Science.gov

Sample records for cao target on-line

  1. CAOS spectroscopy of Am stars Kepler targets

    E-print Network

    Catanzaro, G; Biazzo, K; Busa', I; Frasca, A; Leone, F; Giarrusso, M; Munari, M; Scuderi, S

    2015-01-01

    The {\\it Kepler} space mission and its {\\it K2} extension provide photometric time series data with unprecedented accuracy. These data challenge our current understanding of the metallic-lined A stars (Am stars) for what concerns the onset of pulsations in their atmospheres. It turns out that the predictions of current diffusion models do not agree with observations. To understand this discrepancy, it is of crucial importance to obtain ground-based spectroscopic observations of Am stars in the {\\it Kepler} and {\\it K2} fields in order to determine the best estimates of the stellar parameters. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data for seven stars previously classified as Am stars. We determine the effective temperatures, surface gravities, projected rotational velocities, microturbulent velocities and chemical abundances of these stars using spectral synthesis. These spectra were obtained with {\\it CAOS}, a new instrument recently installed at the observing station...

  2. CAOS spectroscopy of Am stars Kepler targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, G.; Ripepi, V.; Biazzo, K.; Busá, I.; Frasca, A.; Leone, F.; Giarrusso, M.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.

    2015-07-01

    The Kepler space mission and its K2 extension provide photometric time series data with unprecedented accuracy. These data challenge our current understanding of the metallic-lined A stars (Am stars) for what concerns the onset of pulsations in their atmospheres. It turns out that the predictions of current diffusion models do not agree with observations. To understand this discrepancy, it is of crucial importance to obtain ground-based spectroscopic observations of Am stars in the Kepler and K2 fields in order to determine the best estimates of the stellar parameters. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data for seven stars previously classified as Am stars. We determine the effective temperatures, surface gravities, projected rotational velocities, microturbulent velocities and chemical abundances of these stars using spectral synthesis. These spectra were obtained with CAOS, a new instrument recently installed at the observing station of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory on Mt Etna. Three stars have already been observed during quarters Q0-Q17, namely: HD 180347, HD 181206 and HD 185658, while HD 43509 was already observed during K2 C0 campaign. We confirm that HD 43509 and HD 180347 are Am stars, while HD 52403, HD 50766, HD 58246, HD 181206 and HD 185658 are marginal Am stars. By means of non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) analysis, we derived oxygen abundances from O I ?7771-5 Å triplet and we also discussed the results obtained with both non-LTE and LTE approaches.

  3. 3D Fingerprint Targets Sunpreet S. Arora1, Kai Cao1, Anil K. Jain1

    E-print Network

    3D Fingerprint Targets Sunpreet S. Arora1, Kai Cao1, Anil K. Jain1 Science Program 1 #12;3D Fingerprint Target 2 2D fingerprint image 3D finger of fingerprint readers 3 #12;Benefits 4 · Standards organizaEons: develop standard

  4. Audience Selection for On-line Brand Advertising: Privacy-friendly Social Network Targeting

    E-print Network

    Provost, Foster

    Audience Selection for On-line Brand Advertising: Privacy-friendly Social Network Targeting Foster describes and evaluates privacy-friendly methods for extracting quasi-social networks from browser behavior-generated content, privacy This work was conducted while the authors were at Media6 . Foster Provost thanks NEC

  5. On-Line Target Position Localization in the Presence of Respiration: A Comparison of two Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Geoffrey D. Liang Jian; Campbell, Jonathan; Yan Di

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To compare two 'four-dimensional' methods for image-guided target localization in the presence of respiration. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional image guidance was performed with two methods. A respiration-correlated computed tomography (RCCT) was acquired on a CT simulator, and an average CT (AVG-CT) image was generated from the RCCT. A respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) and a free-breathing cone-beam CT (FB-CBCT) were acquired. The 'RCCT method' consisted of calculating the mean target position on both the RCCT and RC-CBCT, registering the RCCT to the RC-CBCT, and determining the shift in the mean target position from the planned mean position. The 'AVG-CT method' consisted of registering the AVG-CT to the FB-CBCT. The ability of each to measure the shift in the mean target position was compared, both in a respiratory phantom and in 8 patients. Results: In phantom, the RCCT and AVG-CT methods were able to measure the true mean target position to within 0.15 cm and 0.10 cm, respectively. In the patient study, the mean error between the methods was 0.13 cm (left-right), 0.14 cm (anterior-posterior), and 0.10 cm (cranio-caudal). The error was not observed to vary with tumor position or magnitude of tumor motion. Conclusions: Respiration may impact the on-line image guidance process. The RCCT method enables localization of the mean tumor position and measurement of changes in the motion pattern, whereas the AVG-CT method is simple, fast, and easily implemented. We found the methods to be nearly equivalent in detecting shifts in the mean tumor position.

  6. Curriculum Vitae Hui Cao 1 Hui Cao Aug. 22, 2013

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    . Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Novel Applications of ZnO: Random lasing and UV Photonic Light Sources. Unterhinninghofen, Q. Song, H. Cao, M. Hentshel, S. Shinohara, Review on unidirectional light emission from ultralow. Unterhinninghofen, Q. Song, H. Cao, M. Hentshel, S. Shinohara, "Review on unidirectional light emission from

  7. The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; F. Estrada, Alejandro; Limón, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving ?-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl C?-C? double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted ?cao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the ?cao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

  8. The oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa is a resveratrol cleavage enzyme.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Estrada, Alejandro F; Limón, M Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2013-09-01

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving ?-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl C?-C? double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted ?cao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the ?cao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

  9. On-Line Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.

    The principal objective of the Ohio College Library Center is to lower the rate of rise of per-unit library costs while increasing the availability of library resources for use by patrons of participating libraries. A major procedural goal of the on-line cataloging system is to furnish cataloging personnel in individual libraries with…

  10. SERI on-line models

    SciTech Connect

    Birkenheuer, N.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Computer Center, is available to outside users via a value-added network. To provide additional support to the user community, a system for on-line access to computer models relating to solar applications is being developed. This project is designed to enhance and compliment the capabilities of the Solar Energy Information Data Bank (SEIDB) at SERI. The target user community for the On-Line Library includes Regional Solar Energy Centers (RESC's) affiliated institutions, DOE offices and laboratories, subcontractors, universities, and internal SERI users. Models selected for the library must be complete, operational and well documented. A broad range of applications will be available, including materials research, systems analysis, passive systems, market analysis, sizing, costing, and graphics. After a formal request is approved, the user will receive access to the system through an interactive executor program. This program allows model selection and execution, and processes accounting information. The capability to produce listings and, eventually, graphics at the central site to be mailed to remote users will also be provided.

  11. Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, N. A.; Amin, M. J.; La Torre, J. P.

    2015-04-01

    High spatial resolution, low inter-pixel crosstalk, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), adequate application dependent speed, economical and energy efficient design are common goals sought after for optical image sensors. In optical microscopy, overcoming the diffraction limit in spatial resolution has been achieved using materials chemistry, optimal wavelengths, precision optics and nanomotion-mechanics for pixel-by-pixel scanning. Imagers based on pixelated imaging devices such as CCD/CMOS sensors avoid pixel-by-pixel scanning as all sensor pixels operate in parallel, but these imagers are fundamentally limited by inter-pixel crosstalk, in particular with interspersed bright and dim light zones. In this paper, we propose an agile pixel imager sensor design platform called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that can greatly alleviate the mentioned fundamental limitations, empowering smart optical imaging for particular environments. Specifically, this novel CAOS imager engages an application dependent electronically programmable agile pixel platform using hybrid space-time-frequency coded multiple-access of the sampled optical irradiance map. We demonstrate the foundational working principles of the first experimental electronically programmable CAOS imager using hybrid time-frequency multiple access sampling of a known high contrast laser beam irradiance test map, with the CAOS instrument based on a Texas Instruments (TI) Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). This CAOS instrument provides imaging data that exhibits 77 dB electrical SNR and the measured laser beam image irradiance specifications closely match (i.e., within 0.75% error) the laser manufacturer provided beam image irradiance radius numbers. The proposed CAOS imager can be deployed in many scientific and non-scientific applications where pixel agility via electronic programmability can pull out desired features in an irradiance map subject to the CAOS imaging operation.

  12. UNISOR on-line nuclear orientation facility (UNISOR/NOF)

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.; Alton, G.D.; Bingham, C.R.; Carter, H.K.; Simpson, M.L.; Cole, J.D.; Croft, W.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Jones, E.F.; Gore, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The UNISOR on-line nuclear orientation facility (UNISOR/NOF) consists of a /sup 3/He--/sup 4/He dilution refrigerator on line to the isotope separator. Nuclei are implanted directly into a target foil which is soldered to the bottom accessed cold finger of the refrigerator. A 1.5 T superconducting magnet polarizes the ferromagnetic target foils and determines the axis of symmetry. Up to eight gamma detectors can be positioned around the refrigerator, each 9 cm from the target. A unique feature of this system is that the k = 4 term in the directional distribution function can be directly and unambiguously deduced so that a single solution for the mixing ratio can be found. The first on-line experiment at this facility reported here was a study of the decay of the /sup 191/Hg and /sup 193/Hg isotopes. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Expanding Academic Vocabulary with an Interactive On-Line Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana

    2005-01-01

    University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…

  14. The NSINIC on-line system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lev, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The NSI NIC on-line system is described in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: NSI history; the ADFTO's other on-line services; the current system; and the next generation of NSI NIC.

  15. Clayton Municipal Airport (CAO) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Cal, Mark P.

    Clayton Municipal Airport (CAO) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero, AICP .................................................................................................................Skid Resistance 13 .......................................3. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 13 .....................Table 4. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming no Maintenance 14

  16. Incentives in On-Line Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A major problem with on-line education in contemporary universities is securing cooperation of academics. This paper argues that even if the benefits of on-line learning are widely recognised, several incentive problems inhibit academic staff participation. These incentive problems include unverifiability of expertise in on-line learning, the…

  17. On-Line Assessment: What, Why, How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natal, Dottie

    Recent increases in the speed and accessibility of computers and networks have made it possible to administer tests on-line. On-line assessment can be conducted in a controlled setting, such as a testing center, or distributed over local area networks or the Internet to libraries and student homes, allowing students the flexibility to complete…

  18. On-line secret sharing Laszlo Csirmaz

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On-line secret sharing L´aszl´o Csirmaz G´abor Tardos Abstract In a perfect secret sharing scheme the dealer distributes shares to participants so that qualified subsets can recover the secret, while unqualified subsets have no information on the secret. In an on-line secret sharing scheme the dealer assigns

  19. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A model for on-line diagnosis was investigated for discrete-time systems, and resettable sequential systems. Generalized notions of a realization are discussed along with fault tolerance and errors. Further investigation into the theory of on-line diagnosis is recommended for three levels: binary state-assigned level, logical circuit level, and the subsystem-network level.

  20. Optical on line techniques for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Doizi, D.

    2011-07-01

    Optical on line techniques enable non intrusive physical measurements in harsh environments (high temperature, high pressure, radioactivity, ...). Optical absorption spectrometries such as UV-Visible, FTIR, CRDS have been successfully used to study gas phase speciation in different nuclear applications. LIBS which relies on laser matter interactions is a on line optical technique for solids and liquids elementary analysis. (authors)

  1. Multi-Strategy Integration for Actionable Trading Agents Longbing Cao

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    trading agents for stock trading to illustrate the development of multi-strategy integration for stock trading agents. Ten years of historical data from five individual markets are used to evaluateMulti-Strategy Integration for Actionable Trading Agents Longbing Cao Faculty of Information

  2. INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCT-LAYER DIFFUSIVITY FOR CAO SULFATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of comparisons of the sulfation rates of CaO prepared from Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3, using six types of each precursor derived from the same natural limestones. The particles were small enough to eliminate all transport resistances except diffusion through the Ca...

  3. Improvement of One Quantum Encryption Scheme Zhengjun Cao

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    , or qubits. Usually, photons are used for these quantum states. The first quantum cryptographic protocol aimsImprovement of One Quantum Encryption Scheme Zhengjun Cao Departement D'informatique, University Libre de Bruxelles. Belgium. zhencao@ulb.ac.be Abstract Zhou et al proposed a quantum encryption scheme

  4. Remarks on Some Quantum Cryptographic Schemes Zhengjun Cao

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Remarks on Some Quantum Cryptographic Schemes Zhengjun Cao D´epartement d'informatique, Universit.1829] are not secret sharing schemes as claimed. Keywords. quantum key establishment, quantum secret sharing, BB84 parties, for subsequent cryptographic use. Key establishment may be broadly subdivided into key transport

  5. Analysis of one quantum bit string commitment Zhengjun Cao

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Analysis of one quantum bit string commitment Zhengjun Cao D´epartement d'informatique, Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles. zhencao@ulb.ac.be Abstract A. Kent proposed a quantum bit string commitment protocol the string. From a practical point of view, m

  6. Two Optimum Secret Sharing Schemes Revisited Zhengjun Cao Olivier Markowitch

    E-print Network

    Markowitch, Olivier

    Two Optimum Secret Sharing Schemes Revisited Zhengjun Cao Olivier Markowitch Department of Computer, caoamss@gmail.com Abstract In 2006, Obana et al proposed two optimum secret shar- ing schemes secure efficient because they only extend the secret to an array of two elements. The new scheme for a single se

  7. Terahertz metal wire waveguide Q. Cao and J. Jahns

    E-print Network

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Terahertz metal wire waveguide Q. Cao and J. Jahns Quite recently, it was found that [1] a simple metal wire can effectively guide terahertz (THz) waves. This unexpected finding paves the way for a wide problems. It is well known that surface plasmons can be excited by periodic structures like metal gratings

  8. Water quality for on-line haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, G; Perrone, S; Ciuffreda, A

    1998-01-01

    The term 'ultrapure water' is a common way to define water used for on-line treatments: it refers to the absence of chemical, organic and microbiological contamination. To be more accurate in definition, every known and potential contaminant has to be fixed at its limit value. AAMI recommendations and various Pharmacopoeias have set limits for dialysate based on traditional dialysis treatments, but on-line treatments should also be regulated by guidelines for infusion solutions. Modern water treatment technology allows us to obtain a proper chemical quality both for dialysate and infusion solutions in on-line dialysis. Technology alone, however, cannot guarantee adequate microbiological quality if water treatment is not linked to the appropriate maintenance, monitoring, cleaning and sanitizing procedures. On-line dialysis treatments, as well as high-flux dialysis, use the monitor as an on-site pharmaceutical factory where sterilization by filtration forces nephrologists to look for procedures to keep sterile water sterile. PMID:9623524

  9. Factors in on-line loanword adaptation 

    E-print Network

    Haunz, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the factors influencing the adaptation of foreign words to English, beyond traditional phonological parameters such as sonority distance. The data examined were produced in an on-line adaptation ...

  10. On-line range prediction system, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, Nhan

    1988-01-01

    The on-line range prediction system is designed for providing a prediction of the target range in the case of a laser data dropout. It consists of real time implementation of a Kalman filter on an IBM PC/AT equipped with necessary hardware. The system was set up and tested at Crows Landing in the Fall of 1987. The improvements made on the on-line range prediction system during 1988 are examined. Solutions are proposed and discussed to the several problems encountered during system tests. Then, the improvements made on the filter software are explained, namely, accounting for the time lag and providing data continously. Finally, the ideas are mentioned that can be considered in the future.

  11. On-line distortion analysis system inlet-engine test

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, W.K.; Lazalier, G.R.; Rose, C.D.; Lauer, R.F.

    1991-06-01

    A system for near-real-time distortion analysis support of aircraft turbine engine-inlet altitude testing is described. Target applications include both subscale and full-scale inlet-engine compatibility testing in wind tunnel, direct-connect, and free-jet configurations. The system digitizes analog-format, time-dependent data and combines it with digital-format, steady-state data. A high-speed data bus and multiple array processors provide for on-line execution of complex distortion analysis algorithms to compute and display distortion indices, histograms, isobar plots, and surge margin consumption. Analysis algorithms are programmed using a high-level language (FORTRAN 77).

  12. Experiences with On-Line STEAMPOP 

    E-print Network

    Nath, R.; Libby, D. J.; Marcinkowska, A. R.; Skarke, S. C.; Thomasson, M. J.; Worsham, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-88-09-09.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26061 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-88-09-09.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Experiences With On-Line... at best. Continuous savings can be realized by converting these programs to on-line mode. This conversion however is nontrivial. , This paper presents a practical approach to thlS converSlon. This approach has been successfully applied to a steam...

  13. LUST ON-LINE CALCULATOR INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators to assist in performing site assessment and modeling calculations for leaking underground storage tank sites (http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite). The calculators are divided into four types: parameter estimation, models, scientific...

  14. Steam catalysis in CaO carbonation under low steam partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.J.; Xiao, Y.H.

    2008-06-15

    CaO was widely used to capture CO{sub 2} in direct hydrogen production process, where steam always existed simultaneously. The effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance under low steam partial pressure was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The experimental results revealed that steam improved CaO carbonation performance significantly no matter whether Ca(OH){sub 2} was produced or not. At 823 K and 0.5 MPa of steam partial pressure, effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance could not be attributed mainly to production of Ca(OH){sub 2} because the hydration rate of CaO was very slow. The main reason was steam catalysis in CaO carbonation. Enhancement of steam on CaO carbonation performance without Ca(OH){sub 2} production could not be attributed to improvement of steam on the physical property, but to catalytic effect of steam. Effects of CaO precursors, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, steam partial pressure, and temperature with steam addition on CaO carbonation performance were also investigated.

  15. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing on-line

  16. Book Review: Tian Yu Cao, From Current Algebra to Quantum Chromodynamics: A Case

    E-print Network

    Wüthrich, Christian

    Book Review: Tian Yu Cao, From Current Algebra to Quantum Chromodynamics: A Case for Structural of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science In this book, Tian Yu Cao chronicles the decade to the preface, the more philosophical companion piece to the historical book which will cover the longer period

  17. CaO as Drop-In Colloidal Catalysts for the Synthesis of Higher Polyglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Fiona; Nieuwelink, Anne-Eva; Kuipers, Bonny W M; Kaiser, Anton; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an attractive renewable building block for the synthesis of polyglycerols, which find application in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The selective etherification of glycerol to higher oligomers was studied in the presence of CaO colloids and the data are compared with those obtained from NaOH and CaO. The materials were prepared by dispersing CaO, CaCO3, or Ca(OH)2 onto a carbon nanofiber (CNF) support. Colloidal nanoparticles were subsequently dispensed from the CNF into the reaction mixture to give CaO colloids that have a higher activity than equimolar amounts of bulk CaO and NaOH. Optimization of the reaction conditions allowed us to obtain a product with Gardner color number <2, containing no acrolein and minimal cyclic byproducts. The differences in the CaO colloids originating from CNF and bulk CaO were probed using light scattering and conductivity measurements. The results confirmed that the higher activity of the colloids originating from CaO/CNF was due to their more rapid formation and smaller size compared with colloids from bulk CaO. We thus have developed a practical method for the synthesis of polyglycerols containing low amounts of Ca. PMID:25684403

  18. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  19. Gated Treatment Delivery Verification With On-Line Megavoltage Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tai An; Christensen, James D.; Gore, Elizabeth; Khamene, Ali; Boettger, Thomas; Li, X. Allen

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and clinically demonstrate the use of on-line real-time megavoltage (MV) fluoroscopy for gated treatment delivery verification. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage fluoroscopy (MVF) image sequences were acquired using a flat panel equipped for MV cone-beam CT in synchrony with the respiratory signal obtained from the Anzai gating device. The MVF images can be obtained immediately before or during gated treatment delivery. A prototype software tool (named RTReg4D) was developed to register MVF images with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiograph images generated from the treatment planning system based on four-dimensional CT. The image registration can be used to reposition the patient before or during treatment delivery. To demonstrate the reliability and clinical usefulness, the system was first tested using a thoracic phantom and then prospectively in actual patient treatments under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Results: The quality of the MVF images for lung tumors is adequate for image registration with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiographs. The MVF was found to be useful for monitoring inter- and intrafractional variations of tumor positions. With the planning target volume contour displayed on the MVF images, the system can verify whether the moving target stays within the planning target volume margin during gated delivery. Conclusions: The use of MVF images was found to be clinically effective in detecting discrepancies in tumor location before and during respiration-gated treatment delivery. The tools and process developed can be useful for gated treatment delivery verification.

  20. On-line consolidation of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Jen

    An on-line consolidation system, which includes a computer-controlled filament winding machine and a consolidation head assembly, has been designed and constructed to fabricate composite parts from thermoplastic towpregs. A statistical approach was used to determine the significant processing parameters and their effect on the mechanical and physical properties of composite cylinders fabricated by on-line consolidation. A central composite experimental design was used to select the processing conditions for manufacturing the composite cylinders. The thickness, density, void content, degree of crystallinity and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured for each composite cylinder. Micrographs showed that complete intimate contact and uniform fiber-matrix distribution were achieved. The degree of crystallinity of the cylinders was found to be in the range of 25-30%. Under optimum processing conditions, an ILSS of 58 MPa and a void content of <1% were achieved for APC-2 (PEEK/Carbon fiber) composite cylinders. An in-situ measurement system which uses a slip ring assembly and a computer data acquisition system was developed to obtain temperature data during winding. Composite cylinders were manufactured with eight K-type thermocouples installed in various locations inside the cylinder. The temperature distribution inside the composite cylinder during winding was measured for different processing conditions. ABAQUS finite element models of the different processes that occur during on-line consolidation were constructed. The first model was used to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient for the hot-air heat source. A convective heat transfer coefficient of 260 w/msp{2°}K was obtained by matching the calculated temperature history to the in-situ measurement data. To predict temperature distribution during winding an ABAQUS winding simulation model was developed. The winding speed was modeled by incrementally moving the convective boundary conditions around the outer surface of the composite cylinder. A towpreg heating model was constructed to predict the temperature distribution on the cross section of the incoming towpreg. For the process-induced thermal stresses analysis, a thermoelastic finite element model was constructed. Using the temperature history obtained from thermal analysis as the initial conditions, the thermal stresses during winding and cooling were investigated.

  1. On-line process control monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Van Hare, David R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1992-01-01

    An on-line, fiber-optic based apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a chemical substance at a plurality of locations in a chemical processing system comprises a plurality of probes, each of which is at a different location in the system, a light source, optic fibers for carrying light to and from the probes, a multiplexer for switching light from the source from one probe to the next in series, a diode array spectrophotometer for producing a spectrum from the light received from the probes, and a computer programmed to analyze the spectra so produced. The probes allow the light to pass through the chemical substance so that a portion of the light is absorbed before being returned to the multiplexer. A standard and a reference cell are included for data validation and error checking.

  2. On-line Resources for Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the advent of computational methods in biology the quantity of biological data has grown exponentially. These data support genomic, genetic, developmental, and other forms of biological experimentation. The number of on-line resources has kept pace with the growth in data. Xenopus has perhaps lagged some of the other model organisms in developing resources but is now quickly catching up. There are now a number of well-established and developing resources for Xenopus. This chapter looks beyond the widely-known public databases, Genbank and the EBI, and describes how the researcher can use a number of central sites such as Xenbase, UniProtKB, and major genome browsers to navigate to a variety of different resources. PMID:22956109

  3. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

  4. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1993-11-23

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

  5. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  6. Students: schedule your primary care appointments on line! Employees: schedule your Biometric screening appointment on line!

    E-print Network

    screenings- walk in visits at Campus Center Student Health. · TB skin tests-walk in visits · travel visits screening appointment on line! Campus Health's Patient Portal is now live. Through the portal you can view Student Health Clinic, you need to pre-register before you can be web-enabled to use the portal. Pre

  7. On-Line Data Bases. II. Search Performance Evaluation and On-Line Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchingham, Eileen E.

    In an attempt to measure on-line searching performance, test searches of one question conducted by three bibliographic searchers are analysed to determine the effects of search strategy on results. The study reviews retrieved citations for relevance, calculating precision values, and estimated recall for each search. Performance analysis reveals…

  8. An on-line human signature verification system 

    E-print Network

    Simsek, Burc A

    2000-01-01

    A study on human signature verification is presented. A literature survey of current and past methodologies for on-line signature verification is followed by a new approach to the problem of on-line signature verification. Several novel approaches...

  9. Epilogue: A Cautionary Note about On-Line Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothel, Richard Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Warns that the effectiveness of on-line assessment can be mitigated by several factors: unrealistic appraisal of the potential of on-line education, enforcement of a code of conduct, computer and telecommunication skills bias, and other limitations of on-line media. (EV)

  10. Using IRON to Build Frictionless On-line Communities

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    1 Using IRON to Build Frictionless On-line Communities Javier Morales a,b, Iosu Mendizabal b, David within on-line communities. We then exploit IRON, an automatic norm synthesis mechanism, to regulate simulated on-line communities. As a result, IRON synthesises norms that prevent a user from uploading

  11. INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR ON-LINE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    E-print Network

    INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR ON-LINE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION by Elias Kyriakides FOR ON-LINE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION by Elias Kyriakides has been approved December ABSTRACT A method to identify synchronous generator parameters from on-line measurements is presented

  12. Assessment of CAOS as a training model in spinal surgery: a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Richards, P J; Kurta, I C; Jasani, V; Jones, C H Wynn; Rahmatalla, A; Mackenzie, G; Dove, J

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the benefit of computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) pedicle screw insertion in a porcine cadaver model evaluated by dissection and computed tomography (CT); (2) to compare the effect on performance of four surgeons with no experience of CAOS, and varying experience of pedicle screw insertion; (3) to see if CT with extended windows was an acceptable method to evaluate the position of the pedicle screws in the porcine cadaver model, compared to dissection. This was a prospective, randomised, controlled and blinded porcine cadaver study. Twelve 6-month-old porcine (white skinned Landrace) lumbar spines were scanned pre-operatively by spiral CT, as required for the CAOS computer data set. Computer randomisation allocated the specimens to one of four surgeons, all new to CAOS but with different levels of experience in spinal surgery. The usual anatomical landmarks for the freehand technique were known to all four surgeons. Two pedicles at each vertebral level were randomly allocated between conventional free hand insertion and an electromagnetic image guided surgery (NAVITRAK) and 6.5 mm cancellous AO screws inserted. Post-operatively, spiral CT was blindly evaluated by an independent radiologist and the spine fellow to assess the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, by each method. The inter- and intra-observer reliability of CT was evaluated compared to dissection. The pedicle screw placement was assessed as perfect if within the pedicle along its central axis, or acceptable (within < 2 mm from perfect), and measured in millimetres from perfect thereafter. One hundred and sixty-six of 168 pedicles in 12 porcine spines were operated on. Complete data were present for 163 pedicles (81 CAOS, 82 freehand). In the CAOS group 84% of screws were deemed acceptable or perfect, compared to 75.6% with the freehand technique. Screw misplacement was significantly reduced using CAOS (P = 0.049). Seventy-nine percent of CAOS screws were ideally placed compared with 64% with a conventional freehand technique (P = 0.05). A logistic linear regression model showed that the miss placed pedicle screw rate was significantly reduced using CAOS (P = 0.047). CAOS benefited the least experienced surgeons most (the research registrars acceptable rate increased from 70 to 90% and the spine fellow from 76 to 86%). CAOS did not have a statistically significant effect on the experienced consultant spine surgeon increasing from 70 to 79% (P = 0.39). The experienced general orthopaedic surgeon did not benefit from CAOS (P = 0.5). CT compared to dissection showed an intra-observer reliability of 99.4% and inter-observer reliability of 92.6%. The conclusions of this study were as follows: (1) an increased number of pedicle screws were ideally placed using the CAOS electromagnetic guidance system compared to the conventional freehand technique; (2) junior surgeons benefited most from CAOS; (3) we believe CAOS (Navitrak) with porcine lumbar spines evaluated by post operative CT, represents a useful model for training junior surgeons in pedicle screw placement; (4) experienced spine surgeons, who have never used CAOS, may find CAOS less helpful than previously reported. PMID:16683122

  13. On-line evaluation of multiloop digital controller performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to inform the Guidance and Control community of capabilities which were developed by the Aeroservoelasticity Branch to evaluate the performance of multivariable control laws, on-line, during wind-tunnel testing. The capabilities are generic enough to be useful for all kinds of on-line analyses involving multivariable control in experimental testing. Consequently, it was decided to present this material at this workshop even though it has been presented elsewhere. Topics covered include: essential on-line analysis requirements; on-line analysis capabilities; on-line analysis software; frequency domain procedures; controller performance evaluation frequency-domain flutter suppression; and plant determination.

  14. Variations in Compressive Strength of Geopolymer due to the CaO Added Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuqing; Koumoto, Tatsuya; Kondo, Fumiyoshi

    Recently, geopolymer has been a noteworthy material which can be used as a replacement for portland cement. The mechanical characteristics and consistency of the geopolymer are strongly affected by its chemical components of fly ash. The variations in compressive strength of geopolymer due to the CaO added fly ash were investigated in this paper. The compressive strengths of geopolymer were increased with an increase in the curing period, and the characteristics changed from the one of plastic soil material to brittle material such as concrete, regardless of CaO content. Also, the results of compressive strength and modulus of deformation showed their maximum value in the case of 8-10% CaO content. From this result, the maximum characteristics of the strengths were assumed to be exerted in case which the water draining process of geopolymer was balanced with the water absorbing process of additional CaO.

  15. EOS ODL Metadata On-line Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Rabi, M.; Bane, B.; Ullman, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently developed and deployed an EOS ODL metadata on-line viewer. The EOS ODL metadata viewer is a web server that takes: 1) an EOS metadata file in Object Description Language (ODL), 2) parameters, such as which metadata to view and what style of display to use, and returns an HTML or XML document displaying the requested metadata in the requested style. This tool is developed to address widespread complaints by science community that the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) metadata files in ODL are difficult to read by allowing users to upload and view an ODL metadata file in different styles using a web browser. Users have the selection to view all the metadata or part of the metadata, such as Collection metadata, Granule metadata, or Unsupported Metadata. Choices of display styles include 1) Web: a mouseable display with tabs and turn-down menus, 2) Outline: Formatted and colored text, suitable for printing, 3) Generic: Simple indented text, a direct representation of the underlying ODL metadata, and 4) None: No stylesheet is applied and the XML generated by the converter is returned directly. Not all display styles are implemented for all the metadata choices. For example, Web style is only implemented for Collection and Granule metadata groups with known attribute fields, but not for Unsupported, Other, and All metadata. The overall strategy of the ODL viewer is to transform an ODL metadata file to a viewable HTML in two steps. The first step is to convert the ODL metadata file to an XML using a Java-based parser/translator called ODL2XML. The second step is to transform the XML to an HTML using stylesheets. Both operations are done on the server side. This allows a lot of flexibility in the final result, and is very portable cross-platform. Perl CGI behind the Apache web server is used to run the Java ODL2XML, and then run the results through an XSLT processor. The EOS ODL viewer can be accessed from either a PC or a Mac using Internet Explorer 5.0+ or Netscape 4.7+.

  16. ChemScan—an on-line ultraviolet spectral process analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beemster, Bernard J.; Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1996-03-01

    ChemScan is a product line of ultraviolet, on-line process analyzers that grew out of a NASA SBIR program targeted at on-line monitoring of plant nutrient solutions as part of the NASA CELSS program. The original goal for NASA was to provide on-line measurement of all the hydroponic plant nutrients necessary to develop and maintain a plant growth facility in space. Two different spectrometric techniques were applied to provide on-line measurements of all plant nutrients. One technology, ultraviolet absorption spectrometry, provided on-line measurements of nitrate, iron, and some of the transition metal nutrients. This technology not only demonstrated a capability to meet these CELSS needs but has now been incorporated into a family of commercial analytical instruments used for environmental process monitoring and control applications. A second technology, Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES), also originated in this same NASA SBIR, is still at an earlier stage of development and is expected to reach the market in the next 18-24 months.

  17. Mechanism of CaO sulfation in boiler limestone injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.R.; Yoon, H.; Burke, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    Pilot and industrial-scale tests of boiler limestone injection (BLI) have demonstrated flue gas SO/sub 2/ reductions of around 50% at sorbent utilization efficiencies of 15-20%. The objective of the laboratory research program described in this paper was to improve BLI sorbent utilization through an understanding of the limestone calcination and CaO sulfation reaction mechanisms. This paper describes the laboratory sulfation studies. The laboratory work used a differential reactor operated at 700-1000/degree/C and lab-produced calcines from limestones, dolomites, and hydrated limes, having particle sizes in a range applicable to BLI. The lab work determined the intrinsic sulfation reaction rate and rate-controlling steps over this temperature range. The intrinsic rate increased with the square of calcine surface area and was rate controlling only at temperatures below 800/degree/C. At the higher temperatures more applicable to BLI, the sulfation rate was limited by pore diffusion of SO/sub 2/ and pore plugging by the sulfate product. Therefore, the reaction rate and the saturated sorbent efficiency depended strongly on particle size and calcine pore structure. The lab data indicate that an optimum calcine pore structure can be obtained by appropriately evaluating sorbents, controlling calcination conditions and incorporating alkali additives in the sorbent.

  18. On-line and off-line applications of photogrammetric stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1993-12-01

    A photogrammetric station is a configuration of several video cameras which are used for automated 3D measuring of industrial objects. All measurements are performed from the image observations only, and the targets are natural features or projected light patterns. The first `on-line' applications are for car body orientation within a robotic sealing cell and for 3D verification of ship screws within a robotic machining step. The `off-line' applications are for object reconstructions for reverse engineering purposes.

  19. The 6.8 ? m band is caused by CaO grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Y.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2005-05-01

    Protostellar objects have several significant infrared. In this study, we will concentrate on the band observed at 6.8 ? m, one of the most obscure features in young stellar objects (YSOs) and one that is only observed in young stellar objects. Although several materials have been proposed to explain this feature, each of these candidates requires specific environmental conditions to explain the observations. We believe that a complex of CaO and Ca(OH)2 could explain observations of a 6.8 ? m feature in protostellar systems. We discuss the condensation of CaO grains and the formation of a Ca(OH)2 surface layer. The smoke samples were observed using a transmission electron microscope at the University of New Mexico. The infrared spectra of our samples had characteristic dual peaks centered at 6.8 um which was produced by absorption in CaO combined with absorption by a Ca(OH)2 layer on the surface of the CaO grains, produced by reaction with moisture upon exposure to air. The infrared spectra are compared with the spectra of fifteen YSOs. We note that CaO-rich grains are seen in all meteoritic CAIs (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions), characteristic components of carbonaceous chondrites that must have been produced in the solar nebula. In addition, since CaO has a number of nebular formation routes, CaO could be present in young stellar environments to a significantly higher degree than would be implied by its abundance in meteorites. Moreover, the 6.8 ? m feature has only been observed in YSOs. Therefore, we believe that CaO grains (together with Ca(OH)2 coatings of varying thickness) are a plausible candidate to explain the 6.8 ? m features seen in YSOs and hypothesize that they are produced in the hot interiors of young stellar environments.

  20. Statistical Measurement Approach for On-line Audio Quality Assessment

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yongge

    Statistical Measurement Approach for On-line Audio Quality Assessment Lopamudra Roychoudhuri, Ehab, Depaul University, 243 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL-60604, U.S.A Abstract. The quality of audio in IP on audio compression techniques. On-line audio quality assessment is impor- tant to provide real

  1. Are On-Line Data Bases in Your Library's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Jim

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Today there are over 900 on-line data banks available for public access. Most microcomputers can use them through the aid of a modem and communication program. Major public information utilities that offer access to these on-line data bases are growing and expanding. The Source, a data base utility…

  2. Real-Time Tracking via On-line Boosting

    E-print Network

    Grabner, Helmut

    University of Technology Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision #12;Tracking "Shrek" British Machine ­ Occlusions, cluttered background, illumination conditions British Machine Vision Conference, Real selection ­ From Off-line to On-line ­ On-line Feature Selection Tracking British Machine Vision Conference

  3. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  4. On-Line Course Development: Engaging and Retaining Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruster, Benita G.

    2015-01-01

    As the number of on-line classes and the demand for on-line education continues to sky-rocket, it is critical that course developers and university faculty have the skills to effectively design curricula, to develop engaging learning opportunities, and to create responsive courses that meet individual student needs. This paper details three…

  5. Evidence on the Effectiveness of On-Line Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard-Eggers, Jane; Wooten, Tommy; Childs, Brad; Coker, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of on-line homework in principles of accounting classes. We surveyed students to determine their degree of satisfaction with on-line homework and their perceptions about its effectiveness in enhancing their learning. We also gathered data to determine the extent of online…

  6. ON-LINE CURSIVE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION USING SPEECH RECOGNITION METHODS

    E-print Network

    Starner, Thad E.

    ON-LINE CURSIVE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION USING SPEECH RECOGNITION METHODS Thad Starnert , John 02138 Email: Makhoul@bbn.com ABSTRACT A hidden Markov model (HMM) based continuous speech recognition between the continuous speech and on-line cursive handwriting recognition tasks are explored; the handwrit

  7. Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process. PMID:25289973

  8. New pyrometallurgical process of EAF dust treatment with CaO addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Naoyoshi; Itoh, Satoshi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The non-carbothermic zinc pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust was investigated on a laboratory scale. The main objective of this process was to convert highly stable zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), which accounts for more than half of total zinc in the EAF dust, into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 by CaO addition. The EAF dust was mixed with CaO powder in various ratios, pressed into pellets, and heated in a muffle furnace in air at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100°C for a predetermined holding time. All ZnFe2O4 was transformed into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 at a minimum temperature of 900°C within 1 h when sufficient CaO to achieve a Ca/Fe molar ratio of 1.1 was added. However, at higher temperatures, excess CaO beyond the stoichiometric ratio was required because it was consumed by reactions leading to the formation of compounds other than ZnFe2O4. The evaporation of halides and heavy metals in the EAF dust was also studied. These components could be preferentially volatilized into the gas phase at 1100°C when CaO was added.

  9. Remote Automatic Material On-Line Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Erik

    2005-12-20

    Low cost NMR sensor for measuring moisture content of forest products. The Department of Energy (DOE) Industries of the Future (IOF) program seeks development and implementation of technologies that make industry more efficient--in particular, more energy-efficient. Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM), a wholly-owned subsidiary of GE Security, received an award under the program to investigate roles for low-cost Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology in furtherance of these goals. Most NMR systems are designed for high-resolution spectroscopy applications. These systems use intense magnetic fields produced by superconducting magnets that drive price and operating cost to levels beyond industry tolerance. At low magnetic fields, achievable at low cost, one loses the ability to obtain spectroscopic information. However, measuring the time constants associated with the NMR signal, called NMR relaxometry, gives indications of chemical and physical states of interest to process control and optimization. It was the purpose of this effort to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using such low-field, low-cost NMR to monitor parameters enabling greater process efficiencies. The primary target industry identified in the Cooperative Development Agreement was the wood industry, where the moisture content of wood is a key process parameter from the time the cut tree enters a mill until the time it is delivered as pieces of lumber. Extracting the moisture is energy consuming, and improvements in drying efficiency stand to reduce costs and emissions substantially. QM designed and developed a new, low-cost NMR instrument suitable for inspecting lumber up to 3 inches by 12 inches in cross section, and other materials of similar size. Low cost is achieved via an inexpensive, permanent magnet and low-cost NMR spectrometer electronics. Laboratory testing demonstrated that the NMR system is capable of accurate ({+-} 0.5%) measurements of the moisture content of wood for moisture ranging from 2% to over 140% (referenced to the wood's dry weight). Accuracy exceeded that offered by existing instrumentation when the moisture content was in excess of the fiber saturation point ({approx}20%). Accuracy was independent of the wood form: solid wood, wood chips or sawdust. The prototype NMR system was designed and built for incorporation and use in a beta test site. Beta testing is under way at the pilot plant operated by the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN) in Vancouver, B.C. Other industries were also investigated. For example, laboratory testing demonstrated that low-field NMR is capable of measuring the hydrogen content of calcium oxide (quicklime). Hydrogen content measurement can be done both rapidly (on the order of 1 second) and nondestructively. Measurement of moisture in quicklime affects energy consumption in the steel industry. Further advances in system electronics, ongoing under DOD support, will enable yet more substantial system cost reductions over the prototype system, opening up a wider range of utility.

  10. Evidence for Priming Across Intervening Sentences During On-Line Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Kristen M; Swaab, Tamara Y; Boudewyn, Megan A; Zirnstein, Megan; Traxler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments investigated factors contributing to syntactic priming during on-line comprehension. In all of the experiments, a prime sentence containing a reduced relative clause was presented prior to a target sentence that contained the same structure. Previous studies have shown that people respond more quickly when a syntactically related prime sentence immediately precedes a target. In the current study, ERP and eyetracking measures were used to assess whether priming in sentence comprehension persists when one or more unrelated filler sentences appear between the prime and the target. In experiment 1, a reduced P600 was found to target sentences both when there were no intervening unrelated fillers, and when there was one unrelated filler between the prime and the target. Thus, processing the prime sentence facilitated processing of the syntactic form of the target sentence. Experiments 2 and 3, eye-tracking experiments, showed that target sentence processing was facilitated when three filler sentences intervened between the prime and the target. These experiments show that priming effects in comprehension can be observed when unrelated material appears after a prime sentence and before the target. We interpret the results with respect to residual activation and implicit learning accounts of priming. PMID:24678136

  11. On line Release Simulator of Radioactive Beams produced by ISOL technique

    SciTech Connect

    Turrion, Manuela; Tengblad, Olof; Borge, Maria J. G.; Reillo, Eva; Morrissey, Edward R.; Santana, Mario

    2007-02-12

    Target and ion source constitute the heart for the production of radioactive ion beams, RIBs. The goal of this work is to help in the development of reliable and efficient target and ion source systems for production of short-lived isotopes of a wide range of elements by the ISOL method. With this aim an oracle database of diffusion and desorption parameters with more than 10.000 entries has been built. The database is accessible on line and a web application has been developed allowing the retrieval of information from the database in order to assist in the configuration of the input parameters for a Monte Carlo code, RIBO, for the simulation of target-ion source systems.

  12. On-line maintenance methodology development and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Jae, M.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing economic pressures being faced and the potential for shortening outage times under the conditions of deregulated electricity markets in the world, licensees are motivated to get an increasing amount of the on-line maintenance (OLM). The benefits of the OLM includes increased system and plant reliability, reduction of plant equipment and system material condition deficiencies that could adversely impact operations, and reduction of work scope during plant refueling outages. In Korea, allowance guidelines of risk assessment is specified in the safety regulation guidelines 16.7 and 16.8 of the Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which is 'General guidelines of Risk-informed application for requesting permission of changes' and 'Requesting permission of changes of Risk-informed application for Technical Specification'. We select the emergency diesel generator (EDG) of the Ulchin unit 3 and 4 for risk assessment analysis by applying configuration changes. The EDG which has plant safety level IE belongs to on-site standby power (A, B train EDG) in electric distribution system. The EDG is important component because it should maintain standby status during plant is operating, therefore we select the EDG for target component of risk assessment analysis. The risk assessment is limited to CDF. The risk assessment is performed by using AIMS-PSA Release2. We evaluate CDF by applying the configuration changes with some assumptions. Evaluation of the full power operation and Low power/Shut down operation was performed. This study has been performed for introducing a methodology and performing risk assessment. (authors)

  13. An investigation of CaO sulfation mechanism in boiler sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.R.; Yoon, H. )

    1988-08-01

    This paper reports a laboratory differential reactor study conducted at temperatures of 975-1,275 K to investigate CaO sulfation mechanisms with calcine (CaO) samples derived from pulverized limestones and dolomites, and hydrated limes. The limestones had 8-115 {mu}m mean particle sizes, a range applicable for boiler sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control. Under conditions applicable for boiler sorbent injection, the sorbent performance, in terms of initial reaction rate and saturation utilization, was limited by the SO{sub 2} pore diffusion rate and by premature pore mouth plugging by CaSO{sub 4} product and, thus, depended on CaO particle size and pore size. Hydrated lime and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-promoted limestones showed performance superior to that of limestones, because they produced calcines with larger pores. Intrinsic reaction rate was observed at temperatures below 1,100 K.

  14. Thermodynamics of strained vanadium dioxide single crystals Yijia Gu, Jinbo Cao, Junqiao Wu, and Long-Qing Chen

    E-print Network

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Thermodynamics of strained vanadium dioxide single crystals Yijia Gu, Jinbo Cao, Junqiao Wu;Thermodynamics of strained vanadium dioxide single crystals Yijia Gu,1,a Jinbo Cao,2 Junqiao Wu,2 and Long Vanadium dioxide undergoes a metal­insulator transition, in which the strain condition plays an important

  15. Density functional theory calculation of edge stresses in monolayer MoS2 Zenan Qi, Penghui Cao, and Harold S. Park

    E-print Network

    Park, Harold S.

    Density functional theory calculation of edge stresses in monolayer MoS2 Zenan Qi, Penghui Cao in monolayer MoS2 Zenan Qi,a) Penghui Cao,a) and Harold S. Parkb) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston

  16. Preparing Students for Assessment in the On-Line Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michele L.

    2002-01-01

    Advises professors with limited technological experience on how to use features of their existing computer networks to communicate assessment expectations to their on-line students. Explains how e-mail and Web postings can serve this purpose. (EV)

  17. On-line hydraulic state prediction for water distribution systems

    E-print Network

    Whittle, Andrew

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for on?line hydraulic state prediction in urban water networks. The proposed method uses a Predictor?Corrector (PC) approach in which a statistical data?driven algorithm is ...

  18. NOVEL ON-LINE ADAPTIVE LEARNING ALGORITHMS FOR BLIND DECONVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    NOVEL ON-LINE ADAPTIVE LEARNING ALGORITHMS FOR BLIND DECONVOLUTION USING THE NATURAL GRADIENT City, UT 84112 USA Abstract: Blind deconvolution is an important task for numerous applications signal deconvolution and source separation. Keywords: adaptive algorithms, blind deconvolution, blind

  19. Measuring the Effects of an On-Line Training Module for School Psychologists Working with Traumatized Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to address the current lack of trauma training provided to school psychologists. Specifically, this study employed a randomized, controlled design to test the efficacy of an on-line training targeting school psychology graduate student trainees' awareness of the signs and symptoms of child abuse as well as their…

  20. On-line octane control with NIR analyzers. [Near InfraRed

    SciTech Connect

    Zetter, M.S. ); Politzer, B.A. )

    1993-03-01

    On-line octane monitoring at the blender offers substantial advantages in reformulating gasoline and minimizing octane giveaway'. Accurate, real-time measurement of octane number allows rapid adjustments to component feed streams, compensating for variability in the rest of the refining process. With tighter control of the blending operation, less off-spec product is produced, which is particularly important when blending directly into a pipeline. In blending to tankage, less reblending is required to achieve the desired octane specification, which increases both efficiency and equipment utilization. Once tighter octane control is achieved, the refiner can shift octane number targets closer to minimum specifications, thereby reducing octane giveaway. The paper describes on-line octane measurement; remote sensing spectrophotometer; in-line application; principles of operation; instrument calibration; technical performance; tangible economic savings; and future expansion.

  1. On the Big Gap Between |p| and |q| in DSA Zhengjun Cao

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Big Gap Between |p| and |q| in DSA Zhengjun Cao Department of Mathematics, Shanghai because of the big gap between |p| (1024-bit) and |q| (160-bit). Keywords DSA, Schnorr's signature p the message attack is more effective because of the big gap between |p| (1024-bit) and |q| (160

  2. Authenticated Key Exchange Protocols with Enhanced Freshness Properties Hai Huang, Zhenfu Cao

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    1 Authenticated Key Exchange Protocols with Enhanced Freshness Properties Hai Huang, Zhenfu Cao Abstract--In this paper, we investigate the security model for authenticated key exchange protocols. We enhance the freshness definition for the three- pass authenticated key exchange protocols such that our

  3. Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining Longbing Cao, Dan Luo, and Chengqi Zhang

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining Longbing Cao, Dan Luo, and Chengqi Zhang Faculty, most of them can be described in terms of or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous intelligence in agents, data mining

  4. Studies on additives of high-temperature CaO sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.; Zhang, M.; Yao, Q.; Cao, X.; Cen, K.

    1999-07-01

    It is known that FSI (Furnace Sorbent Injection) is a kind of simple method for SO{sub 2} control. However, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency is low because of low sorbent utilization efficiency. In this paper, additives of CaO sulfation were studied. Through experiments, it can be found that some alkaline-metal compounds (NaCl, etc) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can enhance CaO sulfation. The removal efficiencies can reach 89%(NaCl) and 78%(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) respectively at Ca/S=1.6. Meanwhile, the results also show that, compared with alkaline-metal compounds, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more effective in high-temperature zone. Through SEM and X-ray diffraction analyses, the mechanism is thought as the follows: alkaline-metal compounds can change microstructure of CaO, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can make stable product (3CaO {sm{underscore}bullet} 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {sm{underscore}bullet} CaSO{sub 4}) formed in high-temperature desulfurization process.

  5. Data Mining Applications in Social Security Yanchang Zhao, Huaifeng Zhang, Longbing Cao, Hans Bohlscheid, Yuming Ou,

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Chapter 6 Data Mining Applications in Social Security Yanchang Zhao, Huaifeng Zhang, Longbing Cao mining in social security. The first is an application of decision tree and association rules to find the demo- graphic patterns of customers. Sequence mining is used in the second application to find activity

  6. A novel hybrid finite element model for modeling anisotropic composites Changyong Cao a

    E-print Network

    Qin, Qinghua

    of the micro- or macro-mechanical behavior of composites [1,2]. In the literature, there are two mainA novel hybrid finite element model for modeling anisotropic composites Changyong Cao a , Aibing Yu Composite materials Green's function Hybrid finite element Stroh formalism a b s t r a c t In this paper we

  7. Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction Theory Jianshu Cao* and Kent R. Wilson

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction Theory Jianshu Cao* and Kent R. Wilson Department of Chemistry; In Final Form: July 10, 1998 Time-resolved X-ray diffraction patterns can be inverted to obtain surfaces), as required in optical probe experiments. In order to interpret ultrafast X-ray diffraction

  8. Combined Association Rule Mining Huaifeng Zhang, Yanchang Zhao, Longbing Cao, and Chengqi Zhang

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Association rule mining aims to discover relationships among data in huge database. These relationships may mining tasks, we will also tackle data imbalance problem in combined association rule mining. The paperCombined Association Rule Mining Huaifeng Zhang, Yanchang Zhao, Longbing Cao, and Chengqi Zhang

  9. Quantum-Classical Correspondence in Response Theory Maksym Kryvohuz and Jianshu Cao*

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Quantum-Classical Correspondence in Response Theory Maksym Kryvohuz and Jianshu Cao* Department 2005; published 28 October 2005) The correspondence principle between the quantum commutator ^A; ^B and the classical Poisson brackets @fA; Bg is examined in the context of response theory. The classical response

  10. Strong, Ductile Magnesium-Zinc Nanocomposites MICHAEL DE CICCO, HIROMI KONISHI, GUOPING CAO, HONG SEOK CHOI,

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Strong, Ductile Magnesium-Zinc Nanocomposites MICHAEL DE CICCO, HIROMI KONISHI, GUOPING CAO, HONG SiC nanoparticles are demonstrated to influence the solidification of magnesium- zinc alloys) with an ultrasonic cavitation based disper- sion of nanoparticles in metal melts. Nanoparticle reinforced magnesium

  11. Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

    2012-06-01

    Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol. PMID:22905508

  12. Position-Verification in Multi-Channel Model Huajun Zhang, Zongyang Zhang and Zhenfu Cao

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Position-Verification in Multi-Channel Model Huajun Zhang, Zongyang Zhang and Zhenfu Cao Shanghai-attack-resistant position-verification protocol in a new model named multi-channel model. In the multi-channel model the position-verification task. Adding different constraints into the multi-channel model, we make three sub

  13. 3D Fingerprint Phantoms Sunpreet S. Arora1, Kai Cao1,

    E-print Network

    3D Fingerprint Phantoms Sunpreet S. Arora1, Kai Cao1, Nicholas G. Paulter Jr.2 and Anil K. Jain1 1 by a grant from the NIST Measurement Science Program #12;3D Fingerprint Phantom 2 2D synthetic fingerprint machines developed at NIST http://www.nist.gov/pml/electromagnetics/phanni e_051110.cfm #12;3D Fingerprint

  14. 3D Fingerprint Phantoms Sunpreet S. Arora, Kai Cao and Anil K. Jain

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    3D Fingerprint Phantoms Sunpreet S. Arora, Kai Cao and Anil K. Jain Department of Computer Science data. To overcome this limitation, use of a large number of 2D synthetic fingerprints for evaluating fingerprint systems had been proposed. However, the utility of 2D synthetic fingerprints is limited

  15. CrowdTC: Crowdsourced Taxonomy Construction Rui Meng, Yongxin Tong, Lei Chen, Caleb Chen Cao

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yunhao

    CrowdTC: Crowdsourced Taxonomy Construction Rui Meng, Yongxin Tong, Lei Chen, Caleb Chen Cao University, China {rmeng,leichen,caochen}@cse.ust.hk yxtong@buaa.edu.cn Abstract--Recently, taxonomy has-based approaches and human computation (the crowd) to construct a more complete and accurate taxonomy. Specifically

  16. CrowdTC: Crowdsourced Taxonomy Construction Rui Meng, Yongxin Tong, Lei Chen, Caleb Chen Cao

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yunhao

    CrowdTC: Crowdsourced Taxonomy Construction Rui Meng, Yongxin Tong, Lei Chen, Caleb Chen Cao University, China {rmeng,leichen,caochen}@cse.ust.hk yxtong@buaa.edu.cn Abstract--Taxonomy, which is widely. Clearly, the automatic methods for taxonomy acquisition have the advantage of good scalability and high

  17. Linear theory for optimal control of molecular wave packets Jianshu Cao and Kent R. Wilson

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Linear theory for optimal control of molecular wave packets Jianshu Cao and Kent R. Wilson proposals for the quantum control of matter have been suggested 1­7 , among which optimal control theory has optimization procedures for quan- tum control of wave packets in the linear-response regime. One particularly

  18. Rh-Catalyzed Enyne Cycloisomerization Ping Cao, Bin Wang, and Xumu Zhang*

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xumu

    Rh-Catalyzed Enyne Cycloisomerization Ping Cao, Bin Wang, and Xumu Zhang* Department of Chemistry, activity, and selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, no Rh-based catalyst systems have been reported for facilitating Alder-ene type reactions. Herein we report a highly effective and selective Rh-catalyzed cyclo

  19. A new computational method for cable theory problems Bulin J. Cao and L. F. Abbott

    E-print Network

    Abbott, Laurence

    . INTRODUCTION Cable theory is the primary tool used to relate the geo- metric form ofa neuron to its electrical function ( 1-3). The basic problem of cable theory is to compute the membrane potential everywhereA new computational method for cable theory problems Bulin J. Cao and L. F. Abbott Physics

  20. PERSPECTIVES Hu and Cao 179 6. United Nations Environment Programme. Inte-

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    - vere water scarcity. Some experts believe that the water crisis may come before an energy crisis Advance access publication 14 May 2014 MULTIDISCIPLINARY Water science on the molecular scale: new insights into the characteristics of water Jun Hu1, and Zexian Cao2 The highest good is like that of water

  1. Towards Stadium-Scale Wireless Media Streaming Jean Cao Carey Williamson

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Carey

    Towards Stadium-Scale Wireless Media Streaming Jean Cao Carey Williamson Department of Computer tens of media stream- ing users. We propose a hierarchical approach that can support over 1000-generated media streaming workloads. The simulation results show that: 1) our design can support up to 1600

  2. Effect of partial carbonation on the cyclic CaO carbonation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Grasa, G.; Abanades, J.C.; Anthony, E.J.

    2009-10-15

    CaO particles from the calcination of natural limestones can be used as regenerable solid sorbents in some CO{sub 2} capture systems. Their decay curves in terms of CO{sub 2} capture capacity have been extensively studied in the literature, always in experiments allowing particles to reach their maximum carbonation conversion for a given cycle. However, at the expected operating conditions in a CO{sub 2} capture system using the carbonation reaction, a relevant fraction of the CaO particles will not have time to fully convert in the carbonator reactor. This work investigates if there is any effect on the decay curves when CaO is only partially converted in each cycle. Experiments have been conducted in a thermobalance arranged to interrupt the carbonation reaction in each cycle before the end of the fast reaction period typical in the CaO-CO{sub 2} reaction. It is shown that, after the necessary normalization of results, the effective capacity of the sorbent to absorb CO{sub 2} during particle lifetime in the capture system slightly increases and CaO particles partially converted behave 'younger' than particles fully converted after every calcination. This has beneficial implications for the design of carbonation/calcination loops.

  3. Improvement of One Anonymous Identity-Based Encryption Zhengjun Cao 1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Improvement of One Anonymous Identity-Based Encryption Zhengjun Cao 1 , Lihua Liu 2, Abstract In 2009, Seo et al. proposed an anonymous hierarchical identity-based encryption (IBE). The ciphertext: Anonymous identity-based encryption; bilinear groups of composite order; dou- bly randomized key; strong

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the XRD-determination of the identity of CaSO4, formed by the reaction between CaO and S02, and the support of that determination by density measurements with helium pycnometry. The anhydrous CaS04 compound formed has an orthorhombic crystal structure and an...

  5. An on-line replanning method for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E.; Peng, Cheng; Godley, Andrew; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X. Allen

    2009-10-15

    Daily setup for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy (RT) can vary randomly due to neck rotation and anatomy change. These differences cannot be totally corrected by the current practice of image guided RT with translational repositioning. The authors present a novel rapid correction scheme that can be used on-line to correct both interfractional setup variation and anatomy change for HN RT. The scheme consists of two major steps: (1) Segment aperture morphing (SAM) and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO). SAM is accomplished by applying the spatial relationship between the apertures and the contours of the planning target and organs at risk (OARs) to the new target and OAR contours. The new target contours are transferred from planning target contours to the CT of the day by means of deformable registration (MIMVISTA). The dose distribution for each new aperture was generated using a planning system with a fast dose engine and hardware and was input into a newly developed SWO package using fast sequential quadratic programming. The entire scheme was tested based on the daily CT images acquired for representative HN IMRT cases treated with a linac and CT-on-Rails combo. It was found that the target coverage and/or OAR sparing was degraded based on the CT of the day with the current standard repositioning from rigid registration. This degradation can be corrected by the SAM/SWO scheme. The target coverage and OAR sparing for the SAM/SWO plans were found to be equivalent to the original plan. The SAM/SWO process took 5-8 min for the head and neck cases studied. The proposed aperture morphing with weight optimization is an effective on-line approach for correcting interfractional patient setup and anatomic changes for head and neck cancer radiotherapy.

  6. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takahiro; Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Maruyama, Katsuya; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Zinc in Electric Arc Furnace dust or EAF dust mainly exists as ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. While ZnO can be simply dissolved into either an acidic or alkaline solution, it is difficult to dissolve ZnFe2O4. In our previous work, we introduced a process called "CaO treatment", a preliminary pyrometallurgical process designed to transform the ZnFe2O4 in the EAF dust into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5. The halogens and others heavy metals were favorably vaporized during CaO treatment with no essential evaporation loss of zinc and iron, leaving CaO treated dust which consisted mainly of ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 and no problematic ZnFe2O4 compound. In this work, the selective leaching of zinc over iron and calcium in the CaO treated dust was investigated using an NH4Cl solution. The effects of temperature, reaction time and NH4Cl concentration on dissolution behavior were examined. While most of the zinc in the CaO treated dust was extracted after 2h at 70°C with 2M NH4Cl, only about 20% of calcium was leached in NH4Cl solution. However, the iron did not dissolve and remained as Ca2Fe2O5 in residue. It was confirmed that zinc can be effectively recovered using NH4Cl solution. PMID:26448494

  7. An on-line NMR technique with a programmable processor

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to determine molecular content of materials, mainly in laboratory measurements. The reduced cost of fast computer processors, together with recent break throughs in digital signal processor technology, has facilitated the on-line use of NMR by allowing modifications of the available technology. This paper describes a system and an algorithm for improving the on-line operations. It is base on the time-domain NMR signal detected by the controller and some prior knowledge of chemical signal patterns. The desired signal can be separated from a composite signal by using an adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter. This technique would be useful for upgrading process procedures in on-line manufacturing.

  8. Recent advances in nuclear physics through on-line isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David Gareth

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear physics is advancing rapidly at the precision frontier, where measurements of nuclear observables are challenging state-of-the-art nuclear models. A major contribution is associated with the increasing availability of accelerated beams of radioactive ions produced using the isotope separation on-line technique. These advances have come hand in hand with significant progress in the development of high-efficiency detector systems and improved target technologies which are invaluable in exploiting these beams to their full advantage. This article reviews some of the recent highlights in the field of nuclear structure profiting from these technological advances.

  9. On-line access to geoscience bibliographic citations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    On-line geoscience bibliographic citations and access points to citations are exponentially increasing as commercial, non-profit, and government agencies worldwide publish materials electronically. On-line bibliographic tools capture cited works, and open access content allows for freely obtained citations and documents. For this newsletter, citations from the numerous journals and books listed in the "Recent Papers" section of the EXPLORE newsletters from 2008-2011 were used to provide freely-accessible web sites to determine the availability of bibliographic information.

  10. Materials compatibility during the chlorination of molten CaCl/sub 2/. CaO salts. [CaCl/sub 2/. CaO salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rense, C.E.C.; Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Ferran, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    As part of our effort to develop a semicontinuous PuO/sub 2/ reduction process, we are investigating promising materials for containing a 900/sup 0/C molten CaCl/sub 2/ . CaO chlorination reaction. We want the material to contain this reaction and to be reusable. We tested candidate materials in a simulated salt (no plutonium) using anhydrous HCl as the chlorinating agent. Data are presented on the performance of 36 metals and alloys, 9 ceramics, and 3 coatings.

  11. On-Line Pesticide Training with Narrated Powerpoint Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    UMaine Cooperative Extension is the primary educational delivery organization for pesticide recertification credits in Maine. Shrinking budgets and staff numbers are making traditional face-to-face delivery increasingly difficult to maintain. To address this issue, on-line pesticide applicator recertification training credits were developed. The…

  12. Towards a Rhetoric of On-line Tutoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, David

    Electronic mail-based tutoring of undergraduate writing students upsets the temporal basis of the face-to-face paradigm for writing tutorials. Taking place in real time in a specified place, the face-to-face tutorial session has a beginning, middle and end. Further, the session must have a tangible point. By contrast, in on-line tutoring, time is…

  13. Distinguishing Text from Graphics in On-line Handwritten Ink

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Christopher M.

    Distinguishing Text from Graphics in On-line Handwritten Ink Christopher M. Bishop, Markus Svens in handwritten digital ink. It utilizes not just the characteristics of the strokes, but also the information pro digital ink, collected using a Tablet PC. 1 Introduction Pen controlled computing devices such as PDAs

  14. The Transformation of Mathematics in On-Line Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borba, Marcelo C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents some research findings regarding the changes in the mathematics produced by mathematics teachers in on-line distance courses. Predicated on the belief that knowledge is generated by collectives of humans-with-media, and that different technologies modify the nature of the knowledge generated, we have sought to understand how…

  15. On-Line Synthesis and Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students learn how to use ESI to accelerate chemical synthesis and to couple it with on-line mass spectrometry for structural analysis. The Hantzsch synthesis of symmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines is a classic example of a one-pot reaction in which multiple intermediates can serve to indicate the progress of the reaction…

  16. The On-Line Audit Revisited: Yale University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldon, Albert R., Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Yale University's on-line examination of accounting and administrative systems is discussed. Program goals are to review financial management systems at the university to identify weaknesses in internal controls, and to fulfill all audit requirements of federal grants and contracts. After outlining the quarterly audit cycle, advantages of the…

  17. On-Line Geometric Modeling Notes B EZIER PATCH SUBDIVISION

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    On-Line Geometric Modeling Notes B ´EZIER PATCH SUBDIVISION Kenneth I. Joy Visualization method can be specified to subdivide a B´ezier patch. This method is specified unlike the matrix methods, as it is based upon the definition of the patch as a set of curves.. The Method for Subdivision We recall that

  18. On-Line Geometric Modeling Notes B EZIER PATCHES

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    On-Line Geometric Modeling Notes B ´EZIER PATCHES Kenneth I. Joy Visualization and Graphics it to a surface patch methodology that has become the defacto standard for surface generation in computer graphics will be useful. · Definition and properties of the B´ezier patch · Viewing the B´ezier patch as a continuous set

  19. On-line Predictive Load Shedding for Network Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    On-line Predictive Load Shedding for Network Monitoring Pere Barlet-Ros1 , Diego Amores-L´opez1 shedding scheme for monitoring systems that quickly reacts to overload situations by gracefully degrad- ing, load shedding, resource management, traffic sampling, resource usage monitoring, resource usage

  20. On-Line Machine Covering Yossi Azar1

    E-print Network

    Azar, Yossi

    On-Line Machine Covering Yossi Azar1 ,Leah Epstein2 1 Dept. of Computer Science, Tel of scheduling a sequence of jobs to m parallel machines as to maximize the minimum load over the machines. This situation corresponds to a case that a system which consists of the m machines is alive (i.e. productive

  1. Space and Movable Equipment On-line Inventory

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Space and Movable Equipment On-line Inventory FY15 (July 2014 - June 2015) CAS ­ Cost Accounting and Michael Richards #12;Learning Objectives · Gain understanding of the Importance of Space & Equipment Inventory. · Understand the entire Inventory Process. · How to classify functional space. · How to inventory

  2. Teaching First-Year Spanish On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Danielle; Catanzaro, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a method for teaching a college-level introductory second-language course entirely online, using a distance learning approach that incorporates electronic messaging, multimedia, World Wide Web, and Internet assignments. The course structure, pedagogical issues, and one university's experience with on-line courseware discussed, and student…

  3. Developing an On-Line Interactive Health Psychology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol

    2006-01-01

    On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the basis of…

  4. Learning OnLine Handwritten Characters \\Lambda Qiong Gao y

    E-print Network

    Vitanyi, Paul M.B.

    to artificial intelligence (AI), but rather on new exciting general learning theories which have developed out of AI research is machine cognition of various as­ pects of natural human languages. An enormous effortLearning On­Line Handwritten Characters \\Lambda Qiong Gao y Academy of Science, Beijing, China Ming

  5. ON-LINE TOXICITY MONITORS AND WATERSHED EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Water Quality Early Warning System using On-line Toxicity Monitors (OTMs) has been deployed in the East Fork of the Little Miami River, Clermont County, OH. Living organisms have long been used to determine the toxicity of environmental samples. With advancements in electronic ...

  6. EPA'S ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants int the subsurface. The calculators are available on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite, and are divided into four categories: Parameter Estimate...

  7. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. On-line mass storage system functional design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earnest, D.

    1975-01-01

    A functional system definition for an on-line high density magnetic tape data storage system is provided. This system can be implemented in a multi-purpose, multi-host environment, and satisfy the requirements of economical data storage in the range of 2 to 50 billion bytes.

  9. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and techniques applicable to the on-line diagnosis of sequential systems, were investigated. A complete model for the study of on-line diagnosis is developed. First an appropriate class of system models is formulated which can serve as a basis for a theoretical study of on-line diagnosis. Then notions of realization, fault, fault-tolerance and diagnosability are formalized which have meaningful interpretations in the the context of on-line diagnosis. The diagnosis of systems which are structurally decomposed and are represented as a network of smaller systems is studied. The fault set considered is the set of faults which only affect one component system is the network. A characterization of those networks which can be diagnosed using a purely combinational detector is achieved. A technique is given which can be used to realize any network by a network which is diagnosable in the above sense. Limits are found on the amount of redundancy involved in any such technique.

  10. A framework for on-line simulation systems 

    E-print Network

    Drake, Glenn Richardson

    1996-01-01

    -time decision making and control. On-line activities refer to the regular and repetitive operational decision making that occurs in the daily processes of a manufacturing system. Simulation offers short-term benefits to a variety of functions in a manufacturing...

  11. Recognition of On-Line Handwritten Patterns Through Shape Metamorphosis

    E-print Network

    Recognition of On-Line Handwritten Patterns Through Shape Metamorphosis I. Pavlidis R. Singh N pattern recognition through the use of shape metamorphosis. It is based o n the premise that if two shapes are similar they don't have to undergo a substantial metamorphosis process in order for one to assume

  12. Temperature effect corrections for URAGAN based on CAO, GDAS, NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, A.; Ampilogov, N.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Borog, V.; Chernov, D.; Kovylyaeva, A.; Kokoulin, R.; Kompaniets, K.; Mannocchi, G.; Mishutina, Yu; Petrukhin, A.; Saavedra, O.; Shutenko, V.; Sit'ko, O.; Trinchero, G.; Yakovleva, E.; Yashin, I.

    2015-08-01

    For the analysis of muon flux variations caused by extra-atmospheric processes it is necessary to introduce corrections for meteorological effects. For temperature effect (TE) correction it is necessary to know the temperature profile of the atmosphere. As a rule, this profile is measured by meteorological balloons two or four times a day. Alternative sources are satellite observations and data obtained from models of atmosphere used for weather forecasting. Vertical temperature profiles obtained from NOAA satellites, GDAS (Global Data Assimilation System) and CAO data (Central Aerological Observatory, Russia) for standard isobaric levels were compared. Mean value of temperature difference for most levels does not exceed 1 K. Comparison of URAGAN data corrected for TE with CAO information, satellites and GDAS shows a good agreement. Counting rate and anisotropy of the muon flux corrected for meteorological effects for 2007-2014 are presented.

  13. On-line traffic assignment for optimal freeway corridor control

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanedes, Y.J.; Argiropoulos, I.Z.; Michalopoulos, P. )

    1990-11-01

    Traffic management and control strategies in a network could be improved by employing a method that can simulate and evaluate the expected impacts of alternative strategies on network performance prior to implementation. Existing methods are based on assumptions not readily applicable in freeway corridors. Responding to the need for an approach able to handle composite networks such as freeway corridors and responsive to on-line control changes, a new method is presented in this paper. The new method, which integrates simulation with conventional assignments, overcomes major disadvantages of existing techniques, thus becoming more suitable for on-line optimal freeway-corridor control. The simulation/assignment method was tested with data from a typical freeway corridor in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. The test results indicate the ability of the proposed method to more accurately estimate traffic parameters under various traffic management and control strategies implemented in a freeway corridor.

  14. On-line application of the PANTHER advanced nodal code

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, P.K.; Knight, M.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Over the last few years, Nuclear Electric has developed an integrated core performance code package for both light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) that can perform a comprehensive range of calculations for fuel cycle design, safety analysis, and on-line operational support for such plants. The package consists of the following codes: WIMS for lattice physics, PANTHER whole reactor nodal flux and AGR thermal hydraulics, VIPRE for LWR thermal hydraulics, and ENIGMA for fuel performance. These codes are integrated within a UNIX-based interactive system called the Reactor Physics Workbench (RPW), which provides an interactive graphic user interface and quality assurance records/data management. The RPW can also control calculational sequences and data flows. The package has been designed to run both off-line and on-line accessing plant data through the RPW.

  15. Problem formulation, metrics, open government, and on-line collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schofield, K.; Young, S.; Shaw, D.

    2010-12-01

    Problem formulation leading to effective environmental management, including synthesis and application of science by government agencies, may benefit from collaborative on-line environments. This is illustrated by two interconnected projects: 1) literature-based evidence tools that support causal assessment and problem formulation, and 2) development of output, outcome, and sustainability metrics for tracking environmental conditions. Specifically, peer-production mechanisms allow for global contribution to science-based causal evidence databases, and subsequent crowd-sourced development of causal networks supported by that evidence. In turn, science-based causal networks may inform problem formulation and selection of metrics or indicators to track environmental condition (or problem status). Selecting and developing metrics in a collaborative on-line environment may improve stakeholder buy-in, the explicit relevance of metrics to planning, and the ability to approach problem apportionment or accountability, and to define success or sustainability. Challenges include contribution governance, data-sharing incentives, linking on-line interfaces to data service providers, and the intersection of environmental science and social science. Degree of framework access and confidentiality may vary by group and/or individual, but may ultimately be geared at demonstrating connections between science and decision making and supporting a culture of open government, by fostering transparency, public engagement, and collaboration.

  16. The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Marie; Holasova, Marie; Maskova, Eva

    2013-10-01

    The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database (FCDB) was launched on http://www.czfcdb.cz in December 2010 as a main freely available channel for dissemination of Czech food composition data. The application is based on a complied FCDB documented according to the EuroFIR standardised procedure for full value documentation and indexing of foods by the LanguaL™ Thesaurus. A content management system was implemented for administration of the website and performing data export (comma-separated values or EuroFIR XML transport package formats) by a compiler. Reference/s are provided for each published value with linking to available freely accessible on-line sources of data (e.g. full texts, EuroFIR Document Repository, on-line national FCDBs). LanguaL™ codes are displayed within each food record as searchable keywords of the database. A photo (or a photo gallery) is used as a visual descriptor of a food item. The application is searchable on foods, components, food groups, alphabet and a multi-field advanced search. PMID:23601403

  17. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This was a four-year grant that was given a no cost extension for one more year. The purpose of the grant was to develop a pulsed neutron-based technique that could measure on-line all the major and minor elements in coal. Such measurements would allow the continuous monitoring of bulk parameters such as coal heating value (BTU/lb), volatile matter, moisture etc., deemed important to the coal industry. Such parameters, along with the continuous measurement of elements such as sulfur and sodium, are of major economic and environmental concern, and their measurement would assist in a more efficient use of the coal-fired boilers, as well as limiting emissions controlled by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It was hoped that this study would lead to the development of a technique able to create a marketable product, an On-Line Elemental Coal Analyzer. The study was separated in the following major parts: (1) Devise an efficient system for the detection of gamma rays; (2) Prior to experimentation, perform modeling and simulations for items such as detector shielding, coal sample configuration, and neutron tube collimation; (3) Develop a computer code for data reduction and analysis; (4) Measure the elemental composition of various coal samples; and (5) Design a prototype, on-line elemental coal analyzer, based on the PFTNA principle.

  18. Developing Effective On-Line Learning Resources in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    On-line learning resources provide a new opportunity for geoscience faculty to utilize technology and the web in their classes. Online activities allow faculty to integrate online data, web resources and new assessment techniques in their teaching while easing the management of large classes. Creating high-quality resources gives instructors a valuable opportunity to examine their teaching and activities and it also provides a new avenue for scholarly activity. Online resources are particularly suited to reuse by other faculty and sharing via the web. The On the Cutting Edge website "Developing Effective On-Line Learning Resources in the Geosciences" (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/webdesign/index.html) provides resources and support for faculty creating online resources. The site brings together research from experts in the fields of educational design, website construction and resource reusability to address many of the critical issues in designing new online resources or adapting traditional materials to use on the web. The site has activities to help faculty envision what goals their resource is to achieve, then provides links to best-practice information and exemplary sites to help faculty design resources that achieve these goals. Finally, the site addresses how to structure a new resource to maximize its reusability and appeal to other faculty. This poster will provide faculty the opportunity to explore resources on educational aspects of designing on-line learning resources, technical aspects of usability, accessibility and web-site design, and information on assessment and reusability.

  19. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  20. On-line fouling monitor for heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Biological and/or chemical fouling in utility service water system heat exchangers adversely affects operation and maintenance costs, and reduced heat transfer capability can force a power deaerating or even a plant shut down. In addition, service water heat exchanger performance is a safety issue for nuclear power plants, and the issue was highlighted by NRC in Generic Letter 89-13. Heat transfer losses due to fouling are difficult to measure and, usually, quantitative assessment of the impact of fouling is impossible. Plant operators typically measure inlet and outlet water temperatures and flow rates and then perform complex calculations for heat exchanger fouling resistance or ``cleanliness``. These direct estimates are often imprecise due to inadequate instrumentation. Electric Power Research Institute developed and patented an on-line condenser fouling monitor. This monitor may be installed in any location within the condenser; does not interfere with routine plant operations, including on-line mechanical and chemical treatment methods; and provides continuous, real-time readings of the heat transfer efficiency of the instrumented tube. This instrument can be modified to perform on-line monitoring of service water heat exchangers. This paper discusses the design, construction of the new monitor, and algorithm used to calculate service water heat exchanger fouling.

  1. On-line estimation of inertia parameters of space debris for its tether-assisted removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Sharf, Inna; Misra, Arun; Huang, Panfeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for on-line inertia parameters estimation for a rigid space debris captured by a tethered system, based on a new dynamics model of the system where the base satellite (chaser) and the space debris (target) are modeled as rigid bodies and the attachment points of the tether are offset from the centers of mass of the two bodies. Parameters estimation of unknown debris is critical for subsequent tasks in the space debris remediation mission, in particular, for debris retrieval and de-orbiting. In the proposed algorithm, the chaser and target are modeled as rigid bodies, the latter with unknown inertia parameters. Then, the parameters identification problem is formulated and solved in three phases. First, a coarse estimate of the target mass is obtained during the post-capture phase, while the length of tether is much longer than the offsets of base and target satellite, and the rigid body model is degenerated to a mass point model. Then, with a proper tension control scheme and the coarse estimate used as an initial guess, the debris is retrieved smoothly and a precise mass estimate is achieved during the first half of the retrieval. Finally, when the tether is retrieved relatively short and the rigid body model is used, moments of inertia and the offsets of the space debris will be estimated with a proper tension control scheme for rigid body model.

  2. On-line MR imaging for dose validation of abdominal radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitzner, M.; Crijns, S. P. M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Kontaxis, C.; Prins, F. M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    For quality assurance and adaptive radiotherapy, validation of the actual delivered dose is crucial. Intrafractional anatomy changes cannot be captured satisfactorily during treatment with hitherto available imaging modalitites. Consequently, dose calculations are based on the assumption of static anatomy throughout the treatment. However, intra- and interfraction anatomy is dynamic and changes can be significant. In this paper, we investigate the use of an MR-linac as a dose tracking modality for the validation of treatments in abdominal targets where both respiratory and long-term peristaltic and drift motion occur. The on-line MR imaging capability of the modality provides the means to perform respiratory gating of both delivery and acquisition yielding a model-free respiratory motion management under free breathing conditions. In parallel to the treatment, the volumetric patient anatomy was captured and used to calculate the applied dose. Subsequently, the individual doses were warped back to the planning grid to obtain the actual dose accumulated over the entire treatment duration. Ultimately, the planned dose was validated by comparison with the accumulated dose. Representative for a site subject to breathing modulation, two kidney cases (25 Gy target dose) demonstrated the working principle on volunteer data and simulated delivery. The proposed workflow successfully showed its ability to track local dosimetric changes. Integration of the on-line anatomy information could reveal local dose variations???2.3–1.5 Gy in the target volume of a volunteer dataset. In the adjacent organs at risk, high local dose errors ranging from???2.5 to 1.9 Gy could be traced back.

  3. On-line MR imaging for dose validation of abdominal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S P M; de Senneville, B Denis; Kontaxis, C; Prins, F M; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-11-21

    For quality assurance and adaptive radiotherapy, validation of the actual delivered dose is crucial.Intrafractional anatomy changes cannot be captured satisfactorily during treatment with hitherto available imaging modalitites. Consequently, dose calculations are based on the assumption of static anatomy throughout the treatment. However, intra- and interfraction anatomy is dynamic and changes can be significant.In this paper, we investigate the use of an MR-linac as a dose tracking modality for the validation of treatments in abdominal targets where both respiratory and long-term peristaltic and drift motion occur.The on-line MR imaging capability of the modality provides the means to perform respiratory gating of both delivery and acquisition yielding a model-free respiratory motion management under free breathing conditions.In parallel to the treatment, the volumetric patient anatomy was captured and used to calculate the applied dose. Subsequently, the individual doses were warped back to the planning grid to obtain the actual dose accumulated over the entire treatment duration. Ultimately, the planned dose was validated by comparison with the accumulated dose.Representative for a site subject to breathing modulation, two kidney cases (25 Gy target dose) demonstrated the working principle on volunteer data and simulated delivery. The proposed workflow successfully showed its ability to track local dosimetric changes. Integration of the on-line anatomy information could reveal local dose variations??-2.3-1.5 Gy in the target volume of a volunteer dataset. In the adjacent organs at risk, high local dose errors ranging from??-2.5 to 1.9 Gy could be traced back. PMID:26531846

  4. 75 FR 71376 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-Line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... System, On-Line Registration and Account Maintenance AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce... responsibilities within the on-line registration system. An account administrator would have the ability to add and... register on-line or administer an account. BIS intends to begin operating the on-line registration...

  5. A Refreshable, On-line Cache for HST Data Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Ellis, Tracy A.; Ridgaway, Michael; DPAS Team

    2016-01-01

    We discuss upgrades to the HST Data Processing System, with an emphasis on the changes Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Archive users will experience. In particular, data are now held on-line (in a cache) removing the need to reprocess the data every time they are requested from the Archive. OTFR (on the fly reprocessing) has been replaced by a reprocessing system, which runs in the background. Data in the cache are automatically placed in the reprocessing queue when updated calibration reference files are received or when an improved calibration algorithm is installed. Data in the on-line cache are expected to be the most up to date version. These changes were phased in throughout 2015 for all active instruments.The on-line cache was populated instrument by instrument over the course of 2015. As data were placed in the cache, the flag that triggers OTFR was reset so that OTFR no longer runs on these data. "Hybrid" requests to the Archive are handled transparently, with data not yet in the cache provided via OTFR and the remaining data provided from the cache. Users do not need to make separate requests.Users of the MAST Portal will be able to download data from the cache immediately. For data not in the cache, the Portal will send the user to the standard "Retrieval Options Page," allowing the user to direct the Archive to process and deliver the data.The classic MAST Search and Retrieval interface has the same look and feel as previously. Minor changes, unrelated to the cache, have been made to the format of the Retrieval Options Page.

  6. Optical Storage: Terabytes On-Line For IBM Mainframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keele, Richard V.

    1988-06-01

    The data storage hierarchy of IBM System/370 compatible mainframes can be augmented by a plug-compatible optical disk storage system. The storage hierarchy consists of main memory, rotating magnetic disk memory or Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD), magnetic tapes, and hardcopy. Only data stored on DASD is available for on-line processing. Data recorded on magnetic tape is generally off-line. Long time delays are generally associated with the transfer of data from the tape library. The need exists for a form of high-capacity on-line storage. Optical storage can satisfy this need, and by emulating 3480 cartridge tape subsystems, the benefits of Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) optical disk storage can be made conveniently available to IBM and compatible mainframes. To accomplish this, a controller is required which attaches to IBM's I/O channel and emulates a 3480 tape control unit. The resulting optical mass storage system is compatible with IBM operating systems and applications software. Data is stored on the optical disk as a collection of virtual tapes. Virtual tapes can be retrieved from a selected optical disk and, after processing, the revised data can be written to unused sectors of the optical disk. The virtual tapes save the time expended in tape mount/demount operations. The optical disk system is able to interpret and act on mount/demount messages directly, providing fully automated operation. In a jukebox configuration, thousands of virtual tapes can be handled automatically with no operator intervention. The described optical storage system addresses a longstanding requirement for on-line access to large volumes of data. By emulating the IBM 3480 magnetic tape system and storing data as virtual tapes, it offers a practical solution to the need for access to terabytes of data.

  7. Fuzzy cellular model for on-line traffic simulation

    E-print Network

    P?aczek, Bart?omiej

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a fuzzy cellular model of road traffic that was intended for on-line applications in traffic control. The presented model uses fuzzy sets theory to deal with uncertainty of both input data and simulation results. Vehicles are modelled individually, thus various classes of them can be taken into consideration. In the proposed approach, all parameters of vehicles are described by means of fuzzy numbers. The model was implemented in a simulation of vehicles queue discharge process. Changes of the queue length were analysed in this experiment and compared to the results of NaSch cellular automata model.

  8. Gamma-resonance system on line with microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Bil'dyukevich, E.V.; Gurachevskii, V.L; Litvinovich, Y.A.; Mashlan, M.; Misevich, O.V.

    1986-05-01

    This paper describes a system that consists of a modernized YaGRS-4M spectrometer interfaced with an Elektronika-60 microcomputer, which operates as a terminal for SM-4 and Elektronika-100I minicomputers. It is shown that organization of storage and real-time display of Mossbauer spectra by direct memory access, which completely eliminates losses d of physical data, frees the processor of the microcomputer for solution of problems that put an experiment on-line. The advantages of a multi-level system for automation of gamma-resonance experiments are discussed.

  9. Source reduction from chemical plants using on-line optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Pike, R.W.; Hertwig, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    An effective approach for source reduction in chemical plants has been demonstrated using on-line optimization with flowsheeting (ASPEN PLUS) for process optimization and parameter estimation and the Tjao-Biegler algorithm implemented in a mathematical programming language (GAMS/MINOS) for data reconciliation and gross error detection. Results for a Monsanto sulfuric acid plant with a Bailey distributed control system showed a 25% reduction in the sulfur dioxide emissions and a 17% improvement in the profit over the current operating conditions. Details of the methods used are described.

  10. On-line optimal NGL recovery in lean oil plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N. ); Gamez, J.P. )

    1993-04-01

    On-line, adaptive multivariable control (MVC) has been used to provide cost-effective solutions for optimal control of continuous processes. Such an approach has been implemented successfully in worldscale heavy chemical plants during the past four years. More recently, similar successful applications have been implemented in a gas processing facility involving the separation of CO[sub 2] from ethane, and in gas treating, fractionation and NGL recovery by cryogenic and refrigerated lean oil processes. This paper describes these two applications and results from the field testing in the Wyoming and Texas facilities.

  11. Anisotropic alpha emission from on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Vanneste, L.

    1986-05-05

    A systematic on-line nuclear-orientation study of heavy isotopes using anisotropic ..cap alpha.. emission is reported for the first time. The anisotrophies recorded for /sup 199/At, /sup 201/At, and /sup 203/At are remarkably pronounced and strongly varying. At lower neutron number the ..cap alpha.. particles are more preferentially emitted perpendicularly to the nuclear-spin direction. This may be interpreted in terms of the high sensitivity of the ..cap alpha..-emission probability to changes in the nuclear shape.

  12. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  13. On-line single droplet deposition for MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Narcisse, Damien A; Murray, Kermit K

    2004-10-01

    A single droplet generator was coupled with a rotating ball inlet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Single droplets with 100 picoliter volume were ejected by a piezoelectric-actuated droplet generator and deposited onto a matrix-coated rotating stainless steel ball at atmospheric pressure. The single droplet deposit was transported to the vacuum side of the instrument where ionization was accomplished using a UV pulsed laser. Using this on-line interface, it was possible to obtain protonated molecule signal from as little as 10 fmol analyte. PMID:15465360

  14. Agent-based station for on-line diagnostics by self-adaptive laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, S.; Paone, N.; Castellini, P.

    2013-12-01

    A self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry is proposed for quality control of mechanical defects by vibration testing; it is developed for appliances at the end of an assembly line, but its characteristics are generally suited for testing most types of electromechanical products. It consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a camera, which implements self-adaptive bahaviour for optimizing the measurement. The system is conceived as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System that supervises all the production line. The QCA behaviour is defined so to minimize measurement uncertainty during the on-line tests and to compensate target mis-positioning under guidance of a vision system. Best measurement conditions are reached by maximizing the amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality) and consequently minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed. Results from on-line tests are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the system for industrial quality control.

  15. Precise on-line position measurement for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, O.; Meer, D.; König, S.

    2014-12-01

    An on-line beam position monitoring and regular beam stability tests are of utmost importance for the Quality Assurance (QA) of the patient treatment at any particle therapy facility. The Gantry 2 at the Paul Scherrer Institute uses a strip ionization chamber for the on-line beam position verification. The design of the strip chamber placed in the beam in front of the patient allows for a small beam penumbra in order to achieve a high-quality lateral beam delivery. The position error of 1 mm in a lateral plane (plane perpendicular to the beam direction) can result in a dose inhomogeneity of more than 5%. Therefore the goal of Gantry 2 commissioning was to reach a sub-millimeter level of the reconstruction accuracy in order to bring a dose uncertainty to a level of 1%. In fact, we observed that for beams offered by Gantry 2 signal profiles in a lateral plane can be reconstructed with a precision of 0.1 mm. This is a necessary criterion to perform a reliable patient treatment. The front end electronics and the whole data processing sequence have been optimized for minimizing the dead time in between two consecutive spots to about 2 ms: the charge collection is performed in about 1 ms, read-out takes place in about 100?s while data verification and logging are completed in less than 1 ms.

  16. On-line optimal control improves gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that the authors' companies jointly funded the first phase of a gas processing liquids optimization project that has the specific purposes to: Improve the return of processing natural gas liquids, Develop sets of control algorithms, Make available a low-cost solution suitable for small to medium-sized gas processing plants, Test and demonstrate the feasibility of line control. The ARCO Willard CO{sub 2} gas recovery processing plant was chosen as the initial test site to demonstrate the application of multivariable on-line optimal control. One objective of this project is to support an R D effort to provide a standardized solution to the various types of gas processing plants in the U.S. Processes involved in these gas plants include cryogenic separations, demethanization, lean oil absorption, fractionation and gas treating. Next, the proposed solutions had to be simple yet comprehensive enough to allow an operator to maintain product specifications while operating over a wide range of gas input flow and composition. This had to be a supervisors system that remained on-line more than 95% of the time, and achieved reduced plant operating variability and improved variable cost control. It took more than a year to study various gas processes and to develop a control approach before a real application was finally exercised. An initial process for C{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recoveries was chosen.

  17. Data warehousing features in Informix OnLine XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Data Warehousing application domain is an important area of focus for Informix`s OnLine XPS massively parallel server. Fast query processing is a central requirement in this domain. Use of indexes has traditionally been an important query processing technique, helping to reduce response times and increase throughput. The data warehousing environment, characterized by its load-query-refresh mode of operation, offers even greater scope for use of indexes. This talk will describe three new indexing related features in OnLine XPS which together provide significant performance benefits in a wide variety of situations. Bitmap indexes, along with multi-index scans, provide orders-of-magnitude improvement for queries typified by the Set Query Benchmark. Pushdown Semi-joins combine the benefits of multi-index scans with the scalability of hash joins to efficiently process star-joins. Finally, Generalized-key indexes expand the notion of what can be an index key and provide the ability to store various pre-computed results in an index. Optimizer extensions allow these features to be used in a mix-n-match fashion, thus maximizing the benefits of these features while minimizing the need for user level directives.

  18. Pulsed Neurton Elemental On-Line Material Analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Vourvopoulos, George (Bowling Green, KY)

    2002-08-20

    An on-line material analyzer which utilizes pulsed neutron generation in order to determine the composition of material flowing through the apparatus. The on-line elemental material analyzer is based on a pulsed neutron generator. The elements in the material interact with the fast and thermal neutrons produced from the pulsed generator. Spectra of gamma-rays produced from fast neutrons interacting with elements of the material are analyzed and stored separately from spectra produced from thermal neutron reactions. Measurements of neutron activation takes place separately from the above reactions and at a distance from the neutron generator. A primary passageway allows the material to flow through at a constant rate of speed and operators to provide data corresponding to fast and thermal neutron reactions. A secondary passageway meters the material to allow for neutron activation analysis. The apparatus also has the capability to determine the density of the flowed material. Finally, the apparatus continually utilizes a neutron detector in order to normalize the yield of the gamma ray detectors and thereby automatically calibrates and adjusts the spectra data for fluctuations in neutron generation.

  19. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A formal model is introduced which can serve as the basis for a theoretical investigation of on-line diagnosis. Within this model a fault of a system S is considered to be a transformation of S into another system S prime at some time tau. The resulting faulty system is taken to be the system which looks like S up to time tau and like S prime thereafter. The on-line diagnosis of systems which are structurally decomposed and represented as a network of smaller systems is also investigated. The fault set considered is the set of unrestricted component faults; namely, the set of faults which only affect one component of the network. A characterization of networks which can be diagnosed using a combinational detector is obtained. It is further shown that any network can be made diagnosable in the above sense through the addition of one component. In addition, a lower bound is obtained on the complexity of any component, the addition of which is sufficient to make a particular network combinationally diagnosable.

  20. On-line condition monitoring applications in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hastiemian, H. M.; Feltus, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Existing signals from process instruments in nuclear power plants can be sampled while the plant is operating and analyzed to verify the static and dynamic performance of process sensors, identify process-to-sensor problems, detect instrument anomalies such as venturi fouling, measure the vibration of the reactor vessel and its internals, or detect thermal hydraulic anomalies within the reactor coolant system. These applications are important in nuclear plants to satisfy a variety of objectives such as: 1) meeting the plant technical specification requirements; 2) complying with regulatory regulations; 3) guarding against equipment and process degradation; 4) providing a means for incipient failure detection and predictive maintenance; or 5) identifying the root cause of anomalies in equipment and plant processes. The technologies that are used to achieve these objectives are collectively referred to as 'on-line condition monitoring.' This paper presents a review of key elements of these technologies, provides examples of their use in nuclear power plants, and illustrates how they can be integrated into an on-line condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants. (authors)

  1. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  2. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement, an on-line research and education information service

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The FEDIX Annual Status Report provides details regarding an on-line information project designed, developed and implemented by Federal Information Exchange, Inc., a diversified information services company. This document details the project design activities, summarizes the developmental phases of the project and describes the implementation activities generated to fulfill the project's objectives. The information contained in this document illustrates FIE's continuing commitment to serve as the link that facilitates the dissemination of federal information to the education community. This report reviews the project accomplishments and describes intended service enhancements.

  3. On-Line Safe Flight Envelope Determination for Impaired Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John

    2015-01-01

    The design and simulation of an on-line algorithm which estimates the safe maneuvering envelope of aircraft is discussed in this paper. The trim envelope is estimated using probabilistic methods and efficient high-fidelity model based computations of attainable equilibrium sets. From this trim envelope, a robust reachability analysis provides the maneuverability limitations of the aircraft through an optimal control formulation. Both envelope limits are presented to the flight crew on the primary flight display. In the results section, scenarios are considered where this adaptive algorithm is capable of computing online changes to the maneuvering envelope due to impairment. Furthermore, corresponding updates to display features on the primary flight display are provided to potentially inform the flight crew of safety critical envelope alterations caused by the impairment.

  4. Enabling the On-Line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side fleet of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant. This paper concern the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations. The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  5. Enabling the On-line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side effect of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant, This paper concerns the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations, The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  6. On-line monitoring of mercury concentrations in flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, J.; Wilhelm, G.; Lindau, L.

    1999-07-01

    Gas phase mercury concentrations in flue gases from a variety of combustion sources including waste and sewage sludge incineration were measured by means of on-line monitors. As the monitor itself is solely sensitive to elemental mercury, the operation modes with/without a reduction unit in place upstream of the monitor have shown promise in distinguishing between oxidized mercury (Hg(ox.)) and elemental mercury (Hg(0)) concentrations. The monitors were used to investigate mercury removal over wet and dry air pollution control systems; in addition to that, emphases was placed on mercury speciation measurements at the inlet of air pollution control trains (APC) to reveal which mercury compound needs to be removed, and on mercury speciation upstream and downstream of wet scrubbers to better understand the effect of wet scrubbers on the Hg(0)/Hg(ox.) ratio.

  7. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  8. An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

  9. On-line identification and attitude control for SCOLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Shenhar, J.; Williams, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper documents on-line linear least-square identification and attitude control of SCOLE, a laboratory apparatus representing an offset-feed antenna attached to the Space Shuttle. Identification is done autonomously by starting a slew maneuver in pitch or roll with reaction jets and observing the time history data of associated Euler angles when the jets are quiescent. Linear least-square analysis is used to select the parameters that best fit the output of an Autoregressive (AR) model to the data. The control effectiveness of the jets is determined in a subsequent test, again using linear least squares. The parameters so derived are used to design switching lines for time-optimal attitude control. This report describes the identification and control algorithms and the experimental apparatus and procedures used. Also, experimental data are presented that reflect the performance of the identification algorithms and the attitude control system.

  10. Configuration Database for BaBar On-line

    SciTech Connect

    Salnikov, Andrei

    2003-05-27

    The configuration database is one of the vital systems in the BaBar on-line system. It provides services for the different parts of the data acquisition system and control system, which require run-time parameters. The original design and implementation of the configuration database played a significant role in the successful BaBar operations since the beginning of experiment. Recent additions to the design of the configuration database provide better means for the management of data and add new tools to simplify main configuration tasks. We describe the design of the configuration database, its implementation with the Objectivity/DB object-oriented database, and our experience collected during the years of operation.

  11. CIRCAL-2 - General-purpose on-line circuit design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dertouzos, M. L.; Jessel, G. P.; Stinger, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    CIRCAL-2 is a second-generation general-purpose on-line circuit-design program with the following main features: (1) multiple-analysis capability; (2) uniform and general data structures for handling text editing, network representations, and output results, regardless of analysis; (3) special techniques and structures for minimizing and controlling user-program interaction; (4) use of functionals for the description of hysteresis and heat effects; and (5) ability to define optimization procedures that 'replace' the user. The paper discusses the organization of CIRCAL-2, the aforementioned main features, and their consequences, such as a set of network elements and models general enough for most analyses and a set of functions tailored to circuit-design requirements. The presentation is descriptive, concentrating on conceptual rather than on program implementation details.

  12. On-Line Robust Modal Stability Prediction using Wavelet Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification has been used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins is reduced with parametric and nonparametric time- frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data is used to reduce the effects of external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability are also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrates improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime. Guidelines and computation times are presented to show the efficiency and practical aspects of these procedures for on-line implementation. Feasibility of the method is shown for processing flight data from time- varying nonstationary test points.

  13. Holographic digital microscopy in on-line process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, Ardeshir

    2011-09-01

    This article investigates the feasibility of real-time three-dimensional imaging of microscopic objects within various emulsions while being produced in specialized production vessels. The study is particularly relevant to on-line process monitoring and control in chemical, pharmaceutical, food, cleaning, and personal hygiene industries. Such processes are often dynamic and the materials cannot be measured once removed from the production vessel. The technique reported here is applicable to three-dimensional characterization analyses on stirred fluids in small reaction vessels. Relatively expensive pulsed lasers have been avoided through the careful control of the speed of the moving fluid in relation to the speed of the camera exposure and the wavelength of the continuous wave laser used. The ultimate aim of the project is to introduce a fully robust and compact digital holographic microscope as a process control tool in a full size specialized production vessel.

  14. On-line reference library aids gas-turbine users

    SciTech Connect

    Curley, M.D.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes a software application program which has been developed that helps the operator, technician, and others troubleshoot gas-turbine problems more effectively than traditional means. Paired with the personal computer, the program permits information, traditionally created and stored on hard copy, to be stored electronically--in effect, it is an on-line reference library. The electronic information can be retrieved, manipulated, and presented to the user based on a set of established criteria. By consolidating documents--electrical schematics, drawings, device specifications, operator logs, calibration data, etc.--the plant staff becomes privy to both real-time and historical information regarding gas-turbine operation. With ready access to such information, the staff is able to troubleshoot quickly and efficiently. The library runs in conjunction with a Windows-based turbine-operating interface (TOI) that graphically represents the on-base devices necessary for operational control. Although operators may not be familiar with the exact purpose of each device represented, they can associate them with the process represented by the particular control screen on which it is shown. For example, an operator may recognize the graphical representation of an auxiliary motor as an important device within the lubrication system because it is shown on the corresponding interface screen, but may have neither knowledge regarding what master control circuit it is wired to, nor where it is located. The on-line reference library is accessed through these graphical representations by triggering a mouse, touch screen, or other input device, or automatically launched from specific alarms generated by the turbine controller. The operator need not be skilled in a particular set of commands or phrases.

  15. PHENIX On-Line Distributed Computing System Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, Edmond; Haggerty, John; Kehayias, Hyon Joo; Purschke, Martin L.; Witzig, Chris; Kozlowski, Thomas

    1997-05-22

    PHENIX is one of the two large experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detector consists of 11 sub-detectors, that are further subdivided into 29 units (``granules``) that can be operated independently, which includes simultaneous data taking with independent data streams and independent triggers. The detector has 250,000 channels and is read out by front end modules, where the data is buffered in a pipeline while awaiting the level trigger decision. Zero suppression and calibration is done after the level accept in custom built data collection modules (DCMs) with DSPs before the data is sent to an event builder (design throughput of 2 Gb/sec) and higher level triggers. The On-line Computing Systems Group (ONCS) has two responsibilities. Firstly it is responsible for receiving the data from the event builder, routing it through a network of workstations to consumer processes and archiving it at a data rate of 20 MB/sec. Secondly it is also responsible for the overall configuration, control and operation of the detector and data acquisition chain, which comprises the software integration for several thousand custom built hardware modules. The software must furthermore support the independent operation of the above mentioned granules, which includes the coordination of processes that run in 60-100 VME processors and workstations. ONOS has adapted the Shlaer- Mellor Object Oriented Methodology for the design of the top layer software. CORBA is used as communication layer between the distributed objects, which are implemented as asynchronous finite state machines. We will give an overview of the PHENIX online system with the main focus on the system architecture, software components and integration tasks of the On-line Computing group ONCS and report on the status of the current prototypes.

  16. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  17. 99:2035-2047, 2008. First published Oct 3, 2007; doi:10.1152/jn.01366.2006J Neurophysiol Christopher I. Moore and Rosa Cao

    E-print Network

    Moore, Christopher

    Christopher I. Moore and Rosa Cao You might find this additional information useful... 183 articles, 65, 2009; 40 (3_suppl_1): S40-S44.Stroke C. Iadecola, L. Park and C. Capone Threats to the Mind: Aging Christopher I. Moore and Rosa Cao The McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain

  18. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides users with information that assists them in specifying, installing, calibrating, maintaining and monitoring the subsequent performance of on-line residual chlorine analyzers in wastewater treatment plants. An on-line residual chlorine analyzer must have, am...

  19. Incorporating on-line process data into a diagnostic knowledge-based system 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Kai Hsuan

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement an on-line gypsum wallboard manufacturing expert system incorporating on-line process monitoring information and statistical process control. In support of this objective, several sub...

  20. 7 CFR 42.143 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.143 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...for each of the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans provided in subpart D. The...

  1. 7 CFR 42.143 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.143 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...for each of the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans provided in subpart D. The...

  2. 7 CFR 42.143 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.143 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...for each of the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans provided in subpart D. The...

  3. 77 FR 55811 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line... Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board will hold an open, on-line meeting via webcast on... their remote location. Questions regarding the on-line meeting should be sent to the...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  6. Effects of Requiring Students to Meet High Expectation Levels within an On-Line Homework Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    On-line homework is becoming a larger part of mathematics classrooms each year. Thus, ways to maximize the effectiveness of on-line homework for both students and teachers must be investigated. This study sought to provide one possible answer to this aim, by requiring students to achieve at least 50% for any on-line homework assignment in order to…

  7. On-line Reconstruction of CAD Geometry Klaus Denker, Daniel Hagel, Jakob Raible, Georg Umlauf

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Bernd

    again to enable proper reconstruction. On-line reconstruction of 3d geometry allows one to generate and update a CAD reconstruction on-line during the scanning process with an hand-held laser scanner. Thus and reconstruction during the scanning process. Keywords-on-line reconstruction; hand-held laser scanner; computer

  8. 5.2 Embodied, On-line, On-board Evolution for Autonomous Robotics 367 5.2 Embodied, On-line, On-board Evolution for Autonomous

    E-print Network

    Eiben, A.E. "Guszti"

    5.2 Embodied, On-line, On-board Evolution for Autonomous Robotics 367 5.2 Embodied, On-line, On-board Evolution for Autonomous Robotics A.E. Eiben, Evert Haasdijk, Nicolas Bred`eche Artificial evolution plays controller. In these applications the human designers/experimenters orchestrate and manage the whole

  9. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-05-31

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

  10. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

  11. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, Harold P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wittwer, Carl T. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  12. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  13. Using on-line altered auditory feedback treating Parkinsonian speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen, Leo; de Vries, Meinou H.

    2005-09-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease tend to have dysarthric speech that is hesitant, accelerated, and repetitive, and that is often resistant to behavior speech therapy. In this pilot study, the speech disturbances were treated using on-line altered feedbacks (AF) provided by SpeechEasy (SE), an in-the-ear device registered with the FDA for use in humans to treat chronic stuttering. Eight PD patients participated in the study. All had moderate to severe speech disturbances. In addition, two patients had moderate recurring stuttering at the onset of PD after long remission since adolescence, two had bilateral STN DBS, and two bilateral pallidal DBS. An effective combination of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered feedback was selected for each subject and provided via SE worn in one ear. All subjects produced speech samples (structured-monologue and reading) under three conditions: baseline, with SE without, and with feedbacks. The speech samples were randomly presented and rated for speech intelligibility goodness using UPDRS-III item 18 and the speaking rate. The results indicted that SpeechEasy is well tolerated and AF can improve speech intelligibility in spontaneous speech. Further investigational use of this device for treating speech disorders in PD is warranted [Work partially supported by Janus Dev. Group, Inc.].

  14. On-line instrument evaluation for characterization of alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses the results of a study on the application of commercial instrumentation to continuous, on-line measurement of coal-water mixtures (CWM) properties. In particular, measurements of the following properties were sought: the desnity of solids loading, the bulk velocity, and the mass flow rate. The measurement of the solids loading was also used to examine any nonhomogeneous distribution of solids that might exist across the cross section of a horizontal pipe. The Micro Motion mass flowmeter device worked satisfactorily throughout the tests. The Micro Motion data were independent of the following: coal concentration up to 68%, coal particle size consist, line size, viscosity, and temperature of the CWM. The M/M device is good for monitoring rapidly changing flow conditions in the fuel supply system becuase of its short response time. The Auburn conductivity Monitor performed satisfactorily for all tests. The agreement between coal concentration from specific gravity data and that obtained from the Auburn Conductivity Monitor was good. This instrument is capable of measuring the concentration of coal even in a nonhomogeneous CWM due to the averaging technique used in rotating field configuration. No flow disturbance was observed nor was an additional pressure drop caused by the use of this device. The flow velocity obtained from the three Doppler Systems gave satisfactory results. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  15. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  16. 3081/E processor and its on-line use

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, P.; Bricaud, B.; Gravina, M.; Kunz, P.F.; Oxoby, G.; Trang, Q.; Ferran, P.M.; Fucci, A.; Hinton, R.; Jacobs, D.

    1985-05-01

    The 3081/E is a second generation emulator of a mainframe IBM. One of it's applications will be to form part of the data acquisition system of the upgraded Mark II detector for data taking at the SLAC linear collider. Since the processor does not have direct connections to I/O devices a FASTBUS interface will be provided to allow communication with both SLAC Scanner Processors (which are responsible for the accumulation of data at a crate level) and the experiment's VAX 8600 mainframe. The 3081/E's will supply a significant amount of on-line computing power to the experiment (a single 3081/E is equivalent to 4 to 5 VAX 11/780's). A major advantage of the 3081/E is that program development can be done on an IBM mainframe (such as the one used for off-line analysis) which gives the programmer access to a full range of debugging tools. The processor's performance can be continually monitored by comparison of the results obtained using it to those given when the same program is run on an IBM computer. 9 refs.

  17. Enterprise utilization of "always on-line" diagnostic study archive.

    PubMed

    McEnery, Kevin W; Suitor, Charles T; Thompson, Stephen K; Shepard, Jeffrey S; Murphy, William A

    2002-01-01

    To meet demands for enterprise image distribution, an "always on-line" image storage archive architecture was implemented before soft copy interpretation. It was presumed that instant availability of historical diagnostic studies would elicit a substantial utilization. Beginning November 1, 2000 an enterprise distribution archive was activated (Stentor, SanFrancisco, CA). As of August 8, 2001, 83,052 studies were available for immediate access without the need for retrieval from long-term archive. Image storage and retrieval logs for the period from June 12, 2001 to August 8, 2001 were analyzed. A total of 41,337 retrieval requests were noted for the 83,052 studies available as August 8, 2001. Computed radiography represented 16.8% of retrieval requests; digital radiography, 16.9%; computed tomography (CT), 44.5%; magnetic resonance (MR), 19.2%; and ultrasonography, 2.6%. A total of 51.5% of study retrievals were for studies less than 72 hours old. Study requests for cases greater than 100 days old represented 9.9% of all accessions, 9.7% of CT accessions, and 15.4% of MR accessions. Utilization of the archive indicates a substantial proportion of study retrievals for studies less than 72 hours after study completion. However, significant interest in historical CT and MR examinations was shown. PMID:12105703

  18. EnviroNET: On-line information for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1993-01-01

    EnviroNET is an on-line, free-form database intended to provide a centralized repository for a wide range of technical information on environmentally induced interactions of use to Space Shuttle customers and spacecraft designers. It provides a user-friendly, menu-driven format on networks that are connected globally and is available twenty-four hours a day - every day. The information, updated regularly, includes expository text, tabular numerical data, charts and graphs, and models. The system pools space data collected over the years by NASA, USAF, other government research facilities, industry, universities, and the European Space Agency. The models accept parameter input from the user, then calculate and display the derived values corresponding to that input. In addition to the archive, interactive graphics programs are also available on space debris, the neutral atmosphere, radiation, magnetic fields, and the ionosphere. A user-friendly, informative interface is standard for all the models and includes a pop-up help window with information on inputs, outputs, and caveats. The system will eventually simplify mission analysis with analytical tools and deliver solutions for computationally intense graphical applications to do 'What if...' scenarios. A proposed plan for developing a repository of information from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for a user group is presented.

  19. Virtual laboratories: Collaborative environments and facilities-on-line

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Cavallini, J.S.; Seweryniak, G.R.; Kitchens, T.A.; Hitchcock, D.A.; Scott, M.A.; Welch, L.C.; Aiken, R.J. |; Stevens, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has major research laboratories in a number of locations in the US, typically co-located with large research instruments or research facilities valued at tens of millions to even billions of dollars. Present budget exigencies facing the entire nation are felt very deeply at DOE, just as elsewhere. Advances over the last few years in networking and computing technologies make virtual collaborative environments and conduct of experiments over the internetwork structure a possibility. The authors believe that development of these collaborative environments and facilities-on-line could lead to a ``virtual laboratory`` with tremendous potential for decreasing the costs of research and increasing the productivity of their capital investment in research facilities. The majority of these cost savings would be due to increased productivity of their research efforts, better utilization of resources and facilities, and avoiding duplication of expensive facilities. A vision of how this might all fit together and a discussion of the infrastructure necessary to enable these developments is presented.

  20. Self-checking on-line testable static RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N. (inventor); Rennels, David A. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This is a fault-tolerant random access memory for use in fault-tolerant computers. It comprises a plurality of memory chips each comprising a plurality of on-line testable and correctable memory cells disposed in rows and columns for holding individually addressable binary bits and provision for error detection incorporated into each memory cell for outputting an error signal whenever a transient error occurs therein. In one embodiment, each of the memory cells comprises a pair of static memory sub-cells for simultaneously receiving and holding a common binary data bit written to the memory cell and the error detection provision comprises comparator logic for continuously sensing and comparing the contents of the memory sub-cells to one another and for outputting the error signal whenever the contents do not match. In another embodiment, each of the memory cells comprises a static memory sub-cell and a dynamic memory sub-cell for simultaneously receiving and holding a common binary data bit written to the memory cell and the error detection provision comprises comparator logic for continuously sensing and comparing the contents of the static memory sub-cell to the dynamic memory sub-cell and for outputting the error signal whenever the contents do not match. Capability for correction of errors is also included.

  1. On line sensing of weld penetration using infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Chin, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to apply new sensing techniques, artificial intelligence, and robotics to improve the welding process through control of penetration depth and width parameters. By producing a constant depth and width of penetration through on line control, the quality and strength of welds may be improved to a new level of reliability previously unobtainable. Experimental data presented in this paper indicate that depth and width of penetration can be monitored by infrared thermography and hence controlled dynamically during the weld process. Infrared thermography is used to monitor surface temperature distributions in the vicinity of the molten metal pool. Characteristics of temperature distributions perpendicular to the direction of arc travel are analyzed and correlated with weld bead width and depth as measured by destructive examination after the weld production. The results show that there is a linear relationship between peak weld plate surface temperature and depth of penetration. Additionally, surface puddle width is found to be directly correlated to measured distance separating solidus temperatures of the molten metal as measured by infrared thermography.

  2. On-Line Loss of Control Detection Using Wavelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J. (Technical Monitor); Thompson, Peter M.; Klyde, David H.; Bachelder, Edward N.; Rosenthal, Theodore J.

    2005-01-01

    Wavelet transforms are used for on-line detection of aircraft loss of control. Wavelet transforms are compared with Fourier transform methods and shown to more rapidly detect changes in the vehicle dynamics. This faster response is due to a time window that decreases in length as the frequency increases. New wavelets are defined that further decrease the detection time by skewing the shape of the envelope. The wavelets are used for power spectrum and transfer function estimation. Smoothing is used to tradeoff the variance of the estimate with detection time. Wavelets are also used as front-end to the eigensystem reconstruction algorithm. Stability metrics are estimated from the frequency response and models, and it is these metrics that are used for loss of control detection. A Matlab toolbox was developed for post-processing simulation and flight data using the wavelet analysis methods. A subset of these methods was implemented in real time and named the Loss of Control Analysis Tool Set or LOCATS. A manual control experiment was conducted using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator for a large transport aircraft, in which the real time performance of LOCATS was demonstrated. The next step is to use these wavelet analysis tools for flight test support.

  3. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  4. Point Cloud Skeletons via Laplacian-Based Contraction Junjie Cao, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Matt Olson, Hao Zhang and Zhixun Su

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    Point Cloud Skeletons via Laplacian-Based Contraction Junjie Cao, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Matt Olson skeleton extraction via Laplacian-based contraction. Our algorithm can be applied to surfaces, allowing skeleton-based manipulation of point clouds without explicit surface reconstruction. By avoiding

  5. A Robust Panel Extraction Method for Manga Xufang Pang, Ying Cao, Rynson W.H. Lau, and Antoni B. Chan

    E-print Network

    Lau, W. H. Nynson

    A Robust Panel Extraction Method for Manga Xufang Pang, Ying Cao, Rynson W.H. Lau, and Antoni B.com, {rynson.lau,abchan}@cityu.edu.hk ABSTRACT Automatically extracting frames/panels from digital comic pages, au- tomatic panel extraction for manga, i.e., Japanese comics, can be especially challenging, largely

  6. Optimal pump-dump control: Linearization and symmetry relation YiJing Yan, Jianshu Cao,a)

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Optimal pump-dump control: Linearization and symmetry relation YiJing Yan, Jianshu Cao of phase-unlocked pump-dump fields in the control of pure state molecular systems in the weak response regime. The associated eigenvalues are further correlated to the yields of pump-dump control, thus

  7. Optimal Efficiency of Self-Assembling Light-Harvesting Arrays Ji-Hyun Kim and Jianshu Cao*

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Optimal Efficiency of Self-Assembling Light-Harvesting Arrays Ji-Hyun Kim and Jianshu Cao be optimized for efficient light-harvesting energy transfer. I. Introduction Photosynthesis, an essential ecological process, efficiently converts light energy into chemical energy through various membrane complexes

  8. Achieving Replication Consistency Using Cooperating Mobile Agents Jiannong Cao', Alvin T.S. Chad, Jie Wu2

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Achieving Replication Consistency Using Cooperating Mobile Agents Jiannong Cao', Alvin T.S. Chad Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong 1 Abstract One of the problems in replication is how to coordinate the updates made to the copies maintained at different replicated servers so that data consistency is ensured

  9. Predicting Gender and Weight from Human Metrology using a Copula Model Deng Cao, Cunjian Chen, Donald Adjeroh, Arun Ross

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arun Abraham

    Predicting Gender and Weight from Human Metrology using a Copula Model Deng Cao, Cunjian Chen- diction of certain soft biometrics, viz. gender and weight. In particular, we consider geometric in predicting gender and weight. For gender prediction, the proposed model results in a 0.7% misclassification

  10. Bidding Protocols for Deploying Mobile Sensors Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Piotr Berman and Thomas F. LaPorta

    E-print Network

    La Porta, Tom

    protocols to guide the movement of mobile sensors. In the protocols, static sensors detect coverage holes1 Bidding Protocols for Deploying Mobile Sensors Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Piotr Berman and Thomas important for sensor networks to fulfill sensing tasks. In many working environments, it is necessary

  11. Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    of a random medium to induce lasing of the localized states. The far-field speckle pattern of laser emissionProbing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu in random media using speckle correlation techniques. Optical gain is introduced to a local region

  12. WORL: a Web Ontology Rule Language Son Thanh Cao1, Linh Anh Nguyen2, and Andrzej Szalas2,3

    E-print Network

    Linh, Nguyen Anh

    WORL: a Web Ontology Rule Language Son Thanh Cao1, Linh Anh Nguyen2, and Andrzej Szalas2,3 1 Abstract. We develop a new Web ontology rule language, called WORL, which combines a variant of OWL 2 RL are adopted to guarantee a translation into eDatalog¬ . We also develop the well-founded semantics for WORL

  13. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    E-print Network

    Litster, Shawn

    Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture Nicholas S. Siefert of these catalyst-capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO2 and H2S capture, and (3) the steam steam-coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when

  14. Compact Modeling of STT-MTJ for SPICE Simulation Zihan Xu, Ketul B. Sutaria, Chengen Yang, Chaitali Chakrabarti, Yu Cao

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    -MTJ device [4]. By programming it with a current pulse, the magnetic moment in the free layer can be switched Chakrabarti, Yu Cao School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University Tempe--STT-MTJ is a promising device for future high- density and low-power integrated systems. To enable design exploration

  15. Integrating a Wireless Sensor Network into Firefighter Protective Clothing PI: Dr. Huantian Cao, Design, Housing and Merchandising

    E-print Network

    Integrating a Wireless Sensor Network into Firefighter Protective Clothing PI: Dr. Huantian Cao. Xiaolin Li, Computer Science Currently there are approximately 1.2 million firefighters in the United States. Of these firefighters, approximately 210,000 are career/paid and approximately 1 million

  16. A simple physical picture for quantum control of wave packet localization Jianshu Cao and Kent R. Wilson

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    A simple physical picture for quantum control of wave packet localization Jianshu Cao and Kent R in the context of quantum control, the conclusions are general, providing an intuitive picture of the quantum, as we discuss in this paper, by simple physical arguments. We present here a unified physi- cal picture

  17. Impact of Parkinson's disease on proprioceptively based on-line movement control.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, David; Blanchet, Pierre; Bergeron, Stéphanie; Messier, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients produce large spatial errors when reaching to proprioceptively defined targets. Here, we examined whether these movement inaccuracies result mainly from impaired use of proprioceptive inputs for movement planning mechanisms or from on-line movement guidance. Medicated and non-medicated PD patients and healthy controls performed three-dimensional reaching movements in four sensorimotor conditions that increase proprioceptive processing requirements. We assessed the influence of these sensorimotor conditions on the final accuracy and initial kinematics of the movements. If the patterns of final errors are primarily determined by planning processes before the initiation of the movement, the initial kinematics of reaching movements should show similar trends and predict the pattern of final errors. Medicated and non-medicated PD patients showed a greater mean level of final 3D errors than healthy controls when proprioception was the sole source of information guiding the movement, but this difference reached significance only for medicated PD patients. However, the pattern of initial kinematics and final spatial errors were markedly different both between sensorimotor conditions and between groups. Furthermore, medicated and non-medicated PD patients were less efficient than healthy controls in compensating for their initial spatial errors (hand distance from target location at peak velocity) when aiming at proprioceptively defined compared to visually defined targets. Considered together, the results are consistent with a selective deficit in proprioceptively based movement guidance in PD. Furthermore, dopaminergic medication did not improve proprioceptively guided movements in PD patients, indicating that dopaminergic dysfunction within the basal ganglia is not solely responsible for these deficits. PMID:26055990

  18. Phonon-mediated electron transport through CaO thin films.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Tosoni, Sergio; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has developed into a powerful tool for the characterization of conductive surfaces, for which the overlap of tip and sample wave functions determines the image contrast. On insulating layers, as the CaO thin film grown on Mo(001) investigated here, direct overlap between initial and final states is not enabled anymore and electrons are transported via hopping through the conduction-band states of the oxide. Carrier transport is accompanied by strong phonon excitations in this case, imprinting an oscillatory signature on the differential conductance spectra of the system. The phonons show a characteristic spatial dependence and become softer around lattice irregularities in the oxide film, such as dislocation lines. PMID:25615494

  19. Fluidized bed combustion systems integrating CO2 capture with CaO.

    PubMed

    Abanades, J Carlos; Anthony, Edward J; Wang, Jinsheng; Oakey, John E

    2005-04-15

    Capturing CO2 from large-scale power generation combustion systems such as fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) may become important in a CO2-constrained world. Using previous experience in capturing pollutants such as SO2 in these systems, we discuss a range of options that incorporate capture of CO2 with CaO in FBC systems. Natural limestones emerge from this study as suitable high-temperature sorbents for these systems because of their low price and availability. This is despite their limited performance as regenerable sorbents. We have found a range of process options that allow the sorbent utilization to maintain a given level of CO2 separation efficiency, appropriate operating conditions, and sufficiently high power generation efficiencies. A set of reference case examples has been chosen to discuss the critical scientific and technical issues of sorbent performance and reactor design for these novel CO2 capture concepts. PMID:15884387

  20. On-line, adaptive state estimator for active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of airframe structures are expected to vary as aircraft flight conditions change. Accurate knowledge of the changing dynamic characteristics is crucial to enhancing the performance of the active noise control system using feedback control. This research investigates the development of an adaptive, on-line state estimator using a neural network concept to conduct active noise control. In this research, an algorithm has been developed that can be used to estimate displacement and velocity responses at any locations on the structure from a limited number of acceleration measurements and input force information. The algorithm employs band-pass filters to extract from the measurement signal the frequency contents corresponding to a desired mode. The filtered signal is then used to train a neural network which consists of a linear neuron with three weights. The structure of the neural network is designed as simple as possible to increase the sampling frequency as much as possible. The weights obtained through neural network training are then used to construct the transfer function of a mode in z-domain and to identify modal properties of each mode. By using the identified transfer function and interpolating the mode shape obtained at sensor locations, the displacement and velocity responses are estimated with reasonable accuracy at any locations on the structure. The accuracy of the response estimates depends on the number of modes incorporated in the estimates and the number of sensors employed to conduct mode shape interpolation. Computer simulation demonstrates that the algorithm is capable of adapting to the varying dynamic characteristics of structural properties. Experimental implementation of the algorithm on a DSP (digital signal processing) board for a plate structure is underway. The algorithm is expected to reach the sampling frequency range of about 10 kHz to 20 kHz which needs to be maintained for a typical active noise control application.

  1. The Eclipsing Binary On-Line Atlas (EBOLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, D. H.; Steelman, D. P.; Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    In conjunction with the upcoming release of \\it Binary Maker 3.0, an extensive on-line database of eclipsing binaries is being made available. The purposes of the atlas are: \\begin {enumerate} Allow quick and easy access to information on published eclipsing binaries. Amass a consistent database of light and radial velocity curve solutions to aid in solving new systems. Provide invaluable querying capabilities on all of the parameters of the systems so that informative research can be quickly accomplished on a multitude of published results. Aid observers in establishing new observing programs based upon stars needing new light and/or radial velocity curves. Encourage workers to submit their published results so that others may have easy access to their work. Provide a vast but easily accessible storehouse of information on eclipsing binaries to accelerate the process of understanding analysis techniques and current work in the field. \\end {enumerate} The database will eventually consist of all published eclipsing binaries with light curve solutions. The following information and data will be supplied whenever available for each binary: original light curves in all bandpasses, original radial velocity observations, light curve parameters, RA and Dec, V-magnitudes, spectral types, color indices, periods, binary type, 3D representation of the system near quadrature, plots of the original light curves and synthetic models, plots of the radial velocity observations with theoretical models, and \\it Binary Maker 3.0 data files (parameter, light curve, radial velocity). The pertinent references for each star are also given with hyperlinks directly to the papers via the NASA Abstract website for downloading, if available. In addition the Atlas has extensive searching options so that workers can specifically search for binaries with specific characteristics. The website has more than 150 systems already uploaded. The URL for the site is http://ebola.eastern.edu/.

  2. On-line fermentation monitoring by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Diewok, Josef; Baena, Josefa R; Rosenberg, Erwin; Lendl, Bernhard

    2004-07-01

    A new method for on-line monitoring of fermentations using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has been developed. The method has been used to predict the concentrations of glucose and ethanol during a baker's yeast fermentations. A completely automated flow system was employed as an interface between the bioprocess under study and the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, which was equipped with a flow cell housing a diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) element. By using the automated flow system, experimental problems related to adherence of CO(2) bubbles to the ATR surface, as well as formation of biofilms on the ATR surface, could be efficiently eliminated. Gas bubbles were removed during sampling, and by using rinsing steps any biofilm could be removed from the ATR surface. In this way, constant measuring conditions could be guaranteed throughout prolonged fermentation times (approximately 8 h). As a reference method, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with refractive index detection was used. The recorded data from different fermentations were modeled by partial least-squares (PLS) regression comparing two different strategies for the calibration. On the one hand, calibration sets were constructed from spectra recorded from either synthetic standards or from samples drawn during fermentation. On the other hand, spectra from fermentation samples and synthetic standards were combined to form a calibration set. Differences in the kinetics of the studied fermentation processes used for calibration and prediction, as well as the precision of the HPLC reference method, were identified as the main chemometric sources of error. The optimal PLS regression method was obtained using the mixed calibration set of samples from fermentations and synthetic standards. The root mean square errors of prediction in this case were 0.267 and 0.336 g/L for glucose and ethanol concentration, respectively. PMID:15282045

  3. Worldwide On-line Distance Learning University Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyres, S. P. S.; Hassall, B. J. M.; Butchart, I.; Bromage, G. E.

    2006-08-01

    The University of Central Lancashire operates a suite of distance learning courses in Astronomy, available both on-line and via CD-ROM. The courses are available worldwide, and emphasise flexibility of study. To this end students can study anything from a single module (1/6^th of a full year at degree level) all the way up to an entire degree entirely by distance learning. Study rates vary from one to four modules each year, and students can move on to Level 2 modules (equivalent to second year level in a UK degree) before completing the full set of Level 1 modules. Over 1000 awards have been made to date. The core syllabus is Astronomy and Cosmology at Level 1, alongside skills in literature research, using computers, and basic observing. We also offer a basic history of European astronomy. At Level 2 we look at the astrophysics of the Sun, the stars, and galaxies including the Milky Way. By Level 3 students are expected to engage in a large individual project, and a collaborative investigation with other students, alongside high-level courses in cosmology, relativity, extreme states of matter and the origins of the elements, life and astronomical objects. While many students are retired people looking to exercise their brains, keen amateur amateurs or professionals with disposable incomes, and significant fraction are teachers seeking to improve their subject knowledge or high school students gaining an edge in the UK University entrance competition. Via our involvement with SALT we offer our courses to members of previously disadvantaged communities. This leads to an incredibly diverse and lively student body.

  4. Enhancing the quantity and quality of short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge using CaO2 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) addition on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The lab-scale experiments were conducted at 35 °C with CaO2 doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 g/g VSS. The performances of hydrolysis and acidification of WAS were significantly enhanced by CaO2 addition, whereas the production of methane was inhibited. Maximum total short-chain fatty acids (TSCFA) production (284 mg COD/g VSS) occurred at a CaO2 dose of 0.2 g/g VSS and fermentation time of 7 d, which was 3.9 times higher than the control tests. Further, CaO2 addition led to the conversion of other SCFAs to acetic acid. Acetic acid comprised 60.2% of TSCFA with the addition of 0.2 g CaO2/g VSS compared with 45.1% in the control tests. The mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of both chemical and biological effects. Chemical effect facilitated the disintegration of WAS, and improved the activities of both hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria within phylum Firmicutes increased significantly due to CaO2 addition, which played an important role in the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS. In addition, CaO2 oxidized most refractory organic contaminants, which were difficult to biodegrade under the ordinary anaerobic condition. Hydroxyl radicals were the most abundant reactive oxygen species released by CaO2, which played a key role in the removal of refractory organic compounds. We developed a promising technology to produce a valuable carbon source from WAS. PMID:26141424

  5. Hand interception of occluded motion in humans: a test of model-based vs. on-line control.

    PubMed

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Two control schemes have been hypothesized for the manual interception of fast visual targets. In the model-free on-line control, extrapolation of target motion is based on continuous visual information, without resorting to physical models. In the model-based control, instead, a prior model of target motion predicts the future spatiotemporal trajectory. To distinguish between the two hypotheses in the case of projectile motion, we asked participants to hit a ball that rolled down an incline at 0.2 g and then fell in air at 1 g along a parabola. By varying starting position, ball velocity and trajectory differed between trials. Motion on the incline was always visible, whereas parabolic motion was either visible or occluded. We found that participants were equally successful at hitting the falling ball in both visible and occluded conditions. Moreover, in different trials the intersection points were distributed along the parabolic trajectories of the ball, indicating that subjects were able to extrapolate an extended segment of the target trajectory. Remarkably, this trend was observed even at the very first repetition of movements. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of model-based control, but not with on-line control. Indeed, ball path and speed during the occlusion could not be extrapolated solely from the kinematic information obtained during the preceding visible phase. The only way to extrapolate ball motion correctly during the occlusion was to assume that the ball would fall under gravity and air drag when hidden from view. Such an assumption had to be derived from prior experience. PMID:26133803

  6. Automated dynamic sampling system for the on-line monitoring of biogenic emissions from living organisms.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, J; Pham-Tuan, H; Sandra, P

    2001-09-28

    An automated system for continuous on-line monitoring of biogenic emissions is presented. The system is designed in such a way that volatiles, emitted as reaction to biotic or abiotic stress, can be unequivocally elucidated. Two identical sampling units, named target and reference bulb, are therefore incorporated into the system and consecutively analyzed in monitoring experiments. A number of precautions were considered during these experiments to avoid the application of unwanted stress onto both organisms. Firstly, the system is constructed in such a way that both bulbs are continuously flushed, i.e. before, during and after analysis, with high purity air to avoid any accumulation of emitted volatiles. Moreover, the air is pre-humidified by bubbling it through water to sustain the biological samples for longer periods in the in vitro environment. Sorptive enrichment on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to trap the headspace volatiles. The hydrophobic nature of this material permitted easy removal of trapped moisture by direct flushing of the sampling cartridge with dry air before desorption. The system was used to monitor the emissions from in vitro mechanically wounded ivy (Hedera helix) and of in vitro grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) upon cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) feeding. Differences in light and dark floral emissions of jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum) were also studied. PMID:11681578

  7. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  8. Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited).

    PubMed

    Marsh, B A

    2014-02-01

    A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented. PMID:24593628

  9. Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, B. A.

    2014-02-15

    A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented.

  10. Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst.

    PubMed

    Witoon, Thongthai; Bumrungsalee, Sittisut; Vathavanichkul, Peerawut; Palitsakun, Supaphorn; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2014-03-01

    Calcium oxide-loaded porous materials have shown promise as catalysts in transesterification. However, the slow diffusion of bulky triglycerides through the pores limited the activity of calcium oxide (CaO). In this work, bimodal meso-macroporous silica was used as a support to enhance the accessibility of the CaO dispersed inside the pores. Unimodal porous silica having the identical mesopore diameter was employed for the purpose of comparison. Effects of CaO content and catalyst pellet size on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were investigated. The basic strength was found to increase with increasing the CaO content. The CaO-loaded bimodal porous silica catalyst with the pellet size of 325?m achieved a high %FAME of 94.15 in the first cycle, and retained an excellent %FAME of 88.87 after five consecutive cycles. PMID:24525218

  11. Micelle-Assisted Synthesis of Al2O3·CaO Nanocatalyst: Optical Properties and Their Applications in Photodegradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Ayesha; Khaleeq-ur-rahman, Muhammad; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles are known to exhibit unique property due to their high adsorption capacity and good catalytic activity. In this work the CaO nanocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), as a templating agent. The as-synthesized nanocatalysts were further used as substrate for the synthesis of alumina doped calcium oxide (Al2O3·CaO) nanocatalysts via deposition-precipitation method at the isoelectric point of CaO. The Al2O3·CaO nanocatalysts were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, TEM, and FESEM techniques. The catalytic efficiencies of these nanocatalysts were studied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP), which is an industrial pollutant, spectrophotometrically. The effect of surfactant and temperature on size of nanocatalysts was also studied. The smallest particle size and highest percentage of degradation were observed at critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The direct optical band gap of the Al2O3·CaO nanocatalyst was found as 3.3?eV. PMID:24311980

  12. BUILDING ROBUST APPEARANCE MODELS USING ON-LINE FEATURE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    PORTER, REID B.; LOVELAND, ROHAN; ROSTEN, ED

    2007-01-29

    In many tracking applications, adapting the target appearance model over time can improve performance. This approach is most popular in high frame rate video applications where latent variables, related to the objects appearance (e.g., orientation and pose), vary slowly from one frame to the next. In these cases the appearance model and the tracking system are tightly integrated, and latent variables are often included as part of the tracking system's dynamic model. In this paper we describe our efforts to track cars in low frame rate data (1 frame/second) acquired from a highly unstable airborne platform. Due to the low frame rate, and poor image quality, the appearance of a particular vehicle varies greatly from one frame to the next. This leads us to a different problem: how can we build the best appearance model from all instances of a vehicle we have seen so far. The best appearance model should maximize the future performance of the tracking system, and maximize the chances of reacquiring the vehicle once it leaves the field of view. We propose an online feature selection approach to this problem and investigate the performance and computational trade-offs with a real-world dataset.

  13. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer. PMID:24338267

  14. Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

  15. First-principles simulations of CaO and CaSiO3 liquids: structure, thermodynamics and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, Suraj K.; Ghosh, Dipta B.; Karki, Bijaya B.

    2015-05-01

    We have performed first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of CaO and CaSiO3 liquids over broad ranges of pressure (0-150 GPa) and temperature (2,500-8,000 K) within density-functional theory. The simulated liquid structure changes considerably on compression with the mean cation-anion coordination numbers increasing nearly linearly with volume. The Ca-O coordination number increases from 5 (7) near the ambient pressure to 8 (10) at high pressure for CaO (CaSiO3) liquid. The Si-O coordination number increases from 4 to 6 over the same pressure regime. Our results show that both liquids are much more compressible than their solid counterparts implying the possibility of liquid-solid density crossovers at high pressure. The Grüneisen parameter of both the liquids increases with pressure, which is opposite in case of crystalline phases. The calculated self-diffusion coefficients strongly depend on temperature and pressure, thereby requiring non-Arrhenian representation with variable activation volume. The diffusivity differences between the two liquids tend to be large at low-temperature and low-pressure regime. Also, comparisons with MgSiO3 liquid suggest that network modifier cations Ca and Mg behave similarly though Ca is more coordinated and more mobile as compared to Mg.

  16. Entangled quantum electronic wavefunctions of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Yanai, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    It is a long-standing goal to understand the reaction mechanisms of catalytic metalloenzymes at an entangled many-electron level, but this is hampered by the exponential complexity of quantum mechanics. Here, by exploiting the special structure of physical quantum states and using the density matrix renormalization group, we compute near-exact many-electron wavefunctions of the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II, with more than 1 × 1018 quantum degrees of freedom. This is the first treatment of photosystem II beyond the single-electron picture of density functional theory. Our calculations support recent modifications to the structure determined by X-ray crystallography. We further identify multiple low-lying energy surfaces associated with the structural distortion seen using X-ray crystallography, highlighting multistate reactivity in the chemistry of the cluster. Direct determination of Mn spin-projections from our wavefunctions suggests that current candidates that have been recently distinguished using parameterized spin models should be reassessed. Through entanglement maps, we reveal rich information contained in the wavefunctions on bonding changes in the cycle.

  17. Heavy doping of H - ion in 12CaO·7Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Katsuro

    2011-06-01

    12CaO·7Al 2O 3 (C12A7, mayenite), which has a nanoscale porous structure that can accommodate extraframework species such as hydride (H -), oxide (O 2-), hydroxide (OH -) ions, and electrons, has been doped with H - ions to investigate its effects as dominant extraframework species. Chemical doping with CaH 2 enables the concentration of H - ions to reach almost the theoretical maximum. The concentration of H - ions is characterized by optical absorption intensity ascribed to photoionization of H - ions, and 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. Persistent electron generation, which is accompanied by the formation of an F+ absorption band and electrical conductivity, by irradiation with ultraviolet light at room temperature increases as the H - ion doping increases until it reaches half the theoretical maximum and then decreases as the H - ion concentration increases further. This dependence indicates that both H - and O 2- ions are necessary for the generation of persistent electrons.

  18. Room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior in electride 12CaO .7Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Nororu; Nakamura, Sho; Tsubaki, Kotaro; Toyo University Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Crystalline dodecacalcium hepta-aluminate 12CaO .7Al2O3 (C12A7) has a nanoporous structure that contains twelve cages with an inner diameter of 0.44 nm per unit cell. By replacing the O2- ions originally incorporated in some cages with electrons, C12A7 becomes electride and is known to exhibit a variety of interesting physical and chemical properties. Here, we report results on SQUID magnetic measurements of electride C12A7, where ferromagnetic behavior that persisted even above room temperature was found. Electride samples were prepared by heating C12A7 samples in vacuum with metallic Ca at 700 and 800 °C for specific periods of time. Although as-is C12A7 samples showed paramagnetic behavior, once the as-is samples were reduced with metallic Ca, they exhibited magnetization curves which suggested ferromagnetism. It was found that the longer the reducing time was and the higher the reducing temperature was, the larger the saturation magnetization value became. Systematic magnetization behavior found as functions of reducing time and temperature might suggest the ferromagnetism found in electride C12A7 originated from the electron spins in the cages. The origin of ferromagnetism found in electride C12A7 will be discussed.

  19. On-line detection of single-walled carbon nanotube formation during aerosol synthesis methods

    E-print Network

    to the measurement. Despite the different product morphology and concentration, the on-line measurement was ableOn-line detection of single-walled carbon nanotube formation during aerosol synthesis methods Anna,c,* a Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology

  20. On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger Statoil Mongstad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network Tore Lid #3; Statoil Mongstad N-5954 modeling and on-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network at the Statoil Mongstad re#12;nery oil in the heat exchanger network. The steady state mass and energy balance of the 20 heat exchangers

  1. 7 CFR 42.140 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.140 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the sampling plans given in Tables I, I-A,...

  2. 7 CFR 42.140 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.140 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the sampling plans given in Tables I, I-A,...

  3. 7 CFR 42.140 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.140 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the sampling plans given in Tables I, I-A,...

  4. 7 CFR 42.140 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.140 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the sampling plans given in Tables I, I-A,...

  5. 7 CFR 42.140 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. 42.140 Section...Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section...Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the sampling plans given in Tables I, I-A,...

  6. An On-line On-board Distributed Algorithm for Evolutionary Robotics

    E-print Network

    Eiben, A.E. "Guszti"

    of this vision, we investigate on-board evolutionary algorithms that allow robot con- trollers to adapt without it with the (µ + 1) ON-LINE algorithm, which implements evolutionary adaptation inside a single robot. We performAn On-line On-board Distributed Algorithm for Evolutionary Robotics Robert-Jan Huijsman, Evert

  7. ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID CATALYZED ALKYLATION

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID Enterprises Refinery in Convent, Louisiana. Using the flowsheeting, on-line optimization, pinch analysis and energy savings were projected through reduced steam usage in the distillation columns. A small decrease

  8. Case Study: Collaborative Creation of an On-Line Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara L.; Norwood, Marcella; Ezell, Shirley; Waight, Consuelo

    2006-01-01

    Faculty collaboratively developed an on-line Bachelor of Science degree in Consumer Science and Merchandising (CSM). Part-time faculty and technical support services supported the four-member team. Small grants assisted in the creation and redesign of all CSM major courses for on-line delivery. Issues of appropriate learning strategies, student…

  9. On-Line Literature Search and Full Articles in the NASA ADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    The ADS provides free world-wide on-line access to over 2.2 million abstracts and over 1 million scanned pages of the astronomical and planetary literature plus over 4 million links to other relevant on-line information at http://ads.harvard.edu. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Integration of On-Line Protein Digestion, Peptide Separation, and Protein Identification Using

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Integration of On-Line Protein Digestion, Peptide Separation, and Protein Identification Using promotes penetra- tion of large molecular proteins into the column. The immobilized pepsin-digested electrophoresis column to a mass spectrometer. The on-line digestion of insulin chain and lysozyme provides

  11. Improved Neural Network-based Interpretation of Colonoscopy Images Through On-line Learning and Evolution

    E-print Network

    Magoulas, George D.

    , Artificial evolution. INTRODUCTION The need for more effective methods of early detection of cancer and Evolution George D. Magoulas, Vassilis P. Plagianakos* and Michael N. Vrahatis* Department of Information for the on-line Backpropagation (BP) and we investigate the use of this scheme in an on-line evolution

  12. How scientists think: On-line creativity and conceptual change in

    E-print Network

    Dunbar, Kevin N.

    .C: American Psychological Association Press #12;Page 2 How scientists think: On-line creativity and conceptual solving processes that form the foundation for creative cognition (see Dunbar, in press, Holyoak 1996Page 1 How scientists think: On-line creativity and conceptual change in science Kevin Dunbar, Mc

  13. The impact of heterogeneity on master-slave on-line scheduling

    E-print Network

    Vivien, Frédéric

    The impact of heterogeneity on master-slave on-line scheduling Jean-François Pineau1 , Yves Robert1 for scheduling independent tasks on master-slave platforms. We assume a realistic one-port model where the master can communicate with a single slave at any time-step. We tar- get on-line scheduling problems, and we

  14. High School Open On-Line Courses (HOOC): A Case Study from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canessa, Enrique; Pisani, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The first implementation of complete high school, open on-line courses (HOOC) aiming to support the training and basic scientific knowledge of young students from the Liceo Ginnasio Dante Alighieri in Gorizia, Italy, is discussed. Using the open source and automated recording system openEyA, HOOC give a student the opportunity to watch on-line, at…

  15. An Integrated Network Management System with On-line Traffic Engineering for Optical Label Switching Networks

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    An Integrated Network Management System with On-line Traffic Engineering for Optical Label-layer (IP/WDM) traffic engineering, fault management, and restoration. We demonstrate a prototype, Traffic Engineering. #12;An Integrated Network Management System with On-line Traffic Engineering

  16. Students Reflecting on Test Performance and Feedback: An On-Line Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Georgina; Fyfe, Sue; Meyer, Jan; Ziman, Mel; Sanders, Kathy; Hill, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students accessing on-line tests in Human Biology in three Western Australian universities were asked to complete an on-line post-test reflective survey about their perceptions of their test performance in light of automated feedback. The survey allowed pre-determined choices and comment text boxes relating to students'…

  17. Report on On-Line Trial Test for Fourth-Grade Students -- May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbic, Srdjan; Tomic, Boris; Kartal, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    On-line trial testing for fourth-grade students was an exploratory study realized as a part of the project "Developing annual test of students' achievement in Nature & Society" realized by Institute for Education Quality and Evaluation. Main ideas of the study were to explore possibilities for on-line testing at national level in Serbia, and to…

  18. OnLine Routing of Virtual Circuits with Applications to Load Balancing and Machine

    E-print Network

    Fiat, Amos

    On­Line Routing of Virtual Circuits with Applications to Load Balancing and Machine Scheduling study the problem of on­line allocation of routes to virtual circuits (both point­to­point and multicast on the case of permanent virtual circuits (i.e., once a circuit is established, it exists forever

  19. 3D Tracking in Unknown Environments Using On-Line Keypoint Learning for Mobile Augmented Reality

    E-print Network

    Grabner, Helmut

    of the environment. Mobile augmented reality systems pro- vide this service without constraining the users3D Tracking in Unknown Environments Using On-Line Keypoint Learning for Mobile Augmented Reality based on on-line boosting used for localizing a mo- bile computer. Mobile augmented reality requires

  20. Design Features of On-Line Anatomy Information Resources: A Comparison with the Digital Anatomist

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    sources for supporting on-line teaching and learning. Because of its image intensive nature, anatomy1 Design Features of On-Line Anatomy Information Resources: A Comparison with the Digital Anatomist for learning and teaching anatomy as medical students, and have also examined available anatomy web sites

  1. Merging Hypermedia GIS with Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing: Towards Hypermedia SOLAP

    E-print Network

    Merging Hypermedia GIS with Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing: Towards Hypermedia SOLAP Yvan a Hypermedia GIS point of view, it is interesting to note that this project merged a digital map of the city Bédard, Y., M. Proulx, S. Rivest, T. Badard, 2005, Merging Hypermedia GIS with Spatial On-Line Analytical

  2. Enhancing On-Line Teaching with Verbal Immediacy through Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…

  3. Limits on Line Bisector Variability for Stars with Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povich, M. S.; Giampapa, M. S.; Valenti, J. A.; Tilleman, T.; Barden, S.; Deming, D.; Livingston, W. C.; Pilachowski, C.

    2000-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution synoptic spectra of ten F- and G-type stars, seven of which exhibit periodic radial velocity variations due to the presence of one or more substellar companions. We searched for subtle periodic variations in photospheric line asymmetry, as characterized by line bisectors. In principle, periodic variations in line asymmetry observed at lower spectral resolution could mimic the radial velocity signature of a companion, but we find no significant evidence of such behavior in our data. Observations were obtained from 1998 March to 1999 February using the National Solar Observatory (NSO) 1.52-m McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope Facility on Kitt Peak in conjunction with the solar-stellar spectrograph, achieving a resolving power of 1.2x10(exp5). To characterize line asymmetry, we first measured line bisectors for the unblended Fe I photospheric line at 625.26 nm. To improve sensitivity to small fluctuations, we then combined points in each bisector to form a velocity displacement with respect to the line core. We searched for periodic variations in this displacement, finding no substantial difference between stars with substellar companions and those without reported companions. We find no correlation between bisector velocity displacement and the known orbital phase of substellar companions around our target stars. Simulations of a periodic signal with noise levels that mimic our measurement errors suggest that we can exclude bisector variations with amplitudes greater than about 20 m/s. These results support the conclusion that extrasolar planets best explain the observed periodic variations in radial velocity.

  4. Fixed-target physics at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The Fermilab Energy Saver is now successfully commissioned and fixed-target experimentation at high energy (800 GeV) has begun. In addition, a number of new experiments designed to exploit the unique features of the Tevatron are yet to come on-line. In this talk, we will review recent accomplishments in the fixed-target program and describe experiments in progress and others yet to come.

  5. Sputter target

    DOEpatents

    Gates, Willard G. (Kansas City, MO); Hale, Gerald J. (Overland Park, KS)

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  6. Improvement plans for the RHIC/AGS on-line model environments

    SciTech Connect

    Brown,K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tepikian, S.

    2009-08-31

    The on-line models for Relativistic Ion Collider (RHIC) and the RHIC pre-injectors (the AGS and the AGS Booster) can be thought of as containing our best collective knowledge of these accelerators. As we improve these on-line models we are building the framework to have a sophisticated model-based controls system. Currently the RHIC on-line model is an integral part of the controls system, providing the interface for tune control, chromaticity control, and non-linear chromaticity control. What we discuss in this paper is our vision of the future of the on-line model environment for RHIC and the RHIC preinjectors. Although these on-line models are primarily used as Courant-Snyder parameter calculators using live machine settings, we envision expanding these environments to encompass many other problem domains.

  7. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, September 1992--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE) is a diversified information services company that is recognized as the major electronic link between the higher education community and the Federal government in the field of research administration. FIE provides a range of information related services to the government, academic and private sectors, including database management, software development and technical support. FEDIX is the on-line information service designed, developed and implemented by FIE to accomplish the following objectives: (1). Broaden the participation of the education community in Federal research and education programs by providing free and unrestricted on-line access to information from all participating Federal agencies; and (2). Provide the education community with on-line access to a single keyword-searchable system for research and educational funding opportunities at the participating Federal agencies.

  8. An on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Michela; Rusconi, Marianna; Valsecchi, Sara; Martins, Claudia P B; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between -34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0?ng/L and from 1 to 20?ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. PMID:25834752

  9. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Michela; Rusconi, Marianna; Valsecchi, Sara; Martins, Claudia P. B.; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between ?34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0?ng/L and from 1 to 20?ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. PMID:25834752

  10. An alise Matem atica III -Exerc cios-Desa o (Os exerc cios t^em uma indica c~ao ; ; ou consoante o grau relativo de di culdade.)

    E-print Network

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    Teorema da Fun#24;c~ao Inversa, demonstre o Teorema da Fun#24;c~ao Im- pl#19;#16;cita. Sugest~ao: Considere F : S #26; R n ! R m com n > m, com S aberto e F de classe C 1 e as equa#24;c~oes F (z; y) = 0 com (z; y)). Aplique o Teorema da fun#24;c~ao inversa #18;a fun#24;c~ao H . Exerc#19;#16;cio-Desa#12;o 4

  11. Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA. [Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D M; Aysto, J; Cable, M D; Parry, R F; Haustein, P E; Wouters, J M; Cerny, J

    1980-01-01

    General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements (< 1200/sup 0/C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter /sup 37/Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..beta..-..gamma.. experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system.

  12. Targeted Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, Dirk

    Targeted audio aims at creating personal listening zones by utilizing adequate measurements. A person inside this listening zone shall be able to perceive acoustically submitted information without disturbing other persons outside the desired listening zone. In order to fulfill this demand, the use of a highly directional audible sound beam is favored. The sound beam shall be aimed at the respective listening zone target, thus implicating the expression targeted audio.

  13. On-line monitoring of mercury and hydrogen chloride in hot gases from coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1993-09-01

    A variety of analytical techniques which may be applicable to monitoring Hg or HCl in METC gasifier streams were identified. Potential approaches for on-line analysis of Hg and HCl are discussed in detail.

  14. Bibliography (in the on-line pdf version the html links are live only where

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    Bibliography (in the on-line pdf version the html links are live only where the entire http. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cam- bridge, Mass.: Perseus Publishing. http://www.nd.edu/~networks/linked

  15. Probabilistic on-line transportation problems with carrying-capacity constraints

    E-print Network

    Treleaven, Kyle (Kyle Ballantyne)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights and techniques for the analysis and design of autonomous or technology-assisted ("intelligent") transportation systems. The focus is on cooperative, on-line planning and control, of a fleet ...

  16. Substroke Approach to HMM-based On-line Kanji Handwriting Recognition. 

    E-print Network

    Nakai, Mitsuru; Akira, Naoto; Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Sagayama, Shigeki

    2001-01-01

    A new method is proposed for on-line handwriting recognition of Kanji characters. The method employs substroke HMMs as minimum units to constitute Japanese Kanji characters and utilizes the direction of pen motion. The ...

  17. Context-dependent substroke model for HMM-based on-line handwriting recognition 

    E-print Network

    Tokuno, Junko; Inami, Nobuhito; Matsuda, Shigeki; Nakai, Mitsuru; Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Sagayama, Shigeki

    Describes context-dependent substroke hidden Markov models (HMMs)for on-line handwritten recognition of cursive Kanji and Hiragana characters. In order to tackle this problem, we have proposed the substroke HMM approach ...

  18. 76 FR 7102 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...100826397-1059-02] RIN 0694-AE98 Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line...electronically via BIS's Simplified Network Application Processing (SNAP-R) system...request for comments entitled ``Simplified Network Application Processing System,...

  19. Robust hand tracking with on-line and off-line learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiangyue; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Hao; Cheng, Ruzhong; Wei, Yiqun

    2015-07-01

    Hand tracking is becoming more and more popular in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). A lot of studies in this area have made good progress. However, robust hand tracking is still difficult in long-term. On-line learning technology has great potential in terms of tracking for its strong adaptive learning ability. To address the problem we combined an on-line learning technology called on-line boosting with an off-line trained detector to track the hand. The contributions of this paper are: 1) we propose a learning method with an off-line model to solve the drift of on-line learning; 2) we build a framework for hand tracking based on the learning method. The experiments show that compared with other three methods, the proposed tracker is more robust in the strain case.

  20. Next generation of on-line process gas chromatographs for environmental and vehicle emissions applications

    SciTech Connect

    Staphanos, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The on-line process gas chromatograph has been used for many years for monitoring environmental pollution. Although the standard on-line process gas chromotograph does an excellent job in this regard, the cost of the size of the instrument were overkill for monitoring one or a few components. The next generation on on-line process gas chromotographs is a 19-inch rack mountable instrument equipped with the state of the art, modular, microprocessor-advanced analysis components, remote calibration, stream sequencer, and serial link output to data distribution control systems and host computers. These features result in substantial cost reduction to the customer. This paper describes the design and the applications of the next generation of on-line process gas chromatographs for environmental and vehicle emissions analysis.

  1. Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing (SOLAP): Concepts, Architectures and Solutions from a Geomatics Engineering Perspective.

    E-print Network

    a Geomatics Engineering Perspective, Data Warehouses and OLAP : Concepts, Architectures and Solutions, EDA (SOLAP): Concepts, Architectures and Solutions from a Geomatics Engineering Perspective. ABSTRACTSpatial On-Line Analytical Processing (SOLAP): Concepts, Architectures and Solutions from

  2. On-line Hydraulic State Estimation in Urban Water Networks Using Reduced Models

    E-print Network

    Preis, Ami

    A Predictor-Corrector (PC) approach for on-line forecasting of water usage in an urban water system is presented and demonstrated. The M5 Model-Trees algorithm is used to predict water demands and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) ...

  3. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  4. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  6. On-line implementation of a fault diagnosis system for three-phase induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Alladi, Vijaya Mallikarjun

    2002-01-01

    provide advanced warnings regarding the health of machinery. The implementation of an efficient fault detection system into a form that allows for continuous on-line condition monitoring in industry could reduce the uncertainties related to machinery...

  7. First structures on RyantoRainbow Line. Hframe structure on Line 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First structures on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line. H-frame structure on Line 1 (right) has historic porcelain suspension insulators and H-frame structure on Line 2 (center) has two historic porcelain insulators and one modern non-ceramic insulator. View to north - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  8. Large-scale implementation of on-line calibration monitoring - Issues and possible solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roverso, D.; Hoffmann, M.

    2006-07-01

    Currently available on-line calibration monitoring methods and techniques have demonstrated their suitability in several pilot applications and a few production applications. The fitness of these techniques to tackle large scale, full-fledged, plant-wide applications is still however an open matter. In this paper the main issues that relate to the dimensionality of the on-line calibration monitoring application are identified and a number of prospective solutions to tackle these issues are proposed. (authors)

  9. Improved Retrieval of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids Contents at the Canopy Scale Using Hyperspectral CAO Data and PROSAIL Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.; Jacquemoud, S.; François, C.

    2008-12-01

    The sustainability of biodiversity requires frequent and spatially detailed assessment of species number and distribution, among other information. Remote sensing is one of the most promising way to achieve this environmental management due to reasonable cost and accuracy. However, the use of airborne and spaceborne data remains challenging: sensors must combine the appropriate spatial and spectral resolutions to retrieve pertinent environmental parameters that will permit identification of specific properties of organisms present in an ecosystem. Leaf area index (LAI), canopy structure and pigment composition of vegetation are valuable information to study ecosystem dynamics and distinguish between many species. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments are of particular interest because they are involved in photosynthesis, but until now, remote sensing was unable to assess these pigments separately and accurately. Some advances have been made recently with the separation of these pigments in PROSPECT-5, a radiative transfer model that simulates leaf spectral reflectance and transmittance at 1 nm resolution. PROSAIL, the joint vegetation canopy reflectance model associating PROSPECT-5 with 4SAIL, the latest version of the SAIL model, was first run in direct mode to design vegetation indices sensitive to leaf pigments. Subsequently, we retrieved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents using PROSAIL with CAO (Carnegie Airborne Observatory) data acquired in Hawaii. The CAO, an imaging spectrometer coupled with a 3-D laser scanner, has already demonstrated its ability to manage biodiversity in various ecosystems like tropical rainforests or savannah. Its performance make it particularly adapted to assess vegetation structure, biochemistry, and then fluxes. The first results obtained when processing CAO images with PROSAIL are promising in terms of chlorophyll and carotenoid retrieval at the canopy scale. They show that our approach can provide original information on vegetation and hopefully new indicators to help manage and conserve biodiversity. They open new fields of investigation in the domain of mapping and monitoring Earth ecosystems from present operational (Aviris, Hyperion) or future (EnMap, HyspIRI) airborne and spaceborne sensors offering high spectral resolution data.

  10. On the use of ocean-atmosphere-wave models during an extreme CAO event: the importance of being coupled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, Sandro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario M.; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    During winter 2012 an extreme meteorological event stroke the whole Europe and particularly its central-southern sector. A strong and persistent spit of cold air coming from Siberian region (a Cold Air Outbreak, CAO) insisted on northern Italy and the Adriatic sea basin, leading to decreases in the sea temperatures up to 6 °C in less than two weeks, ice formation on the Venice lagoon and an exceptional snow fall in the Apennine region. In the sea the CAO was associated to a significant episode of dense water formation (DWF), a crucial phenomenon that heavily impacts the whole Adriatic Sea (from the sinking of water masses and associated ventilation of the northernmost shelf, to the flow along the western coast, until the flushing of southern Adriatic open slope and submarine canyons, with associated sediment transport and bottom reshaping). The extent of the DWF event in the Northern Adriatic sub-basin was estimated by means of coastal observatories, ad hoc measurements and, until now, results from existing one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean models. These are characterized by no SST feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere, and therefore by turbulent heat fluxes that may heavily reflect a non-consistent ocean state. The study proposes an investigation of the 2012 CAO using a fully coupled, three components, ocean-atmosphere-wave system (COAWST). Results highlight that, although the energy interplays between air and sea do not seem to significantly impact the wind forecasts, when providing heat fluxes that are consistent with the ocean temperature we find modified heat fluxes and air sea temperatures figures. Moreover, the consistent description of thermal exchanges adopted in the fully coupled model can affect the basin circulation, the quantification of dense water produced mass, and the description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  11. Influence of high-temperature steam on the reactivity of CaO sorbent for CO? capture.

    PubMed

    Donat, Felix; Florin, Nicholas H; Anthony, Edward J; Fennell, Paul S

    2012-01-17

    Calcium looping is a high-temperature CO(2) capture technology applicable to the postcombustion capture of CO(2) from power station flue gas, or integrated with fuel conversion in precombustion CO(2) capture schemes. The capture technology uses solid CaO sorbent derived from natural limestone and takes advantage of the reversible reaction between CaO and CO(2) to form CaCO(3); that is, to achieve the separation of CO(2) from flue or fuel gas, and produce a pure stream of CO(2) suitable for geological storage. An important characteristic of the sorbent, affecting the cost-efficiency of this technology, is the decay in reactivity of the sorbent over multiple CO(2) capture-and-release cycles. This work reports on the influence of high-temperature steam, which will be present in flue (about 5-10%) and fuel (?20%) gases, on the reactivity of CaO sorbent derived from four natural limestones. A significant increase in the reactivity of these sorbents was found for 30 cycles in the presence of steam (from 1-20%). Steam influences the sorbent reactivity in two ways. Steam present during calcination promotes sintering that produces a sorbent morphology with most of the pore volume associated with larger pores of ?50 nm in diameter, and which appears to be relatively more stable than the pore structure that evolves when no steam is present. The presence of steam during carbonation reduces the diffusion resistance during carbonation. We observed a synergistic effect, i.e., the highest reactivity was observed when steam was present for both calcination and carbonation. PMID:22191682

  12. Factors affecting targeting using the computer assisted orthopaedic surgery system (CAOSS).

    PubMed

    Chami, G; Phillips, R; Ward, J W; Bielby, M S; Mohsen, A M M A

    2006-01-01

    An advantage of CAOS over traditional surgery is improved precision of implant position and trajectories in 3D space. However, the implementation of these trajectories often adds an extra step to the operation that increases operative time and requires extra training. This paper reports a study of variation in time-to-task and learning curve in performing a standard task of targeting in 3D space using Hull's CAOSS. It shows that time-to-task can be reduced by replacing a 3D targeting task with multiple independent 2D targeting tasks whilst potentially reducing targeting error. Based on this better understanding of targeting a novel jig was developed for performing dynamic hip Screw (DHS) insertion using CAOSS that would provide improved targeting performance by the surgeon. PMID:16404021

  13. Heterogeneous-nucleation and glass-formation studies of 56Ga2O3-44CaO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.; Pline, David

    1987-01-01

    Glass formation and heterogeneous crystallization are described for the reluctant-glass-forming 56Ga2O3-44CaO eutectic composition. The times and temperatures for nucleation at various cooling rates and experimental conditions were measured and empirical continuous-cooling-crystallization boundaries were constructed for various heterogeneous nucleation processes. A definition for an empirical critical cooling rate to form a glass from reluctant borderline glass formers is proposed, i.e., the cooling rate that results in glass formation in 95 percent of the quenching experiments.

  14. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

    2013-08-01

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  15. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

  16. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

  17. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

  18. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

  19. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes...Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by...

  20. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C.; Silva, J. Fernando; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-15

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  1. Low temperature thermal degradation of PCDD/Fs in soil using nanosized particles of zerovalent iron and CaO.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Moltó, Julia; Fullana, Andres

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soil using low temperature treatment (200-280°C) both alone and in combination with nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles or CaO. Control soil samples and soil fortified with nZVI particles or CaO were treated at 200 and 250°C in sealed glass ampoules. Treatment of the ampouled samples at 250°C was more effective than treatment at 200°C and the reduction in PCDD/F concentration was greatest when soil was treated at 250°C with nZVI addition (indeed, treatment at 200°C in the absence of nZVI resulted in increases in total PCDD and PCDD/F concentrations). In larger-scale experiments based on the obtained results, using a rotary furnace, the greatest reduction in total PCDD/F concentration was achieved by treating soil at 280°C, and adding nZVI to the soil resulted in almost no detectable PCDD/F in the gas phase. PMID:23498061

  2. Potentials of on-line repositioning based on implanted fiducial markers and electronic portal imaging in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Reinhold; Wust, Peter; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Background To evaluate the benefit of an on-line correction protocol based on implanted markers and weekly portal imaging in external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. To compare the use of bony anatomy versus implanted markers for calculation of setup-error plus/minus prostate movement. To estimate the error reduction (and the corresponding margin reduction) by reducing the total error to 3 mm once a week, three times per week or every treatment day. Methods 23 patients had three to five, 2.5 mm Ø spherical gold markers transrectally inserted into the prostate before radiotherapy. Verification and correction of treatment position by analysis of orthogonal portal images was performed on a weekly basis. We registered with respect to the bony contours (setup error) and to the marker position (prostate motion) and determined the total error. The systematic and random errors are specified. Positioning correction was applied with a threshold of 5 mm displacement. Results The systematic error (1 standard deviation [SD]) in left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction contributes for the setup 1.6 mm, 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm and for prostate motion 1.1 mm, 1.9 mm and 2.3 mm. The random error (1 SD) in LR, SI and AP direction amounts for the setup 2.3 mm, 2.7 mm and 2.7 mm and for motion 1.4 mm, 2.3 mm and 2.7 mm. The resulting total error suggests margins of 7.0 mm (LR), 9.5 mm (SI) and 9.5 mm (AP) between clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV). After correction once a week the margins were lowered to 6.7, 8.2 and 8.7 mm and furthermore down to 4.9, 5.1 and 4.8 mm after correcting every treatment day. Conclusion Prostate movement relative to adjacent bony anatomy is significant and contributes substantially to the target position variability. Performing on-line setup correction using implanted radioopaque markers and megavoltage radiography results in reduced treatment margins depending on the online imaging protocol (once a week or more frequently). PMID:19397824

  3. The implementation of an integrated on-line health education system at RMIT.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, J; Allan, G L; Jamieson, P; Maher, K P; Green, R; Hislop, J

    1998-06-01

    The Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences at RMIT has been developing an on-line health education system using a systems thinking approach, to create a learning environment whose basis is supported by Information Technology (IT). The centre-piece of this system is the Faculty Learning Centre, which has been created, both in space and layout, to promote collaborative learning between the students, so that the educator is physically assimilated with the student body. This facility is supplemented by the Faculty WWW server, which has been the main vehicle for course material dissemination to students. To ensure an effective on-line teaching environment, the position of an on-line facilitator has been created, whose responsibilities include both the continual evaluation of the system and the implementation of appropriate system changes. Aspects have included the production of a staff development training program and extensive user documentation. This paper discusses the systems thinking approach used to implement this integrated on-line system, and the establishment of explicit educational rationales in the use of IT to support learning strategies. Some examples of the on-line educational programs are also presented. PMID:9726521

  4. An on-line calibration algorithm for external parameters of visual system based on binocular stereo cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liqiang; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2014-11-01

    Stereo vision is the key in the visual measurement, robot vision, and autonomous navigation. Before performing the system of stereo vision, it needs to calibrate the intrinsic parameters for each camera and the external parameters of the system. In engineering, the intrinsic parameters remain unchanged after calibrating cameras, and the positional relationship between the cameras could be changed because of vibration, knocks and pressures in the vicinity of the railway or motor workshops. Especially for large baselines, even minute changes in translation or rotation can affect the epipolar geometry and scene triangulation to such a degree that visual system becomes disabled. A technology including both real-time examination and on-line recalibration for the external parameters of stereo system becomes particularly important. This paper presents an on-line method for checking and recalibrating the positional relationship between stereo cameras. In epipolar geometry, the external parameters of cameras can be obtained by factorization of the fundamental matrix. Thus, it offers a method to calculate the external camera parameters without any special targets. If the intrinsic camera parameters are known, the external parameters of system can be calculated via a number of random matched points. The process is: (i) estimating the fundamental matrix via the feature point correspondences; (ii) computing the essential matrix from the fundamental matrix; (iii) obtaining the external parameters by decomposition of the essential matrix. In the step of computing the fundamental matrix, the traditional methods are sensitive to noise and cannot ensure the estimation accuracy. We consider the feature distribution situation in the actual scene images and introduce a regional weighted normalization algorithm to improve accuracy of the fundamental matrix estimation. In contrast to traditional algorithms, experiments on simulated data prove that the method improves estimation robustness and accuracy of the fundamental matrix. Finally, we take an experiment for computing the relationship of a pair of stereo cameras to demonstrate accurate performance of the algorithm.

  5. On-line near infrared spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to control an industrial seeded API crystallization.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Lecomte, C; Clicq, D; Merschaert, A; Norrant, E; Fotiadu, F

    2013-09-01

    The final step of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing synthesis process consists of a crystallization during which the API and residual solvent contents have to be quantified precisely in order to reach a predefined seeding point. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of on-line NIR spectroscopy to control this step in line with new version of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline [1]. A quantitative method was developed at laboratory scale using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. NIR models were built to quantify the API in the range of 9-12% (w/w) and to quantify the residual methanol in the range of 0-3% (w/w). To improve the predictive ability of the models, the development procedure encompassed: outliers elimination, optimum model rank definition, spectral range and spectral pre-treatment selection. Conventional criteria such as, number of PLS factors, R(2), root mean square errors of calibration, cross-validation and prediction (RMSEC, RMSECV, RMSEP) enabled the selection of three model candidates. These models were tested in the industrial pilot plant during three technical campaigns. Results of the most suitable models were evaluated against to the chromatographic reference methods. Maximum relative bias of 2.88% was obtained about API target content. Absolute bias of 0.01 and 0.02% (w/w) respectively were achieved at methanol content levels of 0.10 and 0.13% (w/w). The repeatability was assessed as sufficient for the on-line monitoring of the 2 analytes. The present feasibility study confirmed the possibility to use on-line NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor in real-time both the API and the residual methanol contents, in order to control the seeding of an API crystallization at industrial scale. Furthermore, the successful scale-up of the method proved its capability to be implemented in the manufacturing plant with the launch of the new API process. PMID:23764657

  6. On-line monitoring system for skiving of NdFeB laminate components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueqiang; Chen, Qingshan; Lu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    An on-line monitoring system for controlling the thickness and the flatness of NdFeB (Neodymium Ferrite Boron) laminate components during the skiving process is reported. The on-line monitoring system mainly consists of a non-contact eddy-sensor, a preamplifier, an A/D conversion card and a computer. The detailed description of the system with respect to the connection between the probe and the grinder is provided. Practical on-line measurement and data acquisition experiments are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the system principle is feasible and the accuracy is up to ?m order. The monitoring system can be used to improve conventional grinders that are widely employed currently in China.

  7. Research for the bearing grinding temperature on-line monitoring system based on the infrared technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zongxiang

    2008-10-01

    On-line monitoring to temperature of grinding arc is an important link absolutely necessarily in bearing grinding automation. This paper introduced a new method, which is to monitor grinding temperature via infrared ray, designed the engineering model of grinding arc temperature on-line monitoring system, and presented with components of grinding temperature automatic detection system and made analysis to workflow of the system. It brought forward the thought to establish factory grinder and central monitoring room to constitute Local Area Network so as that the central monitoring room could transfer information as grinding dosage and finishing of grinding wheel to operators of each grinder. Through analysis to influential factors of measurement results of that system, the paper provides with solutions. Technical tests validate that relative measurement error of that system is less than 0..5°C, which could better achieve on-line monitoring and alarm of grinding temperature and promote surface quality and productivity of grinding parts significantly.

  8. On-line health companion contact among chronically ill in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dumaij, Adrie C M; Tijssen, E C G

    2011-08-01

    A health companion is a patient who supports another patient or patient group with a similar health condition. Health companions deliver more and more support by the Internet. However, little is known about the characteristics of the users, their motivation, type of technology used and effects on health and the healthcare delivery process. The objective of the paper is to understand motivation, technology and effects of on-line health companion contact in the Netherlands concerning chronic diseases (DBM, COPD, CHF, CRD, CMD). The On-line Health Companion Contact Model was created to frame the research process. An extensive on-line questionnaire was taken from patients with various chronic disorders and using on-line health companion contact to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. Obtaining information was found the key motivation for applying on-line health companion contact and several characteristics play a role in the selection to use a specific website, including: closed access; the topics discussed; the easy use; the type of users and a clear structure. Respondents prefer website facilitated by a forum or social networking site. Other factors are the possibility to share experiences with other patients, to find recognition and understanding and to meet new people. These positive aspects are of greater importance than the perceived barriers including privacy concerns, negative stories and whining other users and concerns regarding the quality of information. On-line health companion contact can increase the quality of life and self-management because respondents perceived to be better informed, better able to accept their disease, better deal with their situation and to receive an increased amount of social support. PMID:21909478

  9. Line-on-Line Coincidence: A New Type of Epitaxy Found in Organic-Organic Heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C.; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-02-01

    We propose a new type of epitaxy, line-on-line coincidence (LOL), which explains the ordering in the organic-organic heterolayer system PTCDA on HBC on graphite. LOL epitaxy is similar to point-on-line coincidence (POL) in the sense that all overlayer molecules lie on parallel, equally spaced lines. The key difference to POL is that these lines are not restricted to primitive lattice lines of the substrate lattice. Potential energy calculations demonstrate that this new type of epitaxy is indeed characterized by a minimum in the overlayer-substrate interaction potential.

  10. REMPI-TOFMS for on-line monitoring and controlling the coffee roasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Zimmermann, Ralf; Kettrup, Antonius

    2001-08-01

    REMPI@266nm-TOFMS is used for on-line analysis of the coffee roasting process. Volatile and flavor active compounds of coffee were ionized by REMPI@266nm and monitored on-line and in real-time by TOFMS during the coffee roasting process. The phenol and 4-vinylguaiacol time-intensity profiles, for example, show typical behavior for different roasting temperatures and provide an indicator to the achieved degree of roasting. The impact of the moisture level of the green coffee beans on the time shift of a typical (commercial) roasting time, correlates with REMPI-TOFMS measurements and literature data.

  11. An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydro-generator bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbel, M.; Haffner, K.

    1999-05-01

    Instrumentation that allows the behaviour of a hydro-generator thrust bearing to be monitored during operation is described. The measurement system was developed at the Asea Brown Boveri corporate research centre in Switzerland and was tested under realistic operating conditions at the Harbin Electric Machinery Company bearing-testing facility in the People's Republic of China. Newly developed fibre-optical proximity probes were used for the on-line monitoring of the thin oil film between the static and rotating parts of the bearing. These sensors are based on a back-reflection technique and can be used for various target materials such as Babbitt and Teflon. The monitoring system comprises about 120 temperature sensors, four pressure sensors and five optical oil-film thickness sensors. Temperature sensors are installed at specific static locations, whereas pressure and oil-film sensors are positioned in the runner and generate data during rotation. A special feature of the monitoring equipment is its on-line processing capability. Digital signal processors operating in parallel handle pressure and oil-film thickness data. Important measurement parameters such as the maximum pressure, maximum temperature and minimum oil-film thickness are displayed on-line. Detailed three-dimensional temperature information on one of the load segments can be obtained from subsequent off-line data analysis. The system also calculates two-dimensional plots of the oil-film thickness and pressure for most of the 12 load segments.

  12. Targeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lee D; Souza, Amanda L; Gerszten, Robert E; Clish, Clary B

    2012-04-01

    The metabolome is the terminal downstream product of the genome and consists of the total complement of all the low-molecular-weight molecules (metabolites) in a cell, tissue, or organism. Metabolomics aims to measure a wide breadth of small molecules in the context of physiological stimuli or disease states. Metabolomics methodologies fall into two distinct groups: untargeted metabolomics, an intended comprehensive analysis of all the measurable analytes in a sample including chemical unknowns, and targeted metabolomics, the measurement of defined groups of chemically characterized and biochemically annotated metabolites. The methodologies considered in this unit focus on the processes of conducting targeted metabolomics experiments, and the advantages of this general approach are highlighted herein. This unit outlines procedures for extracting nitrogenous metabolites (including amino acids), lipids, and intermediary metabolites (including TCA cycle oxoacids) from blood plasma. Specifically, protocols are described for analyzing these metabolites using targeted metabolomics experiments based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:22470063

  13. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha Oh, Jae Eun

    2013-12-15

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

  14. Qifeng Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Christopher S. Dandeneau, Kwangsuk Park, Supan Yodyingyong, Guozhong Cao* Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    1 Qifeng Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Christopher S. Dandeneau, Kwangsuk Park, Supan Yodyingyong, Guozhong.) References [1] Zhang, Q. F.; Dandeneau, C. S.; Zhou, X. Y.; Cao, G. Z., ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells. Advanced Materials 2009, 21, 1-22. [2] Zhang, Q. F.; Chou, T. R.; Russo, B.; Jenekhe, S. A

  15. Flip-Flop: Convex Hull Construction via Star-Shaped Polyhedron in 3D Mingcen Gao Thanh-Tung Cao Tiow-Seng Tan

    E-print Network

    Tan, Tiow Seng

    . However, it is known that the tra- ditional flip algorithm is not able to compute the convex hull whenFlip-Flop: Convex Hull Construction via Star-Shaped Polyhedron in 3D Mingcen Gao Thanh-Tung Cao*STAR Abstract Flipping is a local and efficient operation to construct the convex hull in an incremental fashion

  16. : Convex Hull Construction via Star-Shaped Polyhedron in 3D Mingcen Gao Thanh-Tung Cao Tiow-Seng Tan Zhiyong Huang

    E-print Network

    Tan, Tiow Seng

    -shaped Polyhedron 4 ffHull: 3D convex hull algorithm 3 Flip-Flop: a novel flip algorithm 6 Correctness of Flip to transform any star-shaped polyhedron to its convex hull. ffHull: an algorithm to construct 3D convex hull: Convex Hull Construction via Star-Shaped Polyhedron in 3D Mingcen Gao Thanh-Tung Cao Tiow

  17. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR-OXYGEN SPECIES RESULTING FROM THE REACTION OF SO2 WITH CAO AND CACO3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) has been used to investigate the reaction of SO2 in He with CaO and CaCO3 particles at temperatures between 25 and 900 C. SO2 reacts with CaC at 25 C, while the reaction of Ca-CO3 with SO2 is first evident at 550 C ...

  18. 1930 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 46, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2001 [24] Y. Y. Cao, J. Lames, and Y. X. Sun, "Static output feedback stabilization

    E-print Network

    Fridman, Emilia

    of combustion in rocket motor cham- bers. Index Terms--Combustion control, distributed delay, -control, linear combustion in rocket motor chambers. We obtain proportional and PI state-feedback controls that stabilize1930 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 46, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2001 [24] Y. Y. Cao, J

  19. A picosecond electron gun for surface analysis M. Aeschlimann,a) E. Hull, J. Cao,b) C. A. Schmuttenmaer, L. G. Jahn,@ Y. Gao,b)

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianming

    A picosecond electron gun for surface analysis M. Aeschlimann,a) E. Hull, J. Cao,b) C. A investigations for a new design of an ultrashort pulsed laser activated electron gun for time resolved surface gun, in spite of an unusually long focal length and a small convergence angle of the pulsed electron

  20. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target “dort” /d??/ to sleep and false alarm verb “dorlote” /d??l?t/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., “Il dorlote” / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible (“Il le dorlote” / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the expected subcategorization frame. PMID:26696917

  1. Target: Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlman, Eric T.

    1985-01-01

    "Target: Lifestyle" is a physical education curriculum adopted by Detroit Country Day School which incorporates instruction in nutrition, physical fitness, first aid, and lifetime sports. This curriculum aims to influence student attitudes and lifestyles in health and physical fitness. Four levels of instruction are described. (DF)

  2. Summary remarks and future prospects for on-line nuclear orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results from various groups which use on-line low temperature nuclear orientation techniques are presented. Several nuclear parameters have been successfully studied: rotational levels, nuclear deformation, and decay modes. Future prospects include multiparameter analysis, relaxation and pre-orientation, new separators, and alpha decay studies. 33 refs., 5 figs. (WRF)

  3. On Line Instruction: An Opportunity to Re-Examine and Re-Invent Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Author recounts ten discoveries she made about on-line instruction that were beyond her field of vision when she was still viewing it though the lens of traditional classroom instruction. The discoveries include what she learned by reviewing the research in effective course design and a discourse analysis she conducted of the number and types of…

  4. ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES BY AUTOMATED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. ossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. haracterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel...

  5. Globally Optimal Active Contours, Sequential Monte Carlo and On-line Learning for Vessel Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Paragios, Nikos

    Globally Optimal Active Contours, Sequential Monte Carlo and On-line Learning for Vessel to segment certain types of vessel. Statistical methods represent the solution using a probability density and appearance of the vessel as the segmentation goes. These variations are used in turn in the particle filters

  6. Low-cost electronic microwave calibration for rapid on-line moisture sensing of seedcotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to improve rapid on-line moisture sensing of seedcotton in cotton gins, a means by which to establish a reliable wide-band electronic calibration is critically needed. This calibration is needed to center the circuit due to changes in the internal signal delays and attenuations caused by te...

  7. On-Line Fault Detection and Compensation of Hydraulic Driven Machines Using Modelling Techniques

    E-print Network

    Thawonmas, Ruck

    On-Line Fault Detection and Compensation of Hydraulic Driven Machines Using Modelling Techniques C model-based fault detection systems in machinery improves the operational reliability of industrial purpose of hydraulic driven machines as well as for the compensation of incipient faults where applicable

  8. An on-line, intelligent plant economic advisor for total plant optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Bragham, M.; Hunt, M.; Caplan, J.

    1995-06-01

    A key aspect of the total plant optimization problem is the impact that plant operations personnel can have on overall plant efficiency. Usually, plant systems are operated on a system by system basis and operators are tasted primarily with keeping the plant on-line. Though many units have installed on-line performance monitoring systems to help improve thermal efficiency, operators are often relatively ill-informed of the impact their actions can have on plant economic performance. Additionally, the inter-relationships between plant sub-systems are rarely incorporated into operational strategies. In order to truly optimize total plant operation, the impact of, and the inter-relationships between thermal efficiency, plant emissions, and plant materials handling (e.g., waste disposal/sales) must all be simultaneously evaluated. This paper presents the development effort to date for the Plant Economic Optimization Advisor (PEOA). PEOA is an electronic performance support system (EPSS), currently under development by New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) and DHR Technologies, Inc. (DHR). PEOA provides users with on-line control strategies for least cost plant operation. PEOA uses innovative approaches for plant optimization, as well as an intelligent Operations Advisor to help operators achieve optimal plant operation. PEOA also includes on-line data monitoring and analysis tools. The system uses a client/server, object-oriented open architecture that integrates plant information systems and provides support for integration of legacy third party systems such as performance monitors.

  9. On-line estimation of suspended solids in biological reactors of WWTPs using a Kalman observer.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, S; Irizar, I; Monclús, H; Rodríguez-Roda, I; Ayesa, E

    2009-01-01

    The total amount of solids in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and their distribution among the different elements and lines play a crucial role in the stability, performance and operational costs of the process. However, an accurate prediction of the evolution of solids concentration in the different elements of a WWTP is not a straightforward task. This paper presents the design, development and validation of a generic Kalman observer for the on-line estimation of solids concentration in the tank reactors of WWTPs. The proposed observer is based on the fact that the information about the evolution of the total amount of solids in the plant can be supplied by the available on-line Suspended Solids (SS) analysers, while their distribution can be simultaneously estimated from the hydraulic pattern of the plant. The proposed observer has been applied to the on-line estimation of SS in the reactors of a pilot-scale Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR). The results obtained have shown that the experimental information supplied by a sole on-line SS analyser located in the first reactor of the pilot plant, in combination with updated information about internal flow rates data, has been able to give a reasonable estimation of the evolution of the SS concentration in all the tanks. PMID:19657151

  10. A commercial tunable diode laser (TDL) system for on-line remote measurements of automobile emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Ropertz, Alexander; Schwabe, Thomas; Fischer, Christian; van Haren, Gunther

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tunable diode laser (TDL) measurement system has been used for the on-line estimation of emissions of cars, driving through the measurement beam of the system. This paper describes the measurement principle and gives first measurement results, taken for different types of cars.

  11. Bibliography (the html links are live in the on-line pdf version)

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    Bibliography (the html links are live in the on-line pdf version) Ahl, Valerie, and T. F. H. Allen. Barabási, Albert-László. 2002. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cam- bridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. http://www.nd.edu/~networks/linked. Barabási, Albert-László, and Reka Albert. 1999. Science 286

  12. On-line optimization and choice of optimization variables for control of heat exchanger networks

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On-line optimization and choice of optimization variables for control of heat exchanger networks B operation of a general heat exchanger network with given structure, heat exchanger areas and stream data to any heat exchanger network. Using this model periodically for optimization, the operating conditions

  13. Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry in a Pilot Plant: On-line Monitoring of Fermentation Broths

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. C.; Srinivasan, N.; Cooks, R. G.; Schell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system has been tested under pilot plant conditions. The work employed a Finnigan ITS-40 ion trap instrument, coupled to MIMS experiments by the addition of an external membrane/jet separator interface and packaged to operate in an industrial production environment. A representative sample from a 9000 L fermentation reactor was taken continuously and monitored on line, using a stainless steel tangential filter as the only sample pretreatment. This filter was capable of withstanding the temperature and pressure of 30 psig steam sterilizationn as well as the 10-30 psig operating pressure from a sample stream containing in excess of 10% solids. The filtrate was sampled using a flow injection analysis system which allowed quantification using external standards. Calibration experiments established that the system displayed a lineral response to ethanol at concentrations between 1 and 10% by volume. During subsequent on-line experiments, ethanol standard and sample streams were examined alternately. The response of the standard solutions was used to quantitate the response of the sample stream and reduce errors associated with long term instrumental drift. Ethanol concentrations were found to be 2.97 = 0.07% and were quantitatively in agreement with off-line high-performance liquid chromatographic data. Minor components identified during on-line reactor monitoring included acctic and lactic acid. After one week of off-line operation in the pilot plant, on-line monitoring was continued for a period of four days.

  14. Biometric Hashing Based on Genetic Selection and Its Application to On-Line Signatures

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Biometric Hashing Based on Genetic Selection and Its Application to On-Line Signatures Manuel R. Freire, Julian Fierrez, Javier Galbally, and Javier Ortega-Garcia Biometric Recognition Group - ATVS a general biometric hash generation scheme based on vector quantization of multiple feature subsets selected

  15. On-line accented pronoun interpretation in discourse context Jennifer J. Venditti

    E-print Network

    Stone, Matthew

    On-line accented pronoun interpretation in discourse context Jennifer J. Venditti Columbia U. John Trueswell U. Penn Matthew Stone Rutgers Katherine Nautiyal U. Penn Abstract Pronouns uttered with a pitch- cholinguistic Research, 23, 197-229. 5. Venditti, J.J., Stone, M., Nanda, P. & Tepper, P. (2002a). Toward

  16. An incremental EM-based learning approach for on-line prediction of hospital

    E-print Network

    McLachlan, Geoff

    An incremental EM-based learning approach for on-line prediction of hospital resource utilization, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia c School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845-line prediction Summary Objective: Inpatient length of stay (LOS) is an important measure of hospital activity

  17. Ontology enrichment through automatic semantic annotation of on-line glossaries.

    E-print Network

    Velardi, Paola

    Ontology enrichment through automatic semantic annotation of on-line glossaries. Roberto Navigli1 enrichment and for document annotation with the concepts and properties of a domain core ontology. Natural in applications, it is necessary to enrich the core structure with the thousands of concepts and instances

  18. An Adaptive On-Line Evolutionary Visual System Eberhard-Karls-Universitat Tubingen

    E-print Network

    Ebner, Marc

    An Adaptive On-Line Evolutionary Visual System Marc Ebner Eberhard-Karls-Universit¨at T adaptive to their environment using evolutionary algorithms. In current work on evolutionary computer.ebner@wsii.uni-tuebingen.de Abstract In evolutionary computer vision, algorithms are usually evolved which address one particular

  19. DEPLOYMENT OF A WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEM USING ON-LINE TOXICITY MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants are of concern when they are found in concentrations that are toxic to plants and/or animals. On–line Toxicity Monitors (OTMs) integrate all factors resulting in stress including physical and chemical qualities. This is important because of the limitations of c...

  20. On-line Collision Avoidance for Multiple Robots Using Eric Paulos

    E-print Network

    Paulos, Eric

    Grand #IRI-9114446. #12;state includes local motions that require full control of the robot, not simplyOn-line Collision Avoidance for Multiple Robots Using B-Splines Eric Paulos Report No. UCB//CSD-98-977 January 1998 Computer Science Division (EECS) University of California Berkeley, California 94720 #12;On

  1. Multiresolution On-Line Path Planning for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    Multiresolution On-Line Path Planning for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Dongwon Jung and Panagiotis Tsiotras Abstract-- In this article we propose a new online multires- olution path planning-time path planning is particulary challenging for small UAVs, which may not have the on-board computational

  2. A Hierarchical On-Line Path Planning Scheme using Wavelets Panagiotis Tsiotras and Efstathios Bakolas

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    A Hierarchical On-Line Path Planning Scheme using Wavelets Panagiotis Tsiotras and Efstathios Bakolas Abstract-- We present an algorithm for solving the shortest (collision-free) path planning problem representation of W or a discrete one. In this work we propose an algorithm which solves the path planning

  3. Designing On-Line Chinese Language Courses: New Roles for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Tongtao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, it will review the theories and practice of on-line learning and the need for new roles in the development of new media delivery systems. Secondly, the current status of university teachers will be analyzed within the context of the new roles. And thirdly, new roles for teachers and course designers…

  4. 76 FR 7102 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Registration and Account Maintenance'' (75 FR 71376) to amend the EAR to replace the paper and facsimile... System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce... account under the paper registration system caused delays and interruptions in new employee training;...

  5. Pen pressure features for writer-independent on-line handwriting recognition based on substroke HMM 

    E-print Network

    Nakai, Mitsuru; Sudo, Takashi; Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Sagayama, Shigeki

    This paper discusses the use of pen pressure as a feature in writer-independent on-line handwriting recognition. We propose two kinds of features related to pen pressure: one is the pressure representing pen ups and downs in a continuous manner...

  6. In Search of the Best On-Line Degree Programs in Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Waltemyer, Holly

    The advent of the Internet, the World Wide Web, and global infrastructures for e-learning are revolutionizing how colleges and universities deliver degree programs to adult students. Benefits of on-line degree programs to working adults include flexibility, convenience, and time and cost savings. New technologies that greatly affect how online…

  7. The "ICP OnLine": "Jeux sans frontieres" on the CyberCampus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on an ICP (Inter-University Cooperation Programme) OnLine in the area of Informatics/Artificial Intelligence. Notes that ICP is accessed through the World Wide Web and was launched in the Summer of 1994 to provide "virtual mobility." Discusses the program's objectives, student experiences, and the risks and opportunities afforded by…

  8. On-line adaptation of neuro-prostheses with neuronal evaluation signals

    E-print Network

    Kreiter, Andreas K.

    On-line adaptation of neuro-prostheses with neuronal evaluation signals K.R. Pawelzik and U source from brain regions reflecting the user's affective evaluation of the neuro-prosthetic's performance. Using realistic assumptions about recordable signals and their noise levels, our simulations show

  9. Trust and Profit Sensitive Ranking for the Deep Web and On-line Advertisements

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    Trust and Profit Sensitive Ranking for the Deep Web and On-line Advertisements by Raju Balakrishnan of ranking the deep web data considering trustworthiness and relevance. I address the end-to-end deep web ranking by focusing on: (i) ranking and selection of the deep web databases (ii) topic sensitive ranking

  10. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  11. On-Line Posture Generation of Redundant Manipulator for Collision Avoidance In Dynamic Environments

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    1 On-Line Posture Generation of Redundant Manipulator for Collision Avoidance In Dynamic. The redundant manipulator has the advantage to generate the same configuration of the end-effector with infinite planning postures of the redundant manipulator. For obstacle avoidance, a technique is proposed to on

  12. Don't Waste Your Time Teaching in an On-Line Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Bernie L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I address one question asked by teachers who teach online--"How can I build community among my learners in my class?" This paper provides an answer; in fact, it provides ten possible answers, in the form of ten models for teachers to use to build community in on-line courses. Each model has been tried and tested over ten…

  13. HOW TO APPLY FOR JOBS ON-LINE AT THE GEORIGA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

    E-print Network

    HOW TO APPLY FOR JOBS ON-LINE AT THE GEORIGA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Non-employees) SEARCH & APPLY Create a profile if you would like to receive automatic communications of newly posted jobs that match the Privacy Agreement 3. Login using the same user name and password you created when applying for a job

  14. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  15. Request New Chemical Waste Routine FILL IN ON-LINE THEN PRINT AND

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    Waste Codes: Toxic Oxidizer Schedule (Circle one) Weekly Bi-Weekly Monthly Bi-Monthly On-Call ZoneRequest New Chemical Waste Routine FILL IN ON-LINE THEN PRINT AND FAX TO: 206-685-2915 OTHERWISE Contact Box Number WASTE COMPOSITION List all components of waste. For solutions and mixtures, include

  16. On-line, Reflexive Constraint Satisfaction for Hybrid Systems: First Steps

    E-print Network

    Branicky, Michael S.

    On-line, Reflexive Constraint Satisfaction for Hybrid Systems: First Steps (Invited Presentation of functionality, (1) piece-wise viable servo controllers and (2) a "reflex con- troller," are required is called reflex con- trol. Reflex control (or reflexes) obtains its name from the analogy to animal

  17. The S-Star Trial Bioinformatics Course: An On-line Learning Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Yun Ping; Hoog, Jan-Olov; Gardner, Phyllis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Andersson, Siv; Subbiah, Subramanian; Tan, Tin Wee; Hide, Winston; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2003-01-01

    The S-Star Trial Bioinformatics on-line course (www.s-star.org) is a global experiment in bioinformatics distance education. Six universities from five continents have participated in this project. One hundred and fifty students participated in the first trial course of which 96 followed through the entire course and 70 fulfilled the overall…

  18. TH-C-BRE-01: IGART: Fast On-Line Planning for IGART

    SciTech Connect

    Oelfke, U; Raaymakers, B; Jia, X; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-15

    Cone beam CT IGRT provides on-line anatomical data of the patient at the treatment couch while new hybrid MRI radiotherapy systems promise to provide this data during the actual radiation delivery itself. To exploit these data, and account for tissue rotations, deformations and tumor regression during radiation therapy delivery, fast, on-line IMRT (re)planning is required.On-line IMRT re-planning needs to re-generate a similar patient specific dose distribution as done in the pre-treatment planning but then for the new state of the anatomy. For this the pre-treatment information has to be propagated to the actual treatment. A fast dose engine is required, which may be, in the case of MRI based IGRT, Monte Carlo based in order to account for the magnetic field induced dose effects. Then robust re-planning methods or class solutions should be available that account efficiently for both rigid and non-rigid anatomical changes while preserving the patient specific pre-treatment dose considerations. Preferably this is all fully automatic, but also fast interactive re-planning is an option, especially in hypo-fractionated (boost) radiotherapy. Learning Objectives: Preservation of pre-treatment prescriptions in the on-line IMRT re-planning Fast re-planning techniques and speed limitations for dose engines Pros and cons of interactive versus automatic re-planning.

  19. On-line Bagging Negative Correlation Learning Fernanda L. Minku and Xin Yao

    E-print Network

    Yao, Xin

    Correlation Learning (NCL) has been showing to outperform other ensemble learning approaches in off-line mode. A key point to the success of NCL is that the learning of an ensemble member is influenced by the learning of the others, directly encouraging diversity. However, when applied to on-line learning, NCL

  20. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  1. An on-line tutor for warehouse design T. Govindaraj, Edgar E. Blanco, Douglas A. Bodner,

    E-print Network

    An on-line tutor for warehouse design T. Govindaraj, Edgar E. Blanco, Douglas A. Bodner, Marc for warehouse design are taught in traditional industrial engineering programs, stu- dents often find of experience in us- ing such tools for designing warehouses of reasonable lev- els of fidelity compared to real

  2. HumanMachine Interaction Issues in Quality Control Based on On-Line Image Classification

    E-print Network

    Smith, James E.

    5 Human­Machine Interaction Issues in Quality Control Based on On-Line Image Classification J. E--This paper considers on a number of issues that arise when a trainable machine vision system learns directly from humans. We contrast this to the "normal" situation where Machine Learning techniques are applied

  3. Patch Scheduling for On-line Games Chris Chambers Wu-chang Feng

    E-print Network

    Patch Scheduling for On-line Games Chris Chambers Wu-chang Feng Portland State University {chambers, and new content. In this paper, we develop a model for the bandwidth impact of patch delivery based on the time of day of the patch release. We evaluate our model against the Steam content delivery network

  4. In Search of On-Line Locality Effects in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartek, Brian; Lewis, Richard L.; Vasishth, Shravan; Smith, Mason R.

    2011-01-01

    Many comprehension theories assert that increasing the distance between elements participating in a linguistic relation (e.g., a verb and a noun phrase argument) increases the difficulty of establishing that relation during on-line comprehension. Such "locality effects" are expected to increase reading times and are thought to reveal properties…

  5. Towards the Development of an On-Line Model Error Identification System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complexity of potential error sources in land surface models, the accurate specification of model error parameters has emerged as a major challenge in the development of effective land data assimilation systems. While several on-line procedures for estimating model error parameters - base...

  6. Methodological Considerations in On-Line Contingent Research and Implications for Learning. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Marna C.

    Methods for the implementation of on-line contingent research are described in this study. In a contingent experimentation procedure, the content of successive experimental trials is a function of a subject's responses to a previous trial or trials (in contrast to traditional experimentation in which the subject is presented a previously…

  7. Retrospective Cost Model Refinement for On-line Estimation of Constant and Time-Varying Flight

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Dennis S.

    Retrospective Cost Model Refinement for On-line Estimation of Constant and Time-Varying Flight cost approach to model refinement (RCMR) [12­15]. RCMR can be used to estimate the dynamics¶ University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 In this paper we apply retrospective cost model

  8. PORT: A Testbed Paradigm for On-line Digital Archive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Mary; Kloesel, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the Peirce On-line Resource Testbed (PORT), a digital archive of primary data. Highlights include knowledge processing testbeds for digital resource development; Peirce's pragmatism in operation; PORT and knowledge processing; obstacles to archive access; and PORT as a paradigm for critical control in knowledge processing. (AEF)

  9. On-line signature verification method by Laplacian spectral analysis and dynamic time warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changting; Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2013-12-01

    As smartphones and touch screens are more and more popular, on-line signature verification technology can be used as one of personal identification means for mobile computing. In this paper, a novel Laplacian Spectral Analysis (LSA) based on-line signature verification method is presented and an integration framework of LSA and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based methods for practical application is proposed. In LSA based method, a Laplacian matrix is constructed by regarding the on-line signature as a graph. The signature's writing speed information is utilized in the Laplacian matrix of the graph. The eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplacian matrix is analyzed and used for signature verification. The framework to integrate LSA and DTW methods is further proposed. DTW is integrated at two stages. First, it is used to provide stroke matching results for the LSA method to construct the corresponding graph better. Second, the on-line signature verification results by DTW are fused with that of the LSA method. Experimental results on public signature database and practical signature data on mobile phones proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Automatic Detection of Gender and Handedness from On-Line Handwriting

    E-print Network

    Liwicki, Marcus

    Automatic Detection of Gender and Handedness from On-Line Handwriting Marcus LIWICKI a Andreas address the problem of classifying handwritten data with respect to gender and handedness according to gender (Wiskott et al., 1995; Wu, Ai and Huang, 2003). Classification results up to 94% have

  11. November 23, 2011 Penn State Offers on-line Nanotechnology Certificate Program

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dongwon

    November 23, 2011 Penn State Offers on-line Nanotechnology Certificate Program Courses start-line Nanotechnology Certificate. This Certificate is composed of six 3-credit courses. The first two courses (E SC 211 wish to improve their nanotechnology background knowledge and skills. The complete listing

  12. On-line reoptimization of filter designs for multivariate optical elements

    E-print Network

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    On-line reoptimization of filter designs for multivariate optical elements Frederick G. Haibach method for producing multivariate optical element MOE interference filters that are robust to errors species from their optical spectra.3­15 A multivariate opti- cal element MOE constructed

  13. Students' Reaction to WebCT: Implications for Designing On-Line Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Mohamed Eltahir

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing number of web-based and web-assisted course development tools and products that can be used to create on-line learning environment. The utility of these products, however, varies greatly depending on their feasibility, prerequisite infrastructure, technical features, interface, and course development and management tools. WebCT…

  14. An Evaluation of On-Line, Interactive Tutorials Designed to Teach Practice Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Brett A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of two on-line-based programs designed to teach practice skills. One program teaches crisis intervention and the other teaches suicide assessment. The evaluation of the use of these programs compares outcomes for two groups of students, one using the interactive program outside a class context and the other using…

  15. On-line Information Services in the University of Hong Kong Libraries: Three Years' Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tso, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Reports results of user survey complemented by personal discussions organized to ascertain users' satisfaction with and impact of On-line Information Service (OLIS) introduced by University of Hong Kong Libraries in January 1980. Subject searches, relevance of citations, and costs are discussed. The questionnaire and OLIS requests form are…

  16. Plan for a Statewide On-Line Information System for Libraries (MnLINK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    The 1996 Legislature directed the Minnesota Higher Education Services Office (HESO), in cooperation with the Library Planning Task Force to, "create a plan and process to develop a statewide on-line information system for libraries"; this memo with attached information was submitted in fulfillment of that request. The name chosen for the new…

  17. Learning Metadata from the Evidence in an On-Line Citation Matching Scheme

    E-print Network

    Lee, Wang-Chien

    Learning Metadata from the Evidence in an On-Line Citation Matching Scheme Isaac G. Councill1,debnath,wlee,anand}@cse.psu.edu, {zzhuang,giles}@ist.psu.edu, bolelli@psu.edu ABSTRACT Citation matching, or the automatic grouping solutions have been offered for citation matching in large bibliographic databases, these solutions

  18. Managing the Transition into Higher Education: An On-Line Spiral Induction Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Christopher; Robinson, Alan; Johnston, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    In helping students manage the transition into higher education, there must be (i) an understanding of the needs and expectations of the students, and (ii) a process that inducts the students into the needs and expectations of higher education. This premise underpins the on-line Spiral Induction Programme (onSIP) developed at Southampton…

  19. THE ONSITE ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING FOR SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants in the subsurface. The purpose of these calculators is to provide methods and data for common calculations used in assessing impacts from subsurface contaminatio...

  20. Multifunctional ultrasonic sensor for on-line tool condition monitoring in turning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Abu-Zahra, N.H.

    1998-03-01

    Machining operations in automated manufacturing centers are, in general, under-performing by 20--80 percent. Optimizing these machining operations requires on-line knowledge of the cutting tool`s condition and the process state. Currently, this information is either not reliable or not available in a timely manner. This in part is due to the lack of suitable sensors which are able to measure on-line directly and accurately one or more of the relevant tool and process variables. A direct, active, ultrasonic method for on-line sensing of the tool condition and the process state in turning operations was developed in this work. Sensing is achieved by using an ultrasonic transducer operating at 10 MHz in a pulse-echo mode to send pulses through the cutting tool. The amplitude and propagation time of the reflected pulses are modulated by the tool nose, flank, temperature, and by the material in contact with the tools. This method has the potential to measure on-line several relevant process and cutting tool parameters directly and accurately through the use of a single sensor. These parameters are tool-workpiece contact, tool gradual wear, tool chipping and tool chatter.

  1. Marketing the Library in an On-Line University to Help Achieve Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    An entrepreneurial librarian takes the embedded librarian concept one step further at a completely on-line university and markets the virtual library to students, faculty and administration rather than wait for customers to come to the library. York and Vance (2009) make the observation that "one obstacle to marketing an embedded librarian…

  2. Request New Chemical Waste Routine FILL IN ON-LINE THEN PRINT AND

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    Request New Chemical Waste Routine FILL IN ON-LINE THEN PRINT AND FAX TO: 206-685-2915 OTHERWISE Contact Box Number WASTE COMPOSITION List all components of waste. For solutions and mixtures, include Container Type: Safety Can Other Reusable Glass Bottle Plastic Bottle Other (specify) ________________ Size

  3. On-Line vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Hazem; Kirgis, Lauren; Verkamp, Brian; Johnson, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates students' assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students' ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and…

  4. The Impact of Recurrent On-Line Synchronous Scientific Argumentation on Students' Argumentation and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chien-Hsien; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the impact of Recurrent On-Line Synchronous Scientific Argumentation learning on 8th grade students' scientific argumentation ability and conceptual change involving physical science. The control group (N = 76) were recruited to receive conventional instruction whereas the experimental group (N = 74) received the Recurrent…

  5. NSF : Network-based Spam Filtering based on On-line Blacklisting against Spamming Botnets

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    NSF : Network-based Spam Filtering based on On-line Blacklisting against Spamming Botnets are altered to evade detection and in tracking spammers that are comprised of botnets. There have been a few, which transmit more than 80% of today's spams [2]. Since botnets are composed of otherwise benign hosts

  6. An Evaluation of On-Line Assignment Submission, Marking, and Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Technology has made a significant impact on assessment, including its use to automate assignment submission. On-line assignment submission, marking, and return were introduced into a fourth-year engineering management unit for the first time, and a formal evaluation was undertaken to assess student perceptions of this new development. Nearly all…

  7. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics ON-LINE TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION FOR

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric N.

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics ON-LINE TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION FOR AUTONOMOUS that will ultimately be needed to follow the optimized trajectories. In addition, preliminary analysis of incorporating for autonomy of operations in such environments dictates the need for an on-board trajectory optimization

  8. A Low-Maintenance Approach to Improving Retention: Short On-Line Tutorials in Elementary Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Carol Springer; Borthick, A. Faye; Lederberg, Amy R.; Haardorfer, Regine

    2013-01-01

    The struggle to get weak students to use learning support services plagues virtually all retention programs (Friedlander, 1980; Hodges, 2001; Karabenick & Knapp, 1988; Moore & LeDee, 2006; Simpson, Hynd, Nist, & Burrell, 1997; Webster & Dee, 1998). This study presents a cost-effective form of supplemental instruction (SI), in the form of on-line

  9. ON-LINE ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MERCURY ANALYSIS IN OIL SHALE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication describes the development and initial testing of instrumentation for continuous on-line analytical measurement of mercury concentrations in complex gas streams or in ambient air, in the presence of smoke, organic vapors, and oil mist from oil shale processing pla...

  10. Knowledge Management in Pediatric Pain: Mapping On-Line Expert Discussions to Medical Literature

    E-print Network

    Milios, Evangelos E.

    Knowledge Management in Pediatric Pain: Mapping On-Line Expert Discussions to Medical Literature for timely access to various modalities of clinical knowledge. Keywords Knowledge Management, Pediatric Pain pain. Yet, the real- ity is that the vast majority of children's pain is managed by family physicians

  11. Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp 

    E-print Network

    Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor...

  12. Characterization of underground cable incipient failures from on-line monitoring of underground distribution power systems 

    E-print Network

    Cardoso, Jesus

    1999-01-01

    With the imminent re-regulation of the power industry and investor owned utilities becoming more cost conscious, the need for an on-line, non-destructive, incipient cable fault detection system is prevalent. With such an incipient fault detection...

  13. Three Chinese Students’ Experiences of Taking On-line Courses in One American University 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xinyuan

    2012-10-19

    With wide adoption of on-line instruction as a new instruction format in higher education in the U.S. and the fast growing population of international students coming to pursue degrees in America, the exploration of international students’ perceived...

  14. Effects of Nonrandomness on Line Transect Estimates of Dolphin School Abundance

    E-print Network

    Effects of Nonrandomness on Line Transect Estimates of Dolphin School Abundance Elizabeth F to derive estimates of dolphin school abundance from sightings data col- lected by observers on tuna purse vessel) and sighted objects (dolphin schools) are random with respect to each other. In practice, neither

  15. Aalborg Universitet Time-Varying FOPDT Modeling and On-line Parameter Identification

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zhenyu

    ; Sun, Zhen Published in: 3th IFAC Symposium on Large Scale Complex Systems: Theory and Applications for published version (APA): Yang, Z., & Sun, Z. (2013). Time-Varying FOPDT Modeling and On-line Parameter Zhen Sun Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Esbjerg Campus, Niels Bohrs Vej 8, DK

  16. On-Line Quizzing and Its Effect on Student Engagement and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urtel, Mark G.; Bahamonde, Rafael E.; Mikesky, Alan E.; Udry, Eileen M.; Vessely, Jeff S.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if on-line out-of-class quizzing would lead to increases in (a) classroom engagement (b) academic performance and (c) preparation perception of college students. Twenty-four sophomore level students enrolled in a required functional anatomy course participated in this study. Results from this study indicate…

  17. Overview of RSA Public Key Cryptography Cryptography [This material is available on-line at

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Vidyadhar G.

    Overview of RSA Public Key Cryptography Cryptography [This material is available on-line at http using her public key. Public-key cryptography generates a public key and a private key by using) would be 1024 bits. Details of RSA cryptography and other cryptography techniques can be found

  18. On-line Structure and Motion Estimation based on an Novel Parameterized Extended Kalman Filter

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet

    On-line Structure and Motion Estimation based on an Novel Parameterized Extended Kalman Filter sequences. The proposed method is based on an extended Kalman filter and a novel parameterization. We assume. Then we apply an extended Kalman filter for estimation of both structure and motion. The performance

  19. An On-Line Handwritten Note Recognition Method Using Shape Metamorphosis

    E-print Network

    An On-Line Handwritten Note Recognition Method Using Shape Metamorphosis Ioannis Pavlidis Rahul- liminary version of this work was reported in [9]. We propose the use of shape metamorphosis as a poten on the fact that two similar shapes do not undergo extensive metamorphosis if one of them is morphed

  20. INCREMENTAL ON-LINE FEATURE SPACE MLLR ADAPTATION FOR TELEPHONY SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Erdogan, Hakan

    INCREMENTAL ON-LINE FEATURE SPACE MLLR ADAPTATION FOR TELEPHONY SPEECH RECOGNITION Yongxin Li Regression (FMLLR) for telephony speech recognition applica- tions. We explain how to incorporate a feature statistics are mapped and smoothed. 1. INTRODUCTION With speech recognition systems focusing more

  1. The On-Line Yes/No Test as a Placement Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Carey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the concurrent validity of an on-line Yes/No test of recognition vocabulary as a placement tool at an Australian English language school. Newly entering students (n = 88) completed a Yes/No test, which measured accuracy and speed of response, and a school placement battery consisting of grammar, writing, speaking and listening…

  2. Machine-Learning for Big Data: Sampling and Distributed On-Line Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Combettes, Patrick Louis

    Machine-Learning for Big Data: Sampling and Distributed On-Line Algorithms Stéphan Clémençon LTCI variance control: rate faster than n 1/2 3 Convex risk minimization 4 Oracle inequalities #12;Big Data? Big phones, internet, embedded systems, social networks, . . .) · to store and manage Big (and Complex) Data

  3. Designing Health Care Risk Management On-Line: Meeting Regulators' Concerns for Fixed-Hour Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyer, Kathryn; Taylor, Heidi H.; Nanni, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of creating a continuing professional education on-line risk management program that is designed to meet Florida's educational requirements for licensure as a risk manager in health-care settings and details the challenges faced when the in-class didactic program of 15 eight-hour sessions is reformatted as an…

  4. Repeatability and reproducibility of characteristic features measured by laser Doppler vibrometry for on-line diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinelli, G.; Paone, N.

    2008-06-01

    It is analyzed the statistical dispersion of characteristic features measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) in on-line diagnostic applications, with reference to on-line detection of mechanical defects of washing machines. The paper presents two complementary approaches: a) experimental evaluation of repeatability of measured features according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement-GUM; b) Montecarlo simulation of uncertainty propagation across the on-line test station. Experiments consist in a test bench which simulates the vibration of a washing machine, by playing back on a shaker a real signal acquired on-line and taking repeated measurements, so that a statistical analysis is performed about dispersion of diagnostic features. The analysis is repeated by varying the scattering characteristics of the vibrating surface, so to evaluate the effect of signal quality. The Montecarlo approach consists in modeling the propagation of uncertainty across the various elements of the measurement chain, up to the computation of features. The influence of LDV, Data Acquisition device (DAQ) and processing software have been taken into account. Results allow to estimate Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) of a typical set of characteristic features used in industrial diagnostics and to discuss uncertainty of similar diagnostic procedures.

  5. A Phenomenological Study of Gifted Adolescents and Their Engagement with One On-Line Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicord, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Little research exists on the nature of the interactions between gifted students and the use of technology. Furthermore, no research has investigated the phenomenon of gifted adolescents using one internet-based program, the Renzulli Learning System (RLS). Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile with a matching database that provides…

  6. Problem-based learning in an on-line biotechnology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheaney, James Daniel

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical tool that uses a "real world" problem or situation as a context for learning. PBL encourages student development of critical thinking skills, a high professional competency, problem-solving ability, knowledge acquisition, the ability to work productively as a team member and make decisions in unfamiliar situations, and the acquisition of skills that support self-directed life-long learning, metacognition, and adaptation to change. However, little research has focused on the use of PBL in on-line "virtual" classes. We conducted two studies exploring the use of PBL in an on-line biotechnology course. In the first study, ethical, legal, social, and human issues were used as a motivation for learning about DNA testing technologies, applications, and bioethical issues. In the second study, we combined PBL pedagogy with a rich multimedia environment of streaming video interviews, physical artifacts, and extensive links to articles and databases to create a multidimensional immersive PBL environment called "Robert's World". In "Robert's World", a man is determining whether to undergo a pre-symptomatic DNA test for an untreatable, incurable, fatal genetic disease for which he has a family history. In both studies, design and implementation issues of the on-line PBL environment are discussed, as are differences between on-line PBL and face-to-face PBL. Both studies provide evidence to suggest that PBL stimulates higher-order learning in students. However, in both studies, student performance on an exam testing acquisition of lower-order factual learning was lower for PBL students than for students who learned the same material through a traditional lecture-based approach. Possible reasons for this lower level of performance are explored. Student feedback expressed engagement with the issues and material covered, with reservations about some aspects of the PBL format, such as the lack of flexibility provided in cooperative learning. We conclude that on-line PBL is a powerful tool in helping to develop higher-order learning in students. The reasons for the decrease in student understanding of factual information are unclear. However, there are certain circumstances unique to on-line classes to keep in mind when implementing on-line PBL. These are summarized in concluding recommendations.

  7. Mechanisms of oxygen ion diffusion in a nanoporous complex oxide 12CaO•7 Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Hayashi, Katsuro; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We performed a theoretical analysis of O2- diffusion mechanisms in a nanoporous complex oxide 12CaO•7Al2O3 (C12A7). This material can be viewed as a positively charged framework, arranged in subnanometer sized cages, hosting extra-framework O2- ions occupying one in six cages. Using both classical molecular-dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations we demonstrate that the diffusion of O2- species is dominated by the exchange of framework and extra-framework O2- ions rather than by an interstitial diffusion mechanism. The results allow us to rationalize the origins of the experimentally observed high oxide ion conductivity of C12A7 and the stability of its lattice under positive ion-beam irradiation.

  8. Hydrogen-rich gas production via CaO sorption-enhanced steam gasification of rice husk: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Sayyed Mohsen; Ghassemi, Hojat; Shahsavan-Markadeh, Rasoul; Fremaux, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical process in which solid or liquid fuels are transformed into synthesis gas through partial oxidation. In this paper, a kinetic model of rice husk gasification has been developed, which is interesting for the applications of the syngas produced. It is a zero-dimensional, steady-state model based on global reaction kinetic, empirical correlation of pyrolysis and is capable of predicting hydrogen yield in the presence of sorbent CaO. The model can also be used as a useful tool to investigate the influence of process parameters including steam/biomass ratio, CaO/fuel ratio (CaO/Fuel), and gasification temperature on hydrogen efficiency, CO2 capture ratio (CCR), and average carbonation conversion (Save). Similar to hydrogen formation, CCR also increases with increasing CaO/Fuel, but an opposite trend is exhibited in Save. Model predictions were compared with available data from the literature, which showed fairly good agreement. PMID:25403373

  9. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (???? D?ng Chóng Xià C?o) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (???? D?ng Chóng Xià C?o)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  10. Environmental controls on plant chemical traits: Using the CAO-VSWIR to characterize patterns in a mediterranean-type ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Here we present results from a new imaging spectrometer, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory's (CAO) Visible-Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor, and we use these data to map key plant functional traits in a semi-arid ecosystem, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Woodside, CA USA). We considered four fundamental plant traits: leaf nitrogen per mass (Nmass, %), leaf carbon per mass (Cmass, %), leaf water fraction (WL), and canopy water fraction (WC).With these maps we ask the following questions: (1) How do these traits vary with environmental gradients and land use history, independent of species composition? (2) Does information about plant community improve our ability to explain trait patterns? And (3) what does the variation within plant communities tell us about the underlying processes driving or limiting this ecosystem? We show that the new CAO-VSWIR combined with partial least squares regression can effectively map these four plant chemical traits across multiple plant functional types (observed v. predicted R2s ranging from 0.55 for WL to 0.84 for Cmass). To consider how these traits varied with environmental gradients we used simultaneous autoregressive modeling and found, in general, that environment and land-use history together explained about a quarter of the variation in each trait, but that information about plant community boundaries dramatically improved our predictive power. While 29 - 44% of the variation in these four traits remained unexplained, when we considered the trait distributions within each plant community we found that most plant communities were sharply peaked (leptokurtic) or near normal, while a few communities were more evenly distributed (platykurtic) for each trait. These results show that, even though environmental gradients play a small but significant role, most of the plant communities at Jasper Ridge are characterized by a narrow range of trait patterns. For the few communities that are highly divergent, possible causal factors include resource limitation, competition, and/or past disturbances.

  11. Direct determination of chlorophenols in water samples through ultrasound-assisted hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction on-line coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Tu, Yi-Ming; Jian, Zhi-Xuan; Wang, Hsaio-Wen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2013-01-01

    In this study we on-line coupled hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME), assisted by an ultrasonic probe, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this approach, the target analytes - 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 3-chlorophenol (3-CP), 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), and 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP) - were extracted into a hollow fiber (HF) supported liquid membrane (SLM) and then back-extracted into the acceptor solution in the lumen of the HF. Next, the acceptor solution was withdrawn on-line into the HPLC sample loop connected to the HF and then injected directly into the HPLC system for analysis. We found that the chlorophenols (CPs) could diffuse quickly through two sequential extraction interfaces - the donor phase - SLM and the SLM - acceptor phase - under the assistance of an ultrasonic probe. Ultrasonication provided effective mixing of the extracted boundary layers with the bulk of the sample and it increased the driving forces for mass transfer, thereby enhancing the extraction kinetics and leading to rapid enrichment of the target analytes. We studied the effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency, viz. the nature of the SLM and acceptor phase, the compositions of the donor and acceptor phases, the fiber length, the stirring rate, the ion strength, the sample temperature, the sonication conditions, and the perfusion flow rate. This on-line extraction method exhibited linearity (r(2)?0.998), sensitivity (limits of detection: 0.03-0.05 ?g L(-1)), and precision (RSD%?4.8), allowing the sensitive, simple, and rapid determination of CPs in aqueous solutions and water samples with a sampling time of just 2 min. PMID:23237709

  12. Target assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Richard A. (Falls Church, VA)

    1980-01-01

    A target for a proton beam which is capable of generating neutrons for absorption in a breeding blanket includes a plurality of solid pins formed of a neutron emissive target material disposed parallel to the path of the beam and which are arranged axially in a plurality of layers so that pins in each layer are offset with respect to pins in all other layers, enough layers being used so that each proton in the beam will strike at least one pin with means being provided to cool the pins. For a 300 mA, 1 GeV beam (300 MW), stainless steel pins, 12 inches long and 0.23 inches in diameter are arranged in triangular array in six layers with one sixth of the pins in each layer, the number of pins being such that the entire cross sectional area of the beam is covered by the pins with minimum overlap of pins.

  13. Deorbit targeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tempelman, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The navigation and control of the space shuttle during atmospheric entry are discussed. A functional flow diagram presenting the basic approach to the deorbit targeting problem is presented. The major inputs to be considered are: (1) vehicle state vector, (2) landing site location, (3) entry interface parameters, (4) earliest desired time of landing, and (5) maximum cross range. Mathematical models of the navigational procedures based on controlled thrust times are developed.

  14. Rivoflavin may interfere with on-line monitoring of secreted green fluorescence protein fusion proteins in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Surribas, Anna; Resina, David; Ferrer, Pau; Valero, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Background Together with the development of optical sensors, fluorometry is becoming an increasingly attractive tool for the monitoring of cultivation processes. In this context, the green fluorescence protein (GFP) has been proposed as a molecular reporter when fused to target proteins to study their subcellular localization or secretion behaviour. The present work evaluates the use of the GFP fusion partner for monitoring extracellular production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) in Pichia pastoris by means of 2D-fluorimetric techniques Results In this study, the GFP-ROL fusion protein was successfully produced as a secreted fusion form in P. pastoris batch cultivations. Furthermore, both the fusion enzyme and the fluorescent protein (GFP S65T mutant) retained their biological activity. However, when multiwavelength spectrofluorometry was used for extracellular fusion protein monitoring, riboflavin appeared as a major interfering component with GFP signal. Only when riboflavin was removed by ultrafiltration from cultivation supernatants, GFP fluorescence signal linearly correlated to lipase activity Conclusion P. pastoris appears to secrete/excrete significant amounts of riboflavin to the culture medium. When attempting to monitor extracellular protein production in P. pastoris using GFP fusions combined with multiwavelength spectrofluorimetric techniques, riboflavin may interfere with GFP fluorescence signal, thus limiting the application of some GFP variants for on-line extracellular recombinant protein quantification and monitoring purposes. PMID:17511861

  15. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  16. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  17. Evaluation of 3 Commercially Available, On-Line TOC Analyzers for Monitoring Recycled Water in Semiconductor Processing

    SciTech Connect

    DeGenova, J.; Donovan, R.P.; Morrison, D.

    1998-11-09

    Rapid detection of excursions in the concentration of organic contaminants in water that is being recycled is crucial to the more widespread acceptance of rinse water recycling as a method of reducing water usage in semiconductor manufacturing. In 1995 SEMATECH'SS116 PTAB (Project Technical Advisory Board) arbitrarily targeted a response time of 30s as the goal for the on-line detection of TOC (Total Oxidizable Carbon) in water - a goal thought to simpliilj the design of water recycling systems (less volume required for water storage in the recycle loop) and lead to more widespread adoption of recycling of spent rinse waters by the US semiconductor industry. A subsequent evaluation of the TOC analyzers commercially available in early 1996 demonstrated that the fastest response times were on the order of three minutes ljllef. 1]. This paper updates the 1996 evaluation of commercially available TOC analyzers by assessing modified versions of two of the previously evaluated analyzers and also anew analyzer that became commercially available in 1997.

  18. On-line ion chemistry for the AMS analysis of 90Sr and 135,137Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Litherland, A. E.; Kieser, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of 90Sr by AMS has so far required the use of very large tandem accelerators in order to separate the isobar 90Zr by the rate-of-energy-loss method. The analysis of 135,137Cs by AMS has never been attempted as the separation of the isobars 135,137Ba by the traditional method requires even higher energies, so that this approach would become prohibitively expensive for routine analysis. Following the successful demonstration of Cl--S- separation by the Isobar Separator, the same apparatus was used to test the separation of other pairs of isobars. Surprisingly effective results were obtained with NO2 gas in the cases of SrF3--ZrF3- and CsF2--BaF2- separations. Reduction factors of ?4 × 10-6 for ZrF3-/SrF3- and ?2 × 10-5 for BaF2-/CsF2- were measured. SrF3- and CsF2- are both super-halogen anions and are preferentially produced in the ion source rather than ZrF3- and BaF2- when using the PbF2 matrix-assisted method. Reduction factors for ion source production with such targets of ?3 × 10-5 for ZrF3--SrF3- and ?5 × 10-4 for BaF2--CsF2- were found. The combined methods would suggest a theoretical detection sensitivity for 90Sr/Sr ?6 × 10-16, 135Cs/Cs ?7 × 10-15 and 137Cs/Cs ?1 × 10-14, assuming 10 ppm Zr and Ba contamination in the AMS targets. In addition to the earlier Cl--S- separation work, these measurements further illustrate the potential of on-line ion chemical methods for broadening the analytical scope of small AMS systems.

  19. On-Line Method and Apparatus for Coordinated Mobility and Manipulation of Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient approach is disclosed for on-line coordinated control of mobile robots consisting of a manipulator arm mounted on a mobile base. The effect of base mobility on the end-effector manipulability index is discussed. The base mobility and arm manipulation degrees-of-freedom are treated equally as the joints of a kinematically redundant composite robot. The redundancy introduced by the mobile base is exploited to satisfy a set of user-defined additional tasks during the end-effector motion. A simple on-line control scheme is proposed which allows the user to assign weighting factors to individual degrees-of-mobility and degrees-of-manipulation, as well as to each task specification. The computational efficiency of the control algorithm makes it particularly suitable for real-time implementations. Four case studies are discussed in detail to demonstrate the application of the coordinated control scheme to various mobile robots.

  20. On-line microdialysis sample cleanup for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of nucleic acid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Wu, Q.; Harms, A.C.; Smith, R.D.

    1996-09-15

    A major limitation of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for oligonucleotide analysis arises due to sodium adduction, a problem that increases with molecular weight. Sodium adduction can preclude useful measurements when limited sample sizes prevent off-line cleanup. A novel and generally useful on-line microdialysis technique is described for the rapid (nearly 1-5 min) DNA sample cleanup for ESI-MS. Mass spectra of oligonucleotides of different size and sequence showing no significant sodium adduct peaks were obtained using the on-line microdialysis system with sodium chloride concentrations as high as 250 mM. Signal-to-noise ratios were also greatly enhanced compared to direct infusion of the original samples. By using ammonium acetate as the dialysis buffer, it was also found that the noncovalent association of double-stranded oligonucleotides could be preserved during the microdialysis process, allowing analysis by ESI-MS. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Laboratory verification of on-line lithium analysis using ultraviolet absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beemster, B.J.; Schlager, K.J.; Schloegel, K.M.; Kahle, S.J.; Fredrichs, T.L.

    1992-12-31

    Several laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the capability of absorption spectrometry in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range with the objective of developing methods for on-line analysis of lithium directly in the primary coolant of Pressurized Water Reactors using optical probes. Although initial laboratory tests seemed to indicate that lithium could be detected using primary absorption (detection of natural spectra unassisted by reagents), subsequent field tests demonstrated that no primary absorption spectra existed for lithium in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range. A second series of tests that were recently conducted did, however, confirm results reported in the literature to the effect that reagents were available that will react with lithium to form chelates that possess detectable absorption and fluorescent signatures. These results point to the possible use of secondary techniques for on-line analysis of lithium.

  2. An effective method for on-line corrections of two-axes laser mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, P.; Pivo, K.

    A numerical technique for correcting the automatic laser tracking of low-altitude satellites for the effects of atmospheric drag on the satellite motion is proposed. The approximation method is based on geocentric rather than topocentric parameters and is simple enough to be implemented on a desk-top computer for on-line correction of both along-track and cross-track deviations by entering the error in the initial time. The results of numerical simulations for B-1300 and GEOS A are presented in a table, and the suitability of the method for on-line computer control of the two-axis azimuthal mount used at Ondrejov Observatory is indicated.

  3. On-Line Modal State Monitoring of Slowly Time-Varying Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Erik A.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Voulgaris, Petros G.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the dynamic response of structures is often performed for a variety of reasons. These reasons include condition-based maintenance, health monitoring, performance improvements, and control. In many cases the data analysis that is performed is part of a repetitive decision-making process, and in these cases the development of effective on-line monitoring schemes help to speed the decision-making process and reduce the risk of erroneous decisions. This report investigates the use of spatial modal filters for tracking the dynamics of slowly time-varying linear structures. The report includes an overview of modal filter theory followed by an overview of several structural system identification methods. Included in this discussion and comparison are H-infinity, eigensystem realization, and several time-domain least squares approaches. Finally, a two-stage adaptive on-line monitoring scheme is developed and evaluated.

  4. On-Line "Chat Room" Tutorials—An Unusual Gender Bias in Computer Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-09-01

    Research into gender bias in attitudes, access, and effectiveness associated with computers has produced conflicting results, resulting in conflicting opinions as to whether a technological gender gap favoring male students exists. No previous study, however, has ever demonstrated a preference for female use of a particular computer application. This work describes gender differences in the use of on-line ("chat room") tutorials by non-traditional chemistry students enrolled in distance learning sections of a general chemistry course. Higher percentages of female students participated in the on-line tutorials and they participated with greater frequency than male students. Furthermore, the correlation between frequency of participation and course performance was higher among the female students. Various explanations for this unusual gender bias are offered, and the conclusion that the diversity of computer applications available today requires that research into gender bias refrain from viewing the computer as a single entity is supported.

  5. Development of on-line monitoring systems for high temperature components in power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  6. Teacher Characteristics Associated with Responsiveness and Exposure to Consultation and On-line Professional Development Resources

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural follow-up to intent-to-treat findings indicating that the MyTeachingPartner Consultancy, inclusive of on-line video resources and web-mediated consultation, improved the quality of pre-k teachers’ interactions with children. This study takes a close look at implementation fidelity within the effective MTP Consultancy condition over both years of implementation, in order to learn more about the ingredients of professional development that may have contributed to the success of the intervention. Variation in teachers’ responsiveness (e.g., ratings of Consultancy worth) and exposure to the intervention (e.g., number of consultation cycles completed) are examined, with particular interest in the identification of teacher factors that may serve as supports or barriers to successfully implementing consultation supports and on-line professional development resources. PMID:25419081

  7. On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging.

    PubMed

    Soppela, Ira; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a photometric surface imaging approach for on-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation. Five granule batches consisting of paracetamol and varying amounts of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose were manufactured with an instrumented fluid bed granulator. Photometric images and NIR spectra were continuously captured on-line and particle size information was extracted from them. Also key process parameters were recorded. The images provided direct real-time information on the growth, attrition and packing behaviour of the batches. Moreover, decreasing image brightness in the drying phase was found to indicate granule drying. The changes observed in the image data were also linked to the moisture and temperature profiles of the processes. Combined with complementary process analytical tools, photometric imaging opens up possibilities for improved real-time evaluation fluid bed granulation. Furthermore, images can give valuable insight into the behaviour of excipients or formulations during product development. PMID:25174556

  8. FBG stress-sensibilized monitor for railway switch pole on-line monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Liu, Jie; Pan, Jianjun; Pang, Jin; Lu, Xiaoshan

    2014-09-01

    The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology is used to dynamically monitor multiple parameters of railway switch machine poles, including time of movement, direction and quantity of loading and locking force, and states of loading resistance. This paper presents the design and implementation of a railway switch pole strain on-line monitoring system based on the FBG stress-sensibilized monitor for a Siemens S700K switch machine. The ring shape FBG strain gauge and stress-sensibilized methods significantly increased the monitoring sensitivity. Installing approaches adapted the harsh environment in the railway application. The monitoring results showed the high sensitivity and high reliability of this monitoring system. This application provides a long-term and on-line detecting method which could meet railway switch condition monitoring demands of more than 100,000 switch machines in the country.

  9. The {open_quotes}Barn Book{close_quotes} on-line

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher, E.; McLane, V.

    1996-12-31

    Experimental nuclear reaction cross-section data are available free of charge through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) On-line Service CSISRS database and may be written onto an Output file or viewed on the user`s terminal either in the form of plots or as tabulated data. Evaluated data from the ENDF database may be included on the plots. A recent upgrade allows the user to plot the data in {open_quotes}Barn Book{close_quotes} format. The NNDC on-line system may be accessed via telnet to BNLND2.DNE.BNL.GOV, password NNDC, or through the World Wide Web: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov. First-time users may browse the system using the authorization code GUEST.

  10. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  11. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  12. Robust RLS Methods for On-line Estimation of Power System Electromechanical Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2007-08-01

    This paper proposes a Robust Recursive Least Square (RRLS) algorithm for on-line identification of power system modes based on measurement data. The measurement data can either be ambient or ringdown. Also, the mode estimation is provided in real-time. The validity of the proposed RRLS algorithm is demon-strated with both simulation data from a 17-machine model and field measurement data from a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS). Comparison with the conventional Recursive Least Square (RLS) and Least Means Square (LMS) algorithms shows that the proposed RRLS algorithm can identify the modes from the combined ringdown and ambient signals with outliers and missing data in real time without noticeable performance degra-dation. An adaptive detrend algorithm is also proposed to remove the signal trend based on the RRLS algorithm. It is shown that the algorithm can keep up with the measurement data flow and work on-line to provide real time mode estimation.

  13. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  14. Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

  15. Understanding the synergistic catalytic effect between La(2)O(3) and CaO for the CH(4) lean De-NO(x) reaction: kinetic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, T; Loukatzikou, L A; Costa, C N; Efstathiou, A M

    2005-07-21

    Doping of La(2)O(3) crystallites with Ca(2+) ions significantly enhances the intrinsic rate of NO reduction by CH(4) in the presence of 5% O(2) at 550 degrees C compared to pure La(2)O(3) and CaO solids, while the opposite is true after doping of CaO with La(3+) ions. It was found that the 5 wt % La(2)O(3)-95 wt % CaO system has one of the highest intrinsic site reactivities (TOF = 8.5 x 10(-3) s(-1)) reported at 550 degrees C for the NO/CH(4)/O(2) reaction among metal oxide surfaces. The doping process occurred after first dispersing La(2)O(3) and CaO crystallites in deionized water heated to 60 degrees C for 90 min, while the dried material was then ground and heated slowly in air to 800 degrees C and kept at this temperature for 5 h. The doping process had the effect of creating surface oxygen vacant sites (F-type defects) in the oxide lattices the concentration of which is a function of the wt % La(2)O(3) used in the mixed oxide system as revealed by photoluminescence and O(2) chemisorption studies. According to DRIFTS (15)NO transient isotopic experiments (SSITKA), oxygen vacant sites in Ca(2+)-doped La(2)O(3) promote the formation of a more active chemisorbed NO(x) species (NO(2)(-)) that contributes to the enhancement of reaction rate as compared to pure lanthana, calcium oxide, and La(3+)-doped CaO. These results were supported by the kinetic orders of the reaction with respect to NO and O(2) obtained as a function of wt % La(2)O(3) content in the mixed oxide system. Carbon dioxide (a reaction product) competes for the same oxygen vacant sites to form stable adsorbed carbonate-like species, thus lowering the reduction rate of NO. The dependence of the reaction TOF on the wt % La(2)O(3) loading at 550 degrees C was found to follow the trend of the dependence of photoluminescence intensity on the wt % La(2)O(3) content in the La(2)O(3)-CaO oxide system. PMID:16852716

  16. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  17. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F

    2014-11-01

    Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and (1)H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices. PMID:25088284

  19. The use of 3-D sensing techniques for on-line collision-free path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayward, V.; Aubry, S.; Jasiukajc, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The state of the art in collision prevention for manipulators with revolute joints, showing that it is a particularly computationally hard problem, is discussed. Based on the analogy with other hard or undecidable problems such as theorem proving, an extensible multi-resolution architecture for path planning, based on a collection of weak methods is proposed. Finally, the role that sensors can play for an on-line use of sensor data is examined.

  20. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  1. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and 1H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices. PMID:25088284

  2. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15–20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  3. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. Quarterly report, March 16--June 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1997-12-31

    An on-line coal analyzer is being developed as a joint venture between the French company SODERN which specializes in the manufacturing of neutron generators and associated electronics and the John B. Long Company which specializes in coal sampling equipment. Progress this quarter is summarized under the following topical headings: Measurement layout; Detector temperature stabilization; Raw coal library; and Determination of Btu content from elemental concentrations.

  4. Multicolor on-line degree Ramsey numbers of trees William B. Kinnersley

    E-print Network

    West, Douglas B.

    s = 2 and G1 = G2. Later results appear in [4, 6, 8, 10]. We focus on the case where H is Sk, the set, . . . , Gs) when each Gi is a double-star. When each Gi is a star, we determine °R(G1, . . . , Gs) exactly. 1] determined the exact 2-color on-line degree Ramsey numbers for paths, stars, and double-stars (trees

  5. On-line Scheduling of Real-Time Services with Profit and Shuo Liu Gang Quan

    E-print Network

    Quan, Gang

    infrastructure [1, 8, 14]. From media on-demand service by Netflix to on-line gaming by Nintendo, from Amazon's e-commerce to Google's free turn- by-turn direction service over the phone, it is fair to say that we are entering, but also account for the penalty when a task is aborted or discarded. In addition, the time at which a real

  6. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    PubMed Central

    Laituri, Melinda; Kodrich, Kris

    2008-01-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) and Hurricane Katrina (2005) reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS) and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  7. On-line scalable image access for medical remote collaborative meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarando, Sebastian R.; Lucidarme, Olivier; Grenier, Philippe; Fetita, Catalin

    2015-03-01

    The increasing need of remote medical investigation services in the framework of collaborative multidisciplinary meetings (e.g. cancer follow-up) raises the challenge of on-line remote access of (large amount of) radiologic data in a limited period of time. This paper proposes a scalable compression framework of DICOM images providing low-latency display through low speed networks. The developed approach relies on useless information removal from images (i.e. not related with the patient body) and the exploitation of the JPEG2000 standard to achieve progressive quality encoding and access of the data. This mechanism also allows the efficient exploitation of any idle times (corresponding to on-line visual image analysis) to download the remaining data at lossless quality in a way transparent to the user, thus minimizing the perceived latency. The experiments performed in comparison with exchanging uncompressed or JPEGlossless compressed DICOM data, showed the benefit of the proposed approach for collaborative on-line remote diagnosis and follow-up services.

  8. On-line access to weather satellite imagery and image manipulation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W.; Kelley, T.; Dozier, J.; Rotar, P.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite imagery, received by antennas located at the University of Colorado, are made available to the Internet users through an on-line data access system. Created as a 'test bed' system for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System, this test bed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an on-line data system and the different ways in which the general user community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experiment four major evolutionary changes in response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of on-line browse, user subsetting, and dynamic image processing/navigation. Over its lifetime the system has grown to a maximum of over 2500 registered users, and after losing many of these users due to hardware changes, the system is once again growing with its own independent mass storage system.

  9. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm2, and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities. PMID:25972778

  10. Integrated On-line Plant Monitoring System for HTTR with Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Subekti, Muhammad; Matsuishi, Tomomi; Ohno, Tomio; Kudo, Kazuhiko; Nakagawa, Shigeaki

    The neural networks have been utilized in on-line monitoring-system of High Temperature Engineering Tested Reactor (HTTR) with thermal power of 30MW. In this system, several neural networks can independently model the plant dynamics with different architecture, input and output signals and learning algorithm. Monitoring task of each neural network is also different, respectively. Those parallel method applications require distributed architecture of computer network for performing real-time tasks. One of main task is real-time plant monitoring by Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) in auto-associative mode, which can model and estimate the whole plant dynamics by training normal operational data only. The basic principle of the anomaly detection is to monitor the difference between process signals measured from the actual plant and the corresponding values estimated by MLP. Other tasks are on-line reactivity prediction, reactivity and helium leak monitoring, respectively. From the on-line monitoring results at the safety demonstration tests, each neural network shows good prediction and reliable detection performances.

  11. Impact of apoptosis on the on-line measured dielectric properties of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dénes; Tobak, Teodóra; Putics, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis is a common type of cell death in biopharmaceutical cell culture processes which causes decrease in viable cell density and product yield. The progression of apoptosis has been reported to influence the dielectric properties of mammalian cells; however, the on-line detection of these effects has been rarely described. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the on-line detectability of dielectric changes upon apoptosis induction in an industrial fed-batch process of CHO cells expressing a recombinant monoclonal antibody. Using capacitance signals, measured at 25 frequencies, the impact of apoptosis on the dielectric spectra was investigated in eight bioreactor cultivations in which various process conditions were combined with two different apoptosis induction strategies (camptothecin treatment and glucose starvation). To differentiate the apoptosis-related information from the cell concentration-associated variance in the multivariate capacitance datasets, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. A second principal component, explaining an explicit proportion (>20 %) of the variance, was identified to be related to dielectric changes induced by apoptosis. Furthermore, the analysis of caspase-3 and -7 activation and DNA fragmentation showed that the detected dielectric change occurred in the early phase of apoptosis. The presented results verify that apoptosis has a considerable impact on the dielectric features of CHO cells and it can be monitored on-line with the introduced tool-set combining capacitance measurement with multivariate data analysis. PMID:26440966

  12. Object-Oriented Control System Design Using On-Line Training of Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with the object-oriented model development of a neuro-controller design for permanent magnet (PM) dc motor drives. The system under study is described as a collection of interacting objects. Each object module describes the object behaviors, called methods. The characteristics of the object are included in its variables. The knowledge of the object exists within its variables, and the performance is determined by its methods. This structure maps well to the real world objects that comprise the system being modeled. A dynamic learning architecture that possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control is incorporated to enforce constraints on connections and control the dynamics of the motor. The control action is implemented "on-line", in "real time" in such a way that the predicted trajectory follows a specified reference model. A design example of controlling a PM dc motor drive on-line shows the effectiveness of the design tool. This will therefore be very useful in aerospace applications. It is expected to provide an innovative and noval software model for the rocket engine numerical simulator executive.

  13. Improved wet weather wastewater influent modelling at Viikinmäki WWTP by on-line weather radar information.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, M; Jokelainen, M; Fred, T; Koistinen, J; Hohti, H

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent is typically dependent on diurnal variation of urban production of liquid waste, infiltration of stormwater runoff and groundwater infiltration. During wet weather conditions the infiltration phenomenon typically increases the risk of overflows in the sewer system as well as the risk of having to bypass the WWTP. Combined sewer infrastructure multiplies the role of rainwater runoff in the total influent. Due to climate change, rain intensity and magnitude is tending to rise as well, which can already be observed in the normal operation of WWTPs. Bypass control can be improved if the WWTP is prepared for the increase of influent, especially if there is some storage capacity prior to the treatment plant. One option for this bypass control is utilisation of on-line weather-radar-based forecast data of rainfall as an input for the on-line influent model. This paper reports the Viikinmäki WWTP wet weather influent modelling project results where gridded exceedance probabilities of hourly rainfall accumulations for the next 3 h from the Finnish Meteorological Institute are utilised as on-line input data for the influent model. PMID:23925175

  14. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities. PMID:25972778

  15. The Impact of On-line Searching on Document Supply Services at Individual Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Kimio; Tanaka, Isao; Fukazawa, Yoshiko

    As use of on-line searching services has progressed in libraries, requests on primary materials have increased much more than before. For the purpose of clarifying this trend and countermeasures against it a survey by questionnaire was conducted in 1985. The respondants from totally 112 libraries are as follows ; 60 industrial libraries, 41 academic libraries and 11 libraries of research institutes and laboratories. It was shown that industrial libraries have received more requests on primary materials mostly resulting from on-line searching while the requests have not increased remarkably in academic libraries. Regardless the type of libraries, almost all libraries can not fully meet the requests with their own collection so that industrial libraries have to rely on external information services and academic libraries utilize interlibrary loan system. Requests are sent via on-line from industrial libraries, and by mail from academic libraries. In fact, any-libraries are not likely to review their material-collecting policy. Therefore it is urgent to establish the system which enables use of external information services or interlibrary loan system more than ever.

  16. On-Line Access to Weather Satellite Imagery and Image Manipulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Kelley, T.; Dozier, J.; Rotar, P.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Imagery, received by antennas located at the University of Colorado, are made available to the Internet users through an on-line data access system. Created as a 'test bed' data system for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System, this test bed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an on-line data system and the different ways in which the general user community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced four major evolutionary changes in response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of on-line browse, user subsetting, and dynamic image processing/navigation. Over its lifetime the system has grown to a maximum of over 2500 registered users, and after losing many of these users due to hardware changes, the system is once again growing with its own independent mass storage system.

  17. HOPE: An On-Line Piloted Handling Qualities Experiment Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. B.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel on-line database for capturing most of the information obtained during piloted handling qualities experiments (either flight or simulated) is described. The Hyperlinked Overview of Piloted Evaluations (HOPE) web application is based on an open-source object-oriented Web-based front end (Ruby-on-Rails) that can be used with a variety of back-end relational database engines. The hyperlinked, on-line data book approach allows an easily-traversed way of looking at a variety of collected data, including pilot ratings, pilot information, vehicle and configuration characteristics, test maneuvers, and individual flight test cards and repeat runs. It allows for on-line retrieval of pilot comments, both audio and transcribed, as well as time history data retrieval and video playback. Pilot questionnaires are recorded as are pilot biographies. Simple statistics are calculated for each selected group of pilot ratings, allowing multiple ways to aggregate the data set (by pilot, by task, or by vehicle configuration, for example). Any number of per-run or per-task metrics can be captured in the database. The entire run metrics dataset can be downloaded in comma-separated text for further analysis off-line. It is expected that this tool will be made available upon request

  18. CCD-based on-line thickness measurement system for calender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lifeng; Fan, Yuming; Zhang, Guoxiong; Chen, Ken

    2008-03-01

    An on-line calender thickness measurement system based on linear CCD is proposed. In this system, an optical projection method based on collimated light and CCD is used to realize the thickness measurement for sheet product. To test the accurate position of the edge of the sheet projection, a quadratic differentiating circuit and an accurate pulse width measurement method based on programmable counter array are used to deal with the CCD signals, which make the resolution up to 0.5?m for a linear CCD with 14 ?m image sensing element size. Based on microcontroller, the integrated CCD sensor module and 2-D coordinate data acquisition module are developed to record the values of thickness and position coordinates. A distributed automatic data acquisition and control system is established by using the USB and RS485 serial bus to connect the host computer and measuring modules. In addition, to eliminate the factors that influence the on-line measurement accuracy, such as the roundness tolerance of roller, the irregularities of guide rail, an error compensation method based on multilayer feedforward neural network is used. The in situ experiments show that the on-line measurement standard deviation is 10?m within the measuring range of 10 mm.

  19. EK 210 A1 and A2: Introduction to Engineering Design Date Topic On-Line Learning

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Sandor

    EK 210 A1 and A2: Introduction to Engineering Design Fall 2014 Syllabus Date Topic On-Line Learning and Product Teardown a) Basic principles of reverse engineering b) Introduction to supply chains a) Review to Engineering Design Fall 2014 Syllabus Date Topic On-Line Learning Content In-Class Activity Reading from Text

  20. Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, 1972. Proceedings: Applications of On-Line Computers to Library Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid, Ed.

    In planning this ninth annual clinic an attempt was made to include papers on a wide range of library applications of on-line computers, as well as to include libraries of various types and various sizes. Two papers deal with on-line circulation control (the Ohio State University system, described by Hugh C. Atkinson, and the Northwestern…

  1. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory, 1996. Game Theory, On-line Prediction and Boosting

    E-print Network

    Schapire, Robert

    Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory, 1996. Game Theory, On- ory, on-line prediction and boosting. After a brief review of game theory, we describe an algorithm of this paper is to bring out the close connec- tions between game theory, on-line prediction and boosting

  2. On-Line Estimation of Groove Wear in the Minor Cutting Edge for Finish Machining Machine Tool

    E-print Network

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    On-Line Estimation of Groove Wear in the Minor Cutting Edge for Finish Machining Machine Tool Tool Con&tions KEY WORDS : Tool Wear, Cutting Edges, Statistical Analysis AISI4140 (HNB=320) GroupA : V=160. INTRODUCTION On-line tool wear estimation has been recognized as playing an essential role in automated

  3. Does the Sun Revolve Around the Earth? A Comparison between the General Public and On-line

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Does the Sun Revolve Around the Earth? A Comparison between the General Public and On-line Survey Americans do not know that the Earth revolves around the Sun; amongst the on-line population, this ratio, Bogie, Zhang, & Sun, 2014), one assessed knowledge related to water conservation (Attari, 2014), and two

  4. Computational Science and Engineering On-line: an integrated web-based environment for multi-scale

    E-print Network

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Computational Science and Engineering On-line: an integrated web-based environment for multi Computational Science and Engineering On-line (CSEO) to include different fields of compu- tational science. Our accessing resources from the computing grids using the Globus technology. CSEO can be accessed at http

  5. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  6. On-Line Peer Assessment and the Role of the Peer Feedback: A Study of High School Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects and the validity of on-line peer assessment in high schools and to analyze effects of various types of peer feedback on students. The participating students, a total of 184 10th graders, developed their individual course projects by involving the on-line peer assessment learning activities in…

  7. End to end assembly of CaO and ZnO nanosheets to propeller-shaped architectures by orientation attachment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Inspired by the agitation effect of propellers, heterogeneous propeller- shaped CaO/ZnO architectures were assembled in aqueous solution. Preferred nucleation and growth of CaO and ZnO nuclei resulted in their hexagonal nanosheets, and they were end to end combined into propeller-shaped architectures by oriented rotation and attachment reactions. When propeller-shaped CaO/ZnO product was used as solid base catalyst to synthesize biodiesel, a high biodiesel yield of 97.5% was achieved. The predominant exposure of active O2- on CaO(0 0 2) and ZnO(0 0 0 2) planes in propeller-shaped CaO/ZnO, led to good catalytic activity and high yield of biodiesel.

  8. The effect of Al2O3, CaO, Cr2O3 and MgO on devitrification of silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    The effect of doping on devitrification of vitreous silica was studied at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Dispersion of dopants on a molecular scale was accomplished via a sol-gel technique. All dopants accelerated the devitrification of silica but to different degrees. The most active was CaO followed by MgO, Al2O3, and Cr2O3. Pure silica and silica containing Cr2O3 and Al2O3 devitrified to alpha-cristobalite only, whereas silica doped with CaO and MgO produced alpha-quartz and alpha-cristobalite. It appears that prolonged heat treatment would cause alpha-quartz to transform to alpha-cristobalite.

  9. The Vibrational Frequencies of CaO2, ScO2, and TiO2: A Comparison of Theoretical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Chertihin, George V.; Andrews, Lester; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of several states of CaO2, ScO2, and TiO2 are computed at using density functional theory (DFT), the Hatree-Fock approach, second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and the complete-active-space self-consistent-field theory. Three different functionals are used in the DFT calculations, including two hybrid functionals. The coupled cluster singles and doubles approach including the effect of unlinked triples, determined using perturbation theory, is applied to selected states. The Becke-Perdew 86 functional appears to be the cost effective method of choice, although even this functional does not perform well for one state of CaO2. The MP2 approach is significantly inferior to the DFT approaches.

  10. Preparation of CaO as OLED getter material through control of crystal growth of CaCO{sub 3} by block copolymers in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2009-01-08

    As the starting materials of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) getter, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) particles with various shapes and crystal structures have been successfully prepared with additives (L64 or PEGPG), which contain blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO). These CaCO{sub 3} particles were calcinated into highly crystalline calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles with high capacity of water adsorption up to 14.23 wt.%. The CaCO{sub 3} and CaO particles prepared at various conditions were characterized using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method.

  11. Role of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO additives on structural and microstructural behavior of zirconia/mullite aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, D. K.; Prusty, Sasmita; Mohapatra, B. K.; Singh, S. K.; Behera, S. N.

    2012-07-23

    Zirconia mullite (MUZ), Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MUZ, CaO-MUZ and MgO-MUZ composites, synthesized through plasma fusion technique, are becoming important due to their commercial scale of production within five minutes of plasma treatment from sillimanite, zircon and alumina mixture. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the monoclinic zirconia phase in MUZ composite whereas mixed monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic phases of zirconia have been observed in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO added MUZ composites. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and MgO additives act as sintering aids to favour the transformation and stabilisation of tetragonal and cubic zirconia phases at room temperature. These additives also play a key role in the development of various forms of microstructure to achieve dense MUZ composites.

  12. Trans-saccadic repetition priming: ERPs reveal on-line integration of information across words.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    We used a trans-saccadic priming paradigm combined with ERP recordings to track the time-course of integration of information across a prime word briefly presented at fixation and a subsequent target word presented 4 degrees to the right of fixation. Trans-saccadic repetition priming effects (Experiments 1 and 2) were compared with priming effects obtained with centrally located targets (Experiment 3). In Experiment 2, target stimuli were preceded by a 100ms forward mask at the target location, hence allowing an attention shift to the target location prior to target onset. Compared with centrally located targets, repetition priming effects were found to onset later in Experiment 2 and even later in Experiment 1, and the growth of priming effects was slower in both Experiments 1 and 2 compared with Experiment 3. The results demonstrate integration of information across spatially distinct primes and targets, with the time-course of trans-saccadic priming being determined by the speed with which attention can be allocated to peripheral targets plus the quality of information available in peripheral vision prior to fixation of target stimuli. PMID:26656872

  13. The role of temperature on Cr(VI) formation and reduction during heating of chromium-containing sludge in the presence of CaO.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Zhai, Jianping; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Qin; Cui, Hao

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the temperature dependence of Cr(VI) formation and reduction in the presence of CaO was examined during the thermal treatment of sludge that contains chromium. thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the thermal behavior and phase transformation, respectively. Na2CO3 leaching procedure was employed to determine the amount of Cr(VI). The result showed that CaO promoted Cr(III) oxidation, however, its influence is very dependent on heating temperature, with the extent of the effect varying with temperature. From 200-400 °C, the presence of CaO facilitated formation of intermediate product Cr2O3+x containing Cr(VI) during dehydration of chromium hydrate, while Cr2O3+x would decompose as temperature over 400 °C, accompanied by part of Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III). From 500 to 900 °C, Cr(III) reacted with CaO to form a leachable CaCrO4 product. This product was stable and a prolonged heating time did not reduce the amount of Cr(VI) significantly. At 1000-1200 °C, part of CaCrO4 was reduced to Ca(CrO2)2 in 1h. While extended heating time above 1h resulted in the Ca(CrO2)2 being oxidized reversibly to CaCrO4 at 1200 °C. Since CaCrO4 is thermodynamically less stable over 1000 °C, MgO could induce CaCrO4 to be reduced into MgCr2O4 at around 900 °C, lower than that for the reduction from CaCrO4 into Ca(CrO2)2. It suggested that adding MgO might be a potential approach for inhibiting Cr(VI) formation during heating sludge containing chromium. PMID:26072117

  14. Species classification and bioactive ingredients accumulation of BaiJiangCao based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Lan, Li; Xue, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Yang; Shuai, Wang; Lin, Zhao; Huan-Jun, Zhao; Yong-Rui, Bao; Chen-Feng, Ji; Ning, Chen; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch and Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss., two species herbs with the same Chinese name “BaiJiangCao”, are important ancient herbal medicines widely used for more than 2000 years. The clinical application of two species herb is confused due to the difficult identification. Objective: The objective was to authenticate the species of BaiJiangCao and analyze the accumulation of bioactive ingredients based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis. Materials and Methods: Content of 32 inorganic elements in BaiJiangCao from different habitats were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the characteristic inorganic elements were picked to distinguish the species of the herb by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Contents of two bioactive ingredients, luteoloside, and oleanolic acid, in the samples, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Relationship between accumulation of bioactive ingredients and content of macroelements in BaiJiangCao was established by statistics. Results: A 4 macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Fe) in 32 determined inorganic elements were picked for characteristic inorganic elements. Content of Na, Mg, K and Fe showed positive correlations with that of luteoloside, content of Na, Mg showed positive correlations with that of oleanolic acid, but content of K and Fe showed negative correlations with that of oleanolic acid. Conclusion: It is for the first time to utilize the characteristic inorganic elements as an index to classify the herb species by the method of ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. And it is also the first report to investigate the influence of inorganic elements in herb on the accumulation of bioactive components which could affect the pharmacological efficacy of the herb medicine. And this method could also be utilized in research of corresponding aspects. PMID:26600721

  15. First-principles study of the thermodynamical, structural, transport properties of liquid CaO and CaSiO3 at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, S. K.; Karki, B. B.; Ghosh, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed first principles molecular dynamics simulations of CaO and CaSiO3 liquids overbroad ranges of pressure (0 to 150 GPa) and temperature (2500 to 8000 K) within density functionaltheory. They show that both liquids are much more compressible than their solid counterpartsimplying possible liquid-solid density crossover. The liquid Grüneisen parameter increases onpressure, which is opposite of crystalline phases. Our analysis shows that the liquid structurechanges considerably on compression, with the mean cation-anion coordination numbers increasingnearly linearly with volume. The Ca-O coordination number increases from 7 (5) near the ambientpressure to 9 (7) at high pressure for CaSiO3 (CaO) liquid. The Si-O coordination number increasesfrom 4 to 6 over the same pressure regime. The calculated self-diffusion coefficients are stronglydependent on temperature and pressure and require non-Arrhenian representation with variableactivation volume. The diffusivity differences between the two liquids are considerable in low-temperature and low-pressure regime. Also, comparisons with MgSiO3 liquid suggest that networkmodifier cations Ca and Mg behave similarly though Ca is more coordinated and more mobile ascompared with Mg.

  16. The multi megawatt target station integration of the MAFF/PIAFE fission target design

    E-print Network

    Kharoua, C; Herrera-Martinez, A; Lettry, J; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Groeschel, F; Samec, K; Zanini, L; Alyakriskiy, O; Barbui, M; Tecchio, Luigi; Freibergs, J; Gross, M; Nebel, F; Thirolf, P; Negoita, F; Serbina, L; Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Lindroos, M; Kadi, Y

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target (MAFF/PIAFE design like) and the overall performance of the facility, which will sust...

  17. Photoluminescence from Au ion-implanted nanoporous single-crystal 12CaO•7Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Masashi; Kamioka, Hayato; Hirano, Masahiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Matsunami, Noriaki; Hosono, Hideo

    2006-05-01

    Implantation of Au+ ions into a single crystalline 12CaO•7Al2O3 (C12A7) was performed at high temperatures with fluences from 1×1014 to 3×1016cm-2 . This material is composed of positively charged sub-nanometer-sized cages compensated by extra-framework negatively charged species. The depth profile of concentrations of Au species was analyzed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The measured optical spectra and ab initio embedded cluster calculations show that the implanted Au species are stabilized in the form of negative Au- ions below the fluences of ˜1×1016cm-2 (Au volume concentration of ˜2×1021cm-3 ). These ions are trapped in the cages and exhibit photoluminescence (PL) bands peaking at 3.05 and 2.34eV at temperatures below 150K . At fluences exceeding ˜3×1016cm-2 , the implanted Au atoms form nano-sized clusters. This is manifested in quenching of the PL bands and creation of an optical absorption band at 2.43eV due to the surface plasmon of free carriers in the cluster. The PL bands are attributed to the charge transfer transitions (Au0+e-?Au-) due to recombination of photo-excited electrons (e-) , transiently transferred by ultraviolet excitation into a nearby cages, with Au0 atoms.

  18. Photoluminescence of Au - formed in 12CaO · 7Al 2O 3 single crystal by Au +-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, M.; Kamioka, H.; Hirano, M.; Kamiya, T.; Hosono, H.

    2006-09-01

    Au + ion implantation with fluences from 1 × 10 14 to 3 × 10 16 cm -2 into 12CaO · 7Al 2O 3 (C12A7) single crystals was carried out at a sample temperature of 600 °C. The implanted sample with the fluence of 1 × 10 15 cm -2 exhibited photoluminescence (PL) bands peaking at ˜3.1 and ˜2.3 eV at ?150 K when excited by He-Cd laser (325 nm). This was the first observation of PL from C12A7. These two PL bands are possibly due to intra-ionic transitions of an Au - ion having the electronic configuration of 6 s2, judged from their similarities to those reported on Au - ions in alkali halides. However, when the concentration of the implanted Au ions exceeded the theoretical maximum value of anions encaged in C12A7 (˜2.3 × 10 21 cm -3), surface plasmon absorption appeared in the optical absorption spectrum, suggesting Au colloids were formed at such high fluences. These observations indicate that negative gold ions are formed in the cages of C12A7 by the Au + implantation if an appropriate fluence is chosen.

  19. CO{sub 2} capture capacity of CaO in long series of carbonation/calcination cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Grasa, G.S.; Abanades, J.C.

    2006-12-20

    Calcium oxide can be an effective sorbent to separate CO{sub 2} at high temperatures. When coupled with a calcination step to produce pure CO{sub 2}, the carbonation reaction is the basis for several high-temperature CO{sub 2} capture systems. The evolution with cycling of the capture capacity of CaO derived from natural limestones is experimentally investigated in this work. Long series of carbonation/calcination cycles (up to 500) varying different variables affecting sorbent capacity have been tested in a thermogravimetric apparatus. Calcination temperatures above T > 950{sup o}C and very long calcination times accelerate the decay in sorption capacity, while other variables have a comparatively modest effect on the overall sorbent performance. A residual conversion of about 7-8% that remains constant after many hundreds of cycles and that seems insensitive to process conditions has been found. This residual conversion makes very attractive the carbonation/calcination cycle, by reducing (or even eliminating) sorbent purge rates in the system. A semiempirical equation has been proposed to describe sorbent conversion with the number of cycles based on these new long data series.

  20. Expanded beam spectro-ellipsometry for big area on-line monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, M.; Major, C.; Juhasz, G.; Petrik, P.; Horvath, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive analysing tools are needed at all stages of thin film process-development, especially photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In the case of thin films, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity are important parameters. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels or big area (even 450 mm diameter) Si-wafers in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. Last years [M. Fried et al, Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], a new instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl=350- 1000 nm) data. Earlier a single 30 point line image could be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. Recent years we have built a 30, a 45 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer which speed is increased by 10x. Now, 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60*120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate.

  1. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic ? source above the cell culture dish for ? irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic ? source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for ? irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO2, O2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  2. On-line monitoring of continuous flow chemical synthesis using a portable, small footprint mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Tony W T; Ray, Andrew D; O'Kearney-McMullan, Anne; Lim, Louise; McCullough, Bryan; Zammataro, Alessio

    2014-10-01

    For on-line monitoring of chemical reactions (batch or continuous flow), mass spectrometry (MS) can provide data to (1) determine the fate of starting materials and reagents, (2) confirm the presence of the desired product, (3) identify intermediates and impurities, (4) determine steady state conditions and point of completion, and (5) speed up process optimization. Recent developments in small footprint atmospheric pressure ionization portable mass spectrometers further enable this coupling, as the mass spectrometer can be easily positioned with the reaction system to be studied. A major issue for this combination is the transfer of a sample that is representative of the reaction and also compatible with the mass spectrometer. This is particularly challenging as high concentrations of reagents and products can be encountered in organic synthesis. The application of a portable mass spectrometer for on-line characterization of flow chemical synthesis has been evaluated by coupling a Microsaic 4000 MiD to the Future Chemistry Flow Start EVO chemistry system. Specifically, the Hofmann rearrangement has been studied using the on-line mass spectrometry approach. Sample transfer from the flow reactor is achieved using a mass rate attenuator (MRA) and a sampling make-up flow from a high pressure pump. This enables the appropriate sample dilution, transfer, and preparation for electrospray ionization. The capability of this approach to provide process understanding is described using an industrial pharmaceutical process that is currently under development. The effect of a number of key experimental parameters, such as the composition of the sampling make-up flow and the dilution factor on the mass spectrometry data, is also discussed. PMID:25106707

  3. On-line Monitoring of Continuous Flow Chemical Synthesis Using a Portable, Small Footprint Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Tony W. T.; Ray, Andrew D.; O'Kearney-McMullan, Anne; Lim, Louise; McCullough, Bryan; Zammataro, Alessio

    2014-10-01

    For on-line monitoring of chemical reactions (batch or continuous flow), mass spectrometry (MS) can provide data to (1) determine the fate of starting materials and reagents, (2) confirm the presence of the desired product, (3) identify intermediates and impurities, (4) determine steady state conditions and point of completion, and (5) speed up process optimization. Recent developments in small footprint atmospheric pressure ionization portable mass spectrometers further enable this coupling, as the mass spectrometer can be easily positioned with the reaction system to be studied. A major issue for this combination is the transfer of a sample that is representative of the reaction and also compatible with the mass spectrometer. This is particularly challenging as high concentrations of reagents and products can be encountered in organic synthesis. The application of a portable mass spectrometer for on-line characterization of flow chemical synthesis has been evaluated by coupling a Microsaic 4000 MiD to the Future Chemistry Flow Start EVO chemistry system. Specifically, the Hofmann rearrangement has been studied using the on-line mass spectrometry approach. Sample transfer from the flow reactor is achieved using a mass rate attenuator (MRA) and a sampling make-up flow from a high pressure pump. This enables the appropriate sample dilution, transfer, and preparation for electrospray ionization. The capability of this approach to provide process understanding is described using an industrial pharmaceutical process that is currently under development. The effect of a number of key experimental parameters, such as the composition of the sampling make-up flow and the dilution factor on the mass spectrometry data, is also discussed.

  4. [Freshwater fish freshness on-line detection method based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Yi; Tao, Hai-Long; Li, Peng; Xiong, Shan-Bai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the near infrared spectrum of freshwater fish was used to detect the freshness on line, and the near infrared spectra on-line acquisition device was built to get the fish spectrum. In the process of spectrum acquisition, experiment samples move at a speed of 0.5 m · s(-1), the near-infrared diffuse reflection spectrum (900-2,500 nm) could be got for the next analyzing, and SVM was used to build on-line detection model. Sample set partitioning based on joint X-Y distances algo- rithm (SPXY) was used to divide sample set, there were 111 samples in calibration set (57 fresh samples and 54 bad samples), and 37 samples in test set (19 fresh samples and 18 bad samples). Seven spectral preprocessing methods were utilized to prepro- cess the spectrum, and the influences of different methods were compared. Model results indicated that first derivative (FD) with autoscale was the best preprocessing method, the model recognition rate of calibration set was 97.96%, and the recognition rate of test set was 95.92%. In order to improve the modeling speed, it is necessary to optimize the spectra variables. Therefore genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and competitive adaptive reweighed sampling (CARS) were adopted to select characteristic variables respectively. Finally CARS was proved to be the optimal variable selection method, 10 characteristic wavelengths were selected to develop SVM model, recognition rate of calibration set reached 100%, and recognition rate of test set was 93.88%. The research provided technical reference for freshwater fish freshness online detection. PMID:25739217

  5. On-line determination of pork color and intramuscular fat by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Wu, Xue-Qian; Xie, Li-juan; Cheng, Fang

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the application potential of computer vision in on-line determination of CIE L*a*b* and content of intramuscular fat (IMF) of pork was evaluated. Images of pork chop from 211 pig carcasses were captured while samples were on a conveyor belt at the speed of 0.25 m•s-1 to simulate the on-line environment. CIE L*a*b* and IMF content were measured with colorimeter and chemical extractor as reference. The KSW algorithm combined with region selection was employed in eliminating the surrounding fat of longissimus dorsi muscle (MLD). RGB values of the pork were counted and five methods were applied for transforming RGB values to CIE L*a*b* values. The region growing algorithm with multiple seed points was applied to mask out the IMF pixels within the intensity corrected images. The performances of the proposed algorithms were verified by comparing the measured reference values and the quality characteristics obtained by image processing. MLD region of six samples could not be identified using the KSW algorithm. Intensity nonuniformity of pork surface in the image can be eliminated efficiently, and IMF region of three corrected images failed to be extracted. Given considerable variety of color and complexity of the pork surface, CIE L*, a* and b* color of MLD could be predicted with correlation coefficients of 0.84, 0.54 and 0.47 respectively, and IMF content could be determined with a correlation coefficient more than 0.70. The study demonstrated that it is feasible to evaluate CIE L*a*b* values and IMF content on-line using computer vision.

  6. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  7. Design of a specialized computer for on-line monitoring of cardiac stroke volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Gebben, V. D.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a specialized analog computer for on-line determination of cardiac stroke volume by means of a modified version of the pressure pulse contour method is presented. The design consists of an analog circuit for computation and a timing circuit for detecting necessary events on the pressure waveform. Readouts of arterial pressures, systolic duration, heart rate, percent change in stroke volume, and percent change in cardiac output are provided for monitoring cardiac patients. Laboratory results showed that computational accuracy was within 3 percent, while animal experiments verified the operational capability of the computer. Patient safety considerations are also discussed.

  8. Raman Scattering Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Amines and Acid Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uibel, Rory; Smith, Lee

    2010-05-20

    Sulfur and CO2 removal from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents are a major problem. The sulfur is normally in the form of H2S. These two acid gases are scrubbed using aqueous amine solutions that are difficult to control with conventional technology. Process Instruments Inc. developed Raman scattering technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of amine streams to improve their efficiency in scrubbing H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents. Improved control of amine and acid gas concentrations will allow refineries, natural gas processes and power plants to more efficiently scrub Sulfur and CO2, saving energy, time and financial resources.

  9. On-line radiochemical assay for monoamine oxidase utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Nissinen, E.; Linko-Loeppoenen SMae; Maennistoe P4

    1984-12-01

    A fast and sensitive assay for the determination of monoamine oxidase activity was developed. The method is based on the separation and quantitation of /sup 14/C-labeled assay products by high-performance liquid chromatography, which is interfaced directly into a flow-through radioactivity detector. This allows on-line quantitation of the radioactive compounds with picomole sensitivity. The method makes possible the complete separation and detection of the deaminated products of monoamine oxidase A and B substrates benzylamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, respectively. This assay has been applied to the measurement of monoamine oxidase A and B activities in rat brain.

  10. Spherical transform of fruit images for on-line defect extraction of mass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yang

    1996-02-01

    Defects on spherical curved objects can not be easily identified because of the object image boundary effect. Spherical transform methods are developed to solve the problem and successfully applied in an automated defect sorter. A spherical transform is obtained by compensating the intensity gradience on curve objects. Defects below the background level can be extracted through a preservation transform. The defect extraction is enabled by a uniformly distributed plane image through two-step transformations and the defect position is determined by allocation process. The results show the effectiveness of the processing methods for the high-speed on-line defect identification on fruit packing lines.

  11. On-line economic optimization of energy systems using weather forecast information.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    We establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit weather forecast information in the operation of energy systems. We argue that anticipating the weather conditions can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The framework is based on the solution of a stochastic dynamic real-time optimization (D-RTO) problem incorporating forecasts generated from a state-of-the-art weather prediction model. The necessary uncertainty information is extracted from the weather model using an ensemble approach. The accuracy of the forecast trends and uncertainty bounds are validated using real meteorological data. We present a numerical simulation study in a building system to demonstrate the developments.

  12. Direct Measurement And On-Line Automatic Interpretation Of Breast Thermographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, John R.; Schlager, Ken J.

    1980-08-01

    A new medical thermographic instrumentation system provides for direct measurement of human body surface temperatures and automatic on-line diagnostic interpretation by a microcomputer. This system directly measures 128 surface temperature areas with an infrared scanner array of 64 thermopile sensors. This thermal data is fed to a microcomputer which executes a diagnostic pattern recognition algorithm and prints out a report which summarizes the measurement data. Initial results indicate both a sensitivity and specificity of 80%. However, 80% of the women with cancer had Stage II or greater disease. An improved design of the initial prototype has been constructed.

  13. DSP-based on-line NMR spectroscopy using an anti-Hebbian learning algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Bobis, J.P. |

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system that uses an adaptive algorithm to carry out real-time NMR spectroscopy. The system employs a digital signal processor (DSP) chip to regulate the transmitted and received signal together with spectral analysis of the received signal to determine free induction decay (FID). To implement such a signal-processing routine for detection of the desired signal, an adaptive line enhancer filter that uses an anti-Hebbian learning algorithm is applied to the FID spectra. The results indicate that the adaptive filter can be a reliable technique for on-line spectroscopy study.

  14. Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

    1994-06-01

    We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

  15. Computer-controlled on-line gamma analysis for krypton-85

    SciTech Connect

    Canuette, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    /sup 85/Kr will be evolved from spent nuclear fuel during both the voloxidation and dissolution processes, so a reliable method for on-line analysis of /sup 85/Kr in the off-gas system is needed. Tritium, /sup 14/C, and /sup 129/I were trapped, and the activity of /sup 85/Kr was then measured using a Li-drifted Ge detector. Equipment used to carry out this analysis is described; the PET computer is used. The /sup 85/Kr evolution rate was correlated with the fuel dissolution rate; the close correlation permits one to monitor the fuel dissolution process. 11 figures. (DLC)

  16. Finding Stellar Variability: Monitoring Algol with On-Line Night Sky Live Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzin, V.; Shamir, L.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Advanced undergraduates now have the opportunity to track the brightness and variability of famous variable stars all over the sky with no more than a web browser and a spreadsheet. The opportunity arises from the Night Sky Live global network of fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) which generate public domain, on-line data, freely available at http://NightSkyLive.net . Here we use the deep eclipses of Beta Perseus (Algol) to demonstrate the use of the automatically generated photometry tables. Useful educational concepts in statistics and practical astronomy are clearly demonstrated.

  17. On-line power plant optimization improves Texas refiner's bottom line

    SciTech Connect

    Wellons, M.C.; Sapre, A.V. ); Chang, A.I.; Laird, T.L. )

    1994-05-16

    Mobil Research Development Corp. has developed an on-line power plant optimization system that accurately represents commercial power plant operations over a wide range of operating conditions. At Mobil Oil Corp.'s Beaumont, Tex., refinery, the Optimus'' (optimization of utility systems) technology reduced fuel consumption in the cogeneration facility by 3%. This improvement in efficiency is saving the refinery an estimated $2 million/year. In addition, the technology improved power plant operational reliability and accountability of the operating staff. After background descriptions of the system, the paper discusses the simulation model, optimization of operations, data treatment, implementation at the Beaumont plant, off-line tools, performances and benefits.

  18. Optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in liquid phase in motor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    The letter reports on the experimental research of the absorption spectra of ethyl mercaptan in liquid phase in various motor fuels (petrol, kerosene, and diesel fuel). The values of ethyl mercaptan absorption sections were obtained in the above-mentioned fuels in the spectral range of 280–475?nm, and the dependences of ethyl mercaptan absorption coefficients on its part in the analyzed mixture with motor fuels were researched. On the basis of the obtained results we propose an optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in motor fuels. The optimal spectral ranges for the highest sensitivity of ethyl mercaptan detection in various motor fuels were determined.

  19. System Design for On-line Distributed Computational Visualization and Steering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qishi; Zhu, Mengxia; Rao, Nageswara S

    2006-01-01

    We propose a distributed computing framework for network-optimized visualization and steering of real-time scientific simulations and computations executed on a remote host, such as workstation, cluster or supercomputer. Unlike the conventional "batch" simulations, this system enables: (i) monitoring of an ongoing remote computation using visualization tools, and (ii) on-line specification of simulation parameters to interactively steer remote computations. Using performance models for transport channels and visualization modules, we develop a dynamic programming method to optimize the realization of the visualization pipeline over a wide-area network to maximize the frame rate. We present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of this system.

  20. On-line combination of high performance liquid chromatography with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry: a proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-02-01

    The present contribution is focused on the on-line combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), cryogenically modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS), generating a very powerful unified separation-science tool. The instrument can be used in seven different combinations ranging from one-dimensional HPLC with a photodiode array detector to on-line LC × GC × GC/QqQ MS. The main focus of the present research is directed to the LC-GC × GC/QqQ MS configuration, with its analytical potential shown in a proof-of-principle study involving a very complex sample, namely, coal tar. Specifically, a normal-phase LC process enabled the separation of three classes of coal tar compounds: (1) nonaromatic hydrocarbons; (2) unsaturated compounds (with and without S); (3) oxygenated constituents. The HPLC fractions were transferred to the GC × GC instrument via a syringe-based interface mounted on an autosampler. Each fraction was subjected to a specific programmed temperature vaporizer GC × GC/QqQ MS untargeted or targeted analysis. For example, the coal tar S-containing compounds were pinpointed through multiple-reaction-monitoring analysis, while full-scan information was attained for the oxygenated constituents. PMID:25536115