dissipation and the limiting temperature criteria of each target material. Increased beam power dissipation has been achieved by modifying target materials and target containers. Increasing irradiation currents have produced benefits, drawbacks and unexpected results for ISOL operations.

Dombsky, M.; Kunz, P.

2014-01-01

420

On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system using…

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

421

Potentials of on-line repositioning based on implanted fiducial markers and electronic portal imaging in prostate cancer radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the benefit of an on-line correction protocol based on implanted markers and weekly portal imaging in external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. To compare the use of bony anatomy versus implanted markers for calculation of setup-error plus/minus prostate movement. To estimate the error reduction (and the corresponding margin reduction) by reducing the total error to 3 mm once a week, three times per week or every treatment day. Methods 23 patients had three to five, 2.5 mm Ø spherical gold markers transrectally inserted into the prostate before radiotherapy. Verification and correction of treatment position by analysis of orthogonal portal images was performed on a weekly basis. We registered with respect to the bony contours (setup error) and to the marker position (prostate motion) and determined the total error. The systematic and random errors are specified. Positioning correction was applied with a threshold of 5 mm displacement. Results The systematic error (1 standard deviation [SD]) in left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction contributes for the setup 1.6 mm, 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm and for prostate motion 1.1 mm, 1.9 mm and 2.3 mm. The random error (1 SD) in LR, SI and AP direction amounts for the setup 2.3 mm, 2.7 mm and 2.7 mm and for motion 1.4 mm, 2.3 mm and 2.7 mm. The resulting total error suggests margins of 7.0 mm (LR), 9.5 mm (SI) and 9.5 mm (AP) between clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV). After correction once a week the margins were lowered to 6.7, 8.2 and 8.7 mm and furthermore down to 4.9, 5.1 and 4.8 mm after correcting every treatment day. Conclusion Prostate movement relative to adjacent bony anatomy is significant and contributes substantially to the target position variability. Performing on-line setup correction using implanted radioopaque markers and megavoltage radiography results in reduced treatment margins depending on the online imaging protocol (once a week or more frequently).

Graf, Reinhold; Wust, Peter; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

2009-01-01

422

Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.  

PubMed

A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator. PMID:20687749

Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

2010-07-01

423

Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research  

SciTech Connect

A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1, Lisbon 1959-007 (Portugal); Nuclear Physics Center-Lisbon University (CFNUL), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, Lisbon 1649-003 (Portugal); Silva, J. Fernando [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering-TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Soares, R. [Nuclear Physics Center--Lisbon University (CFNUL), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, Lisbon 1649-003 (Portugal); ABT Group, TE Department, Site de Prevessin, FR-01631 CERN (Switzerland); Schipper, J.; Fowler, A. [ABT Group, TE Department, Site de Prevessin, FR-01631 CERN (Switzerland)

2010-07-15

424

On-line coupling of automatic solid-phase extraction and HPLC for determination of carotenoids in serum.  

PubMed

The automated method developed for the determination of carotenoids uses 200 ?L of serum, which was mixed with 400 ?L of tetrahydrofuran, vortexed for 1 min, settled for 10 min, centrifuged for 6 min and the supernatant injected into an automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) system for cleanup-preconcentration. A 10% water-acetonitrile mobile phase at 1.5 mL min(-1) eluted the retained compounds and transferred them on-line to a reversed-phase analytical column for individual separation of the target analytes. Visible detection was performed at 450 and 460 nm. The detection limits for the target analytes were between 3 and 30 ng mL(-1); the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) ranged between 2.83 and 5.06% for repeatability and between 3.80 and 7.40% for within laboratory reproducibility. The total analysis time was 18 min. The proposed method is reliable, robust, and has an excellent potential for high-throughput use in both clinical and research laboratories. PMID:21872028

Ferreiro-Vera, C; Mata-Granados, J M; Quesada Gómez, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

2011-09-30

425

Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

426

On-line electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry configurations: recent developments and trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present mini-review, an account of the actual state-of-the-art and future possibilities offered by on-line ET-AAS is presented. Topics such as: (1) on-line analyte preconcentration (by means of precipitation, sorption, solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction); (2) analyte separation by means of chromatography, and electrochemical, microdialysis and chemical vapor generation processes; and (3) sample treatment (by microwave sample digestion, sample emulsification and dilution processes) are used to illustrate the versatility of flow injection, sequential injection analysis, stop flow and continuous flow, when coupled to a graphite furnace. The use of some of the on-line systems for speciation and the simultaneous determination of different analytes is underlined.

Burguera, Marcela; Burguera, Jose Luis

2007-09-01

427

On-line adaptive and nonlinear process monitoring of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

This article describes the application of on-line nonlinear monitoring of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Three-way batch data of SBR are unfolded batch-wisely, and then a adaptive and nonlinear multivariate monitoring method is used to capture the nonlinear characteristics of normal batches. The approach is successfully applied to an 80 L SBR for biological wastewater treatment, where the SBR poses an interesting challenge in view of process monitoring since it is characterized by nonstationary, batchwise, multistage, and nonlinear dynamics. In on-line batch monitoring, the developed adaptive and nonlinear process monitoring method can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship among process variables of a biological process in a SBR. The results of this pilot-scale SBR monitoring system using simple on-line measurements clearly demonstrated that the adaptive and nonlinear monitoring technique showed lower false alarm rate and physically meaningful, that is, robust monitoring results. PMID:16721630

Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Lee, In-Beum; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

2006-08-01

428

Development of on-line measurement techniques for siloxanes and other trace compounds in biogas.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the development of an on-line measurement method for siloxanes and other biogas trace compounds impeding the energy utilisation of biogas, as well as the main gas components, methane and carbon dioxide. The method is based on gas chromatography and FT-IR-analysis. The level of siloxane, hydrogen sulphide and halogens in biogas generated in a number of landfills and digesters in Finland is also presented and factors affecting the concentrations discussed. Generally, the level of biogas trace compounds hampering electricity production was lower than those measured at comparable sites in Central Europe and the US. Moreover, the paper discusses the significance of on-line monitoring of siloxane in connection to biogas-to-electricity applications and points out with activated carbon as an example the benefits of on-line siloxane measurement in the control of siloxane removal technology. PMID:20056535

Arnold, M; Kajolinna, T

2010-06-01

429

On-line supervision and control of an aerobic SBR process.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new software developed in MATLAB for analyzing on-line data of an aerobic SBR, detecting faults and, in this case, proposing the most probable causes of fault. Process diagnosis is achieved using a statistical method divided in two main phases: off-line model building and on-line data diagnosis. The off-line model identifies the correct working conditions of the system (standard operative conditions). It includes the characterization of the deviation of the system from these standard conditions in the case of changing in the biomass properties or carbon and nitrogen load characteristics. The on-line diagnosis aims at collecting and analyzing all the available data available through industrial sensors, and at classifying the behavior of each treatment cycle. The diagnosis performance of the proposed method is tested using a data set of an aerobic SBR pilot plant. PMID:16532747

Ciappelloni, F; Mazouni, D; Harmand, J; Lardon, L

2006-01-01

430

Recent applications of on-line sample preconcentration techniques in capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

This review highlights recent developments and applications of on-line sample preconcentration techniques in capillary electrophoresis (CE) from 2010 to April 2013. Various preconcentration techniques based on the analyte velocity change in two or three discontinuous solutions system including field-amplified stacking, transient isotachophoresis, pH-mediated stacking, sweeping, and their modified and combined techniques have been employed to enrich and separate biological, environmental, food, toxicological, forensic and nanoparticle samples in CE. More than 170 published research articles collected from Scopus databases from the year 2010 described the on-line sample preconcentration techniques. This review provides comprehensive tables listing the applications of the on-line sample preconcentration techniques with categorizing by the fundamental preconcentration mechanism and application area. PMID:24210300

Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Koji

2014-03-28

431

A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (???? D?ng Ch?ng Xi? C?o) and Related Bioactive Ingredients  

PubMed Central

The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (???? D?ng Chóng Xià C?o)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis.

Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

2013-01-01

432

The 1-way on-line coupled atmospheric chemistry model system MECO(n) - Part 3: Meteorological evaluation of the on-line coupled system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three detailed meteorological case studies are conducted with the global and regional atmospheric chemistry model system ECHAM5/MESSy(?COSMO/MESSy)n, shortly named MECO(n). The aim of this article is to assess the general performance of the on-line coupling of the regional model COSMO to the global model ECHAM5. The cases are characterised by intense weather systems in Central Europe: a cold front passage in March 2010, a convective frontal event in July 2007, and the high impact winter storm "Kyrill" in January 2007. Simulations are performed with the new on-line-coupled model system and compared to classical, off-line COSMO hindcast simulations driven by ECMWF analyses. Precipitation observations from rain gauges and ECMWF analysis fields are used as reference, and both qualitative and quantitative measures are used to characterise the quality of the various simulations. It is shown that, not surprisingly, simulations with a shorter lead time generally produce more accurate simulations. Irrespective of lead time, the accuracy of the on-line and off-line COSMO simulations are comparable for the three cases. This result indicates that the new global and regional model system MECO(n) is able to simulate key mid-latitude weather systems, including cyclones, fronts, and convective precipitation, as accurately as present-day state-of-the-art regional weather prediction models in standard off-line configuration. Therefore, MECO(n) will be applied to simulate atmospheric chemistry exploring the model's full capabilities during meteorologically challenging conditions.

Hofmann, C.; Kerkweg, A.; Wernli, H.; Jöckel, P.

2012-01-01

433

Line-on-Line Coincidence: A New Type of Epitaxy Found in Organic-Organic Heterolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new type of epitaxy, line-on-line coincidence (LOL), which explains the ordering in the organic-organic heterolayer system PTCDA on HBC on graphite. LOL epitaxy is similar to point-on-line coincidence (POL) in the sense that all overlayer molecules lie on parallel, equally spaced lines. The key difference to POL is that these lines are not restricted to primitive lattice lines of the substrate lattice. Potential energy calculations demonstrate that this new type of epitaxy is indeed characterized by a minimum in the overlayer-substrate interaction potential.

Mannsfeld, Stefan C.; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

2005-02-01

434

Hydraulic decoking on-line monitoring system based on the optical fiber sensing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present that an improved optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied to the hydraulic decoking on-line monitoring system for the first time, meanwhile the characteristics of the improved acoustic emission sensor are analyzed. The actual research results of China Petrochemical Wuhan Petrochemical Corporation Group show that hydraulic decoking on-line monitoring system can monitor the real-time and accurate states of hydraulic decoking based on the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor technology, the system can realize the automation of hydraulic decoking monitoring effectively.

Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xing-lin; Ji, Tao

2013-09-01

435

Retrospective analysis of medication incidents reported using an on-line reporting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the types of prescribing, administration and dispensing incidents reported to an on-line incident-reporting scheme\\u000a and determine the types of healthcare professionals responsible for reporting such incidents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Retrospective analysis of medication-related incidents reported to an on-line incident-reporting scheme in a large (1000-bed)\\u000a teaching hospital in the UK.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Main outcome measures  Frequency and type of incidents, the discipline of the health

Darren M Ashcroft; Jonathan Cooke

2006-01-01

436

On-line Supervised Adaptive Training Using Radial Basis Function Networks.  

PubMed

A new recursive supervised training algorithm is derived for the radial basis neural network architecture. The new algorithm combines the procedures of on-line candidate regressor selection with the conventional Givens QR based recursive parameter estimator to provide efficient adaptive supervised network training. A new concise on-line correlation based performance monitoring scheme is also introduced as an auxiliary device to detect structural changes in temporal data processing applications. Practical and simulated examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new procedures. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662556

Luo, Wan; Billings, Steve A.; Fung, Chi F.

1996-12-01

437

On-line object tracking method based on co-training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tracking method based on Co-Training framework considers the object tracking as a semi-supervised learning problem. This paper proposes a new on-line tracking method based on Co-Training framework. The method fuses two features to describe the object and do randomizing affine deformation with positive examples to increase the number of positive examples. Experimental results demonstrate, the on-line tracking method based on Co-training framework can work robustly in long-term tracking and the drift of tracking can be effectively avoided.

Lai, Jianhong; Peng, Zhenming; Yang, Yong

2012-11-01

438

An on-line data acquisition system based on Norsk-Data ND-560 computer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a high-speed data acquisition system based on CAMAC for Norsk Data ND-560 computer operating in a multiuser environment. As opposed to the present trend, the system has been implemented with minimum hardware at CAMAC level taking advantage of the dual processors of ND-560. The package consists of several coordinated tasks running in the two CPUs which acquire data, record on tape, permit on-line analysis and display the data and perform related control operations. It has been used in several experiments at VECC and its performance in on-line experiments is reported.

Bandyopadhyay, Asismoy; Roy, Amitava; Dey, Swapan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sailajananda; Bhowmik, Ranjan Kumar

1987-06-01

439

REMPI-TOFMS for on-line monitoring and controlling the coffee roasting process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REMPIat266nm-TOFMS is used for on-line analysis of the coffee roasting process. Volatile and flavor active compounds of coffee were ionized by REMPIat266nm and monitored on-line and in real-time by TOFMS during the coffee roasting process. The phenol and 4-vinylguaiacol time-intensity profiles, for example, show typical behavior for different roasting temperatures and provide an indicator to the achieved degree of roasting. The impact of the moisture level of the green coffee beans on the time shift of a typical (commercial) roasting time, correlates with REMPI-TOFMS measurements and literature data. .

Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Zimmermann, Ralf; Kettrup, Antonius

2001-08-01

440

Target discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target discovery, which involves the identification and early validation of disease-modifying targets, is an essential first step in the drug discovery pipeline. Indeed, the drive to determine protein function has been stimulated, both in industry and academia, by the completion of the human genome project. In this article, we critically examine the strategies and methodologies used for both the identification

Mark A. Lindsay

2003-01-01

441

ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to \\

E. Rognier

2001-01-01

442

Development of gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns which is based on the attenuation of gamma radiation was developed at the Unit Tenaga Nuklear. The system utilised Co-60 or Cs-137 as a gamma-ray emitter and NaI(Tl) detector ...

Mohd Azmi bin Ismail Jaafar bin Abdullah Jamaludin bin Omar

1994-01-01

443

Wavelet-transform-based QRS complex detection in on-line Holter systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a QRS complex detection algorithm that can be applied in on-line Holter systems. The algorithm is performed in two steps: first the wavelet transform is applied to filter the signal, then QRS complex localization is accomplished using a maximum detection algorithm. The algorithm has been tested in two phases. First the QRS detection in ECG registrations from the MIT-BIH

L. Szilagyi

1999-01-01

444

Quick QRS Complex Detection for On-Line ECG and Holter Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new QRS complex detection algorithm that can be applied in various on-line ECG processing systems. The algorithm is performed in two steps: first a wavelet transform filtering is applied to the signal, then QRS complex localization is performed using a maximum detection and peak classification algorithm. The algorithm has been tested in two phases. First the

László Szilágyi; Sándor M. Szilágyi; Attila Frigy; Sándor E. László; Levente K. Görög; Zoltán Benyó

2005-01-01

445

Designing Health Care Risk Management On-Line: Meeting Regulators' Concerns for Fixed-Hour Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experience of creating a continuing professional education on-line risk management program that is designed to meet Florida's educational requirements for licensure as a risk manager in health-care settings and details the challenges faced when the in-class didactic program of 15 eight-hour sessions is reformatted as an…

Hyer, Kathryn; Taylor, Heidi H.; Nanni, Kenneth

2004-01-01

446

On-line signature verification method by Laplacian spectral analysis and dynamic time warping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As smartphones and touch screens are more and more popular, on-line signature verification technology can be used as one of personal identification means for mobile computing. In this paper, a novel Laplacian Spectral Analysis (LSA) based on-line signature verification method is presented and an integration framework of LSA and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based methods for practical application is proposed. In LSA based method, a Laplacian matrix is constructed by regarding the on-line signature as a graph. The signature's writing speed information is utilized in the Laplacian matrix of the graph. The eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplacian matrix is analyzed and used for signature verification. The framework to integrate LSA and DTW methods is further proposed. DTW is integrated at two stages. First, it is used to provide stroke matching results for the LSA method to construct the corresponding graph better. Second, the on-line signature verification results by DTW are fused with that of the LSA method. Experimental results on public signature database and practical signature data on mobile phones proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Li, Changting; Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing

2013-12-01

447

Multiple on-line data collection and processing for radioimmunoassy using a micro-computer system.  

PubMed Central

A micro-computer system is described which has been designed to perform on-line data capture from up to seven radioisotope counters of different types in parallel with interactive results processing and subsequent transmission to a laboratory computer-based data management system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Carter, N W; Davidson, D; Lucas, D F; Griffiths, P D

1980-01-01

448

Contactless on-line measurement of material flow for closed loop control of deep drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presented here introduces a new optical sensor for contactless on-line material flow measurement and its application for closed loop process control in sheet metal forming. The aim of this sensor development was to record the material flow in a closed deep drawing tool during the forming process. The material flow can be utilized as the controlled variable for

E Doege; H.-J Seidel; B Griesbach; J.-W Yun

2002-01-01

449

On-line COP estimation for waste energy recovery heat transformer by water purification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line COP (coefficient of performance) estimation is carried out for waste energy recovery heat transformer by water purification process using developed different algorithms by bash (information acquisition) and Octave (information training). This variable estimation is very important to an optimum performance in the system. The COP is estimated from observation a filter Kalman. In addition, a thermodynamic model is used

R. F. Escobar; D. Juárez; J. Siqueiros; C. Irles; J. A. Hernández

2008-01-01

450

In Search of the Best On-Line Degree Programs in Human Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advent of the Internet, the World Wide Web, and global infrastructures for e-learning are revolutionizing how colleges and universities deliver degree programs to adult students. Benefits of on-line degree programs to working adults include flexibility, convenience, and time and cost savings. New technologies that greatly affect how online…

Kirk, James J.; Waltemyer, Holly

451

A Modified Incremental Principal Component Analysis for On-Line Learning of Feature Space and Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Abstract] We have proposed a new concept for pattern classification systems in which feature selection and classifier learning are simultaneously carried out on-line. To realize this concept, Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA) and Evolving Clustering Method (ECM) was effectively combined in the previous work. However, in order to construct a desirable feature space, a threshold value to determine the increase

Seiichi Ozawa; Shaoning Pang; Nikola Kasabov

2004-01-01

452

The Effectiveness of Video as a Learning Tool in On?line Multimedia Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Broadnet Project produced on?line interactive multimedia training modules in order to support local small and medium sized (SME) businesses. Two of these modules used videos which were incorporated into the modules and were designed to stream over the Broadnet network. These videos were produced by several different contributors to the project. This report examines the producers’ views and SME

Rachel Ellis; Mark Childs

1999-01-01

453

ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES BY AUTOMATED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. ossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. haracterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel...

454

On-line Estimation of Error Covariance Parameters for Atmospheric Data Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple scheme for on-line estimation of covariance parameters in statistical data assimilation systems. The scheme is bas ed on a maximum- likelihood approach in which estimates are produced on the basis of a single batch of simultaneous observations. Single-sample covariance estimation is reasonable as long as the number of available observations exceeds the number of tunable parameters

Dick P. Dee

1995-01-01

455

On-Line Vibration Source Detection of Running Trains Based on Acceleration Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure safety of railway operation, it is important to regularly check railway conditions such as deformation of the rails. To monitor rail deformation, this paper presents a method for detecting sources of vibrations of a running train on-line by measuring accelerations, which include the train bogie's lateral acceleration, and the crossbeam's lateral and vertical accelerations. A series of detection

Chengyou Wang; Qiugen Xiao; Hua Liang; Xin Chen; Xuanping Cai; Yunhui Liu

2006-01-01

456

Supporting on-line guideline-based training in Emergency Medicine.  

PubMed

The aim of the present project was the development of a system supporting on-line Guideline-based training in Emergency Medicine. The developed Windows application is built on Visual C++ 6.0, in Greek language, and is based on widely accepted Emergency Medical Guidelines, employed to define the minimum standard of care provided to patients by the First Responders. PMID:16779407

Spyropoulos, B; Moschidis, M

2005-01-01

457

Validation of CHEMEST, an on-line system for the estimation of chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHEMEST is an on-line system for estimating physical\\/chemical properties important in the assessment of environmental fate of chemicals. Measured values of boiling point, melting point, vapor pressure, water solubility, and soil organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc) were compared to values estimated by CHEMEST, for more than 170 chemicals. The chemicals were composed of seven classes: alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, amines,

R. S. Boethling; S. E. Campbell; D. G. Lynch; G. D. LaVeck

1988-01-01

458

The On-Line Study of Sentence Comprehension: An Examination of Dual Task Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents three studies which examine the susceptibility of sentence comprehension to intrusion by extra-sentential probe words in two on-line dual-task techniques commonly used to study sentence processing: the cross-modal lexical priming paradigm and the unimodal all-visual lexical priming paradigm. It provides both a general review…

Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Hald, Lea

2006-01-01

459

The practical implications of bringing a multi-agent transformer condition monitoring system on-line  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line condition monitoring is a useful tool for maintaining and extending the longevity of power transformers. An intelligent diagnostic system is desirable for operational safety and reliability. Bringing these concepts together results in a powerful support tool for engineers, reducing the volume of data to deal with, and making the data more meaningful. This work describes how a multi-agent system

V. M. Catterson; S. D. J. McArthur

2004-01-01

460

Analysis and suppression of interference for on-line monitoring of partial discharge of power transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to on-line partial discharge (PD) monitoring of power transformers is how to suppress interference effectively. This paper reports an interference qualitative and quantitative analysis on site using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. Various periodic interferences have been found, which emanated from the carrier communication, thyristor switching, and high frequency protection signals of the power system as well

Changchang Wang; Xianlie Jin; T. C. Cheng; Shibo Zhang; Zuzhu Dong; Zhongdong Wang; Du Lin; Deheng Zhu

1997-01-01

461

Study on On-Line Monitoring of Dielectric Loss Factor for Insulation on Synthetical Relative Idea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces absolute measuring method, simple relative method in common use and new synthetical relative method (SRM) [1] on on-line monitoring. From principle of method and applied effect in practice, SRM can settle stability and reliability problem in two foregoing methods to a certain extent But the method need be further improved in three aspects. Firstly acquirement of complete

Gong Liwei; Wen Yuanfang; H. Lei

2006-01-01

462

Advances in on-line monitoring of polymer injection molding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line ultrasonic monitoring of the polymer injection molding process is carried out. The completion of the filling is monitored by two ultrasonic transducers (UTs) and the flow front speed is evaluated by one UT. The variation of elastic properties, shrinkage and solid-liquid interface development of the injected part during the solidification stage are observed. The flow speed is also measured

D. Ramos Franqa; S.-S. L. Wen; C.-K. Jen; K. T. Nguyen; H. Hebert

1997-01-01

463

Theory of reliable systems. [reliability analysis and on-line fault diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is reported in the program to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations, and to develop techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability. Reliability analysis, and on-line fault diagnosis are discussed.

Meyer, J. F.

1974-01-01

464

DEPLOYMENT OF A WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEM USING ON-LINE TOXICITY MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminants are of concern when they are found in concentrations that are toxic to plants and/or animals. On–line Toxicity Monitors (OTMs) integrate all factors resulting in stress including physical and chemical qualities. This is important because of the limitations of c...

465

America OnLine's Internet access service: how to deter unwanted customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some dial-up Internet access providers, such as the market leader America OnLine (AOL), require customers to install proprietary connection software to use their service. This is puzzling, because while the software helps certain users, it creates disutility for others (especially expert users and early adopters of Internet service). Why, then, does AOL insist on this connection manager? Why not also

Hemant K. Bhargava; Juan Feng

2005-01-01

466

A new on-line certificate validation method using LDAP component matching technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new on-line certificate validation method which provides higher degree of security, scalability, and interoperability than do the pre-existing approaches. It combines two basic data structures for certificate revocation, certificate revocation list (CRL) and the authenticated dictionary such as certificate revocation tree (CRT), into a single framework by utilizing the component matching enabled lightweight directory access protocol

Jong Hyuk Choi; Sang Seok Lim; Kurt D. Zeilenga

2005-01-01

467

XPC: an on-line expert system for statistical process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of available microcomputer packages for statistical process control (SPC) are off-line programs which present information regarding quality in the form of control charts. The user has to interpret the charts to infer process and product quality. This paper describes XPC, an on-line expert system for SPC. The system produces mean and range charts and interprets them automatically. XPC

D. T. PHAM; E. OZTEMEL

1992-01-01

468

An Evaluation of On-Line, Interactive Tutorials Designed to Teach Practice Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an evaluation of two on-line-based programs designed to teach practice skills. One program teaches crisis intervention and the other teaches suicide assessment. The evaluation of the use of these programs compares outcomes for two groups of students, one using the interactive program outside a class context and the other using…

Seabury, Brett A.

2005-01-01

469

On-line collection and transfer of radioactive noble gas isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques have been developed for on-line collection and transfer to a measurement cell of rare noble gas isotopes. A low-energy isotope separator beam is stopped in a foil. After collection, the foil is heated, and the noble gas atoms are cryopumped to a cold finger and then transferred with a buffer gas to a measurement cell. This has been tested

S. R. Nuss-Warren; E. R. Tardiff; T. Warner; G. Ball; J. A. Behr; T. E. Chupp; K. P. Coulter; G. Hackman; M. E. Hayden; M. R. Pearson; A. A. Phillips; M. B. Smith; C. E. Svensson

2004-01-01

470

Nuclear techniques for on-line analysis in the mineral and energy industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear techniques are the basis of many on-line analysis systems which are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. Some of the systems developed by the CSIRO depend entirely on nuclear techniques; others use a combination of nuclear techniques and microwave, capacitance, or ultrasonic techniques. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these CSIRO systems has led to

B. D. Sowerby; J. S. Watt

1994-01-01

471

On-line measurement of composition for the Australian mineral and energy industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line analysis systems have found widespread application in the metalliferous mineral and coal industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems has led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations with increased recovery of valuable minerals and coal combustibles. The CSIRO Division of Minerals has been actively involved in this field through the development, field testing

N. G. Cutmore; J. E. Eberhardt; B. D. Sowerby; J. S. Watt

1996-01-01

472

An Overview of Public Key Certificate Support for Canada's Government On-Line (GOL) Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Federal Government is delivering on-line services to its citizens. A critical feature for ensuring the acceptance of these services is to ensure that security and privacy requirements are met. To this end, Canadian citizens may obtain an epass allowing them to securely obtain services through a government program web site. Technically, an epass is composed of a pseudonymous

Mike Just

473

On-line flow injection monitoring of ammonia in industrial liquid effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow-injection method was applied to on-line analysis for ammonia in industrial liquid effluents. The method utilised the diffusion of gaseous ammonia from an alkaline sample stream, through a microporous membrane, into a bromothymol blue indicator stream, with the resulting colour change measured photometrically using a red LED. Following initial development work, the method was adapted to an automated, portable

Kevin N. Andrew; Paul J. Worsfold; Michael Comber

1995-01-01

474

ON-LINE AND OFF-LINE TRANSFORMER MONITORING Presentation to the Toronto Section of IEEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-line monitoring of a transformer's condition or rather of the condition of its insulation involves recording of the voltage and current as well as monitoring of the top oil temperature and, on this basis, estimation of the windings' hot spot temperature to determine the paper insulation deterioration rate. Following standard practices, it is assumed that the paper insulation lifetime

George Anders; Meir Klein

475

Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry in a Pilot Plant: On-line Monitoring of Fermentation Broths  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system has been tested under pilot plant conditions. The work employed a Finnigan ITS-40 ion trap instrument, coupled to MIMS experiments by the addition of an external membrane/jet separator interface and packaged to operate in an industrial production environment. A representative sample from a 9000 L fermentation reactor was taken continuously and monitored on line, using a stainless steel tangential filter as the only sample pretreatment. This filter was capable of withstanding the temperature and pressure of 30 psig steam sterilizationn as well as the 10-30 psig operating pressure from a sample stream containing in excess of 10% solids. The filtrate was sampled using a flow injection analysis system which allowed quantification using external standards. Calibration experiments established that the system displayed a lineral response to ethanol at concentrations between 1 and 10% by volume. During subsequent on-line experiments, ethanol standard and sample streams were examined alternately. The response of the standard solutions was used to quantitate the response of the sample stream and reduce errors associated with long term instrumental drift. Ethanol concentrations were found to be 2.97 = 0.07% and were quantitatively in agreement with off-line high-performance liquid chromatographic data. Minor components identified during on-line reactor monitoring included acctic and lactic acid. After one week of off-line operation in the pilot plant, on-line monitoring was continued for a period of four days.

Johnson, R. C.; Srinivasan, N.; Cooks, R. G.; Schell, D.

1997-01-01

476

On line chemical composition of analyzer development. Status report, February 1, 1992--April 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This status report details progress made on the development of an on-line chemical analyzer. Dynamic studies of the distillation column, approval of testing plans, installation of a sample cell and raman analyzer, design of computerized control systems are described. Information on seminars and published papers is also included. (GHH)

Not Available

1992-07-01

477

Experience-Based and On-Line Categorization of Objects in Early Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What processes do infants employ in categorizing? Infants might categorize on line as they encounter category-related entities; alternatively, infants might depend on prior experience with entities in formulating categories. These alternatives were tested in forty-four 5-month-olds. Infants who were familiarized in the laboratory with a category…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Mash, Clay

2010-01-01

478

Certified email with a light on-line trusted third party: design and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new protocol for certified email. The protocol aims to combine security, scalability, easy implementation, and viable deployment. The protocol relies on a light on-line trusted third party; it can be implemented without any special software for the receiver beyond a standard email reader and web browser, and does not require any public-key infrastructure.

Mart ´ õn Abadi; Neal Glew

2002-01-01

479

A Lower Bound for On-Line One-Dimensional Bin Packing Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with algorithms for which the pieces (numbers) in list L are available one at a time, and each piece must be placed in some bin before the next piece is available; such an algorithm is referred to as on-line. The performance measur...

D. J. Brown

1979-01-01

480

A Bank of Chemistry Questions on an On-Line Server.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an on-line, server-based examination system for analytical chemistry or any other subject suitable for administration over large geographical areas for students in distance education to do self-assessment. Discusses the advantages of the system which combines course material with the examination system so that the examination system may…

Hoole, Dushyanthi; Yogendran, N.; Thavachandran, S.; Priyatharshan, P.; Hoole, S. R. H.

2002-01-01

481

An Argument Structure Abstraction for Bayesian Belief Networks: Just Outcomes in On-line Dispute Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many dierent approaches for settling dis- putes on-line, such as simple email systems, fixed bid systems and intelligent systems. However, to date there have been no attempts to integrate decision sup- port methods into the dispute resolution process for the purpose of supporting outcomes that are consis- tent with judicial reasoning. This paper describes how a model of

Nial Muecke; Andrew Stranieri

2007-01-01

482