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Sample records for cap omega spectrometer

  1. Reaction of. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols with thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Krolevets, A.A.; Ragulin, L.I.; Popov, A.G.

    1987-06-10

    The effect of catalysts on the reaction of thionyl chloride with ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols was investigated. It was shown that the use of calcium chloride, aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, and magnesium chloride as catalysts makes it possible to obtain polyfluoroalkyl chlorosulfites and bis(polyfluoroalkyl) sulfites with good yields.

  2. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, F.; Kemp, G. E.; Barrios, M. A.; Pino, J.; Scott, H.; Ayers, S.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B.; Regan, S. P.; Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Agliata, A.; Yaakobi, B.; Marshall, F. J.; Hamilton, R. A.; Jaquez, J.; Farrell, M.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-11-15

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the OMEGA laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2–18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  3. Correlation between south polar cap composition from OMEGA/MEX data and geomorphologic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Forget, F.; Gendrin, A.; Gondet, B.; Langevin, Y.; Schmitt, B.; Bibring, J.-P.; OMEGA, Team

    A series of observations covering the south polar cap and part of the surrounding terrains have been recorded in the first weeks of OMEGA operation. From these first observations nearly pure H2O ice has been discovered in several areas surrounding the bright cap on which CO2 ice is mainly concentrated. A strong correlation exists between these compositional units and geomorphic features observed on MOC images acquired during the summer of the south hemisphere. As postulated by previous studies using MOC and THEMIS data, CO2 ice is strongly correlated with the geomorphic features called swiss-cheese terrains characterized by quasi-circular depressions. H2O ice, devoid of any CO2 ice, is observed with OMEGA in the periphery of these these swiss-cheese terrains. These H2O ice terrains on MOC images are very smooth and only affected by polygonal cracks which likely result of thermal contraction. The CO2 ice is apparently superimposed on these H2O ice layers confirming that the CO2 ice cap is restricted to a thin layer of few meters thick. Outside of the bright cap, patches of H2O ice are observed with OMEGA in correlation with grooved homogeneous surfaces on MOC images. They represent part of an H2O ice cap devoid of any overlying CO2 units which suggests an extension of the cap far beyond the bright polar cap. Preliminary results of the modeling of the sublimation processes of these different ices units will be presented.

  4. Synthesis of complex pyridine bases in the reaction of. cap alpha. ,omega-nitrileacetylenes with acetylene, catalyzed by cobalt complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Selimov, F.A.; Khafizov, V.R.

    1987-01-20

    It has been shown that ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes under the action of homogeneous cobalt-containing catalysts undergo transformations into pyridine derivatives. In order to expand the scope of this method for synthesis of complex pyridine bases, for investigation of the reactivity of nitrileacetylenes of various structure in the reaction of cooligomerization with acetylene, as well as for the introduction to these reactions of new types of ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes, containing in their molecules an oxygen atom, they studied the homo- and codimerization of ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes with acetylene under the action of a Co(2-ethyl hexanoate)/sub 2/-AIR/sub 3/ catalyst in a toluene solution. Cyclodimerization of acetylene with ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes, catalyzed by a Co(2-ethyl hexanoate)/sub 2/-AlEt/sub 3/ system gives new types of mono- and bicyclic pyridines.

  5. Dust aerosols above the south polar cap of Mars as seen by OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.; Jouglet, D.; Omega Team

    2008-08-01

    The time evolution of atmospheric dust at high southern latitudes on Mars has been determined using observations of the south seasonal cap acquired in the near infrared (1-2.65 μm) by OMEGA/Mars Express in 2005. Observations at different solar zenith angles and one EPF sequence demonstrate that the reflectance in the 2.64 μm saturated absorption band of the surface CO 2 ice is mainly due to the light scattered by aerosols above most places of the seasonal cap. We have mapped the total optical depth of dust aerosols in the near-IR above the south seasonal cap of Mars from mid-spring to early summer with a time resolution ranging from one day to one week and a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. The optical depth above the south perennial cap is determined on a longer time range covering southern spring and summer. A constant set of optical properties of dust aerosols is consistent with OMEGA observations during the analyzed period. Strong variations of the optical depth are observed over small horizontal and temporal scales, corresponding in part to moving dust clouds. The late summer peak in dust opacity observed by Opportunity in 2005 propagated to the south pole contrarily to that observed in mid spring. This may be linked to evidence for dust scavenging by water ice-rich clouds circulating at high southern latitudes at this season.

  6. Mars Water Ice and Carbon Dioxide Seasonal Polar Caps: GCM Modeling and Comparison with Mars Express Omega Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, F.; Levrard, B.; Montmessin, F.; Schmitt, B.; Doute, S.; Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the behavior of the Mars CO2 ice seasonal polar caps, and in particular interpret the the Mars Express Omega observations of the recession of the northern seasonal cap, we present some simulations of the Martian Climate/CO2 cycle/ water cycle as modeled by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model.

  7. Physical State of the ``Bright'' South Seasonal Polar Cap From OMEGA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doute, S.; Schmidt, F.; Schmitt, B.; Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.

    2009-12-01

    The composition, physical state and texture of the South Seasonal Polar Cap (SSPC) have important consequences on energy balance. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 microns) on the SSPC from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110° , December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320° (November 2005) [1]. The time resolution is 3 days to one month and the spatial resolution ranges from 700m to 10 km/pixel. [1] showed that during southern spring and summer, there is a very complex evolution in terms of effective grain size of CO2 ice and contamination by dust or H2O ice. H2O ice does not play a significant role except close to the end of the recession. [2] systematically segmented the South Seasonal Polar Cap into different spectral units and tested diverse surface representations by the modeling of spectral end-members and average unit spectra. Here we focus on the “bright” part of the SSPC corresponding to spectral unit SSPC1 (I.b of [1]). Regions belonging to this unit have a very bright albedo (≈ 0.6-0.8) associated with strong CO2 ice absorption features. According to [1] such characteristics are compatible with granular CO2 deposits with grain size in the range of 5 cm implying an extremely low contamination by dust and water ice. Furthermore, from their study of a representative region at 34° E, 76° S, the albedo increases from Ls=223° up to a maximum at Ls=240° and then decreases until total disappearance of the ice. The albedo increase would require a decrease of grain size if the granular model is really relevant. However the mean free path within CO2 ice as well as its thermodynamic behavior would rather favor a porous CO2 slab model [3]. Then photometric effects could be expected that could explain the brightening. In this paper we propose to further study the physical state of the “bright” part of the SSPC and its evolution by

  8. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  9. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF. PMID:23635195

  11. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  12. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; et al

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describesmore » ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.« less

  13. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  14. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; McCluskey, M; Mastrosimone, D; Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s. PMID:24985814

  15. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B. Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-15

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ∼±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ∼±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15−20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ∼±25−40 km/s.

  16. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-04

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  17. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; et al

    2014-06-04

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energymore » uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.« less

  18. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ˜±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ˜±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ˜±25-40 km/s.

  19. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hatchett, S.; Haan, S.; Cerjan, C.; Landen, O.; Moran, M.; Song, P.; Wilson, D. C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2008-10-15

    A neutron spectrometer, called a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS), has been built and implemented at the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] for absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range of 6-30 MeV, from which fuel areal density ({rho}R), ion temperature (T{sub i}), and yield (Y{sub n}) can be determined. The results from the first MRS measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum are presented. In addition, measuring {rho}R at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will be essential for assessing implosion performance during all stages of development from surrogate implosions to cryogenic fizzles to ignited implosions. To accomplish this, we are also developing an MRS for the NIF. As much of the research and development and instrument optimization of the MRS at OMEGA are directly applicable to the MRS at the NIF, a description of the design and characterization of the MRS on the NIF is discussed as well.

  20. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA (invited).

    PubMed

    Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Moran, M; Song, P; Wilson, D C; Leeper, R J

    2008-10-01

    A neutron spectrometer, called a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS), has been built and implemented at the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] for absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range of 6-30 MeV, from which fuel areal density (rhoR), ion temperature (T(i)), and yield (Y(n)) can be determined. The results from the first MRS measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum are presented. In addition, measuring rhoR at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will be essential for assessing implosion performance during all stages of development from surrogate implosions to cryogenic fizzles to ignited implosions. To accomplish this, we are also developing an MRS for the NIF. As much of the research and development and instrument optimization of the MRS at OMEGA are directly applicable to the MRS at the NIF, a description of the design and characterization of the MRS on the NIF is discussed as well. PMID:19044488

  1. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  2. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, M; Regan, S P; Bahr, R E; Romanofsky, M; Sorce, C

    2012-10-01

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO∕QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals. PMID:23126929

  3. Big Bang nucleosynthesis: Accelerator tests and can. cap omega. /sub B/ really be large

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1987-10-01

    The first collider tests of cosmological theory are now underway. The number of neutrino families in nature, N/sub nu/, plays a key role in elementary particle physics as well as in the synthesis of the light elements during the early evolution of the Universe. Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis argues for N/sub nu/ = 3 +- 1. Current limits on N/sub nu/ from the CERN anti pp collider and e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders are presented and compared to the cosmological bound. Supernova SN 1987A is also shown to give a limit on N/sub nu/ comparable to current accelerator bounds. All numbers are found to be small thus verifying the Big Bang model at an earlier epoch than is possible by traditional astronomical observations. Future measurements at SLC and LEP will further tighten this argument. Another key prediction of the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is that the baryon density must be small (..cap omega../sub B/ less than or equal to 0.1). Recent attempts to try to subvert this argument using homogeneities of various types are shown to run afoul of the /sup 7/Li abundance which has now become a rather firm constraint. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Latest results on charmed baryons. xi. /sup +//sub /ital c// and. cap omega. /sup 0//sub /ital c//

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V. J.

    1989-04-25

    The observation of charmed-strange baryons ..xi../sup +//sub /ital c//(nee /ital A//sup +/)and ..cap omega../sup 0//sub /ital c// (nee T/sup 0/) at the Cern-SPS and Fermilab is discussed.Some questions about the production and decay of these particles are mentioned,and currently proposed experiments to address these questions are brieflypresented.

  5. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-15

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  6. Scaling studies with the dual crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Workman, J.; Flippo, K.; Seely, J. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.

    2010-10-15

    The dual crystal spectrometer (DCS) is an approved diagnostic at the OMEGA and the OMEGA-EP laser facilities for the measurement of high energy x-rays in the 11-90 keV energy range, e.g., for verification of the x-ray spectrum of backlighter targets of point projection radiography experiments. DCS has two cylindrically bent transmission crystal channels with image plate detectors at distances behind the crystals close to the size of the respective Rowland circle diameters taking advantage of the focusing effect of the cylindrically bent geometry. DCS, with a source to crystal distance of 1.2 m, provides the required energy dispersion for simultaneous detection of x-rays in a low energy channel (11-45 keV) and a high-energy channel (19-90 keV). A scaling study is described for varied pulse length with unchanged laser conditions (energy, focusing). The study shows that the K{alpha} line intensity is not strongly dependent on the length of the laser pulse.

  7. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-01

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  8. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility.

    PubMed

    Seely, J F; Szabo, C I; Feldman, U; Hudson, L T; Henins, A; Audebert, P; Brambrink, E

    2010-10-01

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. PMID:21034000

  9. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF. PMID:23126915

  10. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenzer, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2012-10-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  11. Mapping of the water ice content within the Martian surficial soil on the periphery of the retreating seasonal northern polar cap based on the TES and the OMEGA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Zabalueva, E. V.; Evdokimova, N. A.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Analysis of seasonal data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) shows a significant increase in thermal inertia during autumn, winter and spring in the middle and high latitudes of Mars. At each stage of the northern seasonal polar cap's recession in spring a distinct high thermal inertia (HTI) annulus arises around the cap's edge. Within this annulus, we estimated and mapped the springtime water ice content in the daily thermal skin depth layer using spring and summer values of the thermal inertia in TES surface footprints. The results show that the average water content in the surface soil within the HTI annulus varies from ˜5 vol % at the early stages of the seasonal polar cap retreating (Ls = 340°-360°) to ˜1 vol % at later stages (Ls = 60°-70°). Maximum values of water ice content within the HTI annulus occur at Ls = 0°-20° (2-6 vol %) and Ls = 20°-40° (4-10 vol %). We analyzed the temporal and spatial relationship between the HTI annuli and the water ice (WI) annuli at the edge of the northern seasonal polar cap. The water ice within the WI annuli was mapped using a water ice spectral index (the absorption band depth at the 1.5 μm wavelength) derived from the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) imaging spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft. Recent OMEGA observations show that the WI annuli formation arises only around the retreating northern seasonal polar cap, never around the retreating southern seasonal cap. For this reason our study is confined only to the northern hemisphere. The observed relationship between the HTI and WI annuli in the northern hemisphere of Mars indicates a close physical interdependence between these two phenomena. Our results confirm that the seasonal permafrost exposed by the retreating northern polar cap (within the HTI annuli) is actively involved today in the condensation and sublimation processes in the modern water cycle on Mars. The water

  12. Oxygen airglow emission on Venus and Mars as seen by VIRTIS/VEX and OMEGA/MEX imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.; Cardesín Moinelo, A.; Drossart, P.; D'Aversa, E.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2011-08-01

    Imaging spectrometers are highly effective instruments for investigation of planetary atmospheres. They present the advantage of coupling the compositional information to the spatial distribution, allowing simultaneous study of chemistry and dynamics in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. In this work, we summarize recent results about the O 2(a 1Δg) night and day glows, respectively obtained by VIRTIS/Venus Express and OMEGA/Mars Express, the imaging spectrometers currently in orbit around Venus and Mars. The case of the O 2(a 1Δg - X 3Σg-) IR emission at 1.27 μm on the night side of Venus and the day side of Mars is analyzed, pointing out dynamical aspects of these planets, like the detection of gravity waves in their atmospheres. The monitoring of seasonal and daily airglow variations provides hints about the photochemistry on these planets.

  13. Design of a compact, low-energy-charged-particle-spectrometer for stellar nucleosynthesis experiments at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A compact ``Orange'' Spectrometer is being designed for measurements of alpha and proton spectra in the range of ~ 1-5 MeV, produced in low-yield 3He3He experiments at the OMEGA laser and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Particle ray-tracing through magnetic fields, modeled by COMSOL, were conducted with the code Python. The goal is to identify an optimal setup for a spectrometer to measure alpha particles at relatively low energies and at low yield. Ability to study the alpha particles in addition to the protons is essential for understanding the nuclear physics governing the final-state interactions between pairs of particles in the three-body final state. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE and NLUF.

  14. Design of a compact, low energy charged particle spectrometer for stellar nucleosynthesis experiments at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simulations have been used to model an ``Orange Spectrometer'' for measuring alpha and proton energy spectra in the range ~1-5 MeV for experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). An important application will be the study of stellar nucleosynthesis reactions, in particular 3He +3He --> α + p +p, which is a step in the solar proton-proton chain. Experiments to study this reaction have been undertaken at OMEGA before, but no diagnostics have been able to measure the low-energy, low-yield alpha particles generated in the reaction. Feasibility studies were performed with particle trajectory calculations utilizing magnetic field models from COMSOL, and several designs have been identified for testing and development. Ability to study the alpha particles in addition to the protons is essential for understanding the nuclear physics governing the final-state interactions between pairs of particles in the three-body final state. This work was supported in part by NLUF, DOE, and LLE.

  15. Science objectives and observing strategy for the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on Mars-Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Drossart, P.; Forget, F.; Schmitt, B.; OMEGA Team

    2003-04-01

    The science objectives of OMEGA, which were first defined at the time of instruments selection for Mars-Express, were recently updated to integrate new results from MGS and Odyssey concerning three main fields: Martian surface and atmosphere, and polar processes. Thematic categories of observations are derived from the scientific objectives whenever spectral observations from OMEGA are expected to provide insights to Mars present situation and evolution. Targets within these categories are selected on the basis of their expected usefulness, which is related to their intrinsic properties and to the instrument capabilities. The whole surface will be mapped at low resolution (~5 km/pixel) in the course of the nominal mission, and possibly routinely at very coarse resolution to monitor time-varying processes from apocenter. However, only 5% of the surface can be observed at high resolution (up to 350 m/pixel) owing to constraints on telemetry rate. HR targets are therefore selected on the basis of telemetry constraints, orbital parameters, observing opportunities (visibility under given conditions), and spacecraft functionalities (e.g., depointing capacity), then prioritized within each category according to the probability to perform significant observations with OMEGA (in many situations, according to the estimated dust coverage). Target selection is performed interactively between OMEGA co-Is, in close contact with teams from other MEx experiments (mostly HRSC, PFS and Spicam) and other missions (e.g., MER and MRO). Most HR surface targets are selected on the basis of deep examination of Viking, THEMIS, and MOC HR images. Other surface targets include areas presenting unusual spectral properties in previous observations, or suspected to exhibit signatures of hydrothermal activity. Proposed landing sites and suggested source areas for the SNC meteorites are also included. Atmospheric/polar objectives more often translate as particular observing modes, sometimes at HR

  16. A compact Charged-Particle Spectrometer for OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas, J. A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu,

    2015-11-01

    A very compact scattering pinhole diagnostic (SPD) has been implemented and used to measure the mean energy of charged particles produced in Inertial Confinement (ICF) experiments. This was done by measuring the spatial distribution of mono-energetic particles that passed through a small pinhole, scattered in a thin foil that was positioned about a centimeter in front of a CR-39 detector. To determine the mean energy from the spatial distribution of the scattered particles on the CR-39, an empirical relationship between the scattering angle and the incoming particle energy for a given foil was determined using simulations. Two methods for the energy determination are discussed in this presentation. The capabilities of this diagnostic are demonstrated with DD proton and D3He alpha data from the OMEGA laser. To check the fidelity of the SPD measurements, the results are contrasted to data obtained with other well-established techniques. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  17. Observations of atmospheric water vapor above the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars with the OMEGA/MEx imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltagliati, Luca; Titov, Dmitry V.; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Forget, Francois; Garcia-Comas, Maya; Keller, Horst U.; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2008-03-01

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard the Mars Express spacecraft is particularly well suited to study in detail specific regions of Mars, thanks to its high spatial resolution and its high signal-to-noise ratio. We investigate the behavior of atmospheric water vapor over the four big volcanoes located on the Tharsis plateau (Olympus, Ascraeus, Pavonis and Arsia Mons) using the 2.6 μm band, which is the strongest and most sensitive H 2O band in the OMEGA spectral range. Our data sample covers the end of MY26 and the whole MY27, with gaps only in the late northern spring and in northern autumn. The most striking result of our retrievals is the increase of water vapor mixing ratio from the valley to the summit of volcanoes. Corresponding column density is often almost constant, despite a factor of ˜5 decrease in air mass from the bottom to the top. This peculiar water enrichment on the volcanoes is present in 75% of the orbits in our sample. The seasonal distribution of such enrichment hints at a seasonal dependence, with a minimum during the northern summer and a maximum around the northern spring equinox. The enrichment possibly also has a diurnal trend, being the orbits with a high degree of enrichment concentrated in the early morning. However, the season and the solar time of the observations, due to the motion of the spacecraft, are correlated, then the two dependences cannot be clearly disentangled. Several orbits exhibit also spatially localized enrichment structures, usually ring- or crescent-shaped. We retrieve also the height of the saturation level over the volcanoes. The results show a strong minimum around the aphelion season, due to the low temperatures, while it raises quickly before and after this period. The enrichment is possibly generated by the local circulation characteristic of the volcano region, which can transport upslope significant quantities of water vapor. The low altitude of the saturation level during the early summer can then

  18. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Frankel, R.; Sinenian, N.; Childs, R. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Burke, M.; Roberts, S.

    2011-07-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  19. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities. PMID:21806180

  20. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  1. A technique for extending by ∼10(3) the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility and OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Sio, H; Séguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Zylstra, A B; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2014-11-01

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers are routinely used on OMEGA and the NIF for diagnosing ρR and ρR asymmetries in direct- and indirect-drive implosions of D(3)He-, D2-, and DT-gas-filled capsules. By measuring the optical opacity distribution in CR-39 due to proton tracks in high-yield applications, as opposed to counting individual tracks, WRF dynamic range can be extended by 10(2) for obtaining the spectral shape, and by 10(3) for mean energy (ρR) measurement, corresponding to proton fluences of 10(8) and 10(9) cm(-2), respectively. Using this new technique, ρR asymmetries can be measured during both shock and compression burn (proton yield ∼10(8) and ∼10(12), respectively) in 2-shock National Ignition Facility implosions with the standard WRF accuracy of ±∼10 mg/cm(2). PMID:25430298

  2. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) for ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm, fizzle and ignited implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Deciantis, J. L.; Kurebayashi, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Soures, J. M.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hann, S. W.; Schmid, G. J.; Landen, O. L.; Izumi, N.

    2003-10-01

    A method for determining ρR_fuel of cryogenic deuterium-tritium plasmas involves measurement of the energy spectrum of elastically-scattered, primary neutrons. A spectrometer has been designed for doing this at OMEGA and the NIF, using scattered neutrons in the energy range 7-10 MeV to determine ρR_fuel and primary neutrons to measure T_i. The instrument utilizes a magnet and a conversion foil for production of charged particles. A large dynamic range (>10^6) will allow operation at yields as low as 10^12. This will allow ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm and cryogenic DT targets at OMEGA, and fizzle and ignited cryogenic DT targets at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the US DoE (contract W-7405-ENG-48 with LLNL, grant DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), and LLNL (subcontract B313975).

  3. A technique for extending by ∼10{sup 3} the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility and OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Sio, H. Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-11-15

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers are routinely used on OMEGA and the NIF for diagnosing ρR and ρR asymmetries in direct- and indirect-drive implosions of D{sup 3}He-, D{sub 2}-, and DT-gas-filled capsules. By measuring the optical opacity distribution in CR-39 due to proton tracks in high-yield applications, as opposed to counting individual tracks, WRF dynamic range can be extended by 10{sup 2} for obtaining the spectral shape, and by 10{sup 3} for mean energy (ρR) measurement, corresponding to proton fluences of 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}, respectively. Using this new technique, ρR asymmetries can be measured during both shock and compression burn (proton yield ∼10{sup 8} and ∼10{sup 12}, respectively) in 2-shock National Ignition Facility implosions with the standard WRF accuracy of ±∼10 mg/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Omega Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Unwuchola, A. D.; Connell, Simon H.; Aurousseau, M.; Dalton, Mark M.

    2013-08-01

    The differential cross section for p(e, e'ω)p has been studied at Q{sup 2} ~ 5.5 (GeV/c)2. Here Q{sup 2} represents the four momentum squared of the virtual photon in the excitation of baryonic resonances by an electron projectile. In order to extract the ω-meson differential cross section from the JLAB data, the data was compared to a full Monte Carlo simulation of the detector based on events generated for omega production in a way that the production cross section was varied to achieve a match to the data. The bin selected for this procedure takes into account the measure of robustness of the stripping of the ω peak from the multi-pion background as well as the statistics in the measured data and the Monte Carlo simulation of the signal and background physics. An error estimation technique for the cross section was based on determining the dependence of the extracted cross section parameters on the experimental set-up (including parameters for the spectrometer, target beam geometeries and performance). We compare our results with a Regge-based model for hadronic content in the t-channel exchange of a photon in Q{sup 2} region of overlap. There is an extension of this data into a completely new region, which is the highest yet measured.

  5. B Meson Decays to mega K*, omega rho, omega omega, omega phi, and omega f0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /Basilicata U., Potenza

    2006-07-28

    The authors describe searches for B meson decays to the charmless vector-vector final states {omega}K*, {omega}p, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi} with 233 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at {radical}s = 10.58 GeV. They also search for the vector-scalar B decay to {omega}f{sub 0}.

  6. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.

    2008-02-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season ( Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270°E, 75 to 80°N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45°E, 80 to 85°N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120°E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (˜15°E, 85°N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ˜330°E, 87°N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached ( Ls˜110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics.

  7. Martian circumpolar sulfate-rich deposits: sublimation tills derived from the North Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, M.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Verpoorter, C.; Le Deit, L.

    2009-12-01

    The North Polar Cap of Mars is an accumulation of ice layers with various amounts of interstratified dust particles. A dune field surrounds this polar cap. On one of the densest part of this dune field, Olympia Undae, Langevin et al. (Science, 2005) have detected calcium-rich sulfates (gypsum). To constrain the origin of these gypsum deposits, we performed an integrated morphological, structural and compositional analyses of a key area where it is possible to see the circum-polar dune field, the surface of the ice cap and a cross-section through the ice cap. The mineralogical composition of this area is investigated by applying a spectral derivative method to data acquired by OMEGA and CRISM hyperspectral imaging spectrometers. These are compared to laboratory spectra of ice-gypsum mixtures in simulated martian pressure and temperature conditions. We find that dunes of the circumpolar field and dust interstratified in the ice cap have the same composition. Both contain gypsum. Landforms produced by sublimation of ice are also visible on dust-rich layers of the ice cap. We therefore infer that the superficial circumpolar dust deposits correspond to a sublimation till produced by the ice cap. Circumpolar gypsum-rich deposits thus derive directly from the ice cap. Gypsum crystals are released at the surface of the cap as the ice sublimes. This material is then reworked by winds and forms the circumpolar dunes. There are two hypotheses for the ultimate origin of the gypsum crystals. (1) Pre-existing gypsum crystals might have been deposited together with ice crystals during the formation of the ice cap. (2) Authigenic gypsum crystals might have grown within the ice cap by weathering of dust trapped in the ice. The second hypothesis is consistent with the existence of authigenic sulfate inclusions in terrestrial polar ice (Ohno et al., GRL, 2006) and with the formation process suggested by Niles et al. (Nature, 2009) for martian equatorial sulfates.

  8. A technique for extending by ~103 the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility and OMEGAa)

    SciTech Connect

    Sio, H.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers are routinely used on OMEGA and the NIF for diagnosing ρR and ρR asymmetries in direct- and indirect-drive implosions of D3He-, D2-, and DT-gas-filled capsules. By measuring the optical opacity distribution in CR-39 due to proton tracks in high-yield applications, as opposed to counting individual tracks, WRF dynamic range can be extended by 102 for obtaining the spectral shape, and by 103 for mean energy (ρR) measurement, corresponding to proton fluences of 108 and 109 cm-2, respectively. Finally, using this new technique, ρR asymmetries can be measured during both shock and compression burn (proton yield ~108 and ~1012, respectively) in 2-shock National Ignition Facility implosions with the standard WRF accuracy of ±~10 mg/cm2.

  9. Inter-annual Variability of Mars Polar Processes as Observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J.-P.; Plaut, J.; Vincendon, M.; Gondet, B.; Poulet, F.; Schmidt, F.

    2010-05-01

    Mars Express has now been operated successfully more than 6 earth years after orbit insertion in late 2003. Thanks to a much longer than expected lifetime of the cryocoolers, which still perform nominally, the coverage of polar regions by OMEGA now spans more than three full Mars years, from Ls 338°, M-year 26 to Ls 85°, M-year 30. Therefore, the South perennial cap (Ls 310° to Ls 0°), the South seasonal cap (Ls 0° to Ls 310°) and the North seasonal cap (Ls 170° to Ls 90°) have been observed over four successive Mars year while the North perennial cap (Ls 90° to Ls 170°) has been observed over three successive martian years. Due to the precession of the pericenter and of the orbit plane of the elliptical orbit of the satellite, the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board this mission obtained data on polar regions at resolutions ranging from 300 m to 10 km over a wide range of Ls and local times [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. This provides an excellent data set for comparing the evolution of seasonal caps and the spectral characteristics of the perennial caps over different Martian years. For both the perennial cap and the seasonal cap, the CO2 ice signatures dominate in the South while H2O ice signatures dominate in the North. The lag by a few weeks of the retreat of the seasonal caps observed by OMEGA between different Martian years is consistent with that of the "Crocus lines" derived from TES temperature data in 1999 - 2001 [6], with a possible link with dust storm activity in 2007. The spectral component which is not dominant (H2O in the South, CO2 in the North) shows overall consistency but significant year to year variability. CRISM/MRO observations at a much higher spatial resolution support these conclusions. In late 2009, OMEGA observations of the South cap at the time of minimum extent (Ls 340°) showed a much larger extent of H2O ice signatures compared to what had been observed in early 2004 [1]. As these regions show only weak albedo contrast, the observed

  10. Interannual observations and quantification of summertime H2O ice deposition on the Martian CO2 ice south polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-11-01

    The spectral signature of water ice was observed on Martian south polar cap in 2004 by the Observatoire pour l'Mineralogie, l'Eau les Glaces et l'Activite (OMEGA) (Bibring et al., 2004). Three years later, the OMEGA instrument was used to discover water ice deposited during southern summer on the polar cap (Langevin et al., 2007). However, temporal and spatial variations of these water ice signatures have remained unexplored, and the origins of these water deposits remains an important scientific question. To investigate this question, we have used observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft of the southern cap during austral summer over four Martian years to search for variations in the amount of water ice. We report below that for each year we have observed the cap, the magnitude of the H2O ice signature on the southern cap has risen steadily throughout summer, particularly on the west end of the cap. The spatial extent of deposition is in disagreement with the current best simulations of deposition of water ice on the south polar cap (Montmessin et al., 2007). This increase in water ice signatures is most likely caused by deposition of atmospheric H2O ice and a set of unusual conditions makes the quantification of this transport flux using CRISM close to ideal. We calculate a 'minimum apparent' amount of deposition corresponding to a thin H2O ice layer of 0.2 mm (with 70% porosity). This amount of H2O ice deposition is 0.6-6% of the total Martian atmospheric water budget. We compare our 'minimum apparent' quantification with previous estimates. This deposition process may also have implications for the formation and stability of the southern CO2 ice cap, and therefore play a significant role in the climate budget of modern day Mars.

  11. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  12. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  14. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  15. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  16. Helix capping.

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R.; Rose, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    Helix-capping motifs are specific patterns of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions found at or near the ends of helices in both proteins and peptides. In an alpha-helix, the first four >N-H groups and last four >C=O groups necessarily lack intrahelical hydrogen bonds. Instead, such groups are often capped by alternative hydrogen bond partners. This review enlarges our earlier hypothesis (Presta LG, Rose GD. 1988. Helix signals in proteins. Science 240:1632-1641) to include hydrophobic capping. A hydrophobic interaction that straddles the helix terminus is always associated with hydrogen-bonded capping. From a global survey among proteins of known structure, seven distinct capping motifs are identified-three at the helix N-terminus and four at the C-terminus. The consensus sequence patterns of these seven motifs, together with results from simple molecular modeling, are used to formulate useful rules of thumb for helix termination. Finally, we examine the role of helix capping as a bridge linking the conformation of secondary structure to supersecondary structure. PMID:9514257

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  19. Retina and Omega-3

    PubMed Central

    Querques, Giuseppe; Forte, Raimondo; Souied, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, several epidemiological studies based on food frequency questionnaires suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could have a protective role in reducing the onset and progression of retinal diseases. The retina has a high concentration of omega-3, particularly DHA, which optimizes fluidity of photoreceptor membranes, retinal integrity, and visual function. Furthermore, many studies demonstrated that DHA has a protective, for example antiapoptotic, role in the retina. From a nutritional point of view, it is known that western populations, particularly aged individuals, have a higher than optimal omega-6/omega-3 ratio and should enrich their diet with more fish consumption or have DHA supplementation. This paper underscores the potential beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids on retinal diseases. PMID:22175009

  20. Caps Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAPS CAPSULE, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The main article in this issue of ERIC/CAPS' expanded newsletter is based on an interview with the presidents-elect of three national organizations--Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES), The American School Counselor Association (ASCA), and the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA). They discuss the role of the…

  1. Gas-cap effects in pressure-transient response of naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bemani, A.S.; Ershaghi, I.

    1997-03-01

    During the primary production life of an oil reservoir, segregation of oil and gas within the fissures before reaching the producing wells could create a secondary gas cap if no original gas cap were present, or will join the expanding original gas-cap gas. This paper presents a theoretical framework of gas-cap effects in naturally fractured reservoirs. General pressure solutions are derived for both pseudosteady-state and unsteady-state matrix-fracture interporosity flow. Deviation from the fracture or fracture-matrix response occurs as the gas-cap effect is felt. Anomalous slope changes during the transition period depend entirely on the contrast between the fracture anisotropy parameter, {lambda}{sub l}, and matrix-fracture interporosity parameter, {lambda}, and between the total gas-cap storage capacitance (1 {minus} {omega}{sub 1}) and oil-zone matrix storage (1 {minus} {omega}). A composite double-porosity response is observed for {omega}{sub 1} {le} {omega}{sub 1c} and 1.0 {le} {lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda} {le} 1,000. A triple-porosity response is observed for {omega}{sub 1} {ge} {omega}{sub k} and 140 < {omega}{lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda} < 1.0E05.

  2. [Omega-3 and health].

    PubMed

    Herbaut, C

    2006-09-01

    N-3 PUFA (omega-3), and the n-6 PUFA (omega-6) are essential fatty acids. They must be absorbed by alimentation and play a very important role in the coagulation (inhibition of platelets aggregation) and in the inflammatory reaction (anti-inflammatory effects). Their effects have been studied in different sicknesses. In cardiovascular diseases, particularly in coronary diseases, studies demonstrated a decreased mortality in populations who eat an omega-3 rich diet or who take an omega-3 supplement. Among others, sudden death after myocardial infarction is decreased. In inflammatory diseases an effect seem to be found in some studies. In rheumatoid arthritis a decrease of different biological markers of inflammation and in some case a clinical improvement has been noticed. It may be the same in COPD. On the other hand, they seem not to give any protection against cancer in general. At this moment the recommendations for healthy people are to eat twice a week fat fish and to take omega-3 rich oils. For pathological cases, recommendations exist only for coronary disease: 1 g of fish oils : mixture of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA/DHA) should be given after a myocardial infarction. PMID:17091903

  3. From Alpha To Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2002-08-01

    Galileo, the Father of Modern Science, put forth the first significant Modern Scientific Era/Philosophy. Best represented per: x' = x (+/-) vt. Locating/defining the dynamic x' in an Euclidean, fixed frame Universe. Einstein, the popularized relativist, utilizing Lorentz's transformation equations: x' = (x - vt)/square root [ 1- (v squared/c squared)], c the velocity of light. Arbitrarily decreed that c must be the ultimate, universal velocity. Thus, Reporters, the general Public and Scientists consider/considered, Einstein's OPINION of our Universe, 'The Omega Concept'. Castellano, since 1954, has PROVEN the "C Transformation Equations": X' = (X - vt)/square root [ 1 - (v squared/C squared)], Capital C = or greater than c; IS THE OMEGA CONCEPT. And "MAPHICS", combining the Philosophy of Mathematics with the Philosophy of Physics is "THE OMEGA PHILOSOPHY". Sufficient PROOFS & details are at: http://hometown.aol.com/phdco/myhomepage/index/html ----- Thank you for your interest. My sincere appreciation for deserved acknowledgements.

  4. From Alpha To Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2002-05-01

    Galileo, the Father of Modern Science put forth the first significant Modern Scientific Era/Philosophy. Best represented per: x' = x (+/-) vt. Locating/defining the dynamic x' per a fixed, Cartesian Coordinate, reference frame.----- Einstein, the popularized relativist, utilizing Lorentz's transformation Equations: x' = (x-vt)/squareroot [1 - (v squared/c squared)], c the velocity of light. Arbitrarily decreed that c must be the ultimate universal velocity. Thus, Reporters, the general Public, and Scientists consider/considered, Einstein's OPINION of our Universe, the 'Omega Concept'. ----- Castellano, since 1955, has PROVEN his "Castellano Transformation Equations": X' = (X - vt)/squareroot [ 1 - (v squared/c squared)]. Capital C = or greater than c; IS THE OMEGA CONCEPT. And his "MAPHICS" combining the Philosophy of Mathematics with the Philosophy of Physics is "THE OMEGA PHILOSOPHY". Sufficient PROOFS and details at: http://hometown.aol.com/phdco/myhomepage/index.html Thank you for your interest. My sincere appreciation for your attention and deserved acknowledgments.

  5. High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbier, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.

  6. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  8. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  9. The Omega Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a game in which the symbol omega becomes equivalent to the word ohm, and is then modified or incorporated into a picture to represent a common word or phrase. Recommends the game as a way of humanizing the beginning course. (GA)

  10. Omega-AB

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" conceptmore » which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.« less

  11. Simplified OMEGA receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The details are presented of methods for providing OMEGA navigational information including the receiver problem at the antenna and informational display and housekeeping systems based on some 4 bit data processing concepts. Topics discussed include the problem of limiters, zero crossing detectors, signal envelopes, internal timing circuits, phase counters, lane position displays, signal integrators, and software mapping problems.

  12. Omega-3 and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question In light of the increase in the number of school-aged children diagnosed with dyslexia, what is the role of omega-3 supplements in the management of this condition? Answer Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and is known to have multifactorial causes. Recent evidence suggests that there is a connection between defects in highly unsaturated fatty acid metabolism and neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia. While the benefit of omega-3 supplementation for children with dyslexia has been studied, evidence remains limited. Unified diagnostic criteria for dyslexia, objective measures of fatty acid deficiency, and close monitoring of dietary intake are some of the factors that would improve the quality of research in the field. PMID:26371100

  13. Correlation spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  14. Multidimensional spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  15. Fitting the cervical cap.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, A K; Baker, N N; Haney, S L

    1988-07-01

    The cervical cap is now available for general use by American women. Several steps are necessary to select women who are good candidates for cap usage and to successfully fit the cap. Many women are not good candidates for the cap. The cap is generally not suitable for women who have recently become sexually active or who are first-time contraceptors. Many users are women who cannot use more widely available contraceptives. Successful cap use requires a highly motivated, persistent woman who will correctly insert and remove her cap. The size, shape, length, position and location of the cervix must be assessed by the clinician prior to fitting the cap. The cervix should be visually inspected for lesions or cervicitis and a Pap smear should be taken. After an initial cap is selected, the stability of the cap, gaps between the cap and cervix, areas of uncovered cervix and the adequacy of the suction seal should be assessed. The woman should be taught how to insert and remove the cap. Additionally, she should be instructed to use a backup method of contraception until she is sure that the cap will remain in place during sexual intercourse. Successful cap fitting requires a careful, methodical approach by the clinician and a carefully selected, highly motivated client. This article presents the steps of cervical cap fitting. PMID:3405494

  16. Search for the charge-conjugation-forbidden decay {omega}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Starostin, A.; Nefkens, B. M. K.; Brudvik, J.; Prakhov, S.; Suarez, I. M.; Ahrens, J.; Arends, H. J.; Bartolome, P. A.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Martinez, M.; Ostrick, M.; Rost, M.; Thomas, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McGeorge, J. C.; McNicoll, E. F.; Robinson, J.

    2009-06-15

    A new upper limit of 2.3x10{sup -4} on the branching ratio of the decay {omega}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0} has been obtained using the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. This decay is forbidden by charge-conjugation invariance of the strong and electromagnetic interactions. We have also obtained the upper limit of 2.3x10{sup -4} for the forbidden decay {omega}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} and the upper limit of 2.4x10{sup -4} for {omega}{yields}2{pi}{sup 0}.

  17. The Electron Spectrometer for the Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Alsop, C.; Coker, A. J.; Linder, D. R.; Johnstone, A. D.; Woodliffe, R. D.; Grande, M.; Preece, A.; Burge, S.; Hall, D. S.

    1992-09-01

    One of the major aims of the Cassini spacecraft is to characterize in detail the interaction of the solar wind with the Saturnian system. The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) addresses this aim by measuring the plasma particles, ions and electrons, with a suite of three complementary state-of-the-art sensors. The Electron Spectrometer (ELS), contributed by the UK with assistance from Norway, will measure the energy and angular distributions of solar wind and magnetospheric electrons with unprecedented accuracy. This paper describes the scientific aims and design of CAPS concentrating particularly on the ELS sensor.

  18. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  19. Monitoring atmospheric dust spring activity at high southern latitudes on Mars using OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douté, S.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a monitoring of the atmospheric dust in the south polar region during spring of Martian year 27. Our goal is to contribute to identifying the regions where the dust concentration in the atmosphere shows specific temporal patterns, for instance high, variable, and on the rise due to lifting or transport mechanisms. This identification is performed in relation with the seasonal ice regression. Based on a phenomenological examination of the previous results, hypothesis regarding the origin of aerosol activity of the southern polar region is proposed. This is of paramount importance since local dust storms generated in this region sometimes grow to global proportions. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 μm) of the southern high latitudes of Mars from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110°, December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320° (November 2005). We use two complementary methods in order to retrieve the optical depth of the atmospheric dust at a reference wavelength of 1 μm. The methods are independently operated for pixels showing mineral surfaces on the one hand and the seasonal cap on the other hand. They are applied on a time series of OMEGA images acquired between LS=220° and LS=280° . As a result the aerosol optical depth (AOD) is mapped and binned at a spatial resolution of 1.0° pixel-1 and with a mean period of AOD sampling ranging from less than two sols for latitudes higher than 80°S to approximately six sols at latitudes in the interval 65-75°S. We then generate and interpret time series of orthographic mosaics depicting the spatio-temporal distribution of the seasonal mean values, the variance and the local time dependence of the AOD. In particular we suspect that two mechanisms play a major role for lifting and transporting efficiently mineral particles and create dust events or storms: (i) nighttime katabatic

  20. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  1. Short Zoom Into Omega Centauri

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a zoom into a simulated model of the globular star cluster Omega Centauri. All the stars appear to be moving in random directions, like a swarm of bees. Astronomers used Hubble's exquisite ...

  2. CLAS Electro-Omega Production

    SciTech Connect

    Volker Burkert; Alan Coleman; Herb Funsten; Franz Klein; A. Larabee; Berhard Mecking

    2002-12-12

    Electroproduction of omega (783) mesons from a proton target has been measured at CLAS in a search for so called ''missing'' baryon resonances. Scattered electrons were measured in coincidence with the recoiling proton and a pi{sup +} from the omega decay. Missing mass techniques were applied to identify the outgoing omega and to reduce the contributions of rho (770) and 2 pi final states. The resulting ep missing mass distributions clearing show an omega peak superimposed on a predominantly 3-pion phase space. Preliminary analysis indicates that t distributions monotonically decrease for W>2 GeV, as expected from pi-exchange and diffractive processes but for 1.8 GeV

  3. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful. PMID:26616980

  4. Multiaperture Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Rudolf A.; Pagano, Robert J.; O'Callaghan, Fred G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed multiaperture spectrometer containing single grating provides high spectral resolution over broad spectrum. Produces parallel line images, each of which highly spectrally resolved display of intensity vs. wavelength in wavelength band of one of orders of spectrum produced by grating. Advantages; convenient two-dimensional spectral image, fewer components, and greater efficiency.

  5. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  6. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  7. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  8. Health-care cap.

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    Dallas Avionics agreed to discontinue its cap on HIV-related medical expenses. The Texas company offered employees $1 million worth of lifetime medical benefits, with the exception of HIV-related expenses. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund intervened, demanding that the cap be removed and the company pay an employee's $82,000 outstanding HIV-related medical bills. According to Lambda, the cap violates the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). PMID:11363454

  9. Spatial profile reconstruction of individual componentsof the nonlinear susceptibility tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}' -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2011-06-30

    We have proved for the first time and proposed an algorithm of unique spatial profile reconstruction of the components {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}{sub yyyy} of complex tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}', -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}), describing four-photon interaction of light waves in a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate, whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} that is perpendicular to its surface. For the media with an additional symmetry axis 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z} or {infinity}{sub z} that is perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct about one-fifth of all independent components of the above tensors. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  11. Convex crystal x-ray spectrometer for laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.; Heeter, R.; Emig, J.

    2004-10-01

    Measuring time and space-resolved spectra is important for understanding Hohlraum and Halfraum plasmas. Experiments at the OMEGA laser have used the Nova TSPEC which was not optimized for the OMEGA diagnostic space envelope or for the needed spectroscopic coverage and resolution. An improved multipurpose spectrometer snout, the MSPEC, has been constructed and fielded on OMEGA. The MSPEC provides the maximal internal volume for mounting crystals without any beam interferences at either 2x or 3x magnification. The RAP crystal is in a convex mounting geometry bent to a 20 cm radius of curvature. The spectral resolution, E/dE, is about 200 at 2.5 keV. The spectral coverage is 2 to 4.5 keV. The MSPEC can record four separate spectra on the framing camera at time intervals of up to several ns. The spectrometer design and initial field-test performance will be presented and compared to that of the TSPEC.

  12. Winter and spring evolution of northern seasonal deposits on Mars from OMEGA on Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appéré, T.; Schmitt, B.; Langevin, Y.; Douté, S.; Pommerol, A.; Forget, F.; Spiga, A.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2011-05-01

    The OMEGA visible/near-infrared imaging spectrometer on Mars Express has observed the retreat of the northern seasonal deposits during Martian year 27-28 from the period of maximum extension, close to the northern winter solstice, to the end of the retreat at Ls 95°. We present the temporal and spatial distributions of both CO2 and H2O ices and propose a scenario that describes the winter and spring evolution of the northern seasonal deposits. During winter, the CO2-rich condensates are initially transparent and could be in slab form. A water ice annulus surrounds the sublimating CO2 ice, extending over 6° of latitude at Ls 320°, decreasing to 2° at Ls 350°, and gradually increasing to 4.5° at Ls 50°. This annulus first consists of thin frost as observed by the Viking Lander 2 and is then overlaid by H2O grains trapped in the CO2-rich ice layer and released during CO2 sublimation. By Ls 50°, H2O ice spectrally dominates most of the deposits. In order to hide the still several tens of centimeters thick CO2 ice layer in central areas of the cap we propose the buildup of an optically thick top layer of H2O ice from ice grains previously embedded in the CO2 ice and by cold trapping of water vapor from the sublimating water ice annulus. The CO2 ice signature locally reappears between Ls 50° and 70°. What emerges from our observations is a very active surface-atmosphere water cycle. These data provide additional constraints to the general circulation models simulating the Martian climate.

  13. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Amala, P.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes, which utilize several mechanisms for determining radiation transport (diffusion, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo). This flow is analogous to free molecular flow in a similar geometry.footnotetextE. Garelis and T.E. Wainwright. Phys. Fluids. 16, 4 (1973) A series of experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser in cases with a low-density heated cylindrical wall. The experiments consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder contained in an 80 μm thick carbon foam tube. Five shots panning three test cases were used: the nominal geometry described above (heated wall), the carbon tube replaced with solid gold, and a gold cap placed on the laser end of the cylinder assembly to block axial radiation flow. Simulations of each experimental target type were run with the KULL radiation code, and were used to compare the different radiation transport packages in KULL by employing synthetic diagnostics to match the experimental DANTE cavity radiation temperature time history and soft x-ray images taken by a streak camera imaging the far end of the hohlraum.

  14. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  15. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  16. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  17. Observation of an excited charm baryon Omega c* decaying to Omega c0gamma.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Bard, D J; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-12-01

    We report the first observation of an excited singly charmed baryon Omega c* (css) in the radiative decay Omega c0gamma, where the Omega c0 baryon is reconstructed in the decays to the final states Omega(-)pi+, Omega(-)pi+pi0, Omega(-)pi+pi(-)pi+, and Xi(-)K(-)pi+pi+. This analysis is performed using a data set of 230.7 fb(-1) collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The mass difference between the Omega c* and the Omega c0 baryons is measured to be 70.8+/-1.0(stat)+/-1.1(syst) MeV/c2. We also measure the ratio of inclusive production cross sections of Omega c* and Omega c0 in e+e(-) annihilation. PMID:17280195

  18. Deeply virtual and exclusive electroproduction of omega mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Morand, L; Et. Al.

    2005-04-01

    The exclusive omega electroproduction off the proton was studied in a large kinematical domain above the nucleon resonance region and for the highest possible photon virtuality (Q{sup 2}) with the 5.75 GeV beam at CEBAF and the CLAS spectrometer. Cross sections were measured up to large values of the four-momentum transfer (-t < 2.7 GeV{sup 2}) to the proton. The contributions of the interference terms sigma{sub TT} and sigma{sub TL} to the cross sections, as well as an analysis of the omega spin density matrix, indicate that helicity is not conserved in this process. The t-channel pi{sup 0} exchange, or more generally the exchange of the associated Regge trajectory, seems to dominate the reaction {gamma}* p {yields} omega p, even for Q{sup 2} as large as 5 GeV{sub 2}. Contributions of handbag diagrams, related to Generalized Parton Distributions in the nucleon, are therefore difficult to extract for this process. Remarkably, the high-t behavior of the cross sections is nearly Q{sup 2}-independent, which may be interpreted as a coupling of the photon to a point-like object in this kinematical limit.

  19. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  20. Measurement of the Omega0(c) lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, M.; Ayan, A.S.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, P.S.; Dauwe, L.J.; /Ball State U. /Bogazici U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Moscow, ITEP /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Moscow State U. /St. Petersburg, INP

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a precise measurement of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} lifetime. The data were taken by the SELEX (E781) experiment using 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -}, {pi}{sup -} and p beams. The measurement has been made using 83 {+-} 19 reconstructed {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} in the {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} decay modes. The lifetime of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} is measured to be 65 {+-} 13(stat) {+-} 9(sys) fs.

  1. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  2. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  3. Tyrrhena Terra: hydrated lobates ejecta and plains, as seen by OMEGA/MEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Bouley, S.; Mangold, N.; Meresse, S.; Costard, F.; Poulet, F.; Ansan, V.; Le Mouelic, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2009-04-01

    Tyrrhena Terra was reported [2; 1; 3; 4] as one of the Martian region displaying outcrops rich in hydrated miner-als, by the identification of a weak 1.9 µm absorption band on spectra acquired by OMEGA, the imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express. The region is located in cratered Noachian highlands in the southern hemisphere, south of Isidia Planitia and north of Hellas basin. It displays highland terrains partially dissected by fluvial valleys and several intercrater plains. Hydrated minerals are identified in two types of terrains in Tyrrhena Terra: on lobate ejecta blankets and in some plains. About 20 ejecta blankets showing hydrated minerals were identified with OMEGA in the studied area. The pres-ence of the 2.3 µm absorption band, together with the 1.93 µm band, indicates the possible presence of phyllosili-cates. Most of these ejecta blankets are located on the eastern, higher part of the studied region, above 2000 m in altitude. Their diameter varies from 2 to 26 km. They are well delimited and are contrasted compared to the rest of the highlands on THEMIS IR night imagery. The other, non-hydrated, ejecta blankets of the region do not show such a contrast. As the dust cover is very low throughout the region, the difference in the THEMIS IR nighttime imagery would come from a difference in the ejecta material or preservation [3]. The hydration as seen by OMEGA appears preferentially on the surrounding ejecta and not inside the crater. Py-roxene is also detected on the ejecta blankets. On another hand, most ejecta are devoid of olivine as detected by OMEGA, although it is detected on many intercrater plains of the region. In addition, CRISM observes phyllosilicates associated with crater ejecta blankets and in mounds and knobs on crater floors [5; 6]. We also identified with OMEGA around 10 areas showing outcrops of hydrated minerals in the studied region, not associated to crater ejecta. They generally correspond to plains at the end of valley

  4. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  5. Murray and the Omega Minus

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, N.P.

    2010-08-20

    The exciting findings and activities in particle physics in the 50's and 60's will be discussed from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Particular emphasis will be placed on the description of several crucial discoveries (including the omega minus) and on the remarkable insight, guidance, and major contributions of Murray Gell-Mann to the understanding of the symmetry of hadrons which led to the development of the standard model of the strong interactions.

  6. Murray and the Omega Minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    2011-11-01

    The exciting findings and activities in particle physics in the 50's and 60's will be discussed from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Particular emphasis will be placed on the description of several crucial discoveries (including the omega minus) and on the remarkable insight, guidance, and major contributions of Murray Gell-Mann to the understanding of the symmetry of hadrons which led to the development of the standard model of the strong interactions.

  7. Murray and the Omega Minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    The exciting findings and activities in particle physics in the 50's and 60's will be discussed from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Particular emphasis will be placed on the description of several crucial discoveries (including the omega minus) and on the remarkable insight, guidance, and major contributions of Murray Gell-Mann to the understanding of the symmetry of hadrons which led to the development of the standard model of the strong interactions.

  8. Omega-X micromachining system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    A micromachining tool system with X- and omega-axes is used to machine spherical, aspherical, and irregular surfaces with a maximum contour error of 100 nonometers (nm) and surface waviness of no more than 0.8 nm RMS. The omega axis, named for the angular measurement of the rotation of an eccentric mechanism supporting one end of a tool bar, enables the pulse increments of the tool toward the workpiece to be as little as 0 to 4.4 nm. A dedicated computer coordinates motion in the two axes to produce the workpiece contour. Inertia is reduced by reducing the mass pulsed toward the workpiece to about one-fifth of its former value. The tool system includes calibration instruments to calibrate the micromachining tool system. Backlash is reduced and flexing decreased by using a rotary table and servomotor to pulse the tool in the omega-axis instead of a ball screw mechanism. A thermally-stabilized spindle rotates the workpiece and is driven by a motor not mounted on the micromachining tool base through a torque-smoothing pulley and vibrationless rotary coupling. Abbe offset errors are almost eliminated by tool setting and calibration at spindle center height. Tool contour and workpiece contour are gaged on the machine; this enables the source of machining errors to be determined more readily, because the workpiece is gaged before its shape can be changed by removal from the machine.

  9. A Phrygian Cap

    PubMed Central

    van Kamp, Marie-Janne S.; Bouman, Donald E.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Klaase, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    A Phrygian cap is a congenital anomaly of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. It can simulate a mass in the liver during hepatobiliary imaging and is sometimes mistaken for pathology. A Phrygian cap, however, has no pathological significance and normally causes no symptoms. A case will be presented where a Phrygian cap was found by coincidence during surgery. The patient was operated for colon cancer with liver metastasis in segment V. He underwent a simultaneous right hemicolectomy and wedge resection of the liver lesion. During perioperative inspection, a gallbladder with a folded fundus was seen. This deformity was, in retrospective, detected on the preoperative MRI scan. The patient underwent cholecystectomy to make the wedge resection easier to perform. Otherwise, cholecystectomy for a Phrygian cap is only indicated in case of symptoms. Radiographic imaging can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is no recent literature about the Phrygian cap and its imaging aspects. Nowadays, multiphase MRI, or multiphase CT in case of MRI contraindication, are the first choices of hepatobiliary imaging. PMID:24019768

  10. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    PubMed Central

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  11. An imaging spectrometer for planetary studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, G.; Mastracci, F.; Formisano, V.; Adriani, A.; Capaccioni, F.

    1993-10-01

    VNIR, a Visible Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, was developed at IFSI-CNR and it is the visible channel of an experiment, named OMEGA, to be flown on the Russian Mars 94 mission, that will provide detailed mineralogical and chemical maps of the Mars surface. The authors have tested and calibrated the instrument in their laboratory, using it to take images and spectra of meteorites and terrestrial rocks. In the present work a description of the camera with some preliminary results of this activity are given.

  12. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  13. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  14. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871

  15. Kinetic analysis of papaya proteinase omega.

    PubMed

    Sumner, I G; Vaughan, A; Eisenthal, R; Pickersgill, R W; Owen, A J; Goodenough, P W

    1993-08-01

    Papaya proteinase omega (pp omega) has been purified from dried latex both by immunoaffinity and traditional methods. Kinetic analysis revealed that (1), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide (BApNA) has a lower specificity (kcat/Km) than the same reaction catalysed by papain; (2), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of a tripeptide substrate having phenylalanine at the second position (S2-site) showed a more similar specificity to that catalysed by papain; (3), the significant difference between the two enzymes is that steady state kinetics with both L-BApNA and a tripeptide enables the identification in pp omega of other ionizations affecting binding. The active sites of papain and pp omega can therefore be distinguished by pH-dependence of kcat/Km. PMID:8393709

  16. FY15 LLNL OMEGA Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Baker, K. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Beckwith, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Fournier, K. B.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Frenje, J.; Huntington, C. M.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Smith, R. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Widmann, K.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2015-12-04

    In FY15, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 468 target shots in FY15, with 315 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, 145 shots using just the EP laser system, and 8 Joint shots using Omega and EP together. Approximately 25% of the total number of shots (56 OMEGA shots and 67 EP shots, including the 8 Joint shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 75% (267 OMEGA shots and 86 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy-Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports.

  17. Soft x-ray power diagnostic improvements at the Omega Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, C.; Schein, J.; Weber, F.; Widmann, K.; Campbell, K.; Dewald, E.; Turner, R.; Landen, O.; Jacoby, K.; Torres, P.; Pellinen, D.

    2006-10-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for evaluating high temperature laser plasma experiments. The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, a core diagnostic for radiation flux and temperature measurements of Hohlraums, installed on the Omega Laser Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics has recently undergone a series of upgrades. Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the development of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Dante spectrometer enables the Omega Dante to offer a total of 18 absolutely calibrated channels in the energy range from 50 eV to 20 keV. This feature provides Dante with the capability to measure higher, NIF relevant, radiation temperatures with increased accuracy including a differentiation of higher energy radiation such as the Au M and L bands. Diagnostic monitoring using experimental data from directly driven Au spherical shots is discussed.

  18. Meat-based functional foods for dietary equilibrium omega-6/omega-3.

    PubMed

    Reglero, Guillermo; Frial, Paloma; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Risco, Mónica R; Jaime, Laura; Marin, Francisco R; Palanca, Vicente; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Santoyo, Susana; Señoráns, Francisco J; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Torres, Carlos; Ibañez, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Nutritionists encourage improving the diet by combining meat products with fish or other sea-related foods, in order to equilibrate the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Strong scientific evidence supports the beneficial health effects of a balanced omega-6/omega-3 PUFA (poly unsaturated fatty acids) diets. In the present work, the scientific bases of new functional meat products with both a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio and a synergic combination of antioxidants are discussed. The aim is to contribute to the dietary equilibrium omega-6/omega-3 and to increase the antioxidant intake. Conventional meat products supplemented with a specific fatty acids and antioxidants combination led to functional foods with healthier nutritional parameters. PMID:18686293

  19. Integration of Omega and satellite navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachta, Henry B.

    An extensive series of laboratory tests and flight trials has established that the hybrid Omega/VLF/GPS system effectively applies GPS to the enhancement of Omega with a cost-effective operator installation. The accuracy enhancement thus achieved also increases the reliability of navigation and furnishes aviation fuel savings superior to those of Omega, as a result of reduced flight-path wavering. The prospective GPS/GLONASS navigation system currently undergoing definition will be the first certifiable as a sole means on navigation; the Omega/VLF/GPS hybrid can serve as a transitional system.

  20. Guard For Fuse Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    L-shaped guard attached to fuse holder. Guard prevents casual tampering with fuses in electrical junction box or fuse block. Protects fuses from being damaged by handling or by rope or string used to secure them. With fuse-cap guard, only responsible people have access to fuses.

  1. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26848697

  2. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  3. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  4. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  5. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  6. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  7. Fastener Caps For Electronic Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    Simple devices indicate fasteners disturbed. Lid on fastener cap bent to cover fastener head. Caps then wired together in pairs. Used in place of older paper or plastic tape seals, providing greater security and presenting neater appearance.

  8. Rare Nonleptonic Decays of the Omega Hyperon: Measurements of the Branching Ratios for Omega-+ --> Xi*0(1530) (anti-Xi*0(1530)) pi-+ and Omega-+ --> Xi-+ pi+- pi-+

    SciTech Connect

    Kamaev, Oleg; /IIT, Chicago

    2007-12-01

    A clean signal of 78 (24) events has been observed in the rare nonleptonic particle (antiparticle) decay modes {Omega}{sup {-+}} {yields} {Xi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} using data collected with the HyperCP spectrometer during Fermilab's 1999 fixed-target run. We obtain B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = [4.32 {+-} 0.56(stat) {+-} 0.28(syst)] x 10{sup -4} and B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 3.13 {+-} 0.71(stat) {+-} 0.20(syst) x 10{sup -4}. This is the first observation of the antiparticle mode. Our measurement for the particle mode agrees with the previous experimental result and has an order-of-magnitude better precision. We extract the contribution from the resonance decay mode {Omega}{sup {-+}} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} ({ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}}){pi}{sup {-+}} to the final state {Xi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}. This the first actual measurement of the resonance-mode branching ratios, gives B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}) = [4.55 {+-} 2.33(stat) {+-} 0.38(syst)] x 10{sup -5}, B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}}{pi}{sup +}) = [1.40 {+-} 2.83(stat) {+-} 0.12(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and disagrees with the current Particle Data Group review value, being {approx} 14 times smaller. Since the central value of the resonance-mode branching ratio is less than two standard deviations away from zero, we also calculate branching ratio upper limits at 90% confidence level: B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}) < 7.61 x 10{sup -5} and B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}} {pi}{sup +}) < 5.61 x 10{sup -5}. This analysis provides new data on nonleptonic hyperon decays which allows studies of how weak interaction processes occur in the presence of strong interactions.

  9. M54 + SAGITTARIUS = {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; Momany, Y.; D'Orazi, V.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.; Piotto, G. E-mail: angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: raffaele.gratton@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: valentina.dorazi@oapd.inaf.it

    2010-05-01

    We derive homogeneous abundances of Fe, O, Na, and {alpha}-elements from high-resolution FLAMES spectra for 76 red giant stars in NGC 6715 (M54) and for 25 red giants in the surrounding nucleus of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy. Our main findings are the following. (1) We confirm that M54 shows intrinsic metallicity dispersion, {approx}0.19 dex rms. (2) When the stars of the Sgr nucleus are included, the metallicity distribution strongly resembles that in {omega} Cen; the relative contribution of the most metal-rich stars is, however, different in these two objects. (3) In both globular clusters (GCs) there is a very extended Na-O anticorrelation, which is a signature of different stellar generations born within the cluster. (4) The metal-poor and metal-rich components in M54 (and {omega} Cen) show clearly distinct extension of the Na-O anticorrelation, the most heavily polluted stars being those of the metal-rich component. We propose a tentative scenario for cluster formation that could explain these features. Finally, similarities and differences found in the two most massive GCs in our Galaxy can be easily explained if they are similar objects (nuclear clusters in dwarf galaxies) observed at different stages of their dynamical evolution.

  10. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  11. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  12. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  13. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  14. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  15. Cluster evolution as a diagnostic for Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eke, Vincent R.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    1996-09-01

    The population of rich galaxy clusters evolves much more rapidly in a universe with critical density than in a universe with low density. Thus, counts of clusters at intermediate redshift offer the possibility of determining the cosmological density parameter, {OMEGA}_0_ with a minimum of assumptions. We quantify this evolution using the Press-Schechter formalism which we extend to flat cosmological models with a cosmological constant, {LAMBDA}_0_ = 1 - {OMEGA}_0_. Using new large N-body simulations, we verify that this formalism accurately predicts the abundance of rich clusters as a function of redshift in various cosmologies. We normalize the models by comparing them with the local abundance of clusters as a function of their X-ray temperature which we rederive from data compiled by Henry & Arnaud. The resulting values of the rms density fluctuation in spheres of radius 8h^-1^ Mpc are σ_8_ = (0.52 +/- 0.04){OMEGA}_0_^-0.46+0.10{OMEGA}_0_^ if {LAMBDA}_0_ = and σ_8_ = (0.52+/-0.04){OMEGA}_0_^- 0.52+0.13{OMEGA}_0_^ if {LAMBDA}_0_ = 1 - {OMEGA}_0_. These values depend only weakly, and almost not at all if {OMEGA}_0_ = 1, on the shape of the power spectrum. We then examine how the distributions of mass, X-ray temperature and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement evolve as a function of {OMEGA}_0_. We present the expected distributions at z = 0.33 and z = 0.5 and the predicted number counts of the largest clusters, both in space and in projection on the sky. We find that, even at z = 0.33, these distributions depend very strongly on {OMEGA}_0_ and only weakly on {LAMBDA}_0_. For example, at this redshift, we expect 15 times as many clusters per comoving volume with M > 3.5 x 10^14^h^-1^ M_sun_ and 5 times as many clusters with kT > 5 keV if {OMEGA}_0_ = 0.3 than if {OMEGA}_0_ = 1. The splitting in the integrated counts is enhanced by the larger volume element in low-a models. There is therefore a real prospect of estimating {OMEGA}_0_ from forthcoming surveys of intermediate

  16. Optics Performance at 1(omega), 2 (omega), and 3 (omega): Final Report on LDRD Project 03-ERD-071

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J; Adams, J; Carr, C; Demos, S; Feit, M; Mehta, N; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; Rubenchik, A; Spaeth, M

    2006-02-08

    The interaction of intense laser light with dielectric materials is a fundamental applied science problem that is becoming increasingly important with the rapid development of ever more powerful lasers. To better understand the behavior of optical components in large fusion-class laser systems, we are systematically studying the interaction of high-fluence, high-power laser light with high-quality optical components, with particular interest on polishing/finishing and stress-induced defects and surface contamination. We focus on obtaining comparable measurements at three different wavelengths, 1{omega} (1053 nm), 2{omega} (527 nm), and 3{omega} (351 nm).

  17. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  18. Light Vector Meson Photoproduction off of H at Jefferson Lab and rho-omega Interference in the Leptonic Decay Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies of light vector meson production in heavy nuclear targets has generated interest in {rho}-{omega} interference in the leptonic e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. An experimental study of the elementary process provides valuable input for theoretical models and calculations. In experiment E04-005 (g12), high statistics photoproduction data has been taken in Jefferson Lab's Hall B with the Cebaf Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The invariant mass spectrum is fitted with two interfering relativistic Breit-Wigner functions to determine the interference phase. Preliminary analysis indicate a measurable {rho}-{omega} interference.

  19. Analysis of OMEGA/Mars Express data hyperspectral data using a Multiple-Endmember Linear Spectral Unmixing Model (MELSUM): Methodology and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OMEGA Science Team; Combe, J.-Ph.; Le Mouélic, S.; Sotin, C.; Gendrin, A.; Mustard, J. F.; Le Deit, L.; Launeau, P.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.; Langevin, Y.; Pinet, P.; OMEGA Science Team

    2008-05-01

    The mineralogical composition of the Martian surface is investigated by a Multiple-Endmember Linear Spectral Unmixing Model (MELSUM) of the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express. OMEGA has fully covered the surface of the red planet at medium to low resolution (2-4 km per pixel). Several areas have been imaged at a resolution up to 300 m per pixel. One difficulty in the data processing is to extract the mineralogical composition, since rocks are mixtures of several components. MELSUM is an algorithm that selects the best linear combination of spectra among the families of minerals available in a reference library. The best fit of the observed spectrum on each pixel is calculated by the same unmixing equation used in the classical Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). This study shows the importance of the choice of the input library, which contains in our case 24 laboratory spectra (endmembers) of minerals that cover the diversity of the mineral families that may be found on the Martian surface. The analysis is restricted to the 1.0-2.5 μm wavelength range. Grain size variations and atmospheric scattering by aerosols induce changes in overall albedo level and continuum slopes. Synthetic flat and pure slope spectra have therefore been included in the input mineral spectral endmembers library in order to take these effects into account. The selection process for the endmembers is a systematic exploration of whole set of combinations of four components plus the straight line spectra. When negative coefficients occur, the results are discarded. This strategy is successfully tested on the terrestrial Cuprite site (Nevada, USA), for which extensive ground observations exist. It is then applied to different areas on Mars including Syrtis Major, Aram Chaos and Olympia Undae near the North Polar Cap. MELSUM on Syrtis Major reveals a region dominated by mafic minerals, with the oldest crustal regions

  20. Observation of an Excited Charm Baryon Omega^*_C Decaying to Omega^0_C Gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B

    2006-11-15

    The authors report the first observation of an excited singly-charmed baryon {Omega}*{sub c} (css) in the radiative decay {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0}{gamma}, where the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} baryon is reconstructed in the decays to the final states {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, and {Xi}{sup -} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. This analysis is performed using a dataset of 230.7 fb{sup -1} collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The mass difference between the {Omega}*{sub c} and the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} baryons is measured to be 70.8 {+-} 1.0(stat) {+-} 1.1(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}. They also measure the ratio of inclusive production cross sections of {Omega}*{sub c} and {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation.

  1. Polar-Direct-Drive Experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Bonino, M.J.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk

    2006-06-28

    Polar direct drive (PDD), a promising ignition path for the NIF while the beams are in the indirect-drive configuration, is currently being investigated on the OMEGA laser system by using 40 beams in six rings repointed to more uniformly illuminate the target. The OMEGA experiments are being performed with standard, “warm” targets with and without the use of an equatorial “Saturn-like” toroidally shaped CH ring. Target implosion symmetry is diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting using additional OMEGA beams and by time-integrated x-ray imaging of the stagnating core.

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  3. Warm axino dark matter with {omega}{sub b}-{omega}{sub DM}

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2009-09-08

    We show that the {omega}{sub b}-{omega}{sub DM} coincidence can naturally be explained in a framework where axino is dark matter which is predominantly produced in nonthermal processes involving decays of Q-balls formed in Affleck-Dine mechanism. In this approach, the similarity of {omega}{sub b} and {omega}{sub DM} is a direct consequence of the (sub-)GeV scale of the mass of the axino. In the case that the formed Q-ball carries leptonic charge only (L-ball), produced axinos become warm dark matter suitable for the solution of the missing satellite problem and the cusp problem.

  4. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    2002-10-01

    Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids compared with the diet on which human beings evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio) exert suppressive effects. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a ratio of 4/1 was associated with a 70% decrease in total mortality. A ratio of 2.5/1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4/1 with the same amount of omega-3 PUFA had no effect. The lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio in women with breast cancer was associated with decreased risk. A ratio of 2-3/1 suppressed inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and a ratio of 5/1 had a beneficial effect on patients with asthma, whereas a ratio of 10/1 had adverse consequences. These studies indicate that the optimal ratio may vary with the disease under consideration. This is consistent with the fact that chronic diseases are multigenic and multifactorial. Therefore, it is quite possible that the therapeutic dose of omega-3 fatty acids will depend on the degree of severity of disease resulting from the genetic predisposition. A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is more desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases of high prevalence in Western societies, as well as in the developing countries, that are being exported to the rest of the world. PMID:12442909

  5. The OMEGA tribute to Gerhard'HRSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    A review will be proposed of the coupled Mars 96 and MEx OMEGA / HRSC activities and results, covering a wide range of key Martian themes, and having contributed to a profound revisiting of Mars History at all timescales.

  6. Elementary Education: What Is Project Omega?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes Project Omega for Research in Remote Sensing Education, a program in space education designed for inservice training of elementary social studies teachers. Explains a few research areas dealing with the classroom applications of Landsat imagery. (CS)

  7. Two omega method for active thermocouple microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Laurent; Gavignet, Eric; Cretin, Bernard

    2009-03-01

    We present a contribution to a new mode of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) based on the use of thermoelectric junction operating in ac active mode. This is the first alternative to 3omega operating mode of a resistive SThM probe for measuring thermophysical parameters of materials at micro- and nanoscale. Whereas a current at omega frequency generates by Joule effect a 2omega thermal oscillation along the wires, the junction thermoelectric voltage can be measured by means of a differential bridge scheme associated to a lock-in amplifier. A thermal model is presented that confirms measurements performed in different situations with different wire probes. Values of thermal contact conductance of different materials have been extracted and a comparison has been performed between this technique and the resistive 3omega mode. PMID:19334942

  8. OMEGA for the Future of Biofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    OMEGA: Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. To develop a photobioreactor (PBR) for growing algae (Oil, food, fertilizer) that does not compete with agriculture for land (deployed offshore), water or fertilizer (uses/treats wastewater).

  9. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... bigger than a checkbook. Oily fish rich in omega-3s include: Salmon Mackerel Albacore tuna Trout Sardines ... eating a variety of fish. Pregnant women and children should avoid fish ... or older, the benefits of eating fish outweigh any risks.

  10. Zooming in on Omega Centauri Stellar Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie sequence begins with a ground-based image of the giant globular star cluster Omega Centauri and zooms very tightly in to a Hubble Space Telescope image of the central region of the clust...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... omega-3s. They are mostly found in fatty fish like salmon, sardines, and trout. Some eggs are ... and yogurt. Should I Worry About Eating Certain Fish? Because of mercury contamination of our oceans, rivers, ...

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  13. Lipidomics to Assess Omega 3 Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    How can we resolve the conflict between the strong epidemiological evidence pointing to the usefulness of fish—and, thus, omega 3—consumption with the debacle of supplementation trials? One potential explanation is that the null results obtained thus far are the consequences of ill-contrived investigations that do not allow us to conclude on the effects (or lack thereof) of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. One potential solution is through the use of lipidomics, which should prove very useful to screen suitable patients and to correlate plasma (or red blood cells, or whole blood, or phospholipid) fatty acid profile with outcomes. This has never been done in omega 3 trials. The wise use of lipidomics should be essential part of future omega 3 trials and would help in untangling this current riddle. PMID:26371049

  14. Optical Omega network: a compact implementation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Cheng, L. M.

    1995-10-01

    We propose a technique for the compact implementation of an optical Omega network. This technique utilizes the concept that both the perfect-shuffle interconnection and the switching stages can be realized by the same procedures, i.e., duplicate, shift, superimpose, and mask. As a result, a single set of optics is sufficient to realize the whole Omega network in a time-multiplexed recursive manner. Optical setups were designed and a proof-of-principle experiment was performed.

  15. Differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega}

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Krahn, Z.; McCracken, M. E.; Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Careccia, S. L.; Dodge, G. E.; Klein, A.; Mayer, M.; Nepali, C. S.; Niroula, M. R.; Seraydaryan, H.; Tkachenko, S.; Weinstein, L. B.

    2009-12-15

    High-statistics differential cross sections and spin-density matrix elements for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega} have been measured using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass (c.m.) energies from threshold up to 2.84 GeV. Results are reported in 112 10-MeV wide c.m. energy bins, each subdivided into cos{theta}{sub c.m.}{sup {omega}} bins of width 0.1. These are the most precise and extensive {omega} photoproduction measurements to date. A number of prominent structures are clearly present in the data. Many of these have not previously been observed due to limited statistics in earlier measurements.

  16. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  17. Cassini multi-instrument assessment of Saturn's polar cap boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinks, S. L.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.; Yeoman, T. K.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.; Gurnett, D. A.; Krupp, N.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Morooka, M.; Wahlund, J.-E.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of the polar cap boundary in Saturn's high-latitude magnetosphere through a multi-instrument assessment of various Cassini in situ data sets gathered between 2006 and 2009. We identify 48 polar cap crossings where the polar cap boundary can be clearly observed in the step in upper cutoff of auroral hiss emissions from the plasma wave data, a sudden increase in electron density, an anisotropy of energetic electrons along the magnetic field, and an increase in incidence of higher-energy electrons from the low-energy electron spectrometer measurements as we move equatorward from the pole. We determine the average level of coincidence of the polar cap boundary identified in the various in situ data sets to be 0.34° ± 0.05° colatitude. The average location of the boundary in the southern (northern) hemisphere is found to be at 15.6° (13.3°) colatitude. In both hemispheres we identify a consistent equatorward offset between the poleward edge of the auroral upward directed field-aligned current region of ~1.5-1.8° colatitude to the corresponding polar cap boundary. We identify atypical observations in the boundary region, including observations of approximately hourly periodicities in the auroral hiss emissions close to the pole. We suggest that the position of the southern polar cap boundary is somewhat ordered by the southern planetary period oscillation phase but that it cannot account for the boundary's full latitudinal variability. We find no clear evidence of any ordering of the northern polar cap boundary location with the northern planetary period magnetic field oscillation phase.

  18. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  19. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Hats Off to Thinking Caps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Lynne E.

    2005-01-01

    This document describes a third grade teachers' new twist to get her students' minds motivated for another school year. She purchased some "thinking caps." The purpose of the caps was to help students focus on various academic tasks. The children were thrilled to have a new tool to help them concentrate.

  1. Transverse-Target-Spin Asymmetry in Exclusive {omega}-Meson Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avetissian, A.; Belostotski, S.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Jackson, H. E.; Reimer, P. E.

    2015-12-17

    Hard exclusive electroproduction of omega mesons is studied with the HERMES spectrometer at the DESY laboratory by scattering 27.6 GeV positron and electron beams off a transversely polarized hydrogen target. The amplitudes of five azimuthal modulations of the single-spin asymmetry of the cross section with respect to the transverse proton polarization are measured. They are determined in the entire kinematic region as well as for two bins in photon virtuality and momentum transfer to the nucleon. Also, a separation of asymmetry amplitudes into longitudinal and transverse components is done. These results are compared to a phenomenological model that includes the pion pole contribution. Within this model, the data favor a positive pi omega transition form factor.

  2. Measurements of B meson decays to (omega)K* and (omega)(rho)

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; . Wright, D M; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R H; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Y G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Abe, T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Keith, D W . S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, H; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Collaboration, B

    2006-03-14

    The authors describe searches for B meson decays to the charmless vector-vector final states {omega}K* and {omega}{rho} in 89 million B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at {radical}s = 10.58 GeV.

  3. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF).

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku; Berkley, James A; Calder, Philip C; Jones, Kelsey D; Liu, Lei; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neurocognitive and immune development led two independent groups to evaluate RUTFs. Jones et al. (BMC Med 13:93, 2015), in a study in BMC Medicine, and Hsieh et al. (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015), in a study in the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, reformulated RUTFs with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use expands. PMID:25980919

  4. Convex Crystal X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M; Heeter, R; Emig, J

    2004-04-15

    Measuring time and space-resolved spectra is important for understanding Hohlraum and Halfraum plasmas. Experiments at the OMEGA laser have used the Nova TSPEC which was not optimized for the OMEGA diagnostic space envelope or for the needed spectroscopic coverage and resolution. An improved multipurpose spectrometer snout, the MSPEC, has been constructed and fielded on OMEGA. The MSPEC provides the maximal internal volume for mounting crystals without any beam interferences at either 2x or 3x magnification. The RAP crystal is in a convex mounting geometry bent to a 20 cm radius of curvature. The spectral resolution, E/dE, is about 200 at 2.5 keV. The spectral coverage is 2 to 4.5 keV. The MSPEC can record four separate spectra on the framing camera at time intervals of up to several ns. The spectrometer design and initial field-test performance will be presented and compared to that of the TSPEC. Work supported by U. S. DoE/UC LLNL contract W-7405-ENG-48

  5. Midnight Sector Observations of Auroral Omega Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, J. A.; Woodfield, E. E.; Donovan, E. F.; Fear, R. C.; Grocott, A.; Lester, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lucek, E. A.; Kadokura, A.; Hosokawa, K.; Carlson, C. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Björnsson, G.

    2010-12-01

    We present observations of auroral omega bands on 28 September 2009. Although generally associated with the substorm recovery phase and typically observed in the morning sector, the omega bands presented here occurred just after expansion phase onset and were observed in the midnight sector, immediately dawnward of the onset region. The Tjörnes “Rainbow” all-sky imager, located in north-eastern Iceland, revealed that the omega bands were ˜200 km in scale and propagated eastward from the onset region at ˜0.4 km/s while a co-located ground magnetometer recorded the simultaneous passage of Ps 6 pulsations. Although somewhat smaller and slower-moving than the majority of previously reported omega bands, the observed structures were clear examples of this phenomenon, albeit in an atypical location and much earlier in the substorm cycle than is usual. During the study interval the THEMIS A and C probes provided detailed measurements of the upstream interplanetary environment while the Cluster spacecraft were located in the tail plasma sheet conjugate to the ground-based all-sky imager. Cluster observed pulsed fluxes of electrons moving parallel to the magnetic field towards the northern hemisphere auroral ionosphere. Despite mapping uncertainties, there is some suggestion that keV electron fluxes in the tail were related to the auroral emissions in the omega bands. We suggest that omega band formation may be linked to expansion phase onset in the midnight sector and that the finite propagation speed through post-midnight and early morning local times may account for the interpretation of omega bands as a morning sector recovery phase phenomenon.

  6. 3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B; Hrubesh, L

    2001-02-22

    The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of damage sites so that we can develop and apply an effective means to mitigate it. The

  7. Rare B Meson Decays With Omega Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; /Colorado U.

    2006-04-24

    Rare charmless hadronic B decays are particularly interesting because of their importance in understanding the CP violation, which is essential to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe, and of their roles in testing the ''effective'' theory of B physics. The study has been done with the BABAR experiment, which is mainly designed for the study of CP violation in the decays of neutral B mesons, and secondarily for rare processes that become accessible with the high luminosity of the PEP-II B Factory. In a sample of 89 million produced B{bar B} pairs on the BABAR experiment, we observed the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}K{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{rho}{sup +} for the first time, made more precise measurements for B{sup +} {yields} {omega}h{sup +} and reported tighter upper limits for B {yields} {omega}K* and B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{rho}{sup 0}.

  8. In-medium {omega} mass from the {gamma}+Nb {yields} {pi}{sup 0{gamma}}+X reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nanova, M.; Metag, V.; Gregor, R.; Kotulla, M.; Lugert, S.; Novotny, R.; Pant, L. M.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Schadmand, S.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Anton, G.; Bogendoerfer, R.; Hoessl, J.; Suft, G.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Castelijns, R.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.

    2010-09-15

    Data on the photoproduction of {omega} mesons on nuclei have been reanalyzed in a search for in-medium modifications. The data were taken with the crystal barrel (CB)/two-arm photon spectrometer (TAPS) detector system at the ELectron Stretcher Anlage (ELSA) accelerator facility in Bonn. First results from the analysis of the data set were published by Trnka et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 192303 (2005)], claiming a lowering of the {omega} mass in the nuclear medium by 14% at normal nuclear matter density. The extracted {omega} line shape was found to be sensitive to the background subtraction. For this reason a reanalysis of the same data set has been initiated, and a new method has been developed to reduce the background and to determine the shape and absolute magnitude of the background directly from the data. Details of the reanalysis and of the background determination are described. The {omega} signal on the Nb target, extracted in the reanalysis, does not show a deviation from the corresponding line shape on a LH{sub 2} target, measured as reference. The earlier claim of an in-medium mass shift is thus not confirmed. The sensitivity of the {omega} line shape to different in-medium modification scenarios is discussed.

  9. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER OMEGA CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, Daryl; Cool, Adrienne M.; Davies, Melvyn B. E-mail: cool@sfsu.edu

    2009-05-20

    We analyze a {approx}70 ks Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer exposure of the globular cluster {omega} Cen (NGC 5139). The {approx}17' x 17' field of view fully encompasses three core radii and almost twice the half-mass radius. We detect 180 sources to a limiting flux of {approx}4.3 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (L{sub x} = 1.2 x 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} at 4.9 kpc). After accounting for the number of active galactic nuclei and possible foreground stars, we estimate that 45-70 of the sources are cluster members. Four of the X-ray sources have previously been identified as compact accreting binaries in the cluster-three cataclysmic variables (CVs) and one quiescent neutron star. Correlating the Chandra positions with known variable stars yields eight matches, of which five are probable cluster members that are likely to be binary stars with active coronae. Extrapolating these optical identifications to the remaining unidentified X-ray source population, we estimate that 20-35 of the sources are CVs and a similar number are active binaries. This likely represents most of the CVs in the cluster, but only a small fraction of all the active binaries. We place a 2{sigma} upper limit of L{sub x} < 3 x 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} on the integrated luminosity of any additional faint, unresolved population of sources in the core. We explore the significance of these findings in the context of primordial versus dynamical channels for CV formation. The number of CVs per unit mass in {omega} Cen is at least 2-3 times lower than in the field, suggesting that primordial binaries that would otherwise lead to CVs are being destroyed in the cluster environment.

  10. Refilin holds the cap.

    PubMed

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Baudier, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT. PMID:22446558

  11. The Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, E.; Harris, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer for experiments in an advanced-teaching laboratory. Discusses the theory of operation of the spectrometer and the factors affecting the resolution. Some examples of mass spectra obtained with this instrument are presented and discussed. (LC)

  12. Differential Moessbauer spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurinyi, Yu.A.; Grotov, Yu.D.

    1988-07-01

    A spectrometer is described that permits hardware differentiation of spectra with respect to the energy of gamma radiation, specimen temperature, etc. Differentiation is performed by secondary modulation of source motion with subsequent phase-sensitive detection at the harmonics. The spectrometer is CAMAC-compatible and permits simultaneous measurement of the first four harmonics.

  13. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Astarita, Giuseppe; McKenzie, Jennifer H; Wang, Bin; Strassburg, Katrin; Doneanu, Angela; Johnson, Jay; Baker, Andrew; Hankemeier, Thomas; Murphy, James; Vreeken, Rob J; Langridge, James; Kang, Jing X

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-controlled manner, the molecular phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The fat-1 mouse can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs, which protect against a wide variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Both wild-type (WT) and fat-1 mice were subjected to an identical diet containing 10% corn oil, which has a high omega-6 content similar to that of the Western diet, for a six-month duration. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to compare the plasma lipidome between fat-1 and WT mice. In fat-1 mice, an unbiased profiling showed a significant increase in the levels of unesterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), EPA-containing cholesteryl ester, and omega-3 lysophosphospholipids. The increase in omega-3 lipids is accompanied by a significant reduction in omega-6 unesterified docosapentaenoic acid (omega-6 DPA) and DPA-containing cholesteryl ester as well as omega-6 phospholipids and triacylglycerides. Targeted lipidomics profiling highlighted a remarkable increase in EPA-derived diols and epoxides formed via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathway in the plasma of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. Integration of the results of untargeted and targeted analyses has identified a lipidomic biosignature that may underlie the healthful phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio, and can potentially be used as a circulating biomarker for monitoring the health status and the efficacy of omega-3 intervention in humans. PMID

  14. Omega Dante Soft X-Ray Power Diagnostic Component Calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K; Weber, F; Dewald, E; Glenzer, S; Landen, O; Turner, R; Waide, P

    2004-04-15

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester is a twelve-channel filter-edge defined x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50eV-1keV) and X8A (1keV-6keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been implemented to insure the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  15. Omega Dante soft x-ray power diagnostic component calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.; Weber, F.A.; Dewald, E.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Landen, O.L.; Turner, R.E.; Waide, P.A.

    2004-10-01

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, is a 12-channel filter-edge defined soft x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the spectrally resolved, absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Dante component calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50 eV-1 keV) and X8A (1-6 keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source have been implemented to improve the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated metallic vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  16. Spatial variability in the seasonal south polar CAP of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, Wendy M.; Martin, Terry Z.

    1994-10-01

    The first comprehensive discussion of the south seasonal polar cap spectra obtained by the Mariner 7 infrared spectrometer in the short-wavelength region (2-4 microns) is presented. The infrared spectra is correlated with images acquired by the wide-angle camera. Significant spectral variation is noted in the cap interior and regions of varying water frost abundance, CO2 ice/frost cover, and CO2-ice path length can be distinguished. Many of these spectral variations correlate with heterogeneity noted in the camera images, but certain significant infrared spectral variations are not discernible in the visible. Simple reflectance models are used to classify the observed spectral variations into four regions. Region I is at the cap edge, where there is enhanced absorption beyond 3 microns inferred to be caused by an increased abundance of water frost. The increase in water abundance over that in the interior is on the level of a few parts per thousand or less. Region II is the typical cap interior characterized by spectral features of CO2 ice at grain sizes of several millimeters to centimeters. These spectra also indicate the presence of water frost at the parts per thousand level. A third, unusual region (III), is defined by three spectra in which weak CO2 absorption features are as much as twice as strong as in the average cap spectra and are assumed to be caused by an increased path length in the CO2. Such large paths are inconsistent with the high reflectance in the visible and at 2.2 microns and suggest layered structures or deposition conditions that are not accounted for in current reflectance models. The final region (IV) is an area of thinning frost coverage or transparent ice well in the interior of the seasonal cap. These spectra are a combination of CO2 and ground signatures.

  17. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs. PMID:17254747

  18. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  19. Hierarchical Analysis of the Omega Ontology

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Paulson, Patrick R.

    2009-12-01

    Initial delivery for mathematical analysis of the Omega Ontology. We provide an analysis of the hierarchical structure of a version of the Omega Ontology currently in use within the US Government. After providing an initial statistical analysis of the distribution of all link types in the ontology, we then provide a detailed order theoretical analysis of each of the four main hierarchical links present. This order theoretical analysis includes the distribution of components and their properties, their parent/child and multiple inheritance structure, and the distribution of their vertical ranks.

  20. Binary phase locked loops for Omega receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, K.

    1974-01-01

    An all-digital phase lock loop (PLL) is considered because of a number of problems inherent in an employment of analog PLL. The digital PLL design presented solves these problems. A single loop measures all eight Omega time slots. Memory-aiding leads to the name of this design, the memory-aided phase lock loop (MAPLL). Basic operating principles are discussed and the superiority of MAPLL over the conventional digital phase lock loop with regard to the operational efficiency for Omega applications is demonstrated.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: cap myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groote C, de Jonghe P, Marttila M, Laing NG, Pelin K, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Cap disease caused ... E, Wallefeld W, Memo M, Donner K, Laing NG, Marston S, Grönholm M, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Abnormal actin ...

  2. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  3. Researchers dodge UK migration cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2011-03-01

    Research scientists are among those to be prioritized under the UK government's new immigration rules that will impose an annual cap on the number of work visas issued to those from outside the European Union (EU).

  4. OMEGA EP: High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.H.; Waxer, L.J.; Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Bromage, J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Kessler, T.J.; Loucks, S.J.; Maywar, D.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Oliver, J.B.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Stoeckl, C.; Dalton, S.; Folnsbee, L.; Guardalben, M.J.; Jungquist, R.; Puth, J.; Shoup III, M.J.; Weiner, D.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-06-28

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a petawatt-class addition to the existing 30-kJ, 60-beam OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. When completed, it will consist of four beamlines, each capable of producing up to 6.5 kJ at 351 nm in a 1 to 10 ns pulse. Two of the beamlines will produce up to 2.6 kJ in a pulse-width range of 1 to 100 ps at 1053 nm using chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). This paper reviews both the OMEGA EP performance objectives and the enabling technologies required to meet these goals.

  5. Dual-shank attachment design for omega seals

    DOEpatents

    Sattinger, Stanley S.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for attaching welded omega seal segments to reactor heads, standpipes, mechanisms, and plugs comprises a first shank in combination with a second shank to attach an omega seal at a metal-to-metal interface.

  6. Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158505.html Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects Data from ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 fish oil supplements may improve the effectiveness of antidepressants, ...

  7. Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158505.html Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects Data from 8 ... April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 fish oil supplements may improve the effectiveness of antidepressants, new ...

  8. Measurement of the spin of the omega(-) hyperon.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch

    2006-09-15

    A measurement of the spin of the Omega(-) hyperon produced through the exclusive process Xi(c)(0)-->Omega(-)K(+) is presented using a total integrated luminosity of 116 fb(-1) recorded with the BABAR detector at the e(+)e(-) asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. Under the assumption that the Xi(c)(0) has spin 1/2, the angular distribution of the Lambda from Omega(-)-->LambdaK(-) decay is inconsistent with all half-integer Omega(-) spin values other than 3/2. Lower statistics data for the process Omega(c)(0)-->Omega(-)pi(+) from a 230 fb(-1) sample are also found to be consistent with Omega(-) spin 3/2. If the Xi(c)(0) spin were 3/2, an Omega(-) spin of 5/2 could not be excluded. PMID:17025877

  9. Polar cap auroral electron fluxes observed with Isis 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winningham, J. D.; Heikkila, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Three types of auroral particle precipitation have been observed over the polar caps, well inside the auroral oval, by means of the soft particle spectrometer on the Isis 1 satellite. The first type is a uniform, very soft (about 100 eV) electron 'polar rain' over the entire polar cap; this may well be present with very weak intensity at all times, but it is markedly enhanced during worldwide geomagnetic storms. A second type of precipitation is a structured flux of electrons with energies near 1 keV, suggestive of localized 'polar showers'; it seems likely that these are the cause of the sun-aligned auroral arcs that have been observed during moderately quiet conditions. During periods of intense magnetic disturbance this precipitation can become very intense and exhibit a characteristic pattern that we have come to call a 'polar squall'.

  10. Gouy Interferometry: Properties of Multicomponent System Omega Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D G

    2007-01-24

    We consider the properties of {Omega} graphs ({Omega} vs f(z)) obtained from Gouy interferometry on multicomponent systems with constant diffusion coefficients. We show that they must have (a) either a maximum or else a minimum between f(z)=0 and f(z)=1 and (b) an inflection point between the f(z) value at the extremum and f(z)=1. Consequently, an {Omega} graph cannot have both positive and negative {Omega} values.

  11. The SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Greenlees, P. T.; Butler, P. A.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cox, D. M.; Cresswell, J. R.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Letts, S. C.; Mistry, A.; Page, R. D.; Parr, E.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rahkila, P.; Sampson, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Seddon, D. A.; Simpson, J.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.

    2014-03-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of -rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and -rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method.

  12. Characterization of Mars' seasonal caps using neutron spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Mars' seasonal caps are characterized during Mars years 26 and 27 (April 2002 to January 2006) using data acquired by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. Time-dependent maps of the column abundance of seasonal CO 2 surface ice poleward of 60?? latitude in both hemispheres are determined from spatially deconvolved, epithermal neutron counting data. Sources of systematic error are analyzed, including spatial blurring by the spectrometer's broad footprint and the seasonal variations in the abundance of noncondensable gas at high southern latitudes, which are found to be consistent with results reported by Sprague et al. (2004, 2007). Corrections for spatial blurring are found to be important during the recession, when the column abundance of seasonal CO2 ice has the largest latitude gradient. The measured distribution and inventory of seasonal CO2 ice is compared to simulations by a general circulation model (GCM) calibrated using Viking lander pressure data, cap edge functions determined by thermal emission spectroscopy, and other nuclear spectroscopy data sets. On the basis of the amount of CO2 cycled through the caps during years 26 and 27, the gross polar energy balance has not changed significantly since Viking. The distribution of seasonal CO2 ice is longitudinally asymmetric: in the north, deposition rates of CO2 ice are elevated in Acidalia, which is exposed to katabatic winds from Chasma Borealis; in the south, CO2 deposition is highest near the residual cap. During southern recession, CO 2 ice is present longer than calculated by the GCM, which has implications for the local polar energy balance. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  14. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  15. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  16. Baryon spectroscopy and the omega minus

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-12-31

    In this report, I will mainly discuss baryon resonances with emphasis on the discovery of the {Omega}{sup {minus}}. However, for completeness, I will also present some data on the meson resonances which together with the baryons led to the uncovering of the SU(3) symmetry of particles and ultimately to the concept of quarks.

  17. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

  18. Composite Spectrometer Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

  19. The SLIM spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Kevin M; Ingle, James D

    2003-01-01

    A new spectrometer, here denoted the SLIM (simple, low-power, inexpensive, microcontroller-based) spectrometer, was developed that exploits the small size and low cost of solid-state electronic devices. In this device, light-emitting diodes (LED), single-chip integrated circuit photodetectors, embedded microcontrollers, and batteries replace traditional optoelectronic components, computers, and power supplies. This approach results in complete customizable spectrometers that are considerably less expensive and smaller than traditional instrumentation. The performance of the SLIM spectrometer, configured with a flow cell, was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial spectrophotometer. Thionine was the analyte, and the detection limit was approximately 0.2 microM with a 1.5-mm-path length flow cell. Nonlinearity due to the broad emission profile of the LED light sources is discussed. PMID:12530815

  20. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  1. The imaging spectrometer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    Two important sensor design drivers are the requirement for spatial registration of the spectral components and the implementation of the advanced multispectral capability, including spectral band width, number of bands and programmability. The dispersive approach, fundamental to the imaging spectrometer concept, achieves these capabilities by utilizing a spectrometer to disperse the spectral content while preserving the spatial identity of the information in the cross-track direction. Area array detectors in the spectrometer focal plane detect and store the spatial and multispectral content for each line of the image. The choice of spectral bands, image IFOV and swath width is implemented by programmed readout of the focal plane. These choices in conjunction with data compression are used to match the output data rate with the telemetry link capability. Progress in the key technologies of optics, focal plane detector arrays, onboard processing, and focal plane cooling supports the viability of the imaging spectrometer approach.

  2. Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 μm spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 °C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

  3. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  4. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  5. Generation of synthetic satellite data with OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, D. P.; Cox, R. M.

    1994-12-01

    Satellite data retrieval algorithms almost always involve a large degree of model or simulation input. As an example, the satellite might provide a radiance or transmittance measurement that has to be unfolded to provide temperature or mass density. In order to convert transmittance into mass density, the operator must make some assumptions on the mass extinction coefficient and particle size distribution. These assumptions are often based upon climatological averages or upon simulation results. The Operational Multiscale Environment model with Grid Adaptivity (OMEGA) is a new atmospheric simulation system that merges state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics techniques with a comprehensive non-hydrostatic equation set that includes both explicit and parameterized microphysics. OMEGA is based upon an unstructured triangular prism grid that permits a horizontal grid resolution ranging from 100 km down to 1 km and a vertical resolution from a few tens of meters in the boundary layer to 1 km in the free troposphere. OMEGA also contains an embedded aerosol transport algorithm that permits the simulation at high resolution of the transport and diffusion of either grid based aerosols or of Lagrangian parcels. OMEGA represents a significant advance in the field of weather prediction and aerosol transport. Current operational forecast models are scale- specific and have a limit to their resolution caused by their fixed rectangular grid structure. OMEGA, on the other hand, is naturally scale spanning and its unstructured grid permits the addition of grid elements at any point in space and time. This means that OMEGA can readily adapt its grid to fixed surface or terrain features, or dynamic features in the evolving weather. This feature also makes OMEGA a useful tool for satellite data retrieval and for the generation of synthetic satellite data. Synthetic satellite data is generated by recognizing that it is easier, in some ways, to simulate the performance of a sensor

  6. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  7. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  8. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  9. South Polar Cap, Summer 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the south polar cap of Mars as it appeared to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on April 17, 2000. In winter and early spring, this entire scene would be covered by frost. In summer, the cap shrinks to its minimum size, as shown here. Even though it is summer, observations made by the Viking orbiters in the 1970s showed that the south polar cap remains cold enough that the polar frost (seen here as white) consists of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide freezes at temperatures around -125o C (-193o F). Mid-summer afternoon sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left from about 11.2o above the horizon. Soon the cap will experience sunsets; by June 2000, this pole will be in autumn, and the area covered by frost will begin to grow. Winter will return to the south polar region in December 2000. The polar cap from left to right is about 420 km (260 mi) across.

  10. Dynamical coupled channel calculation of pion and omega meson production

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A dynamical coupled channel approach is used to study $\\pi$ and $\\omega$--meson production induced by pions and photons scattering from the proton. Six-channels are used to fit unpolarized and polarized scattering data including $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$, $\\pi\\Delta$, $\\sigma N$, $\\rho N$, $\\omega N$. Bare parameters in an effective hadronic Lagrangian are fixed in $\\chi^2$-fits to data from $\\pi N \\to \\pi N$, $\\gamma N \\to \\pi N$, $\\pi^- p \\to \\omega n$, and $\\gamma p \\to \\omega p$ reactions at center-of-mass energies from threshold to $E < 2.0$ GeV. The $T$ matrix determined in these fits is used to calculate the photon beam asymmetry for $\\omega$-meson production and the $\\omega N \\to \\omega N$ total cross section and scattering lengths.

  11. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  12. The Enigmatic Martian Polar Caps

    SciTech Connect

    James, Philip

    2005-08-17

    The Martian polar caps have puzzled astronomers for over a century. Extensive study by many instruments on various spacecraft has resolved many questions but has at the same time created a new generation of puzzles. The polar caps are intimately coupled to the current Martian climate and volatile cycles. They also hold clues to climate variations on a variety of longer time scales. The results of recent missions will be reviewed, and the potential outlook for resolution of the outstanding questions will be examined.

  13. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  14. UV-Visible reflectance of Phobos from SPICAM and OMEGA and comparison with Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, Brigitte; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Montmessin, Franck; Reberarc, Aurelie

    2016-04-01

    Mars Express made several encounters with Phobos and a few with Deimos since 2004. Observations with SPICAM and OMEGA imaging spectrometers on board Mars Express covers the range from UV (110-312 nm) to visible and mid IR up to 5 μm. In the following we consider the ultraviolet (UV) channel of SPICAM and only the visible channel of OMEGA and its small UV extension down to 390 nm, in order to compare with SPICAM. Preliminary results were presented already in the past [1]. Since then, a more detailed analysis was carried out, subtracting some internally scattered light affecting the SPICAM UV retrieved reflectance. The combined spectrum of Radiance Factor from SPICAM and OMEGA suggests the presence of a deep absorption feature. Both instruments, taken separately, support also this absorption feature. In the visible part of CRISM [2] on board MRO, one feature is centered at 0.65 μm, with an absorption depth varying from 0 to 4%, an other one is centered at 2.8μm. These two Visible IR features were interpreted [2] either to highly desiccated Fe-phyllosilicate minerals indigenous to the bodies, or to a surface process involving Rayleigh scattering and absorption of small iron particles formed by exogenic space weathering processing. In this rather uncertain situation, the UV band detected by SPICAM and OMEGA on board Mars Express is of great importance to attempt discriminating between the two scenarios proposed above to explain the Visible-IR reflectance spectra of Phobos. [1] Bertaux J.L. et al. (2011) EPSC/DPS conference abstract, Nantes, November 2011, [5] Freaman A.A. et al. (2014) Icarus, 229 , 196-205.

  15. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today’s health epidemics. PMID:26062993

  16. Regenerative amplifier for the OMEGA laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushkin, Andrei; Bittle, W.; Letzring, S. A.; Skeldon, Mark D.; Seka, Wolf D.

    1999-07-01

    We present the requirements, design, and experimental results for a negative feedback-controlled Nd:YLF regenerative amplifier for the OMEGA laser system. This externally synchronizable region boosts the energy of temporally shaped optical pulses from the subnanojoule to the submillijoule energy level with a measured long-term output energy stability of 0.2 percent rms. To our knowledge this represents the highest energy stability ever demonstrated for a millijoule-level laser system, either flashlamp pumped or diode pumped. In addition to the excellent stability and reproducibility, the regen output is very insensitive to the injected pulse energy and the temporal distortions due to the negative feedback are immeasurable. Four regenerative amplifiers equipped with this negative feedback system have operated flawlessly on OMEGA over the past two year period.

  17. Differential effects of omega-3 and omega-6 Fatty acids on gene expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Waddy, Edward; Barmada, Mohsen; Das, Rina; Peel, Sheila A; Day, Agnes A; Jett, Marti

    2007-01-01

    Essential fatty acids have long been identified as possible oncogenic factors. Existing reports suggest omega-6 (omega-6) essential fatty acids (EFA) as pro-oncogenic and omega-3 (omega-3) EFA as anti-oncogenic factors. The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells while the omega-6 fatty acids induces growth of these cells in animal models and cell lines. In order to explore likely mechanisms for the modulation of breast cancer cell growth by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, we examined the effects of arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), EPA and DHA on human breast cancer cell lines using cDNA microarrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435s, MCF-7 and HCC2218 cell lines were treated with the selected fatty acids for 6 and 24 h. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in the breast cancer cells treated with both classes of fatty acids discerned essential differences among the two classes at the earlier time point. The differential effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the breast cancer cells were lessened at the late time point. Data mining and statistical analyses identified genes that were differentially expressed between breast cancer cells treated with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Ontological investigations have associated those genes to a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular nutrition, cell division, cell proliferation, metastasis and transcription factors etc., and thus presented an important pool of biomarkers for the differential effect of omega-3 and omega-6EFAs. PMID:16823509

  18. Ir Spectral Mapping of the Martian South Polar Residual CAP Using Crism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jacqueline; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011) . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007). The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012). This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009) that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called "Swiss Cheese Terrain", a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009). We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  19. Calibration of a Flat Field Soft X-ray Grating Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-05-12

    We have calibrated the x ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL, and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range from {approx} 6 to 60 {angstrom}. The calibration results present here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  20. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  1. OMEGA FY13 HED requests - LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, Jonathan B; Loomis, Eric N

    2012-06-25

    This is a summary of scientific work to be performed on the OMEGA laser system located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester New York. The work is funded through Science and ICF Campagins and falls under the category of laser-driven High-Energy Density Physics experiments. This summary is presented to the Rochester scheduling committee on an annual basis for scheduling and planning purposes.

  2. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  3. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  4. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  5. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  6. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  7. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  8. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Omega Baryons in a Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Muslema Pervin; Winston Roberts; Simon Capstick

    2006-03-24

    The semileptonic decays of {Omega}{sub c} and {Omega}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model developed in a previous paper on the semileptonic decays of heavy {Lambda} baryons. Analytic results for the form factors for the decays to ground states and a number of excited states are evaluated. For {Omega}{sub b} to {Omega}{sub c} the form factors obtained are shown to satisfy the relations predicted at leading order in the heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point. A modified fit of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians generates configuration-mixed baryon wave functions from the known masses and the measured {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}e{sup +}{nu} rate, with wave functions expanded in both harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. Decay rates of {Omega}{sub b} to pairs of ground and excited {Omega}{sub c} states related by heavy-quark symmetry calculated using these configuration-mixed wave functions are in the ratios expected from heavy-quark effective theory, to a good approximation. Our predictions for the semileptonic elastic branching fraction of {Omega}{sub Q} vary minimally within the models we use. We obtain an average value of (84 {+-} 2%) for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Xi}{sup (*)} decays to ground states, and 91% for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Omega}{sup (*)} decays to the ground state {Omega}. The elastic fraction of {Omega}{sub b} {yields} {Omega}{sub c} ranges from about 50% calculated with the two harmonic-oscillator models, to about 67% calculated with the two Sturmian models.

  9. Omega Centauri Looks Radiant in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    A cluster brimming with millions of stars glistens like an iridescent opal in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Called Omega Centauri, the sparkling orb of stars is like a miniature galaxy. It is the biggest and brightest of the 150 or so similar objects, called globular clusters, that orbit around the outside of our Milky Way galaxy. Stargazers at southern latitudes can spot the stellar gem with the naked eye in the constellation Centaurus.

    Globular clusters are some of the oldest objects in our universe. Their stars are over 12 billion years old, and, in most cases, formed all at once when the universe was just a toddler. Omega Centauri is unusual in that its stars are of different ages and possess varying levels of metals, or elements heavier than boron. Astronomers say this points to a different origin for Omega Centauri than other globular clusters: they think it might be the core of a dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart and absorbed by our Milky Way long ago.

    In this new view of Omega Centauri, Spitzer's infrared observations have been combined with visible-light data from the National Science Foundation's Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Visible-light data with a wavelength of .55 microns is colored blue, 3.6-micron infrared light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera is colored green and 24-micron infrared light taken by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer is colored red.

    Where green and red overlap, the color yellow appears. Thus, the yellow and red dots are stars revealed by Spitzer. These stars, called red giants, are more evolved, larger and dustier. The stars that appear blue were spotted in both visible and 3.6-micron-, or near-, infrared light. They are less evolved, like our own sun. Some of the red spots in the picture are distant galaxies beyond our own.

    Spitzer found very little dust

  10. OMEGA - an operational glacier monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2003-04-01

    Glacier changes reflect local climate changes and are one of the most important direct indicators of global climate change. In general, the glaciers are retreating in Europe, but some glaciers are advancing. However, even in small areas glacier responses can be different. The application of glaciers as indicators requires sufficient amount of glaciers, which is possible only with remote sensing methods. Remote sensing data have been used for glacier monitoring from the late 19th century, first as terrestrial photographs, but later as aerial photographs. A new era began in the 1970’s as optical satellite data became available. Since late 1990’s the glacier monitoring could be performed with numerous satellite and airborne sensors ranging from satellite radar data to airborne laser scanner data. All together, the development of new remote sensing technologies and methods provides many possibilities for studies of glacier features and parameters. The glacier parameters of interest in operational monitoring are the changes of glacier area and volume, and the variation of glacier zones, such as snow, firn and ice. These parameters enable the estimation of relative volume change, AAR and equilibrium line, for example. Operational monitoring involves that the remote sensing data to be used is available continuously, the image processing methods are accurate and the processing chain is developed so that the derivation of the aimed parameters works fluently. The OMEGA project aims at the development of an operational glacier monitoring system applying all the potential remote sensing data. The objectives are to develop workflows and semi-automatic image processing methodologies for different data types in order to retrieve glacier parameters, to construct databases of the study glaciers and to develop the prototype of an operational monitoring system. The test glaciers are Hintereisferner in Austria and Engabreen in Norway. The deliverable of the project is the OMEGA

  11. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons

    PubMed Central

    Lauretani, F.; Bandinelli, S.; Benedetta, B.; Cherubini, A.; Iorio, A. D.; Blè, A.; Giacomini, V.; Corsi, A. M.; Guralnik, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and the 3-year follow-up in peripheral nerve function was assessed by standard surface ENG of the right peroneal nerve in 384 male and 443 female participants of the InCHIANTI study (age range: 24–97 years). Plasma concentrations of selected fatty acids assessed at baseline by gas chromatography. Independent of confounders, plasma omega-6 fatty acids and linoleic acid were significantly correlated with peroneal NCV at enrollment. Lower plasma PUFA, omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid, ratio omega-6/omega-3, arachidonic acid and docosahexanoic acid levels were significantly predicted a steeper decline in nerve function parameters over the 3-year follow-up. Low plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels were associated with accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function with aging. PMID:17594339

  12. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons.

    PubMed

    Lauretani, F; Bandinelli, S; Bartali, B; Benedetta, B; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A D; Blè, A; Giacomini, V; Corsi, A M; Guralnik, J M; Ferrucci, L

    2007-07-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and the 3-year follow-up in peripheral nerve function was assessed by standard surface ENG of the right peroneal nerve in 384 male and 443 female participants of the InCHIANTI study (age range: 24-97 years). Plasma concentrations of selected fatty acids assessed at baseline by gas chromatography. Independent of confounders, plasma omega-6 fatty acids and linoleic acid were significantly correlated with peroneal NCV at enrollment. Lower plasma PUFA, omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid, ratio omega-6/omega-3, arachidonic acid and docosahexanoic acid levels were significantly predicted a steeper decline in nerve function parameters over the 3-year follow-up. Low plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels were associated with accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function with aging. PMID:17594339

  13. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  14. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the global atmospheric changes is difficult with today's current technology. However, with high resolution and nearly continuous observations from a satellite, it's possible to transform our understanding of the atmosphere. To enable the next generation of atmospheric science, a new class of orbiting atmospheric sensors is being developed. The foundation of this advanced concept is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, or FTS.

  15. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  16. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  17. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  2. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  3. Dynamical coupled channels calculation of pion and omega meson production

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, Mark W.

    2009-02-15

    The dynamical coupled-channels approach developed at the Excited Baryon Analysis Center is extended to include the {omega}N channel to study {pi}- and {omega}-meson production induced by scattering pions and photons from the proton. Six intermediate channels, including {pi}N, {eta}N, {pi}{delta}, {sigma}N, {rho}N, and {omega}N, are employed to describe unpolarized and polarized data. Bare parameters in an effective hadronic Lagrangian are determined in a fit to the data for {pi}N{yields}{pi}N, {gamma}N{yields}{pi}N, {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{omega}n, and {gamma}p{yields}{omega}p reactions at center-of-mass energies from threshold to W<2.0 GeV. The T matrix determined in these fits is used to calculate the photon beam asymmetry for {omega}-meson production and the {omega}N{yields}{omega}N total cross section and {omega}N-scattering lengths. The calculated beam asymmetry is in good agreement with the observed in the range of energies near threshold to W < or approx. 2.0 GeV.

  4. Determining the coordinate dependence of some components of the cubic susceptibility tensor {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous absorbing plate at an arbitrary frequency dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2010-12-29

    The possibility of unique reconstruction of the spatial profile of the cubic nonlinear susceptibility tensor component {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} perpendicular to its surface is proved for the first time and the unique reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The amplitude complex coefficients of reflection and transmission (measured in some range of angles of incidence) as well as of conversion of an s-polarised plane signal monochromatic wave into two waves propagating on both sides of the plate make it possible to reconstruct the profile. These two waves result from nonlinear interaction of a signal wave with an intense plane wave incident normally on the plate. All the waves under consideration have the same frequency {omega}, and so its variation helps study the frequency dispersion of the cubic nonlinear susceptibility tensor component {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}). For media with additional symmetry axes 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z}, or {infinity}{sub z} that are perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct the profile and to examine the frequency dispersion of about one third of all independent complex components of the tensor {chi}-hat{sup (3)}. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  5. Recent results on parametric analysis of differential Omega error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, E. G., Jr.; Piserchia, P. V.

    1974-01-01

    Previous tests of the differential Omega concept and an analysis of the characteristics of VLF propagation make it possible to delineate various factors which might contribute to the variation of errors in phase measurements at an Omega receiver site. An experimental investigation is conducted to determine the effect of each of a number of parameters on differential Omega accuracy and to develop prediction equations. The differential Omega error form is considered and preliminary results are presented of the regression analysis used to study differential error.

  6. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  7. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status. PMID:27482299

  8. Smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaohu; Chen, Peng; Tran, Nhung Thi; Zhang, Jinling; Chia, Wei Sheng; Boujday, Souhir; Liedberg, Bo

    2016-05-23

    We report on a smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing applications. The spectrometer relies on a sample cell with an integrated grating substrate, and the smartphone's built-in light-emitting diode flash and camera. The feasibility of the smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated for detection of glucose and human cardiac troponin I, the latter in conjunction with peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles. PMID:27163736

  9. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  10. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. M.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hauschild, K.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.

    2015-06-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations.

  11. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  12. Gamma bang time analysis at OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, A. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Stoeffl, W.; Ali, Z. A.

    2010-10-15

    Absolute bang time measurements with the gas Cherenkov detector (GCD) and gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic have been performed to high precision at the OMEGA laser facility at the University of Rochester with bang time values for the two diagnostics agreeing to within 5 ps on average. X-ray timing measurements of laser-target coupling were used to calibrate a facility-generated laser timing fiducial with rms spreads in the measured coupling times of 9 ps for both GCD and GRH. Increased fusion yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will allow for improved measurement precision with the GRH easily exceeding NIF system design requirements.

  13. Observation of {chi}{sub c1} Decays into Vector Meson Pairs {phi}{phi}, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Berger, N.; Bian, J. M.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, L. Y.

    2011-08-26

    Using (106{+-}4)x10{sup 6} {psi}(3686) events accumulated with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we present the first measurement of decays of {chi}{sub c1} to vector meson pairs {phi}{phi}, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi}. The branching fractions are measured to be (4.4{+-}0.3{+-}0.5)x10{sup -4}, (6.0{+-}0.3{+-}0.7)x10{sup -4}, and (2.2{+-}0.6{+-}0.2)x10{sup -5}, for {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{phi}{phi}, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi}, respectively, which indicates that the hadron helicity selection rule is significantly violated in {chi}{sub cJ} decays. In addition, the measurement of {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{omega}{phi} provides the first indication of the rate of doubly OZI-suppressed {chi}{sub cJ} decay. Finally, we present improved measurements for the branching fractions of {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} to vector meson pairs.

  14. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2008-06-01

    Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids compared with the diet on which human beings evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio), exert suppressive effects. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a ratio of 4/1 was associated with a 70% decrease in total mortality. A ratio of 2.5/1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4/1 with the same amount of omega-3 PUFA had no effect. The lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio in women with breast cancer was associated with decreased risk. A ratio of 2-3/1 suppressed inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and a ratio of 5/1 had a beneficial effect on patients with asthma, whereas a ratio of 10/1 had adverse consequences. These studies indicate that the optimal ratio may vary with the disease under consideration. This is consistent with the fact that chronic diseases are multigenic and multifactorial. Therefore, it is quite possible that the therapeutic dose of omega-3 fatty acids will depend on the degree of severity of disease resulting from the genetic predisposition. A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is more desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases of high prevalence in Western societies, as well as in the developing countries. PMID:18408140

  15. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  16. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  17. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric; Ade, Peter; Kunde, Virgil; Jennings, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) is a remote sensing instrument to be flown on the Cassini orbiter. It contains two Fourier transform spectrometers covering wavelengths of 7-1000 microns. The instrument is expected to have higher spectral resolution, smaller field of view, and better signal-to-noise performance than its counterpart, IRIS, on the Voyager missions. These improvements allow the study of the variability of the composition and temperature of the atmospheres of both Saturn and Titan with latitude, longitude and height, as well as allowing the possibility of discovery of previously undetected chemical species in these atmospheres. The long wavelengths accessible to CIRS allow sounding deeper into both atmospheres than was possible with IRIS.

  18. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  19. Ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Inventor); Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ion mass spectrometer is described which detects and indicates the characteristics of ions received over a wide angle, and which indicates the mass to charge ratio, the energy, and the direction of each detected ion. The spectrometer includes a magnetic analyzer having a sector magnet that passes ions received over a wide angle, and an electrostatic analyzer positioned to receive ions passing through the magnetic analyzer. The electrostatic analyzer includes a two dimensional ion sensor at one wall of the analyzer chamber, that senses not only the lengthwise position of the detected ion to indicate its mass to charge ratio, but also detects the ion position along the width of the chamber to indicate the direction in which the ion was traveling.

  20. Hard x-ray spectrometers for NIF (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Brown, Charles; Deslattes, Richard; Hudson, Lawrence; Bell, Perry; Miller, Michael; Back, Christina

    2001-01-01

    A National Ignition Facility (NIF) core diagnostic instrument has been designed and will be fabricated to record x-ray spectra in the 1.2-20 keV energy range. The high-energy electronic x-ray instrument has four reflection crystals with overlapping coverage of 1.2-10.9 keV and one transmission crystal covering 8.6-20 keV. The spectral resolving power varies from approximately 1000 at low energies to 315 at 20 keV. The spectrum produced by each crystal is recorded by a modified commercial dental x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) detector. The scintillators on the CCD detectors are optimized for the energy ranges. A one-channel x-ray spectrometer, using one transmission crystal covering 12-60 keV, will be fabricated for the OMEGA laser facility. The transmission crystal spectrometers are based on instruments originally designed at National Institute for Standards and Technology for the purpose of characterizing the x-ray flux from medical radiography sources. Utilizing one of those instruments and a commercial dental x-ray CCD detector, x-ray images were recorded using a single pulse from a laboratory x-ray source with a peak charging voltage of 200 kV. A resolving power of 300 was demonstrated by recording on film the Kα1 and Kα2 characteristic x-ray lines near 17 keV from a molybdenum anode. The continuum radiation from a tungsten anode was recorded in the 20-50 keV energy range. The transmission crystal spectrometer has sufficient spectral resolution and sensitivity to record the line and continuum radiation from high-Z targets irradiated by the NIF laser and the OMEGA laser.

  1. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  2. The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

  3. Spherical electrostatic electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.-S.; Kolk, B.; Kachnowski, T.; Trooster, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.

    1982-06-01

    A high transmission, low energy spherical electrostatic electron spectrometer particularly suited to the geometry required for Mössbauer-conversion electron spectroscopy was built. A transmission of 13% at an energy resolution of 2% was obtained with an 0.5 cm diameter source of 13.6 keV electrons. Applications to the study of hyperfine interactions of surfaces and interfaces are discussed.

  4. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  5. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-06-05

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L..cap alpha../sub 1/ /sub 2/ lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures.

  6. A microphysically-based approach to modeling emissivity and albedo of the martian seasonal caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Moncet, J.-L.; Titus, T.N.; Hansen, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    A new model of albedo and emissivity of the martian seasonal caps represented as porous CO2 slabs containing spherical voids and dust particles is described. In the model, a radiative transfer model is coupled with a microphysical model in order to link changes in albedo and emissivity to changes in porosity caused by ice metamorphism. The coupled model is capable of reproducing temporal changes in the spectra of the caps taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor and it can be used as the forward model in the retrievals of the caps' physical properties (porosity, dust abundance, void and dust grain size) from the spectra. Preliminary results from such inversion studies are presented. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiplexed NMR: An Automated CapNMR Dual-Sample Probe

    PubMed Central

    Norcross, James A.; Milling, Craig T.; Olson, Dean L.; Xu, Duanxiang; Audrieth, Anthony; Albrecht, Robert; Ruan, Ke; Likos, John; Jones, Claude; Peck, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    A new generation of micro-scale, nuclear magnetic resonance (CapNMR™) probe technology employs two independent detection elements to accommodate two samples simultaneously. Each detection element in the Dual-Sample CapNMR Probe (DSP) delivers the same spectral resolution and S/N as in a CapNMR probe configured to accommodate one sample at a time. A high degree of electrical isolation allows the DSP to be used in a variety of data acquisition modes. Both samples are shimmed simultaneously to achieve high spectral resolution for simultaneous data acquisition, or alternatively, a flowcell-specific shim set is readily called via spectrometer subroutines to enable acquisition from one sample while the other is being loaded. An automation system accommodates loading of two samples via dual injection ports on an autosampler and two completely independent flowpaths leading to dedicated flowcells in the DSP probe. PMID:20681560

  8. Mariner 9 observations of the south polar cap of Mars - Evidence for residual CO2 frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Murray, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The first spacecraft observations of the south residual polar cap of Mars were obtained by the Mariner 9 orbiter during the Martian southern summer season, 1971-1972. Analyses of Viking orbiter observations obtained 3 Mars years later have shown that residual carbon dioxide frost was present at the south polar cap in 1977. In this study, Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer spectra and television camera images are used in conjuction with multispectral thermal emission models to constrain the temperatures of dark bare ground and bright frost regions within the south residual cap. The results provide strong evidence that carbon dioxide frost was present throughout the summer season despite the fact that the residual frost deposits observed by Mariner 9 were less extensive than those observed by Viking.

  9. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  10. Titan's Topside Ionospheric Composition: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Mass spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Ali, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Lipatov, A. S.; Simpson, D. G.; Sarantos, M.; Chornay, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In [1] the first quantitative evidence of ionospheric outflows (r > 10,000 km) coming from Titan was given using the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) data for the T9 flyby. Later in [2] similar outflows were shown for T63 and T75. In [3] evidence for ionospheric outflows for T15 was given and [4] showed evidence of outflows for T41. Normally, the CAPS IMS cannot be used to measure Titan's relatively dense ionosphere because the IMS has high sensitivity to measure the more tenuous plasmas of Saturn's magnetosphere and its detectors will experience count rates beyond their maximum allowed rates, therefore the IMS is configured not to measure the ionospheric plasma. But, whenever there are high altitude Titan wake flybys the ion densities are low enough so the CAPS IMS can measure these ionospheric outflows and their corresponding composition characteristic of the topside ionosphere (i.e., composition freezes in above the exobase) using its unique compositional capabilities. For example, the IMS can distinguish against specific ion types such as hydrocarbon, nitrile and water group ions due fragmentation of molecular ions within the instrument (i.e., incident ions strikes ultra-thin carbon foils at 14.6 kV or higher with exiting fragments such C+,0,-, N+,0, O+,0,-1). The other ionospheric instruments only measure the ion mass-per-charge (M/Q), while the CAPS IMS measures both the ion M/Q and its fragments. Specific attention will be given to such ions as NH4+, N+, O+, CH4+, C2H5+, HCNH+ and C3H7+. These results may impose important constraints upon Titan's ionospheric water group, hydrocarbon and nitrile ion chemistry. Are NH4+ ions present as indicated by INMS at 1100 km altitude and/or water group ions? Our work has concentrated on the T15 flyby. Estimates of the NH4+, N+ and O+ abundances presently have upper values < 20% of the total ion density with actual abundances and their uncertainties to be given. [1] Sittler, E.C. Jr., et al

  11. OMEGA polar-drive target designs

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, P. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Shvydky, A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Sangster, T. C.; Skupsky, S.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2012-08-15

    Low-adiabat polar-drive (PD) [Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] implosion designs for the OMEGA [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] laser are described. These designs for cryogenic deuterium-tritium and warm plastic shells use a temporal laser pulse shape with three pickets followed by a main pulse [Goncharov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 165001 (2010)]. The designs are at two different on-target laser intensities, with different in-flight aspect ratios (IFARs). These designs permit studies of implosion energetics and target performance closer to ignition-relevant intensities ({approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} at the quarter-critical surface, where nonlocal heat conduction and laser-plasma interactions can play an important role) but at lower values of IFAR {approx} 22 or at lower intensity ({approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) but at a higher IFAR (IFAR {approx} 32, where shell instability can play an important role). PD geometry requires repointing of laser beams to improve shell symmetry. The higher-intensity designs optimize target performance by repointing beams to a lesser extent, compensating for the reduced equatorial drive by increasing the energies of the repointed beams. They also use custom beam profiles that improve equatorial illumination at the expense of irradiation at higher latitudes. These latter designs will be studied when new phase plates for the OMEGA Laser System, corresponding to the custom beam profiles, are obtained.

  12. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm^-2) for shock generation.

  13. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm-2) for shock generation.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel feline IFN-omega.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Min; Xue, Qing-Hua; Sun, Lei; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2007-02-01

    The interferons (IFNs) are a large family of multifunctional secreted protein involved in antiviral defense, cell growth regulation, and immune activation. The human IFNs are used worldwide as antiviral drugs. Here, we present cDNAs encoding 13 novel feline IFN-omega (FeIFN-omega) subtypes that share 95%-99% amino acid sequence identity. FeIFN-omega2 and FeIFN-omega4 have seven additional amino acids at position 109 that are not present in other subtypes. Sequence identity of the present FeIFN proteins encoded by the 13 subtypes is approximately 57% compared with human IFN-omega (HuIFN-omega). All 13 FeIFN-omega subtypes were expressed in Escherichia coli using a periplasmic expression system. The antiviral activity of each product was evaluated in vitro. In addition, subtype FeIFN-omega2 was cytoplasm expressed in E. coli and secretion expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified mature recombinant protein demonstrated significant antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in vitro. PMID:17316139

  15. Measurement of the Spin of the Omega- Hyperon at Babar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-07-05

    A measurement of the spin of the {Omega}{sup -} hyperon produced through the exclusive process {Xi}{sub c}{sup 0} {yields} {Omega}{sup -}K{sup +} is presented using a total integrated luminosity of 116 fb{sup -1} recorded with the BABAR detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric-energy B-Factory at SLAC. Under the assumption that the {Xi}{sub c}{sup 0} has spin 1/2, the angular distribution of the {Lambda} from {Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}K{sup -} decay is inconsistent with all half-integer {Omega}{sup -} spin values other than 3/2. Lower statistics data for the process {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} {yields} {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} from a 230 fb{sup -1} sample are also found to be consistent with {Omega}{sup -} spin 3/2. If the {Xi}{sub c}{sup 0} spin were 3/2, an {Omega}{sup -} spin of 5/2 cannot be excluded.

  16. Relativistic quark model for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima, Franz Gross

    2009-08-01

    We compute the Omega- electromagnetic form factors and the decuplet baryon magnetic moments using a quark model application of the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our predictions for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors can be tested in the future by lattice QCD simulations at the physical strange quark mass.

  17. Selected bibliography of OMEGA, VLF and LF techniques applied to aircraft navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A bibliography is presented which includes references to the OMEGA navigation system, very low frequencies, time-frequency measurements, air traffic control, radio navigation, and applications of OMEGA.

  18. Compactible powders of omega-3 and β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2015-10-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used in both nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals in the form of triglycerides and ethyl esters. Administration forms available for omega-3 include bulk oil, soft gel capsules, emulsions and some powder compositions. Cyclodextrins are substances well known for their ability to encapsulate lipophilic molecules. In the present work, powders loaded with omega-3 oil, ranging from 10 to 40% (w/w), have been prepared by vacuum drying, freeze drying or spray granulation of aqueous mixtures of omega-3 oil and β-cyclodextrin. The powders were found to be partially crystalline by powder X-ray diffraction and to contain crystalline phases not present in pure β-cyclodextrin, indicating true complexation. The compactibility of the powders has been explored, revealing that a dry and compactible powder can be prepared from various omega-3 oils and β-cyclodextrin. Spray granulation was found to be the superior drying method for the preparation of compactible powders. PMID:25952853

  19. Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Patients with ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LaChance, Laura; McKenzie, Kwame; Taylor, Valerie H.; Vigod, Simone N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have been shown to be deficient in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to controls (Hawkey & Nigg, 2014). Clinical trials of omega-3 and omega-6 supplements as treatment for ADHD have demonstrated minimal efficacy (Bloch & Qawasmi, 2011; Gillies, Sinn, Lad, Leach, & Ross, 2011; Hawkey & Nigg, 2014; Puri & Martins, 2014; Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013). Existing trials have analyzed omega-3 and omega-6 separately although the tissue ratio of these fatty acids (n6/n3) may be more important than absolute levels of either. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between blood n6/n3 and arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid (AA/EPA), to ADHD symptoms. Method: A systematic literature review identified original articles measuring blood n6/n3 or AA/EPA ratio in children and youth with ADHD, compared to controls without ADHD. Three databases were searched. Blood n6/n3, and AA/EPA ratios were compared between individuals with ADHD and controls. Results were pooled across studies using quantitative synthesis. Results: Five articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The pooled mean difference between patients with ADHD and controls was 1.97 (0.90–3.04) for n6/n3 (n=5 studies, I2 83%) and 8.25 (5.94–10.56) for AA/EPA (n=3 studies, I2 0%). Conclusions: Children and youth with ADHD have elevated ratios of both blood n6/n3 and AA/EPA fatty acids compared to controls. Thus an elevated n6/n3, and more specifically AA/EPA, ratio may represent the underlying disturbance in essential fatty acid levels in patients with ADHD. These findings have implications for the development of future interventions using essential fatty acids to treat ADHD, and for the use of these ratios as biomarkers for titrating and monitoring ADHD treatment with essential fatty acids. PMID:27274744

  20. Analysis of OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral images with a linear unmixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sotin, C.; Le Deit, L.; Gendrin, A.; Mustard, J.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Pinet, P.

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express has completed a near global coverage of Mars in 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 µm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km. This unprecedented data set provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains [1]. We have focused our data reduction approach on the linear unmixing strategies. Working on a pixel by pixel basis, we find the best linear combination of a suite of laboratory spectra of pure minerals which match the OMEGA data. A spectrally flat and dark artificial component is introduced to account for shading effects. Similarly, we use two pure positive and negative slopes to account at first order for continuum slope variations linked to scattering, grain size and photometric effects. This approach allows us to draw several conclusions on the overall mineralogy of the observed regions. In particular, the Syrtis Major area appears dominated by a mixing between low and high Calcium pyroxenes in various amounts, with localized exposures of iron-rich olivines. At a global scale, the southern hemisphere appears enriched in both low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes. Signatures of iron oxides are detected in the bright regions of the northern hemisphere. These results agree with those obtained with different approaches such as MGM or ratio images [1,2]. The advantages and limits of the unmixing approach applied to OMEGA hyperspectral images will be discussed. References: [1] Bibring et al. (2005), Science, vol. 307, 5715, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard et al., Science (2005), vol. 307, 5715, 1594-1597.

  1. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  2. Sulfates in the North Polar Region of Mars Detected by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte

    2005-03-01

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers. An extended region at 240°E, 85°N, with an area of 60 kilometers by 200 kilometers, exhibits absorptions at wavelengths of 1.45, 1.75, 1.94, 2.22, 2.26, and 2.48 micrometers. These signatures can be unambiguously attributed to calcium-rich sulfates, most likely gypsum. This region corresponds to the dark longitudinal dunes of Olympia Planitia. These observations reveal that water alteration played a major role in the formation of the constituting minerals of northern circumpolar terrains.

  3. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states.

  4. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-14

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states. PMID:27421422

  5. Astronomical Fourier spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Connes, P; Michel, G

    1975-09-01

    A high resolution near ir Fourier spectrometer with the same general design as previously described laboratory instruments has been built for astronomical observations at a coudé focus. Present spectral range is 0.8-3.5 microm with PbS and Ge detectors and maximum path difference 1 m. The servo system can accommodate various recording modes: stepping or continuous scan, path difference modulation, sky chopping. A real time computer is incorporated into the system, which has been set up at the Hale 500-cm telescope on Mount Palomar. Samples of the results are given. PMID:20154966

  6. Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

  7. Automated transportable mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echo, M. W.

    1981-09-01

    The need was identified for a mass spectrometer (MS) which can be conveniently transported among several facilities for rapid verification of the isotopic composition of special nuclear material. This requirement for a light weight, transportable MS for U and Pu mass analysis was met by deleting the gas chromograph (GC) portions of a Hewlett-Packard Model 5992 Quadrupole GCMS and substituting a vacuum lock sample entry system. A programmable power supply and vacuum gauge were added and circuitry modifications were made to enable use of the supplied software.

  8. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  9. Dynamics Explorer 1: Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.; Collin, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS) experiment was selected as part of the Dynamics Explorer (DE) Program. One of the primary goals of the DE program was to investigate in detail the plasma physics processes responsible for energizing thermal (approximately 1 eV) ionospheric ions and transporting them to the earth's plasma sheet and distant polar cap. The results of the EICS data analysis (including support of other investigators) and of the archiving efforts supported by this contract are summarized in this document. Also reported are some aspects of our operational support activities.

  10. Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums as a result of damages caps found no impact. Some state courts have based decisions declaring damages caps legislation unconstitutional on the lack of evidence of their effectiveness, thereby ignoring the findings of conflicting research studies or discounting their relevance. Although courts should be cautious in rejecting empirical evidence that caps are effective, legislators should consider whether they benefit consumers enough to justify limiting tort recoveries for those most seriously injured by malpractice. PMID:17517115

  11. ICRF Heating with {omega}<{omega}{sub ci} in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C. K.; Hosea, J. C.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Porkolab, M.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2007-09-28

    The TORIC 2D full wave simulation code has been used to study the dynamics of waves with {omega}<{omega}{sub ci} everywhere for all ions in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This potential heating regime can be accessed uniquely on C-Mod, because of its high magnetic field capability, B{sub T}{<=}8 T, and variable ICRF source frequency, 40-80 MHz. The simulations indicate that the launched fast waves can mode convert to a short wavelength slow wave on the high field side of the discharge that damps primarily on electrons. The degree to which the mode converted wave penetrates into the core of the plasma is found to depend on the equilibrium density profile.

  12. Erythrocyte Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mammographic Breast Density

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Alana G.; Reeves, Katherine W.; Modugno, Francesmary; Wilson, John W.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Vogel, Victor G.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Simpson, Jennifer; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2013-01-01

    Diets low in omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high in omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs may protect against breast cancer development. Associations of PUFA intake with mammographic density, an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk, have been inconsistent; however, prior studies have relied on self-reported dietary PUFA intake. We examined the association between circulating erythrocyte n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with mammographic density in 248 postmenopausal women who were not taking exogenous hormones. PUFAs in erythrocytes were measured by gas-liquid chromatography, and mammographic density was assessed quantitatively by planimetry. Spearman’s correlation coefficients and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationships between PUFA measures and mammographic density. None of the erythrocyte n-6 or n-3 PUFA measures were associated with percent density or dense breast area. PMID:23530640

  13. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  14. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  15. Polar gypsum on Mars : wind-driven exhumation from the North Polar Cap and redistribution in the Circumpolar Dune Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, M.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Verpoorter, C.; Le Deit, L.; Mercier, E.; Bibring, J.

    2010-12-01

    The North Polar Cap of Mars is associated with different kinds of superficial sediments, including the Circumpolar Dune Field and sedimentary veneers scattered over the ice cap. In order to resolve the mineralogical composition of these sediments, we processed OMEGA and CRISM hyperspectral data with an original method based on spectral derivation (Huguenin and Jones, 1986). We find that gypsum is present in all areas where undefined hydrated minerals had been previously detected (Poulet et al., 2008; Horgan et al., 2009; Calvin et al., 2010), including the superficial sedimentary veneers found on the North Polar Cap and the whole Circumpolar Dune Field. Integrated morphological and structural analyses reveal that these gypsum crystals derive directly from the interior of the ice cap (Massé et al., 2010). The source of sedimentary veneers is the dust that was previously contained in the upper part of the ice cap, the ice-rich North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD). This gypsum-bearing dust was exhumed, on south-facing slopes of spiral troughs and arcuate scarps, by ice ablation induced by katabatic winds. By the analysis of all associations of erosional scarps and dune fields over the North Polar Cap, we also demonstrate that the source of the polar dunes are sand-sized particles that were previously contained in the sediment-rich BU (Basal Unit), corresponding to the lower part of the ice cap. These particles were exhumed from the BU, by regressive ablation of the ice at marginal scarps that border the North Polar Cap, or by vertical ablation of the ice on Olympia Planum. From a reconstruction of wind flow lines over and around the ice cap, we infer that katabatic winds descending from the polar high and rotating around the North Polar Cap are responsible for the exhumation of this gypsum-bearing sand and for its redistribution in the Circumpolar Dune Field. The intensity of gypsum diagnostic spectral absorption bands decreases along wind flow lines in the

  16. Measuring the masses of the charged hadrons using a RICH as a precision velocity spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.; Engelfried, Jurgen; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2010-08-01

    The Selex experiment measured several billion charged hadron tracks with a high precision magnetic momentum spectrometer and high precision RICH velocity spectrometer. We have analyzed these data to simultaneously measure the masses of all the long lived charged hadrons and anti-hadrons from the {pi} to the {Omega} using the same detector and technique. The statistical precision achievable with this data sample is more than adequate for 0.1% mass measurements. We have used these measurements to develop and understand the systematic effects in using a RICH as a precision velocity spectrometer with the goal of measuring 10 masses with precision ranging from 100 KeV for the lightest to 1000 KeV for the heaviest. This requires controlling the radius measurement of RICH rings to the {approx} 10{sup -4} level. Progress in the mass measurements and the required RICH analysis techniques developed are discussed.

  17. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks. PMID:8143337

  18. Long duration backlighter experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Young, P. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Foord, M.; Schneider, M.; Lu, K.; Dittrich, T.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.

    2008-10-15

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {mu}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {mu}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {mu}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  19. BVRI CCD photometry of Omega Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1987-12-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of V vs B-V, V vs V-I, and V vs B-I have been constructed based on 179 BVRI CCD frames of two adjoining 4x2.5-arcmin fields in Omega Cen (NGC 5139) obtained with the 1.54-m Danish La Silla telescope. The spread in the main sequences noted in the three CMDs indicates that the wide range in chemical composition among the evolved stars in this cluster persists as well in the unevolved stars. This result suggests that the abundance variations are primordial. A difference in magnitude between the turnoff and the horizontal branch of 3.8 + or - 0.15 is found which is greater than a previous value. 38 references.

  20. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  1. Implosion spectroscopy in Rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Bitaud, Laurent; Seytor, Patricia; Reverdin, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept has been validated in previous experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. This new hohlraum type can now be used as a well-characterized experimental platform to study indirect drive implosion, at higher radiation temperatures than would be feasible at this scale with classical cylindrical hohlraums. Recent experiments have focused on the late stages of implosion and hotspot behavior. The capsules included both a thin buried Titanium tracer layer, 0-3 microns from the inner surface, Argon dopant in the deuterium gas fuel and Germanium doped CH shells, providing a variety of spectral signatures of the plasma conditions in different parts of the target. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging were used to study compression, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth at the inner surface and mix between the shell and gas.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this sturning image provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Omega Nebula (M17) resembles the fury of a raging sea, showing a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen gas and small amounts of other elements such as oxygen and sulfur. The nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, is a hotbed of newly born stars residing 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The wavelike patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from the young massive stars, which lie outside the picture to the upper left. The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this photograph. The green represents an even hotter gas that masks background structures. Various gases represented with color are: sulfur, represented in red; hydrogen, green; and oxygen blue.

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: photoprotective macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Suzanne M; Watson, Rachel E B; Nicolaou, Anna; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2011-07-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in sunlight has deleterious effects on skin, while behavioural changes have resulted in people gaining more sun exposure. The clinical impact includes a year-on-year increase in skin cancer incidence, and topical sunscreens alone provide an inadequate measure to combat overexposure to UVR. Novel methods of photoprotection are being targeted as additional measures, with growing interest in the potential for systemic photoprotection through naturally sourced nutrients. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are promising candidates, showing potential to protect the skin from UVR injury through a range of mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the biological actions of n-3 PUFA in the context of skin protection from acute and chronic UVR overexposure and describe how emerging new technologies such as nutrigenomics and lipidomics assist our understanding of the contribution of such nutrients to skin health. PMID:21569104

  4. Variability of the martian seasonal CO2 cap extent over eight Mars Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Kleinböhl, Armin; Hayne, Paul O.; Kass, David M.; Schofield, John T.; McCleese, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    We present eight Mars Years of nearly continuous tracking of the CO2 seasonal cap edges from Mars Year (MY) 24 to 31 using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) thermal infrared data. Spatial and temporal resolutions are 1 pixel per degree and 10°Ls (aerocentric longitude of the Sun). The seasonal caps are defined as the regions where the diurnal radiometric temperature variations at ∼32 μm wavelength do not exceed 5 K. With this definition, terrains with small areal fraction of defrosted regolith able to experience measurable diurnal temperature cycles are not mapped as part of the cap. This technique is adequate to distinguish CO2 from H2O ices, and effective during the polar night or under low illumination conditions. The present analysis answers outstanding questions stemming from fragmented observations at visible wavelengths: (1) the previously sparsely documented growth of the North seasonal caps (160° < Ls < 270°) is shown to be repeatable within 1-2° equivalent latitude, and monotonic over the MY 24-31 time period; high repeatability is observed during the retreat of the caps in non-dusty years (∼1° or less equivalent latitude); (2) the MY 25 storm does not seem to have impacted the growth rate, maximal extents, or recession rate of the North seasonal caps, whereas the MY 28 dust storm clearly sped up the recession of the cap (∼2° smaller on average after the storm, during the recession, compared to other years); (3) during non-dusty years, the growth of the South seasonal cap (350° < Ls < 100°) presents noticeable variability (up to ∼4° equivalent latitude near Ls = 20°) with a maximum extent reached near Ls = 90°; (4) the retreat of the Southern seasonal cap (100° < Ls < 310°) exhibits large inter-annual variability, especially near 190° < Ls < 220°; (5) the recession of the MY 25 South seasonal cap is significantly accelerated during the

  5. Improved multisphere spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Schwahn, S.O.; Rogers, P.E.; Misko, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Shonka Research Associated undertook a research program to improve the capabilities and ease of use of the Bonner sphere spectrometer system. Two key elements formed the heart of this research: replacement of the lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detector normally used in the spectrometer system with a spherical boron triflouride (BF{sub 3}) proportional counter and exploitation of an optimized set of nested polyethylene spheres, including boron-loaded spherical shells. Use of a spherical BF{sub 3} detector offers many advantages over the LiI(Eu) crystal. The BF{sub 3} detectors are insensitive to gamma radiation. Lack of gamma sensitivity permits acquiring data with simple electronics and allows determination of neutron spectra and dose in lower neutron-to-gamma ratio fields, including background terrestrial radiation fields. The importance of the lack of gamma sensitivity is underscored by the pending changes in neutron quality factors. The nearly perfect spherical symmetry offers advantages for BF{sub 3} over LiI(Eu) detectors as well. A light pipe, which perturbs measurements, is not needed. The bare BF{sub 3} detector response is not affected by the moderation of neutrons as is the case of the organic light pipe used with LiI(Eu). The spherical symmetry permits the use of smaller diameter shells, which add to the number of response functions.

  6. Spectrometers beyond the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1996-11-01

    Two new types of miniature Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) presently being built have enabled this technology to be taken out of the laboratory and into the field. Both designs are very rugged, use little power to run, and can be made extremely small and lightweight. They are excellent candidates for airborne use, both in aircraft and satellite applications. One, the Mcro FT, is a mass balanced linear reciprocating scan operating in the 1-2 scan per second speed range. The other, the Turbo FT, uses a rotary scan, enabling it to run at much higher speeds, from 10 to 1000 scans per second. Either type can be built in the visible, near K and thermal IR wavelength ranges, and provide spectral resolution of 1-2 wave-numbers. Results obtained in all these wavelength ranges are presented here. The rotary configuration is more suited to airborne and satellite survey type deployments, due mostly to its rapid scan rate. Either of these sensors will fit into a small, commercially available stabilized pod which can easily be attached to a helicopter or light plane. This results in a very economical flight spectrometer system. 11 figs.

  7. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  8. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  9. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  10. New portrait of Omega Nebula's glistening watercolours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    The Omega Nebula, sometimes called the Swan Nebula, is a dazzling stellar nursery located about 5500 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). An active star-forming region of gas and dust about 15 light-years across, the nebula has recently spawned a cluster of massive, hot stars. The intense light and strong winds from these hulking infants have carved remarkable filigree structures in the gas and dust. When seen through a small telescope the nebula has a shape that reminds some observers of the final letter of the Greek alphabet, omega, while others see a swan with its distinctive long, curved neck. Yet other nicknames for this evocative cosmic landmark include the Horseshoe and the Lobster Nebula. Swiss astronomer Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux discovered the nebula around 1745. The French comet hunter Charles Messier independently rediscovered it about twenty years later and included it as number 17 in his famous catalogue. In a small telescope, the Omega Nebula appears as an enigmatic ghostly bar of light set against the star fields of the Milky Way. Early observers were unsure whether this curiosity was really a cloud of gas or a remote cluster of stars too faint to be resolved. In 1866, William Huggins settled the debate when he confirmed the Omega Nebula to be a cloud of glowing gas, through the use of a new instrument, the astronomical spectrograph. In recent years, astronomers have discovered that the Omega Nebula is one of the youngest and most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Active star-birth started a few million years ago and continues through today. The brightly shining gas shown in this picture is just a blister erupting from the side of a much larger dark cloud of molecular gas. The dust that is so prominent in this picture comes from the remains of massive hot stars that have ended their brief lives and ejected material back into space, as well as the cosmic detritus from which future suns form. The

  11. Properties of convergence for [omega],q-Bernstein polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heping

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss properties of the [omega],q-Bernstein polynomials introduced by S. Lewanowicz and P. Wozny in [S. Lewanowicz, P. Wozny, Generalized Bernstein polynomials, BIT 44 (1) (2004) 63-78], where f[set membership, variant]C[0,1], [omega],q>0, [omega][not equal to]1,q-1,...,q-n+1. When [omega]=0, we recover the q-Bernstein polynomials introduced by [G.M. Phillips, Bernstein polynomials based on the q-integers, Ann. Numer. Math. 4 (1997) 511-518]; when q=1, we recover the classical Bernstein polynomials. We compute the second moment of , and demonstrate that if f is convex and [omega],q[set membership, variant](0,1) or (1,[infinity]), then are monotonically decreasing in n for all x[set membership, variant][0,1]. We prove that for [omega][set membership, variant](0,1), qn[set membership, variant](0,1], the sequence converges to f uniformly on [0,1] for each f[set membership, variant]C[0,1] if and only if limn-->[infinity]qn=1. For fixed [omega],q[set membership, variant](0,1), we prove that the sequence converges for each f[set membership, variant]C[0,1] and obtain the estimates for the rate of convergence of by the modulus of continuity of f, and the estimates are sharp in the sense of order for Lipschitz continuous functions.

  12. Production and Decay of Omega_c^0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B

    2007-03-21

    We present an analysis of inclusive {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} baryon production and decays in 230.5 fb{sup -1} of data recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} baryons are reconstructed in four final states ({Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Xi}{sup -}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) and the ratios of branching fractions for these final states are measured. We also measure the momentum spectrum of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} baryons in the e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass frame. From the spectrum, they observe {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} production from B decays and in c{bar c} events, and extract the two rates of production.

  13. Modification of the {omega}-Meson Lifetime in Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kotulla, M.; Trnka, D.; Gregor, R.; Lugert, S.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Pant, L. M.; Pee, H. van; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Schadmand, S.; Varma, R.; Muehlich, P.; Mosel, U.; Anton, G.; Bogendoerfer, R.; Hoessl, J.; Suft, G.; Bacelar, J. C. S.

    2008-05-16

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of {omega} mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the {omega}-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic {omega} width is found to be 130-150 MeV/c{sup 2} at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1 GeV/c. In the rest frame of the {omega} meson, this inelastic {omega} width corresponds to a reduction of the {omega} lifetime by a factor {approx_equal}30. For the first time, the momentum dependent {omega}N cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb.

  14. Modification of the omega-meson lifetime in nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Kotulla, M; Trnka, D; Mühlich, P; Anton, G; Bacelar, J C S; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beloglazov, Y A; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Dutz, H; Ehmanns, A; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fabry, I; Fuchs, M; Essig, K; Funke, Ch; Gothe, R; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Gutz, E; Höffgen, S; Hoffmeister, P; Horn, I; Hössl, J; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lotz, J; Lugert, S; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J G; Mertens, T; Metag, V; Mosel, U; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L M; van Pee, H; Pfeiffer, M; Roy, A; Radkov, A; Schadmand, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Shende, S; Suft, G; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Süle, A; Thoma, U; Varma, R; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Ch; Wendel, Ch

    2008-05-16

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of omega mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the omega-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic omega width is found to be 130-150 MeV/c(2) at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1 GeV/c. In the rest frame of the omega meson, this inelastic omega width corresponds to a reduction of the omega lifetime by a factor approximately 30. For the first time, the momentum dependent omegaN cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb. PMID:18518443

  15. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  16. Albedo Variations on the Martian Northern Polar Cap as Seen by MGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.; Tamppan, L. K.

    2003-01-01

    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars northern residual cap is water ice. Many researchers have related observed atmospheric water vapor abundances to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, but the extent to which the exchange between the surface and the atmosphere remains uncertain. Early studies of the ice coverage and albedo of the northern residual Martian polar cap using Mariner 9 and Viking images reported that there were substantial internannual differences in ice deposition on the polar cap, a result that suggested a highly variable Martian climate. However, some of the data used in these studies were obtained at differing values of heliocentric solar longitude (Ls). Reevaluation of this dataset in indicated that the residual cap undergoes seasonal brightening throughout the summer, and indicated that this process repeats from year to year. In this study we continue this work with data acquired with Mars Global Surveyor s Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments. We use MOC Wide Angel (WA) red filter images

  17. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  18. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  19. Seasonal dynamic of water on the surface of Mars during MY27 and M28 apheleon and pre-aphelion seasons based on the OMEGA/Mars-Express data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, Nadezda; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Rodin, Alexander V.; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    OMEGA is a mapping spectrometer of the visible and near-infrared ranges. The instrument began its scientific phase on Mars orbit since January 2005 and it is till providing data. The instrument has 3 spectral ranges and we take into account two of them: 0.3-1 and 1-2.5 µm. In this study we focus on changes in the surface composition and structures concerned with global water redistribution during martian year - ices, water vapour, frost, as well as rocks and soils, which possess bound and adsorbed water. We have compared two aphelion seasons, the MY41 and M42 aphelion campaigns, that resulted in global mapping of Mars. Data treatment procedure involved atmospheric corrections, including correction of minor instrumental effects such as pixel-to-pixel nonlinearity and digital noise, and elimination of CO2 and water vapor absorption, based on the European Mars Climate Model,. For mapping of water ice, frosts and water bearing minerals we use features in the 1-2.5 µm spectral range. Spectral imaging data have been treated to retrieve maps of spectral indices related to surface water ice, based on 1.03, 1.2 and 1.5 bands, with the relationships between three H2 O ice features implying the estimate of ice grain size. We used model for BRF calculation (Mishchenko et al,1999) to infer possible water ice grain size variations. So, we studied the evolution of icy polar cap during spring and summer for 2 years. Bound water has been estimated based on the 1.93 feature. The zonal distribution of water ice and bound water around the North pole, frost microphysical structure and its seasonal variations suggest the strong contribution of stationary and quasistationary planetary atmospheric waves residing in the circumpolar vortex, to the water cycle during the aphelion season. Also we analyzed the latitudinal global redistribution of bound water. The results are consistent with simulations of the Mars water cycle we carried out with help of the GFDL General Circulation model

  20. Particle Spectrometers for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthor, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    FRIB promises to dramatically expand the variety of nuclear systems available for direct experimental study by providing rates of many rare isotopes orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. A new generation of experimental systems, including new particle spectrometers will be critical to our ability to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by FRIB. The High-Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) will allow for experiments with the most neutron-rich and short-lived isotopes produced by in-flight fragmentation at FRIB. The bending capability of the HRS (8 Tm) matches to the rigidity for which rare isotopes are produced at the highest intensity in the FRIB fragment separator. The experimental program will be focused on nuclear structure and astrophysics, and allow for the use of other cutting-edge detection systems for gamma, neutron, and charged-particle detection. Stopped and reaccelerated beam studies will be an important compliment to in-flight techniques at FRIB, providing world-unique, high quality, intense rare isotope beams at low energies up to and beyond the Coulomb barrier--with the completion of ReA12--and serving many of the science goals of the broader facility, from nuclear structure and astrophysics to applications. Two specialized recoil spectrometers are being developed for studies with reaccelerated beams. SECAR, the Separator for Capture Reactions, will be built following ReA3, coupled to a windowless gas jet target, JENSA, and will focus on radiative capture reactions for astrophysics, particularly those needed to improve our understanding of novae and X-ray bursts. A recoil separator following ReA12 is proposed to address a variety of physics cases based on fusion-evaporation, Coulomb excitation, transfer, and deep-inelastic reactions by providing a large angular, momentum and charge state acceptance; a high mass resolving power; and the flexibility to couple to a variety of auxiliary detector systems. Two designs

  1. Observation of parity violation in the Omega- ---> Lambda K- decay

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.C.; Burnstein, R.A.; Chakravorty, A.; Chen, Y.C.; Choong, W.-S.; Clark, K.; Dukes, E.C.; Durandet, C.; Felix, J.; Fu, Y.; Gidal, G.; Gustafson, H.R.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; James, C.; Jenkins, C.M.; Jones, T.D.; Kaplan, D.M.; Longo, M.J.; Luebke, W.; Luk, K.-B.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, Berkeley /Fermilab /Guanajuato U. /IIT, Chicago /Lausanne U. /LBL, Berkeley /Michigan U. /South Alabama U. /Virginia U.

    2005-05-01

    The {alpha} decay parameter in the process {Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}K{sup -} has been measured from a sample of 4.50 million unpolarized {Omega}{sup -} decays recorded by the HyperCP (E871) experiment at Fermilab and found to be [1.78 {+-} 0.19(stat) {+-} 0.16(syst)] x 10{sup -2}. This is the first unambiguous evidence for a nonzero {alpha} decay parameter, and hence parity violation, in the {Omega}{sup -} {Lambda}K{sup -} decay.

  2. Search for lepton flavor violating decays tau+/--->l+/-omega.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Ayad, R; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Biesiada, J; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2008-02-22

    A search for lepton flavor violating decays of a tau to a lighter-mass charged lepton and an omega vector meson is performed using 384.1 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center PEP-II storage ring. No signal is found, and the upper limits on the branching ratios are determined to be B(tau(+/-)-->e;{+/-}omega)<1.1 x10 (-7) and B(tau(+/-)-->micro(+/-)omega)<1.0 x 10(-7) at 90% confidence level. PMID:18352541

  3. The cervical cap: a barrier contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Hastings-Tolsma, M T

    1982-01-01

    The cervical cap may eventually prove to be a safe, satisfactory, noninvasive, and nonhormonal contraceptive alternative for women in the US. The cap is currently approved for investigational use only, and is available from a limited number of providers. The Prentif cavity rim cap is the most commonly used and is available in 4 sizes. The soft rubber device is thimble shaped, approximately 1 1/4 inches long, with a narrow groove along the inner surface that creates a suction seal when fitted over the cervix. The inability to match cap and cervical circumferences precisely is a recognized drawback. Theoretically, the cap alone should prevent sperm entry into the uterus, however, the use of a spermicide placed in the dome before insertion is recommended. The cap's effectiveness is not yet documented. Estimates from a 1953 study of 143 users were 92.4/100 women years of use for use effectiveness, and the theoretical effectiveness is believed to be more than 98%. Failures with the cap may result from a variety of reasons, particularly dislodgement. The advantage of the cap over other barrier methods is that it can be inserted any time prior to intercourse and left in place longer. The ideal safety period for placement has not been validated, but a range of 1-7 days has been recommended. The length of time the spermicide remains effective and the cervical effects of prolonged contact are of prime concern. The cap may be used by some women who cannot be properly fitted for a diaphragm due to vaginal or uterine anomalies. Sexual arousal and orgasmic response are reported by some cap users to be more pleasurable with the cap than with the diaphragm. Reported problems with use include discomfort during intercourse and improper fit during some days of the menstrual cycle. Contraindications for use include cervical inconsistencies, infection, allergy to the spermicide or the rubber, and inability to learn proper insertion and removal techniques. Insertion and removal may be

  4. Tracking Retreat of the North Seasonal Ice Cap on Mars: Results from the THEMIS Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Wagstaff, K. L.; Ttus, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The CO2 ice caps on Mars advance and retreat with the seasons. This phenomenon was first observed by Cassini and then confirmed by numerous ground based observations in 19th and 20th centuries. With the advent of the space age observations of the seasonal ice cap were done by all orbiting spacecraft starting with Mariner 7. Viking Orbiters and more recently the Mars Global Surveyor (particularly Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments) have accumulated significant data on the retreat of the CO2 seasonal cap. During Mars year 2 of THEMIS operations at Mars, we planned an observational campaign in which the THEMIS instrument (onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft) repeatedly observed the north seasonal polar cap from midwinter to late spring. THEMIS allows simultaneous observations in both Thermal IR (12.57 m) and Visible wavelengths (0.65 m). One of the goals for this work is to initiate an interannual program for observations of the seasonal ice caps using the THEMIS instrument. The most efficient way to detect the edge between frost and bare ground is directly onboard of the spacecraft. Prior to onboard software design effort, we have developed two groundbased algorithms for automatically finding the edge of the seasonal polar cap in THEMIS IR data. The first algorithm relies on fully calibrated data and can be used for highly reliable groundbased analyses. The second method was specifically developed for processing raw, uncalibrated data in a highly efficient way. It has the potential to enable automatic, onboard detections of the seasonal cap retreat. We have experimentally confirmed that both methods produce similar results, and we have validated both methods against a model constructed from the MGS TES data from the same season.

  5. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  6. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  7. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  8. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  9. Optical fiber smartphone spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2016-05-15

    An optical fiber-based smartphone spectrometer incorporating an endoscopic fiber bundle is demonstrated. The endoscope allows transmission of the smartphone camera LED light to a sample, removing complications from varying background illumination. The reflected spectra collected from a surface or interface is dispersed onto the camera CMOS using a reflecting diffraction grating. A spectral resolution as low as δλ∼2.0  nm over a bandwidth of Δλ∼250  nm is obtained using a slit width, ωslit=0.7  mm. The instrument has vast potential in a number of industrial applications including agricultural produce analysis. Spectral analysis of apples shows straightforward measurement of the pigments anthocyanins, carotenoid, and chlorophyll, all of which decrease with increasing storage time. PMID:27176971

  10. A Comparison of Composite Reliability Estimators: Coefficient Omega Confidence Intervals in the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Coefficient omega and alpha are both measures of the composite reliability for a set of items. Unlike coefficient alpha, coefficient omega remains unbiased with congeneric items with uncorrelated errors. Despite this ability, coefficient omega is not as widely used and cited in the literature as coefficient alpha. Reasons for coefficient omega's…

  11. Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

    2006-03-08

    Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple

  12. Effect of intravenous omega-6 and omega-3 fat emulsions on nitrogen retention and protein kinetics in burned rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Tashiro, T; Yamamori, H; Takagi, K; Morishima, Y; Otsubo, Y; Sugiura, T; Furukawa, K; Nitta, H; Nakajima, N; Suzuki, N; Ito, I

    1999-02-01

    The effect of omega-3 fat emulsion on nitrogen retention and kinetics in relation to fatty acid profile were investigated in burned rats receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A fat emulsion of a structured symmetrical triacylglycerol containing only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2:1) was prepared. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by fat-free chow for 2 wk. Then rats were fed exclusively with one of three types of TPN for 7 d. Animals in group C received fat-free TPN (n = 11). Group omega 6 received safflower oil fat emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total caloric intake (n = 11). Group omega 3 received fat emulsion containing only EPA and DHA (1% of total calories, n = 11), in addition to safflower oil emulsion (19% of total calories). On day 5, each rat was subjected to 20% full-thickness scald burns. Rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia 48 h after burning. The rats in group C became deficient in omega-6 essential fatty acids. Cumulative nitrogen balance was decreased significantly in group omega 6. The rates of whole-body protein synthesis were increased significantly in both groups omega 6 and omega 3. In omega 6, however, the rates of whole-body protein breakdown were increased significantly. In conclusion, the rates of whole-body protein breakdown increased and nitrogen retention was aggravated significantly in animals administered the safflower oil emulsion. Significant increases of urinary excretion of total catecholamine were also observed. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 concentrations were not significantly different among three groups. Supplementation with the new omega-3 fat emulsion, however, improved protein metabolism in burned rats receiving TPN. PMID:9990578

  13. High Resolution Spectrometer in studies of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at. sqrt. s = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-03

    The High Resolution Spectrometer is a general-purpose spectrometer which measures both charged particles and electromagnetic energy over 90% of the solid angle. The detection elements are in a 1.62-T magnetic field. The detector elements consist of a central drift chamber, an outer drift-chamber system, a barrel shower counter, and an end-cap shower-counter system. The goals of the program of research with the High Resolution Spectrometer include measurements of the electroweak coupling of the quarks and leptons, studies of the strong interactions of the quarks, and search for qualitatively new phenomena. 20 refs., 35 figs. (LEW)

  14. Unbonded capping for concrete masonry units

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, L.K.; Knight, M.L.; Henderson, R.C.; Sneed, W.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Due to the manufacturing process, the bearing surfaces of concrete masonry units are often somewhat rough and uneven. Therefore, concrete masonry units must be capped when tested in compression according to ASTM C 140-96, Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units. Capping of concrete masonry units is time consuming and expensive. Several studies of compression tests on concrete cylinders indicate that use of elastic pads in rigid retaining caps give similar compressive strength results to approved capping methods.An unbonded capping system for concrete masonry units similar to that described in ASTM C 1231-93, Standard Practice for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of Compressive Strength of Hardened Concrete Cylinders, was developed. The average compressive strength results obtained when using the unbonded capping system ranged from 92--94% of the average compressive strength results obtained when using ASTM C 140-96 approved methods. Further, use of the unbonded capping system was found to increase productivity and substantially reduce testing cost.

  15. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  16. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  17. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  18. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  19. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  20. Multi-Kev X-Ray Emission from High-Z Gas Targets Fielded at Omega and NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Mark; Fournier, Kevin; Colvin, Jeff; Kane, Jave

    2010-11-01

    We report on the measured X-ray flux from gas-filled targets shot at both the OMEGA and NIF laser facilities. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at ˜ 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3φ (˜350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. The NIF targets were thin walled (25 μm), 4 mm long, 4 mm inner-diameter epoxy pipes filled with 1.2 atm of a 65:35 Ar:Xe mixture. The NIF experiments heated these targets with 350 kJ of 3φ (˜350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 5 ns square pulse at up to 75 TW of laser power. The emitted X-ray flux was monitored with the X-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional X-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated X-ray detectors. The X-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. The results from both experiments will be compared. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Syntheses of [omega]-alkynyl aldehydes and ketones via oxidation of [omega]-alkynyl alcohols with pyridinium dichromate

    SciTech Connect

    Bierer, D.E.; Kabalka, G.W. )

    1988-01-01

    Pyridinium dichromate (PDC) is an effective reagent for the oxidation of alcohols and a number of modifications of the original procedure have been reported. Interestingly, PDC has never been used to oxidize non-conjugated acetylenic alcohols. As a part of a project involving the chemical preparation of a number of unsaturated amino acids, the authors investigated the synthesis of a series of [omega]-alkynyl aldehydes. The authors now report that the PDC oxidation of [omega]-alkynyl alcohols is an effective route to the corresponding [omega]-alkynyl carbonyl compounds.

  2. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  3. Nonblocking omega network and its topological equivalence with Benes network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jun; Cao, Mingcui; Li, Zaiguang

    1994-05-01

    Optical interconnection networks have potential uses in parallel processing computers and photonic switching systems. This paper presents the topology of nonblocking omega network (NON) and studies the topological equivalence variety of NON with Benes network by the graph analysis method.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids. What consumers need to know.

    PubMed

    McManus, Alexandra; Merga, Margaret; Newton, Wendy

    2011-08-01

    The general public is increasingly aware of the health benefits associated with consumption of omega-3 fatty acids. While evidence of health benefits continues to mount, the underlying science is complex. Omega-3 fatty acids vary in their physiological efficacy. Consumers are typically unaware of differences in the efficacy of different omega-3 fatty acids and this lack of knowledge can result in consumers being misled within the marketplace. There is a need for consumers to be educated about the distinctions between omega-3 fatty acids. In the interim consumers remain at risk of purchasing premium fortified products and supplements that will not correspond to their desired health outcomes. This paper summarises the current understanding of fatty acid physiological metabolism and interaction for the purpose of highlighting this complex and multifaceted concern. PMID:21497627

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in perinatal settings.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Dawn S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to explain the role of omega-3 fatty acids in human health, specifically in fetal/neonatal development, (b) to summarize the recent research behind the innovations in infant formula manufacturing and advertisement of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for pregnant and lactating mothers, and (c) to relate the research findings to clinical practice. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in perinatal settings is discussed here from three vantage points: (a) supplementation of the third-trimester pregnant woman to enhance fetal development, (b) supplementation of the lactating mother to enhance development of the breastfeeding infant, and (c) supplementation of infant formulas to enhance development of the bottle-feeding infant. Supplementation can occur by increasing one's intake of foods high in omega-3 fatty acids or by ingesting fatty acid nutritional supplements. The challenge of supplementation for vegan and vegetarian women is also addressed. PMID:16940822

  6. Myc and mRNA capping.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sianadh; Cowling, Victoria H

    2015-05-01

    c-Myc is upregulated in response to growth factors and transmits the signal to proliferate by altering the gene expression landscape. When genetic alterations result in growth factor-independent c-Myc expression, it can become an oncogene. The majority of human tumour types exhibit a degree of c-Myc deregulation, resulting in unrestrained cell proliferation. c-Myc binds proximal to the promoter region of genes and recruits co-factors including histone acetyltransferases and RNA pol II kinases, which promote transcription. c-Myc also promotes formation of the cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA. The cap is 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide of RNA pol II transcripts via a 5' to 5' triphosphate bridge. The cap is added to the first transcribed nucleotide by the capping enzymes, RNGTT and RNMT-RAM. During the early stages of transcription, the capping enzymes are recruited to RNA pol II phosphorylated on Serine-5 of the C-terminal domain. The mRNA cap protects transcripts from degradation during transcription and recruits factors which promote RNA processing including, splicing, export and translation initiation. The proportion of transcripts with a cap structure is increased by elevating c-Myc expression, resulting in increased rates of translation. c-Myc promotes capping by promoting RNA pol II phosphorylation and by upregulating the enzyme SAHH which neutralises the inhibitory bi-product of methylation reactions, SAH. c-Myc-induced capping is required for c-Myc-dependent gene expression and cell proliferation. Targeting capping may represent a new therapeutic opportunity to inhibit c-Myc function in tumours. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24681440

  7. Characterizing Hot Electron Generation and Transport via Bremsstrahlung Emission on the High Intensity OMEGA EP Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, J.; McGuffey, C.; Krauland, C.; Sorokovikova, A.; Qiao, B.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, C. D.; Westover, B.; McLean, H. S.

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of high intensity laser generated fast electron beams is important for a number of High Energy Density Science applications, which include proton sources and fast ignition among others. A series of experimental campaigns performed using the kilojoule, 10-ps OMEGA EP laser closely examined the impact of a preformed plasma on laser plasma interaction and electron generation. Here we present the analysis of the measured bremsstrahlung x-ray radiation and the inferred results on fast electron characteristics. Simulations, performed with the Monte-Carlo code package ITS 3.0, generate the x-ray response of the target to an injected electron beam with a given temperature, energy and divergence angle. The simulated x-rays are then compared to those collected by the bremsstrahlung spectrometers, which allows us to characterize fast electrons created in the experiment. Preliminary results show a decrease in hot electron temperature with an increase in pre-pulse, which is further corroborated by magnetic electron and Cu-K α spectrometers. This work performed under the auspices of the US DOE under contracts DE-FOA-0000583 (FES, NNSA), DE-NA0002026 (NLUF) and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (FSC).

  8. MANGANESE ABUNDANCES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Bergemann, Maria; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Lambert, David L.

    2010-07-01

    We present manganese abundances in 10 red giant members of the globular cluster {omega} Centauri; eight stars are from the most metal-poor population (RGB MP and RGB MInt1) while two targets are members of the more metal-rich groups (RGB MInt2 and MInt3). This is the first time Mn abundances have been studied in this peculiar stellar system. The LTE values of [Mn/Fe] in {omega} Cen overlap those of Milky Way stars in the metal-poor {omega} Cen populations ([Fe/H] {approx}-1.5 to -1.8), however unlike what is observed in Milky Way halo and disk stars, [Mn/Fe] declines in the two more metal-rich RGB MInt2 and MInt3 targets. Non-LTE calculations were carried out in order to derive corrections to the LTE Mn abundances. The non-LTE results for {omega} Cen in comparison with the non-LTE [Mn/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend obtained for the Milky Way confirm and strengthen the conclusion that the manganese behavior in {omega} Cen is distinct. These results suggest that low-metallicity supernovae (with metallicities {<=} -2) of either Type II or Type Ia dominated the enrichment of the more metal-rich stars in {omega} Cen. The dominance of low-metallicity stars in the chemical evolution of {omega} Cen has been noted previously in the s-process elements where enrichment from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars is indicated. In addition, copper, which also has metallicity-dependent yields, exhibits lower values of [Cu/Fe] in the RGB MInt2 and MInt3 {omega} Cen populations.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  10. Study of the decay B0bar -> D* omega pi

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-24

    We report on a study of the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -} with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Based on a sample of 232 million B{bar B} decays, we measure the branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.88 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}. We study the invariant mass spectrum of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} system in this decay. This spectrum is in good agreement with expectations based on factorization and the measured spectrum in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}. We also measure the polarization of the D*{sup +} as a function of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} mass. In the mass region 1.1 to 1.9 GeV we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization of the D*{sup +} to be {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda} = 0.654 {+-} 0.042(stat.) {+-} 0.016(syst.). This is in agreement with the expectations from heavy-quark effective theory and factorization assuming that the decay proceeds as {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{rho}(1450), {rho}(1450) {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}.

  11. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: plasma data.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aimed at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. This first report deals mainly with the fatty acid pattern of plasma lipids in male omega3-depleted rats that were non-injected or injected with either the omega3-rich emulsion or a control medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion. The results provide information on the fate of the exogenous lipids present in the lipid emulsions and injected intravenously 60 min before sacrifice. Moreover, in the uninjected omega3-depleted rats the comparison between individual plasma and liver measurements indicated positive correlations in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides. PMID:18288383

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  13. Observation of B meson decays to {omega}K* and improved measurements for {omega}{rho} and {omega}f{sub 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.

    2009-03-01

    We present measurements of B meson decays to the final states {omega}K*, {omega}{rho}, and {omega}f{sub 0}, where K* indicates a spin 0, 1, or 2 strange meson. The data sample corresponds to 465x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. B meson decays involving vector-scalar, vector-vector, and vector-tensor final states are analyzed; the latter two shed new light on the polarization of these final states. We measure the branching fractions for nine of these decays; five are observed for the first time. For most decays we also measure the charge asymmetry and, where relevant, the longitudinal polarization f{sub L}.

  14. Source geometric considerations for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Sorce, C.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Perez, F.

    2012-10-01

    The Dante is a 15 channel filtered diode array which is installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The system yields the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from 50 eV to 10 keV from various targets (i.e., Hohlraum, gas pipes, etc.). The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and an unfold algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The unfold algorithm assumes an emitting source that is spatially uniform and has a constant area as a function of photon energy. The emitting x-ray source is usually considered to be the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a given diameter for Hohlraum type targets or the effective wall area of high conversion efficiency K-shell type targets. This assumption can be problematic for several reasons. High intensity regions or "hot spots" in the x-ray are observed where the drive laser beams strike the target. The "hot spots" create non-uniform emission seen by the Dante. Additionally, thinned walled (50 μm) low-Z targets (C22H10N2O5) have an energy dependent source size since the target's walls will be fully opaque for low energies (E < 2-3 keV) yet fully transmissive at higher energies. Determining accurate yields can be challenging for these types of targets. Discussion and some analysis will be presented.

  15. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  16. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Brunner, T.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2013-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes since the flow is analytically analogous to diffusive free molecular flow in a similar geometry. Experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser utilizing a low-density heated-cylindrical-wall target. The targets consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder inside an 80 μm thick Ta2O5 aerogel tube. The FY13 targets also feature ``light-pipe'' diagnostics to measure the progression of the radiation front inside the foam. Simulations were run with the KULL multi-physics code, employing a new laser ray-tracing package. Comparisons of synthetic diagnostics derived from code results to x-ray measurements of drive temperature and heat front propagation provide a methodology to constrain simulation models. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Omega-3s and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    DiNicolantonio, James J.; Niazi, Asfandyar K.; McCarty, Mark F.; O'Keefe, James H.; Meier, Pascal; Lavie, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have previously been shown to reduce the risk of cardiac events, cardiac death, and all-cause mortality in randomized controlled trials. However, recent data have challenged the benefits of n-3 fatty acids in the current era of optimal medical therapy. Methods We performed a literature review indicating important limitations that must be considered when interpreting the recent negative n-3 fatty acids trials. Results Our review found relative strengths and weaknesses of both the older and more recent studies, along with many possible explanations for the disparate results. The principal difference between the older and the more recent n-3 studies was a greater use of background optimal medical therapy that may have reduced the benefit from n-3s. Additionally, some of the more recent n-3 trials used relatively low doses or tested n-3 supplementation on top of a relatively high baseline intake of n-3s. Conclusion Despite the recent negative data about n-3 fatty acids, the overall evidence still supports the American Heart Association recommendation of 1 gram of eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid per day for patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:25249807

  18. Impact behaviour of omega stiffened composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Ricchiuto, R.; Saputo, S.; Raimondo, A.; Caputo, F.; Antonucci, V.; Lopresto, V.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical response of reinforced composite structures under impact loads is particularly challenging owing to the rising of multiple and simultaneous failure phenomena. Indeed, low velocity impacts may produce intra-laminar damages, like fibre breakage and matrix cracking, and inter-laminar damages, such as delaminations and skin-stringer debonding. As already remarked, these failure phenomena often take place simultaneously, leading to a significant reduction in strength and stability of the composite components. In this paper, the behaviour of stiffened composite panels, with omega shaped stringers, under low velocity impacts is numerically investigated by means of non-linear explicit FEM analyses. Different impact energy levels are considered and correlation with experimental data is provided, in terms of impact force, displacement and energy. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the influence of numerical models' approximations on the accuracy of the obtained numerical results. Models with an increasing level of damage simulation details have been adopted to study the effects of combined and separated intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures providing an interesting insight on the modelling requirements for an accurate simulation of the investigated phenomena.

  19. Shock-Ignition Studies on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenberger, M.; Theobald, W.; Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Stoeckl, C.; Casner, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2010-11-01

    Recent theoretical workootnotetextR. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007) has shown that the gain in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment can be significantly increased through separation of the compression and ignition stage by launching a strong, spherically convergent shock at the end of a compression pulse. This scheme, referred to as shock ignition, reduces the energy required for ignition compared to ``conventional'' ICF or fast ignition. Through potentially relaxed requirements for the ignitor-shock spherical symmetry, it can be carried out in a polar-drive configuration and is therefore applicable to the National Ignition Facility. The results of a series of spherical and planar-target experiments on OMEGA to study the shock-ignition technique and to infer the shock strength, hot-electron generation, and light reflectivity at the high intensities relevant to shock ignition will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC52-08NA28302 and DE-FC02-04ER54789.

  20. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    May, M J; Widmann, K; Sorce, C; Park, H; Schneider, M

    2010-05-07

    The Dante is an 18 channel X-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g. hohlraums, etc.) at X-ray energies between 50 eV to 10 keV. It is a main diagnostics installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the X-ray diodes, filters and mirrors and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte-Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  1. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurements

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-15

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  2. Supernova Hydrodynamics on the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2004-01-16

    (B204)The fundamental motivation for our work is that supernovae are not well understood. Recent observations have clarified the depth of our ignorance, by producing observed phenomena that current theory and computer simulations cannot reproduce. Such theories and simulations involve, however, a number of physical mechanisms that have never been studied in isolation. We perform experiments, in compressible hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics, relevant to supernovae and supernova remnants. These experiments produce phenomena in the laboratory that are believed, based on simulations, to be important to astrophysics but that have not been directly observed in either the laboratory or in an astrophysical system. During the period of this grant, we have focused on the scaling of an astrophysically relevant, radiative-precursor shock, on preliminary studies of collapsing radiative shocks, and on the multimode behavior and the three-dimensional, deeply nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at a decelerating, embedded interface. These experiments required strong compression and decompression, strong shocks (Mach {approx}10 or greater), flexible geometries, and very smooth laser beams, which means that the 60-beam Omega laser is the only facility capable of carrying out this program.

  3. Plasma density increase in the high altitude polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanoya, Yugo; Abe, Takumi; Mukai, Toshifumi

    In general situation, the electron density in the ionosphere decreases with altitude. As for the latitudinal variation, the electron density is generally smaller in the polar cap than in the midor low-latitude region. Few reliable measurements have been made to estimate thermal electron density and temperature with a simple instrument such as Langmuir probe in the highaltitude polar cap region. For example, only the limited amount of the electron temperature and density data are available for the high-altitude (> 3000 km) polar cap, where the density is generally less than 2.0*103 [/cm3 ]. Since the plasma density significantly correlates with the solar activity, thermal plasma density becomes smaller for the minimum solar activity period. Thermal Electron energy Distribution (TED) instrument onboard "AKEBONO" (EXOS-D) satellite has been operated in two modes; 1) DC mode to obtain the probe characteristic, 2) SH (second harmonic) mode to estimate the electron energy distribution function based on Druyvesteyn method, from which the electron temperature and density can be estimated even on the condition of low electron density. On the basis of statistical study of the Akebono observation for over 10 years, it is found that the electron number density occasionally increases up to 3.0-4.0*103 [/cm3 ] above altitude of 3000 km. While the electron temperature is believed to be about 8000 K at such a high altitude, the temperature inside the high density region is observed to be lower than that by several thousand degrees. It is noticeable that such a density enhancement occurs during the geomagnetically active period at solar maximum. The high density region is observed to exist not in whole but in part of the polar cap. In addition, it is obvious from the Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer (SMS) observations that the H+ velocity parallel to the upward field aligned direction is observed to be lower in the high density region than the surrounding region. Also, it is

  4. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  5. Omega-3 and omega-6 content of medicinal foods for depressed patients: implications from the Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Motavasselian, Malihe; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen; Eslami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Materials and Methods: Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Afterwards, according to the online database of United States Department of Agriculture (URL: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list), the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha linolenic acid (as representatives of omega-6 and omega-3, respectively) was identified in each foodstuff. Finally, the ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 were compared between seven food groups of vegetables, fruits, dry goods, high protein products, dairies, breads, and spices. Results: Based on the resources of Iranian Traditional Medicine, the following foods are prescribed for depressed patients: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, beet, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, trout, milk, bread without bran, saffron, oregano, and coriander seeds. On the other hand, cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, beef, whole wheat bread, and mustard are prohibited. It should be noted that omega-3 content in some prescribed foods is more than that of the prohibited ones. Conclusion: The present study showed that mint, basil, spinach, lettuce, squash, lamb, saffron, oregano, cucumber, pistachio, milk, and also wild trout can be considered as medicinal foods for depressed patients. PMID:25068136

  6. Cascaded interferometric imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Swinyard, Bruce; Ferlet, Marc

    2007-09-01

    We present what we believe to be a novel method for order sorting a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in tandem. We demonstrate how the order sorting is achieved using a model instrument response as an example of an instrument working in the 5-25 microm band, although the method is generally applicable at all wavelengths. We show that an instrument of this type can be realized with a large bandwidth, a large field of view, and good transmission efficiency. These attributes make this instrument concept a useful technique in applications where true imaging spectroscopy is required, such as mapping large astronomical sources. We compare the performance of the new instrument to grating and standard FTS instruments in circumstances where the measurement is background and detector noise limited. We use a figure of merit based on the field of view and speed of detection and find that the new system has a speed advantage over a FTS with the same field of view in all circumstances. The instrument will be faster than a grating instrument with the same spectral resolution once the field of view is >13 times larger under high background conditions and >50 times larger with detector performances that match the photon noise from Zodiacal light. PMID:17805378

  7. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  8. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  9. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  10. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  11. Pediatric burns with snap-cap fireworks.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy L; Kilani, Marwa; Lozano, Daniel; Sundine, Michael; Karamanoukian, Hratch L; Delarosa, Jacob; Behnam, Shahdad; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Snap-caps are marketed as a relatively safe pyrotechnic (explosive) device for children 8 years and older. Individually, the snap-caps pose very little threat because the amount of explosive compounds contained in each is limited to 1 mg. However, the accidental explosion of numerous snap-caps may cause significant burns. This study highlights a series of pediatric patients who presented with severe second- and third-degree burns as a result of accidental explosion of snap-caps. Seven patients with snap-caps-related injuries were treated at the University of California, San Diego Regional Burn Center from January 1996 to April 1999. Study foci included 1) mode and extent of injury, 2) management, 3) associated morbidity, and 4) functional outcome. Six patients (84%) required hospital admission. Four patients (57%) underwent split-thickness skin grafting to repair mean TBSA burns of 4.1% (range, 2-8%). Three patients (43%) received aggressive management of burns with topical medications and dressing changes. The nature and extent of snap-cap injuries support the contention that snap-caps have the potential to harm children to whom they are marketed. PMID:16566570

  12. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments. PMID:26483183

  15. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Meagen M; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2010-01-01

    Linoleic acid (18:2omega6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) represent the parent fats of the two main classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids: the omega-6 (n-6) and the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, respectively. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid both give rise to other long-chain fatty acid derivatives, including gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid (omega-6 fatty acids) and docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (omega-3 fatty acids). These fatty acids are showing promise as safe adjunctive treatments for many skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus, nonmelanoma skin cancer, and melanoma. Their roles are diverse and include maintenance of the stratum corneum permeability barrier, maturation and differentiation of the stratum corneum, formation and secretion of lamellar bodies, inhibition of proinflammatory eicosanoids, elevation of the sunburn threshold, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-12), inhibition of lipoxygenase, promotion of wound healing, and promotion of apoptosis in malignant cells, including melanoma. They fulfill these functions independently and through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and Toll-like receptors. PMID:20620762

  16. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  17. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  18. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. PMID:26654992

  19. Why is the north polar cap on Mars different than the south polar cap?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    One of the most puzzling mysteries about the planet Mars is the hemispherical asymmetry in the polar caps. Every spring the seasonal polar cap of CO2 recedes until the end of summer, when only a small part, the residual polar cap, remains. During the year that Viking observed Mars, the residual polar cap was composed of water ice in the northern hemisphere but was primarily carbon dioxide ice in the southern hemisphere. Scientists have sought to explain this asymmetry by modeling observations of the latitudinal recession of the polar cap and seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure (since the seasonal polar caps are primarily frozen atmosphere, they are directly related to changes in atmospheric mass). These models reproduce most aspects of the observed annual variation in atmospheric pressure fairly accurately. Furthermore, the predicted latitudinal recession of the northern polar cap in the spring agrees well with observations, including the fact that the CO2 ice is predicted to completely sublime away. However, these models all predict that the carbon dioxide ice will also sublime away during the summer in the southern hemisphere, unlike what is observed. This paper will show how the radiative effects of ozone, clouds, airborne dust, light penetration into and through the polar cap, and the dependence of albedo on solar zenith angle affect CO2 ice formation and sublimation, and how they help explain the hemispherical asymmetry in the residual polar caps. These effects have not been studied with prior polar cap models.

  20. Helping women to good health: breast cancer, omega-3/omega-6 lipids, and related lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In addition to genetic predisposition and sex hormone exposure, physical activity and a healthy diet play important roles in breast cancer (BC). Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) associated with decreased omega-6 (n-6), resulting in a higher n-3/n-6 ratio compared with the western diet, are inversely associated with BC risk, as shown by Yang et al. in their meta-analysis in BMC Cancer. High consumption of polyphenols and organic foods increase the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in turn may decrease BC risk. Intake of high fiber foods and foods with low glycemic index decreases insulin resistance and diabetes risk, and in turn may decrease BC risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet is an effective strategy for combining these recommendations, and this dietary pattern reduces overall cancer risk and specifically BC risk. High-risk women should also eliminate environmental endocrine disruptors, including those from foods. Drugs that decrease the n-3/n-6 ratio or that are suspected of increasing BC or diabetes risk should be used with great caution by high-risk women and women wishing to decrease their BC risk.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/105/abstract. PMID:24669767

  1. Separation of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in food by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Laiel C; Donkor, Kingsley K; Church, John S; Cinel, Bruno; Prema, Dipesh; Dugan, Michael E R

    2013-10-01

    A lower dietary omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid ratio (<4) has been shown to be beneficial in preventing a number of chronic illnesses. Interest exists in developing more rapid and sensitive analytical methods for profiling fatty acid levels in foods. An aqueous CE method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 n-3 and n-6 relevant fatty acids. The effect of pH and concentration of buffer, type and concentration of organic modifier, and additive on the separation was investigated in order to determine the best conditions for the analysis. Baseline separations of the 15 fatty acids were achieved using 40 mM borate buffer at pH 9.50 containing 50 mM SDS, 10 mM β-cyclodextrin, and 10% acetonitrile. The developed CE method has LODs of <5 mg/L and good linearity (R(2) > 0.980) for all fatty acids studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in flax seed, Udo® oils and a selection of grass-fed and grain-fed beef muscle samples. PMID:23943402

  2. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty acids and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ionescu, Alina A; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2004-12-01

    Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of asthma, the prevalence and burden of this disease has continued to increase. Exercise is a powerful trigger of asthma symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction and may result in the avoidance of physical activity by patients with asthma, resulting in detrimental consequences to their health. Approximately 90% of patients with asthma are hyperresponsive to exercise and experience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). While pharmacologic treatment of asthma is usually highly effective, medications often have significant side-effects or exhibit tachyphylaxis. Alternative therapies for treatment (complementary medicine) that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacologic interventions would be beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. There is accumulating evidence that dietary modification has potential to influence the severity of asthma and reduce the prevalence and incidence of this condition. A possible contributing factor to the increased incidence of asthma in Western societies may be the consumption of a proinflammatory diet. In the typical Western diet, 20- to 25-fold more omega- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than omega-3 PUFA are consumed, which causes the release of proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotrienes and prostanoids). This review analyzes the existing literature on omega-3 PUFA supplementation as a potential modifier of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma and includes studies concerning the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in EIB. While clinical data evaluating the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in asthma has been equivocal, it has recently been shown that pharmaceutical-grade fish oil (omega-3 PUFA) supplementation reduces airway hyperresponsiveness after exercise, medication use, and proinflammatory mediator generation in nonatopic elite athletes with EIB. These findings are provocative and suggest that

  4. Omega phase formation in titanium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III; Morris, C.E.; Lawson, A.C.

    1992-05-01

    Although the response of titanium alloys to dynamic loading is receiving increased attention in the literature (particularly in the area of shear-band formation), a more limited experimental database exists concerning the detailed structure/property relationships of titanium alloys subjected to shock loading. In this study, preliminary results concerning the influence of alloy chemistry on the property of omega-phase formation and its structure in three titanium alloys are presented. The influence of shock-wave deformation on the phase stability and substructure evolution of high-purity (low-interstitial) titanium, A-70 (3700 ppm oxygen) titanium, and Ti-6Al-4V were probed utilizing real-time velocity interferometry (VISAR) and ``soft`` shock-recovery techniques. VISAR wave profiles of shock-loaded high-purity titanium revealed the omega-phase pressure-induced transition to occur at approximately 10.4 GPa. Wave profile measurements on A-70 Ti shocked to pressures up to 35 GPa and Ti-6Al-4V shocked to pressures up to 25 GPa exhibited no evidence of a three-wave structure indicative of a pressure-induced phase transition. Neutron and X-ray diffractometry and TEM analysis confirmed the presence of retained {omega}-phase in the electrolytic-Ti and the absence of {omega}-phase in the shock-recovered A-70 Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Suppression of the {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in A-70 Ti, containing a high interstitial oxygen content, is seen to simultaneously correlate with suppression of deformation twinning. Neutron diffraction was used to measure the in-situ bulk lattice constants and volume fraction of the {alpha} and {omega} phases in the recovered high-purity titanium samples that were shock loaded. The influence of alloy content on the kinetics of formation/retention of {omega}-phase and substructure evolution is discussed and contrasted in light of previous literature studies.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  6. Source geometric considerations for OMEGA Dante measurements

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Perez, F.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The Dante is a 15 channel filtered diode array which is installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The system yields the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from 50 eV to 10 keV from various targets (i.e., Hohlraum, gas pipes, etc.). The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and an unfold algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The unfold algorithm assumes an emitting source that is spatially uniform and has a constant area as a function of photon energy. The emitting x-ray source is usually considered to be the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a given diameter for Hohlraum type targets or the effective wall area of high conversion efficiency K-shell type targets. This assumption can be problematic for several reasons. High intensity regions or 'hot spots' in the x-ray are observed where the drive laser beams strike the target. The 'hot spots' create non-uniform emission seen by the Dante. Additionally, thinned walled (50 {mu}m) low-Z targets (C{sub 22}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) have an energy dependent source size since the target's walls will be fully opaque for low energies (E < 2-3 keV) yet fully transmissive at higher energies. Determining accurate yields can be challenging for these types of targets. Discussion and some analysis will be presented.

  7. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  8. Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

  9. Versatile cluster based photoelectron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Knappenberger, K. L. Jr.; Jones, C. E. Jr.; Sobhy, M. A.; Castleman, A. W. Jr.

    2006-12-15

    A recently constructed cluster based photoelectron spectrometer is described. This instrumentation is unique in that it enables the kinetic energy analysis of electrons ejected from both anions and neutral clusters. This capability permits the investigation of discrete electronic levels in all charge states (anionic, neutral, and cationic). A laser vaporization plasma reactor cluster source affixed with a sublimation cell is employed to produce a variety of metal clusters, and the resulting cluster distributions are analyzed with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The corresponding electronic structure is analyzed with a 'magnetic bottle' photoelectron spectrometer. Examples of instrument performance operating in both anion photodetachment and neutral multiphoton ionization (MPI) modes are provided. In the case of neutral MPI, the corresponding product distribution is collected with a Wiley-McLaren [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26, 1150 (1955)] mass spectrometer mounted perpendicular to the magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer.

  10. Fast-neutron spectrometer developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moler, R. B.; Zagotta, W. E.; Baker, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Li6 sandwich-type neutron spectrometer is equipped with proportional counter for particle identification. System uses current-sensitive preamplifiers to minimize pile-up of gamma-ray and particle pulses.

  11. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present

  12. Resonance-filtered beam spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, R.M.; Taylor, A.D.; Olsen, C.E.; Goldstone, J.A.; Soper, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    A new inelastic neutron scattering spectrometer which operates in the range 1 eV to 15 eV has been developed at the Los Alamos pulsed spallation source WNR. Based on a nuclear resonance filtering the beam, the concept has been tested in direct, inverted and sample geometries. A number of resonance filters have been tested to determine their effectiveness. The spectrometer is described and examples of data are presented.

  13. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  14. Subsea tree cap well choke system

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, J.M.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes an apparatus useful in subsea well completions requiring a subsea choke. It comprises: a wellhead connector; a tree flow passage; a tree annulus passage; a tree cap; a choke; and a production line.

  15. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  16. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  17. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  18. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  19. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  20. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  1. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  2. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  3. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  4. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  5. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  6. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  7. Attenuation of {omega} mesons in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, T. E.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.

    2011-08-15

    The attenuation of {omega} mesons in cold nuclear matter has been investigated via the time-dependent multiple-scattering Monte Carlo multicollisional (MCMC) intranuclear cascade model. The inelastic {omega} width deduced from CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration data of meson transparency in complex nuclei ({Gamma}*{approx_equal}30 MeV/c{sup 2}) is approximately 5 times lower than the value obtained with recent theoretical models and consistent with an in-medium total {omega}N cross section within 25-30 mb for an average meson momentum of 1.1 GeV/c . The momentum-dependent transparency ratios suggest an elastic/total cross-section ratio around 40%. For the case of CLAS Collaboration data a much higher width is deduced ({Gamma}* > or approx. 120 MeV/c{sup 2}), with the MCMC model providing a consistent interpretation of the data, assuming a much higher meson absorption ({sigma}{sub {omega}N}* > or approx. 100 mb) for p{sub {omega}{approx}1}.7 GeV/c.

  8. Observation of in-medium modifications of the omega meson.

    PubMed

    Trnka, D; Anton, G; Bacelar, J C S; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beloglazov, Y A; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Dutz, H; Ehmanns, A; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fabry, I; Fuchs, M; Essig, K; Funke, Ch; Gothe, R; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Gutz, E; Höffgen, S; Hoffmeister, P; Horn, I; Hössl, J; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Kotulla, M; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lotz, J; Lugert, S; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J G; Mertens, T; Metag, V; Morales, C; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L M; van Pee, H; Pfeiffer, M; Roy, A; Radkov, A; Schadmand, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Shende, S; Suft, G; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Süle, A; Thoma, U; Varma, R; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Ch; Wendel, Ch

    2005-05-20

    The photoproduction of omega mesons on nuclei has been investigated using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The aim is to study possible in-medium modifications of the omega meson via the reaction gamma + A --> omega + X --> pi(0)gamma + X('). Results obtained for Nb are compared to a reference measurement on a LH2 target. While for recoiling, long-lived mesons (pi(0), eta, and eta;(')), which decay outside of the nucleus, a difference in the line shape for the two data samples is not observed, we find a significant enhancement towards lower masses for omega mesons produced on the Nb target. For momenta less than 500 MeV/c an in-medium omega meson mass of M(medium) = [722(+4)(-4)(stat)+35-5(syst)] MeV/c(2) has been deduced at an estimated average nuclear density of 0.6rho(0). PMID:16090166

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid and nutrient deficits in adverse neurodevelopment and childhood behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gow, Rachel V; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-07-01

    Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients show sizable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and young adult prisoners. Studies of HUFAs in youth, however, remain lacking. As the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatment develops, dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations based on general health considerations. PMID:24975625

  10. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  11. Shock-Tuned Cryogenic-Deuterium-Tritium Implosion Performance on Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster,T.C.; Goncharov, V.N.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Casey, D.T.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Harding, D.R.; Hu, S.X.; Igumenschev, I.V.; Knauer, J.P.; Loucks, S.J.; Li, C.K.; Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Nilson, P.M.; Padalino, S.P.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, R.B.; Regan, S.P.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Short,R.W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.

    2010-05-04

    Cryogenic-deuterium-tritium (DT) target compression experiments with low-adiabat (alpha), multiple-shock drive pulses have been performed on the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to demonstrate hydrodynamic-equivalent ignition performance. The multiple-shock drive pulse facilitates experimental shock tuning using an established cone-in-shell target platform [T. R. Boehly, R. Betti, T. R. Boehly et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056301 (2009)]. These shock-tuned drive pulses have been used to implode cryogenic-DT targets with peak implosion velocities of 3 x 10^7 cm/ s at peak drive intensities of 8 x 10^14 W/cm^2. During a recent series of alpha ~ 2 implosions, one of the two necessary conditions for initiating a thermonuclear burn wave in a DT plasma was achieved: an areal density of approximately 300 mg/cm^2 was inferred using the magnetic recoil spectrometer [J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, F. H. Séguin et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 042704 (2009)]. The other condition—a burn-averaged ion temperature n of 8–10 keV—cannot be achieved on Omega because of the limited laser energy; the kinetic energy of the imploding shell is insufficient to heat the plasma to these temperatures. A n of approximately 3.4 keV would be required to demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)]. The n reached during the recent series of alpha ~ 2 implosions was approximately 2 keV, limited primarily by laser-drive and target nonuniformities. Work is underway to improve drive and target symmetry for future experiments.

  12. Shock-tuned cryogenic-deuterium-tritium implosion performance on Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T. C.; Goncharov, V. N.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, Y. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenschev, I. V.; Knauer, J. P.; Loucks, S. J.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2010-05-15

    Cryogenic-deuterium-tritium (DT) target compression experiments with low-adiabat (alpha), multiple-shock drive pulses have been performed on the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to demonstrate hydrodynamic-equivalent ignition performance. The multiple-shock drive pulse facilitates experimental shock tuning using an established cone-in-shell target platform [T. R. Boehly, R. Betti, T. R. Boehly et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056301 (2009)]. These shock-tuned drive pulses have been used to implode cryogenic-DT targets with peak implosion velocities of 3x10{sup 7} cm/s at peak drive intensities of 8x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. During a recent series of alphaapprox2 implosions, one of the two necessary conditions for initiating a thermonuclear burn wave in a DT plasma was achieved: an areal density of approximately 300 mg/cm{sup 2} was inferred using the magnetic recoil spectrometer [J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, F. H. Seguin et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 042704 (2009)]. The other condition--a burn-averaged ion temperature {sub n} of 8-10 keV--cannot be achieved on Omega because of the limited laser energy; the kinetic energy of the imploding shell is insufficient to heat the plasma to these temperatures. A {sub n} of approximately 3.4 keV would be required to demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 058102 (2010)]. The {sub n} reached during the recent series of alphaapprox2 implosions was approximately 2 keV, limited primarily by laser-drive and target nonuniformities. Work is underway to improve drive and target symmetry for future experiments.

  13. Ions in the Enceladus plume: Cassini/CAPS ion measurements at high energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.; Hill, T. W.; Jones, G. H.; Tokar, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    During several Cassini encounters with Saturn's satellite, Enceladus, the spacecraft crossed through the plume of water vapor and dust south of the satellite with a spacecraft orientation which allowed the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) to observe ions and nanograin dust particles associated with the plume. During three of these encounters, E7 (November 2, 2009), E17 (March XX, 2012) and E18 (April YY, 2012), the trajectories were very similar and parallel to the equatorial plane (i.e. little north-south velocity, so that the spacecraft moved perpendicular to the rotation axis of Enceladus.) Previous analysis, using data from the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (IMS) and electron spectrometer (ELS), identified cold ions at rest with respect to Enceladus [1], negative water group and water cluster ions [2], and both positively and negatively charged dust particles in the 0.5 to 2 nm (1000 to 20,000 AMU) size range [3,4]. We present observations from the third CAPS sensor, the ion beam spectrometer (IBS). Although this sensor lacks the angular resolution of the other CAPS sensors, it has an energy resolution of 1.4%, roughly an order of magnitude greater than the ELS and IMS sensors. The IBS data allows us to estimate the temperature and flow speed of the low energy ions in the plume, and characterize the structure of the plume ionosphere. We find that the plume is highly structured, down to the 2-s (17 km along track) limit of the instrument's sampling. Distinct regions of cold, dense ions, resembling a collisional ionosphere, are intermixed with a broad background of warmer, non-thermal ions, possibly resulting from charge exchange between magnetospheric ions and plume neutrals. Despite the sensor's lack of intrinsic angular resolution, the ion flux and energy spectra are consistent with a drift velocity away from Saturn and in the direction of the upstream flow. References: [1] Tokar et al., 2009, Cassini detection of Enceladus' cold water-group plume ionosphere

  14. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospice cap amount. 418.309 Section 418.309 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... until October 31 of the following year. (b) Each hospice's cap amount is calculated by the...

  15. Mineralogy of Aram Chaos on Mars derived from OMEGA hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, S.; Masse, M.; Bourgeois, O.; Sotin, C.; . Le Deit, L.; Mangold, N.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2007-08-01

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express has completed a near global coverage of Mars in 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 μm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km. This data set provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains [1]. We have focused our study on the Aram Chaos region of Mars. Aram Chaos is a circular depression which is 300 km in diameter. It is thought to be filled by sediments which were mixed with a significant amount of water ice. A melting of the water ice due either to a global warming or to the rise of a hot mantle plume is at the origin of observed chaotic terrains. The liquid water exited the Chaos through a channel which feeds the Ares Vallis system. We have reduced OMEGA data on Aram Chaos in order to look for particular mineralogical signatures. The atmospheric contribution in the spectra has been removed by using a ratio of two spectra at the summit and bottom of Olympus Mons scaled to the depth of the 2 μm CO2 feature. Maps of spectral parameters have then been produced, together with maps of the main mineralogical families derived from a linear unmixing deconvolution algorithm [2]. These OMEGA processing products have been integrated into a GIS in order to compare the spectral characteristics with high resolution imagery (Themis, MOC, HRSC, Hirise). A flat top unit display signatures of typical dust with a small amount of pyroxenes. Strong signatures of ferric oxides have been found in the intermediate exposed layers, where the flat top unit has been removed by erosion (probably driven by the wind). They are correlated to a significant 1.92 μm hydration band. The lowest part of the excavated materials show signatures typical of monohydrated sulfates (consistent with either szomolnokite or more probably kieserite). The geological implications of the mineralogical detections will be discussed in

  16. Initial Experiments Using the OMEGA EP Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Betti, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Kelly, J. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Loucks, S. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Morse, S. F. B.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.

    2008-11-01

    The OMEGA EP Laser System was completed in April 2008 as a significant enhancement of the OMEGA Laser System. It consists of four NIF-like beamlines, two of which can be operated as high-energy petawatt laser beams. The initial experimental plan includes developing bright backlighter sources (line and bremsstrahlung), isochoric heating, hot-electron conversion-efficiency measurements (to compare with results from other systems), long-pulse LPI at NIF-relevant scale lengths, and fast-ignition integrated experiments using cone-in-shell targets. Backlighter experiments are designed to optimize the fluence for cryogenic implosion core radiography. This talk will describe the current status of the OMEGA EP Laser System and some initial target-physics experiments. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  17. Target Performance in Pd-Overcoated Spherical OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Stoeckl, C.; Fiksel, G.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Knauer, J. P.; Michel, D. T.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.

    2014-10-01

    Improved yields in implosions of plastic (CH) shell targets overcoated with a thin (approximately a few hundred angstroms) of Pd have been measured in OMEGA implosions. Implosions with triple-picket pulses and room-temperature, Pd-overcoated CH shells, where the in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR) has been varied between 19 and 28, are studied on the OMEGA laser. Marginal improvement in yield is found for the lower-IFAR implosions, whereas the higher-IFAR, ignition-relevant implosions show no improvement. Simulations of scattered light, trajectories, bang-time, areal densities, and time-resolved x-ray spectra are compared to experiments. Progress in understanding the role of imprint in target performance in OMEGA implosions is presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. The Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual Omega users and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback to LLE management from the users about ways to improve the facility and future experimental campaigns.

  19. Deeply virtual and exclusive production of the omega meson

    SciTech Connect

    M. Garcon; L. Morand; D. Dore; J.-M. Laget; S. Morrow; F. Sabatie

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive {omega} electroproduction off the proton was measured at the highest possible four-momentum transfer with the (close to) 6 GeV beam now available at CEBAF. Cross sections are presented, together with an analysis of the {omega} spin density matrix elements. Indications are that {pi}{sup 0} exchange in the t-channel (or rather the exchange of the corresponding saturating Regge trajectory) seems to dominate the process {gamma}*p {yields} {omega}p, even for photon virtuality Q{sup 2} as large as 5 GeV{sup 2}. Contributions of the handbag type, related to Generalized Parton Distributions in the nucleon, are therefore difficult to extract from this particular process.

  20. Evidence for the decay X(3872) -> J/\\psi\\omega

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-11

    We present a study of the decays B{sup 0,+} --> J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup 0,+}, using 467x10{sup 6} B{anti B} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. We present evidence for the decay mode X(3872) --> J/{psi}{omega}, with product branching fractions B(B{sup +} --> X(3872)K{sup +}) x B(X(3872) --> J/{psi}{omega}) = [0.6 {+-} 0.2(stat) {+-} 0.1(syst)] x 10{sup -5}, and B(B{sup 0} --> X(3872)K{sup 0}) x B(X(3872) --> J/{psi}{omega}) = [0.6 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 0.1(syst)] x 10{sup -5}. A detailed study of the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} mass distribution from X(3872) decay favors a negative-parity assignment.

  1. The Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual OMEGA users, and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback from the users to LLE management about ways to improve and keep the facility and future experimental campaigns at the cutting edge.

  2. Observation of Y(3940) to J/psi omega in B to J/psi omega K at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2007-12-04

    The authors report the results of a study of the decays B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}{omega}K{sup +} and B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{omega}K{sub S}{sup 0} using 383 million B{bar B} events from {Upsilon}(4S) decays with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. They observe evidence for Y(3940) {yields} J/{psi}{omega} with product branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} Y K{sup +}, Y {yields} J/{psi}{omega}) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst)) x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} Y K{sup 0}, Y {yields} J/{psi}{omega}) = (1.5{sub -1.2}{sup +1.4}(stat){sub -0.2}{sup +0.2}(syst)) x 10{sup -5}. The measured mass and width are M(Y) = (3914.6{sub -3.4}{sup +3.8}(stat){sub -1.9}{sup +1.9}(syst)) MeV/c{sup 2} and {Lambda}(Y) = (33{sub -8}{sup +12}(stat){sub -5}{sup +5}(syst)) MeV, respectively.

  3. First measurements of the {rho}{sup 3} spin density matrix elements in {gamma}p --> p {omega} using CLAS at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Vernarsky, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort towards a ''complete'' experiment for the ω meson, we present studies from an experiment with an unpolarized target and a circularly polarized photon beam (g1c), carried out using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. The experiment was analyzed using an extended maximum likelihood fit with partial wave amplitudes. New likelihood functions were calculated to account for the polarization of the photon beam. Both circular and linear polarizations are explored. The results of these fits are then used to project out the spin density matrix for the {omega}. First measurements of the {rho}{sup 3} spin density matrix elements will be presented using this method.

  4. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  5. Imaging spectrometers for remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, M. P.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Macenka, S. A.; Page, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three imaging spectrometers and two camera systems for remote sensing are described. Two of the imaging spectrometers are versions of the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) for Mars Observer and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The other spectrometer is the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is currently under construction. The optical imaging systems are the wide angle and narrow angle cameras for the CRAF mission.

  6. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to allow

  7. O+ transport across the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Jahn, J.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    The plasma sheet, inner magnetosphere, and high latitude magnetosphere all contain significant amounts of O+ ions during active times. Singly charged oxygen ions unambiguously come from the ionosphere making them an excellent tracer species. As the solar wind dynamic pressure increases, the O+ density in the in the cleft, high altitude polar cap, and plasma sheet also increases. We test the "cleft ion fountain" model, which asserts that O+ ions escape from the cleft, cross the polar cap, and then enter the plasma sheet against a mo of outflows originating from the entire polar cap. We use observations of O+ transport across the polar cap from TIDE polar cap ion outflow measurements. The Tsyganenko magnetic field model, driven with ACE solar wind parameters is used to provide magnetic mapping and organization of the observations. We calculate the distance between the cleft and the foot-points of magnetic field lines mapped from the Polar spacecraft along the noon-midnight meridian. Using the observed outflow speed and magnetic field line length we calculate travel time for the ions. We then plot the distance from the cleft versus the travel time for an entire pass. For O+ this plot is quite linear, and the slope of the line is the average convection speed of the magnetic field lines across the polar cap. The convection speed we determined is consistent with the convection speed measured in the ionosphere. We conclude that O+ ions emanating principally from the cleft are transported across the polar cap, and these O+ ions have access to the ring current and plasma sheet.

  8. A Novel MOEMS NIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihai, Zhang; Xiangxia, Mo; Yuanjun, Guo; Wei, Wang

    In order to detect luminous intensity of light signal in NIR (Near-infrared) wavelength range, a novel MOEMS(Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems) NIR spectrometer is proposed in the paper. It uses DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device) to band filter the input spectrum. The merits of DMD are small size, low price and high scan speed. Especially, when DMD acts as a Hadamard Transform encoding mask, the SNR (signal-to-noise-ratio) can be improved by multiplexing the light intensities. The structure and the theory of this spectrometer are analyzed. The Hadamard-S matrix and mask of 63-order and 127-order are designed. The output spectrum of the new spectrometer coincides with experimental result of Shimadzu spectrometer. The resolution of the new spectrometer is 19 nm over the spectral range between 900∼1700 nm while single scan time is only 2.4S. The SNR is 44.67:1. The size of optical path is 70mm × 130 mm, and it has a weight less than 1Kg. It can meet the requirement of real time measurement and portable application.

  9. Resolution-enhanced Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Aubrun, J. N.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    A familiar mapping spectrometer implementation utilizes two dimensional detector arrays with spectral dispersion along one direction and spatial along the other. Spectral images are formed by spatially scanning across the scene (i.e., push-broom scanning). For imaging grating and prism spectrometers, the slit is perpendicular to the spatial scan direction. For spectrometers utilizing linearly variable focal-plane-mounted filters the spatial scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of spectral variation. These spectrometers share the common limitation that the number of spectral resolution elements is given by the number of pixels along the spectral (or dispersive) direction. Resolution enhancement by first passing the light input to the spectrometer through a scanned etalon or Michelson is discussed. Thus, while a detector element is scanned through a spatial resolution element of the scene, it is also temporally sampled. The analysis for all the pixels in the dispersive direction is addressed. Several specific examples are discussed. The alternate use of a Michelson for the same enhancement purpose is also discussed. Suitable for weight constrained deep space missions, hardware systems were developed including actuators, sensor, and electronics such that low-resolution etalons with performance required for implementation would weigh less than one pound.

  10. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  11. Transmitted Laser Beam Diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, C; Antonini, G; Compton, S; Glenzer, S; Hargrove, D; Moody, J; Kirkwood, R; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Keck, R; Pien, G; Seka, W; Thorp, K

    2004-04-01

    We have developed and commissioned a transmitted beam diagnostic (TBD) for the 2{omega} high intensity interaction beam at the Omega laser facility. The TBD consists of a bare-surface reflector mounted near the target, which collects and reflects 4% of the transmitted light to a detector assembly outside the vacuum chamber. The detector includes a time integrating near-field camera that measures beam spray, deflection and the absolute transmitted power. We present a detailed description of the instrument and the calibration method and include first measurements on laser heated gasbag targets to demonstrate the performance of the diagnostic.

  12. High-performance inertial confinement fusion target implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R L; Betti, R; Boehly, T R; Casey, D T; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Fletcher, K A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, Y Yu; Goncharov, V N; Harding, D R; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Knauer, J P; Li, C K; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Nilson, P M; Padalino, S P; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Seguin, F H; Seka, W; Short, R W; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Soures, J M; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Yaakobi, B

    2011-04-18

    The Omega Laser Facility is used to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concepts. This paper describes progress in direct-drive central hot-spot (CHS) ICF, shock ignition (SI) and fast ignition (FI) since the 2008 IAEA FEC conference. CHS cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) target implosions on OMEGA have produced the highest DT areal densities yet measured in ICF implosions (~300 mg cm{sup -2}). Integrated FI experiments have shown a significant increase in neutron yield caused by an appropriately timed high-intensity, high-energy laser pulse.

  13. Low-cost mechanical filters for OMEGA receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A pair of prototype low frequency mechanical filters were obtained for use as the RF front-end components of an OMEGA-VLF navigation receiver. The filter units are of interest because of very narrow bandwidths and high skirt selectivity to minimize noise and off-channel carriers in the reception of OMEGA signals. In addition, the filters have a characteristic low impedance of 75 to 5,000 ohms which results in less critical PC board circuitry compared to some previous resonators with termination resistances of 25,000 ohms to 5 megohms.

  14. Multiwavelength Constraints on the Dynamical History of Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggard, Daryl; Cool, A. M.; Arias, T.; Brochmann, M. B.; Dorfman, J.; Gafford, A.; White, V.; Anderson, J.; Davies, M. B.

    2012-09-01

    Omega Centauri, the Milky Way's most massive and enigmatic old stellar cluster, offers a treasure trove of astronomical discovery and controversy. Is the cluster a globular or a dwarf galaxy remnant? Does it host a massive central black hole? What are the origins and dynamical histories of the cluster's multiple stellar populations? I will discuss our multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic campaigns, and in particular a new Chandra X-ray flux limit on the cluster's purported IMBH. These observations also probe Omega Cen's binary populations and shed light on the cluster's dynamical history.

  15. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as... Adjustment Assistance on June 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot..., Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition,...

  16. CAPS-DB: a structural classification of helix-capping motifs

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Joan; Oliva, Baldomero; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis

    2012-01-01

    The regions of the polypeptide chain immediately preceding or following an α-helix are known as Nt- and Ct cappings, respectively. Cappings play a central role stabilizing α-helices due to lack of intrahelical hydrogen bonds in the first and last turn. Sequence patterns of amino acid type preferences have been derived for cappings but the structural motifs associated to them are still unclassified. CAPS-DB is a database of clusters of structural patterns of different capping types. The clustering algorithm is based in the geometry and the (ϕ–ψ)-space conformation of these regions. CAPS-DB is a relational database that allows the user to search, browse, inspect and retrieve structural data associated to cappings. The contents of CAPS-DB might be of interest to a wide range of scientist covering different areas such as protein design and engineering, structural biology and bioinformatics. The database is accessible at: http://www.bioinsilico.org/CAPSDB. PMID:22021380

  17. Polar cap precursor of nightside auroral oval intensifications using polar cap arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Lyons, Larry R.; Donovan, Eric F.; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2015-12-01

    Recent radar and optical observations suggested that localized fast flows in the polar cap precede disturbances within the nightside auroral oval. However, how commonly this connection occurs has been difficult to examine due to limited coverage of radar flow measurements and diffuse and dim nature of airglow patches. Polar cap arcs are also associated with fast flows in the polar cap and appear much brighter than patches, allowing evaluation of the interaction between polar cap structures and nightside aurora more definitively. We have surveyed data during six winter seasons and selected quasi-steady polar cap arcs lasting >1 h. Thirty-four arcs are found, and for the majority (~85%) of them, as they extend equatorward from high latitude, their contact with the nightside auroral poleward boundary is associated with new and substantial intensifications within the oval. These intensifications are localized (< ~1 h magnetic local time (MLT)) and statistically occur within 10 min and ±1 h MLT from the contact. They appear as poleward boundary intensifications in a thick auroral oval or an intensification of the only resolvable arc within a thin oval, and the latter can also exhibit substantial poleward expansion. When radar echoes are available, they corroborate the association of polar cap arcs with localized enhanced antisunward flows. That the observed oval intensifications are major disturbances that only occur after the impingement of polar cap arcs and near the contact longitude suggest that they are triggered by localized fast flows coming from deep in the polar cap.

  18. CAP - JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CONTAMINATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) is a generalized transient executive analysis computer code which solves realistic mass transport problems in the free molecular flow environment. These transport problems involve mass flux from surface source emission and re-emission, venting, and engine emission. CAP solution capability allows for one-bounce mass reflections if required. CAP was developed to solve thin-film contamination problems in the free molecular flow environment, the intent being to provide a powerful analytic tool for evaluating spacecraft contamination problems. The solution procedure uses an enclosure method based on a lumped-parameter multinodal approach with mass exchange between nodes. Transient solutions are computed by the finite difference Euler method. First-order rate theory is used to represent surface emission and reemission (user care must be taken to insure the problem is appropriate for such behavior), and all surface emission and reflections are assumed diffuse. CAP does not include the effects of post-deposition chemistry or interaction with the ambient atmosphere. CAP reads in a model represented by a multiple-block data stream. CAP allows the user to edit the input data stream and stack sequential editing operations (or cases) in order to make complex changes in behavior (surface temperatures, engine start-up and shut-down, etc.) in a single run if desired. The eight data blocks which make up the input data stream consist of problem control parameters, nodal data (area, temperature, mass, etc.), engine or vent distribution factors (based upon plume definitions), geometric configuration factors (diffuse surface emission), surface capture coefficient tables, source emission rate constant tables, reemission rate constant tables, and partial node to body collapse capability (for deposition rates only). The user must generate this data stream, since neither the problem-specific geometric relationships, the

  19. Transmission Through Carbon Nanotubes with Polyhedral Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study electron transport between capped carbon nanotubes and a substrate, and relate this transport to the local density of states in the cap. Our results show that that the transmission probability mimics the behavior of the density of states at all energies except those that correspond to localized states. For a capped carbon nanotube that is not connected to a substrate, the localized states do not couple to the coexisting continuum states. However, close proximity of a substrate causes hybridization between these states. As a result, new transmission paths open from substrate states to nanotube continuum states via the localized states in the cap. We show that the interference between various paths gives rise to transmission antiresonances with the minimum equal to zero at the energy of the localized state. The presence of defects in the tube places close to the cap transforms antiresonances into resonances. Depending on the spatial position of defects, these resonant states are capable of carrying a large current. The results of this paper are of relevance to carbon nanotube based studies on molecular electronics and probe tip applications.

  20. Carbon nanotube cathode with capping carbon nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Dengchao; Pang, Kaige; Pang, Junchao; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-10-01

    Here, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film capped with a few layer of carbon nanosheet (FLCN) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The square resistance of the VACNT film is significantly reduced from 1500 Ω/□ to 300 Ω/□ when it is capped with carbon nanosheet. The VACNT capped with carbon nanosheet was transferred to an ITO glass substrate in an inverted configuration so that the carbon nanosheet served as a flexible transparent electrode at the bottom and the VACNT roots served as emission tips. Because all of the VACNTs start growing from a flat silicon substrate, the VACNT roots are very neat and uniform in height. A field emission test of the carbon nanosheet-capped VACNT film proved that the CNT roots show better uniformity in field emission and the carbon nanosheet cap could also potentially serve as a flexible transparent electrode, which is highly desired in photo-assisted field emission.

  1. Polyfluorinated. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated ketons

    SciTech Connect

    Latypov, R.R.; Belogai, V.D.; Pashkevich, K.I.

    1986-07-10

    The ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones (..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK), particularly those groups containing fluoroalkyl groups, are of interest as highly reactive compounds having two nonequivalent electrophilic centers. In the present investigation, by boiling polyfluorinated aldehydes with methylketones in glacial acetic acid, they have obtained for the first time the polyfluorinated ..beta..-hydroxy-ketones, the dehydration of which has been used to synthesize the corresponding polyfluorinated ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, and their structure and reactions with the nucleophiles NH/sub 3/, PhNH/sub 2/, MeOH have been studied. In the PMR spectra of the ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK (X)-(XVI) two doublets of triplets are observed at 6.9 and 7.9 ppm, caused by the spin-spin coupling of the olefin protons with the CF/sub 2/ group of the substituent. For ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, apart from the cis-trans isomerism relative to the C=C bond, a rotational isomerism is possible, caused by rotation around the C-C single bond. The presence in the IR spectra of absorption bands from nonplanar torsion-deformation vibrations of C-H for a double bond (nu = 975-980 cm/sup -1/) and the high value of the spin-spin coupling constant of the olefin protons (J/sub HH/ = 15 Hz) indicate unambiguously the transconfiguration of the olefin protons.

  2. Eddy intrustion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Under the simple postulate that multiple large scale detachable magnetospheric convection eddies can exist in the vicinity of the convection reversal boundary and in the polar cap, by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or otherwise, it is shown that a number of seemingly disconnected plasma and electric field observations in the polar cap can be organized into a theory of magnetosheath and plasmasheet plasma intrusion into the polar cap. Current theory of inverted V structures then predicts existence of similar, but weaker, structures at the eddy convection reversal boundaries in the polar cap. A possible consequence is that the polar cap auroras are natural offshoots from discrete oval arcs and evidently are formed by similar processes. The two arc systems can occassionally produce an optical image in the form of the theta aurora.

  3. Mobile spectrometer measures radar backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S.; Moore, R. K.; Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Bushnell, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a helicopter-borne spectrometer (Heloscat), which has been developed to permit high-quality scattering measurements from a mobile platform at remote sites. The term 'spectrometer' referes to a class of scatterometers. The term 'scatterometer' is employed to denote a specialized radar for measuring scattering coefficients as a function of angle. A spectrometer, on the other hand, is a scatterometer which can measure backscatter at several frequencies. The Heloscat system is discussed, taking into account two antennas, RF hardware, and an externally mounted pendulum for angle encoding. A dual-antenna configuration is used for cross-polarized measurements, while a single-antenna system is used for like-polarized measurements. Attention is also given to oscillator characteristics, efficient data handling, and aspects of calibration.

  4. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  5. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  6. Thermal Infrared Profiling Spectrometer (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzl, Franz; Miosga, G.; Lehmann, F.; Richter, R.; Tank, V.

    1989-12-01

    An airborne/spaceborne sensor concept developed for scientific observations in remote sensing of the earth surface is presented. The spectrometer design is based on a fast scanning Fourier spectrometer using a rotating retroreflector. The spectrometer covers the 3-13-micron band with a spectral resolution of 5/cm. The measured signal is an interferogramm, while derived quantities are spectral emissivity, spectral radiance, and surface temperature. The optical system consists of an aperture-filling plane tilting mirror to provide off-nadir observation and calibration modes. The collecting mirror focal length and the detector area yield an instantaneous field of view of 1.2 mrad, noise equivalent temperature resolution of 0.004 K, and a noise equivalent change in emissivity of 0.0006. The simulation results of signal-to-noise performance of the TIPS are presented and discussed.

  7. Multichannel Spectrometer of Time Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akindinova, E. V.; Babenko, A. G.; Vakhtel, V. M.; Evseev, N. A.; Rabotkin, V. A.; Kharitonova, D. D.

    2015-06-01

    For research and control of characteristics of radiation fluxes, radioactive sources in particular, for example, in paper [1], a spectrometer and methods of data measurement and processing based on the multichannel counter of time intervals of accident events appearance (impulses of particle detector) MC-2A (SPC "ASPECT") were created. The spectrometer has four independent channels of registration of time intervals of impulses appearance and correspondent amplitude and spectrometric channels for control along the energy spectra of the operation stationarity of paths of each of the channels from the detector to the amplifier. The registration of alpha-radiation is carried out by the semiconductor detectors with energy resolution of 16-30 keV. Using a spectrometer there have been taken measurements of oscillations of alpha-radiation 239-Pu flux intensity with a subsequent autocorrelative statistical analysis of the time series of readings.

  8. The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

  9. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  10. The Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1997-11-01

    A radio spectrometer has been built on Bruny Island, south of Hobart, for the study of solar bursts in the rarely observed frequency range from 3 to 20 MHz. This spectrometer is an adaptive device that employs digital techniques to avoid most of the strong terrestrial interference prevalent in this frequency range. The residual interference that cannot be avoided is excised during off-line processing. As a result, successful observations are made down to the minimum frequency that can propagate through the ionosphere to the antenna. This minimum frequency depends upon the zenith distance of the Sun and it is usually between 4 and 8 MHz.

  11. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  12. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  13. Forward spectrometers at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Most of SSC phase space and a great deal of physics potential is in the forward/backward region (absolute value of theta < 100 mrad). Comprehensive open-geometry spectrometers are feasible and very cost effective. Examples of such devices are sketched. Because such spectrometers are very long and may operate at high ..beta.. and longer bunch spacing, they impact now on SSC interaction - region design. The data acquisition load is as heavy as for central detectors, although there may be less emphasis on speed and more emphasis on sophisticated parallel and/or distributed processing for event selection, as well as on high-capacity buffering.

  14. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  15. Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

  16. Cap-Independent Translation in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Horvilleur, Emilie; Wilson, Lindsay A.; Bastide, Amandine; Piñeiro, David; Pöyry, Tuija A. A.; Willis, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hematological malignancies are a heterogeneous group of diseases deriving from blood cells progenitors. Although many genes involved in blood cancers contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes), there has been only few studies focusing on the role of cap-independent translation in leukemia and lymphomas. Expression of IRES trans-acting factors can also be altered, and interestingly, BCL-ABL1 fusion protein expressed from “Philadelphia” chromosome, found in some types of leukemia, regulates several of them. A mechanism involving c-Myc IRES and cap-independent translation and leading to resistance to chemotherapy in multiple myeloma emphasize the contribution of cap-independent translation in blood cancers and the need for more work to be done to clarify the roles of known IRESes in pathology and response to chemotherapeutics. PMID:26734574

  17. Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

  18. Time to Talk: Five Things to Know about Omega-3s for Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Omega-3s for Heart Disease Share: Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty ... supplements. While experts agree that fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids should be included in a heart- ...

  19. Antioxidant activity of sesamol and omega-oryzanol towards fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural antioxidants, sesamol and omega-oryzanol, were examined for their antioxidant activity towards omega-3 oil. Sesamol and omega-oryzanol have been known to provide antioxidant effects at high temperatures such as those used for frying. In this study, the effects of 0.84 mM and 8.4 mM oryza...

  20. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  1. Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E W; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-10-01

    We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of ∼6-60 Å. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer. PMID:21034017

  2. A nanobody targeting the F-actin capping protein CapG restrains breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aberrant turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is intimately associated with cancer cell migration and invasion. Frequently however, evidence is circumstantial, and a reliable assessment of the therapeutic significance of a gene product is offset by lack of inhibitors that target biologic properties of a protein, as most conventional drugs do, instead of the corresponding gene. Proteomic studies have demonstrated overexpression of CapG, a constituent of the actin cytoskeleton, in breast cancer. Indirect evidence suggests that CapG is involved in tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. In this study, we used llama-derived CapG single-domain antibodies or nanobodies in a breast cancer metastasis model to address whether inhibition of CapG activity holds therapeutic merit. Methods We raised single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) against human CapG and used these as intrabodies (immunomodulation) after lentiviral transduction of breast cancer cells. Functional characterization of nanobodies was performed to identify which biochemical properties of CapG are perturbed. Orthotopic and tail vein in vivo models of metastasis in nude mice were used to assess cancer cell spreading. Results With G-actin and F-actin binding assays, we identified a CapG nanobody that binds with nanomolar affinity to the first CapG domain. Consequently, CapG interaction with actin monomers or actin filaments is blocked. Intracellular delocalization experiments demonstrated that the nanobody interacts with CapG in the cytoplasmic environment. Expression of the nanobody in breast cancer cells restrained cell migration and Matrigel invasion. Notably, the nanobody prevented formation of lung metastatic lesions in orthotopic xenograft and tail-vein models of metastasis in immunodeficient mice. We showed that CapG nanobodies can be delivered into cancer cells by using bacteria harboring a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). Conclusions CapG inhibition strongly reduces breast cancer

  3. Sirolimus-loaded CaP coating on Co-Cr alloy for drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingxin; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fuzhai

    2016-09-01

    To achieve polymer-free and controllable drug-eluting system, there have been many efforts to modify the surface composition and topography of metal stent. Recently, calcium phosphate is commonly applied to metallic implants as a coating material for fast fixation and firm-implant bone attachment on the account of its demonstrated bioactive and osteoconductive properties. In the present study, the release of sirolimus could be controllable because of immobilization of sirolimus during the process of biomimetic CaP coating forming. A completely new concept is the drug carrier of biomimetic CaP coating with sirolimus for an absorbable drug eluting system, which in turn can serve as a drug reservoir. We here describe the characteristic, mechanisms and drug release in vitro of new drug-eluting system in comparison to conventional system equivalent. Nano-structured calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was formed on the cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrate. By immersing coated sample in solution with sirolimus (rapamycin), the sirolimus could be immobilized in the newly formed CaP layer. The morphology, composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that a uniform CaP coating incorporated with sirolimus was observed on Co-Cr alloy. PMID:27252886

  4. Sirolimus-loaded CaP coating on Co-Cr alloy for drug-eluting stent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxin; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fuzhai

    2016-01-01

    To achieve polymer-free and controllable drug-eluting system, there have been many efforts to modify the surface composition and topography of metal stent. Recently, calcium phosphate is commonly applied to metallic implants as a coating material for fast fixation and firm-implant bone attachment on the account of its demonstrated bioactive and osteoconductive properties. In the present study, the release of sirolimus could be controllable because of immobilization of sirolimus during the process of biomimetic CaP coating forming. A completely new concept is the drug carrier of biomimetic CaP coating with sirolimus for an absorbable drug eluting system, which in turn can serve as a drug reservoir. We here describe the characteristic, mechanisms and drug release in vitro of new drug-eluting system in comparison to conventional system equivalent. Nano-structured calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was formed on the cobalt–chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrate. By immersing coated sample in solution with sirolimus (rapamycin), the sirolimus could be immobilized in the newly formed CaP layer. The morphology, composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that a uniform CaP coating incorporated with sirolimus was observed on Co-Cr alloy. PMID:27252886

  5. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  6. OmegaWINGS: OmegaCAM-VST observations of WINGS galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullieuszik, M.; Poggianti, B.; Fasano, G.; Zaggia, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Moretti, A.; Bettoni, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; Couch, W. J.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Omizzolo, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Schipani, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Varela, J.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Wide-field observations targeting galaxy clusters at low redshift are complementary to field surveys and provide the local benchmark for detailed studies of the most massive haloes in the local Universe. The Wide-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) is a wide-field multi-wavelength survey of X-ray selected clusters at z = 0.04-0.07. The original 34' × 34' WINGS field of view has now been extended to cover a 1 deg2 field with both photometry and spectroscopy. Aims: We present the Johnson B- and V-band OmegaCAM at the VST observations of 46 WINGS clusters together with the data reduction, data quality, and Sextractor photometric catalogues. Methods: The data reduction was carried out with a modified version of the ESO-MVM (also known as ALAMBIC) reduction package, adding a cross-talk correction, the gain harmonisation, and a control procedure for problematic CCDs. The stray-light component was corrected for by employing our own observations of populated stellar fields. Results: With a median seeing of 1″ in both bands, our 25-min exposures in each band typically reach the 50% completeness level at V = 23.1 mag. The quality of the astrometric and photometric accuracy has been verified by comparison with the 2MASS and SDSS astrometry, and SDSS and previous WINGS imaging. Star-to-galaxy separation and sky-subtraction procedure were tested comparing them with previous WINGS data. Conclusions: The Sextractor photometric catalogues are publicly available at the CDS and will be included in the next release of the WINGS database on the Virtual Observatory together with the OmegaCAM reduced images. These data form the basis for a large ongoing spectroscopic campaign with AAOmega at the AAT and are being employed for a variety of studies. Based on observations made with VST at ESO Paranal Observatory under program ID 88.A-4005, 089.A-0023, 090.A-0074, 091.A-0059, and 093.A-0041.The photometric catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  7. A picosecond beam-timing system for the OMEGA laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Huff, R.; Hill, E. M.; Kelly, J. H.; Kwaitkowski, J.; Brannon, R. B.; Boni, R.

    2016-05-27

    Here, a timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the UV light from each beam into a single photodetector.

  8. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-01

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders. PMID:26206997

  9. High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Waxer, L.J.; Maywar, D.N.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2005-07-25

    The 60-beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) has been a workhorse on the frontier of laser fusion and high-energy-density physics for more than a decade. LLE scientists are currently extending the performance of this unique, direct-drive laser system by adding high-energy petawatt capabilities.

  10. Binary phase lock loops for simplified OMEGA receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A sampled binary phase lock loop is proposed for periodically correcting OMEGA receiver internal clocks. The circuit is particularly simple to implement and provides a means of generating long range 3.4 KHz difference frequency lanes from simultaneous pair measurements.

  11. Do we need 'new' omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids formulations?

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly (but not only) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), has been extensively studied in a wide variety of disease conditions, predominantly in cardiovascular disease. However, the significant difference in efficacy observed in various conditions with different dosages seems to be at least partly related to the large discrepancy in quality of the product and to the bioavailability of the omega-3 PUFA. The research of new sources (e.g., from arctic Krill oil) and pharmaceutical forms of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., omega-3 carboxylic acids) is needed in order to detect the one with the best bioavailability and efficacy, and with a parallel reduction in the production costs. There is also the need to understand if long-term PUFA supplementation could increase the efficacy of the already-available evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and for the management of the diseases where the use of PUFA could have a possible improving effect. PMID:25474717

  12. The least-action method, cold dark matter, and omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, A. M.; Laflamme, R.

    1995-01-01

    Peebles has suggested an interesting technique, called the least-action method, to trace positions of galaxies back in time. This method applied on the Local Group galaxies seems to indicate that we live in an omega approximately = 0.1 universe. We have studied a cold dark matter (CDM) N-body simulation with omega = 0.2 and H = 50 km/s/Mpc and compared trajectories traced back by the least-action method with the ones given by the center of mass of the CDM halos. We show that the agreement between these sets of trajectories is at best qualitative. We also show that the line-of-sight peculiar velocities of halos are underestimated. This discrepancy is due to orphans, i.e., CDM particles which do not end up in halos. We vary the value of omega in the least-action method until the line-of-sight velocities agree with the CDM ones. The best value for this omega underestimates one of the CDM simulations by a factor of 4-5.

  13. An algorithm for the automatic synchronization of Omega receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonestreet, W. M.; Marzetta, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The Omega navigation system and the requirement for receiver synchronization are discussed. A description of the synchronization algorithm is provided. The numerical simulation and its associated assumptions were examined and results of the simulation are presented. The suggested form of the synchronization algorithm and the suggested receiver design values were surveyed. A Fortran of the synchronization algorithm used in the simulation was also included.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship. PMID:25936773

  15. Coefficients Alpha, Beta, Omega, and the glb: Comments on Sijtsma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revelle, William; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    There are three fundamental problems in Sijtsma ("Psychometrika," 2008): (1) contrary to the name, the glb is not the greatest lower bound of reliability but rather is systematically less than omega[subscript t] (McDonald, "Test theory: A unified treatment," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1999), (2) we agree with Sijtsma that when considering how well a test…

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor restart

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-27

    This report is a critical evaluation of the effort for the restart of the Omega West reactor. It is divided into the following areas: progress made; difficulties in restart effort; current needs; and suggested detailed steps for improvement. A brief discussion is given for each area of study.

  17. Results from the Mars global surveyor thermal emission spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Anderson, D.L.; Chase, S.C.; Clancy, R.T.; Clark, R.N.; Conrath, B.J.; Kieffer, H.H.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Malin, M.C.; Pearl, J.C.; Roush, T.L.; Smith, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra of low albedo surface materials suggests that a four to one mixture of pyroxene to plagioclase, together with about a 35 percent dust component provides the best fit to the spectrum. Qualitative upper limits can be placed on the concentration of carbonates (<10 percent), olivine (<10 percent), clay minerals (<20 percent), and quartz (<5 percent) in the limited regions observed. Limb observations in the northern hemisphere reveal low-lying dust hazes and detached water-ice clouds at altitudes up to 55 kilometers. At an aerocentric longitude of 224??a major dust storm developed in the Noachis Terra region. The south polar cap retreat was similar to that observed by Viking.

  18. Energetic particles over Io's polar caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. J.; Thorne, R. M.

    2003-11-01

    We present results obtained from the Galileo satellite's Energetic Particles Detector during its final two encounters in 2001 with Jupiter's moon Io. These encounters returned the first data from just above Io's polar caps. They complement previous low-latitude data and provide a new perspective of Io's interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere and ionosphere. The evolution of electron and ion distributions was measured from the upstream region throughout the polar cap traversals. From the time of initial field contact with Io and continuing throughout the encounter these distributions evolve in a manner consistent with adiabatic motion along the Io-Jupiter field line. At encounter all particles develop narrow trapped-like distributions indicative of the creation of a near-Io magnetic bottle caused by an enhancement of field at Io's upstream surface. The measured pitch angle distributions indicate a field enhancement of up to 10%-15% higher than the field observed at Galileo's position. Distribution evolution times agree roughly with particle bounce times on the Io-Jupiter field line. The ion distribution evolution times provide an estimate of ˜3-7 km/s for the field line convection speed across Io's polar caps, a value small (˜10%) compared with the upstream convection speed. Along with these trapped distributions, beams of ions and electrons are observed streaming into Io's polar caps throughout the encounters. The continued observation of ion beams across the polar cap is consistent with their half-bounce times. The data further indicate that the convection speed may vary as the polar cap is traversed. The one exception to the adiabatic particle behavior discussed above is the observation of intense electron beams streaming into Io's polar caps. The polar cap electron beams are similar to those previously measured in Io's wake [, 1996] and apparently originate from the same source. The source has been located at low (˜0.5 RJ) altitudes on the Io-Jupiter field

  19. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Genton, Alain

    2000-04-18

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.

  20. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  1. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omegaa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-01

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2 and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  2. Studies of cervical caps: I. Vaginal lesions associated with use of the Vimule cap.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, G S; Kilzer, L H; Coulson, A H; Nakamura, R M; Smith, G C; Bernstein, R; Frezieres, R; Clark, V A; Coan, C

    1982-11-01

    Prior to investigating the contraceptive efficacy of cervical caps, we undertook a preliminary study to evaluate potential side effects of these devices. Women who had not previously used a cap were randomly assigned to wear either a Vimule or Cavity Rim Cap (CRC) for as long as seven days. The Vimule cap caused lesions of the portio vaginalis ranging from erythematous impressions to abrasions and frank lacerations. There was variation in the degree of trauma depending, in part, on the size of the cap and duration of wear. Disruption of the epithelium occurred in eight of twelve Vimule users, but the lesions were sometimes difficult to see owing to their location. CRCs were worn by 20 women. This device sometimes left a "suction ring" on the cervix but did not disrupt the epithelium. Two of three long-term users of the Vimule cap who were also studied had unusual formations of the vaginal mucosa suggesting a proliferative reaction to chronic irritation. It is recommended that all women using a Vimule Cap be carefully re-examined and counseled about further use of the device according to the findings of the examination. PMID:7160179

  3. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  4. A simple digital TDPAC spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, T. A.; Nikkinen, Leo; Gallego, Juan; Ryan, D. H.

    2013-05-01

    We present a simplified digital time differential perturbed γ - γ angular correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer that demonstrates that such instruments can be built using primarily commercial components and with relatively modest coding effort. The system handles data rates of 70 kcps/detector with a timing resolution of better than 500 ps, and has been used with both 111In and 181Hf.

  5. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  6. Acoustically-tuned optical spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lens arrangement corrects for aberrations and gives resolution of 0.7 seconds of arc. In spectrometer, light from telescope is relayed by doublet lens to acoustically tuned optical filter. Selected wavelengths are relayed by triplet lens to charge coupled device camera. Intervening cylindrical lens, tilted at 12 degree angle, corrects for astigmatism and coma introduced by two element birefringent crystal in filter.

  7. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

  8. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  9. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  10. Tracking System for Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.; Morrison, G. B.; Riccio, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Visible laser tracking system for infrared laser spectometer keeps probe infrared laser beam aimed at moving reflector, thereby keeping reflector image and return laser beam within spectrometer field of view. System includes tracking mirror tilted by stepping motors under microprocessor control to deflect beams toward continually changing reflector position.

  11. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  12. Omega-3 biotechnology: Thraustochytrids as a novel source of omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2012-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are large-celled marine heterokonts and classified as oleaginous microorganisms due to their production of docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) ω-3-fatty acids. The applications of microbial DHA and EPA for human health are rapidly expanding, and a large number of clinical trials have been carried out to verify their efficacy. The development of refined isolation and identification techniques is important for the cultivation of thraustochytrids. With a high proportion of lipid biomass, thraustochytrids are also amenable to various production strategies which increase omega-3 oil output. Modifications to the existing lipid extraction methods and utilisation of sophisticated analytical instruments have increased extraction yields of DHA and EPA. Other metabolites such as enzymes, carotenoids and extracellular polysaccharides can also be obtained from these marine protists. Approaches such as the exploration for more diverse isolates having fast growth rates, metabolic engineering including gene cloning, and growing thraustochytrids on alternate low cost carbon source, will further enhance the biotechnological potential of thraustochytrids. PMID:22406165

  13. Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…

  14. A Survey of Cassini CAPS Ion Observations During Titan Flybys TA-T83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, A. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Crary, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) sampled Titan's plasma environment during each of 83 encounters with the moon between orbit insertion on June 30, 2004 and June 1, 2012. The CAPS Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) acquired energy- and mass-per-charge-discriminated time-of-flight (TOF) spectra associated with ionospheric H+, H2+, H3+, CHx+, and C2Hx+ during at least 68 of those encounters. Herein we discuss ion energy distributions extracted from these spectra, each accumulated over an ~4 minute interval along the spacecraft trajectory. This is accomplished by fitting calibration peak models to TOF spectra in order to determine the TOF range associated with each aforementioned ion group, and then summing counts over each TOF range to obtain well-resolved energy peaks for each group. Energy distributions are determined by fitting the logistic power peak function to each of the resulting energy spectra. We then plot the resulting distribution parameters (peak energy, peak amplitude, and peak width or temperature) for each species and each encounter against Titan latitude, longitude, and altitude to generate a map of ion parameters. In addition, the encounters are grouped according to ambient plasma and magnetic field measurements in order to characterize the ion distribution parameters in different regions of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  15. Effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on IGF-I receptor signalling in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seti, Hila; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Werner, Haim

    2009-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a critical role in normal growth and development as well as in malignant states. Most of the biological activities of the IGFs are mediated by the IGF-IR, which is over-expressed in most tumours and cancer cell lines. Fatty acids have critical roles in both systemic physiological processes (e.g. metabolism) and cellular events (e.g. proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and gene expression). Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are essential fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 families, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interactions between fatty acids and the IGF signal transduction pathways, and to evaluate the impact of this interplay on colon cancer cells survival and proliferation. Results of Western blot analyses revealed that ALA and LA enhanced the ligand-induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and, in addition, increased receptor phosphorylation in an IGF-I independent manner. Furthermore, fatty acid treatment led to phosphorylation of downstream signalling molecules, including Akt and Erk. In addition, FACS analysis and apoptosis measurements indicated that ALA and LA have a potential mitogenic effect on HCT116 cells, as reflected by the number of cells in S phase and by a reduction of PARP cleavage, implying a reduction in apoptotic activity. In summary, our results provide evidence that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids modulate IGF-I action in colon cancer cells. PMID:19480565

  16. Reduction of omega-3 oil oxidation in stable emulsion of caseinate-omega-3 oil-oat beta-glucan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid oxidation, particularly oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 fatty acids, has posed a serious challenge to the food industry trying to incorporate heart-healthy oil products into their lines of healthful foods and beverages. In this study, heart healthy plant and marine based o...

  17. Detection of omega-3 oxylipins in human plasma and response to treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have beneficial health effects, but the molecular mediators of these effects are not well-characterized. Oxygenated n-3 FAs (oxylipins) may be an important class of mediators. Members of this chemic...

  18. Assessment of transient effects on the x-ray spectroscopy of implosion cores at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, R.; Mancini, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    An assessment of transient effects on the atomic kinetics of argon tracers in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores is carried out. The focus is on typical electron temperature and density conditions achieved in high- and low-adiabat, and shock-ignition implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, USA). The results show that no significant time-dependent effects are present through the deceleration and burning phases of the implosion, and thus justify the use of steady-state atomic kinetics models in the spectroscopic analysis of sets of time-resolved x-ray spectra recorded with streaked or gated spectrometers. Modeling calculations suggest an onset for time-dependent effects to become important at electron densities ≲1022 cm-3. A physical interpretation of these results is given based on the atomic kinetics timescales extracted from the eigenvalue spectrum of the collisional-radiative rate matrix. This study is also relevant for past implosion experiments performed at the GEKKO XII laser (Institute of Laser Engineering, Japan), as well as those currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA).

  19. Analysis of time-resolved argon line spectra from OMEGA direct-drive implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Florido, R.; Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Tommasini, R.; Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.

    2008-10-15

    We discuss the observation and data analysis of argon K-shell line spectra from argon-doped deuterium-filled OMEGA direct-drive implosion cores based on data recorded with two streaked crystal spectrometers. The targets were 870 {mu}m in diameter, 27 {mu}m wall thickness plastic shells filled with 20 atm of deuterium gas, and a tracer amount of argon for diagnostic purposes. The argon K-shell line spectrum is primarily emitted at the collapse of the implosion and its analysis provides a spectroscopic diagnostic of the core implosion conditions. The observed spectra includes the He{alpha}, Ly{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma}, Ly{beta}, and Ly{gamma} line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a broad photon energy range from 3100 to 4200 eV with a spectral resolution power of approximately 500. The data analysis relies on detailed atomic and spectral models that take into account nonequilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark-broadened line shapes, and radiation transport calculations.

  20. Measurements of X-ray spectra from irradiated gold foils at the OMEGA Laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Joshua; Keiter, Paul; Drake, Paul; Klein, Sallee; Fein, Jeff

    2014-10-01

    In many HED systems high intensity x-rays can be used to measure plasma properties such as density and temperature. At the OMEGA laser facility, these X-rays are produced by irradiating a metal foil with high-intensity lasers, which heats the foil and causes it to act as a quasi-continuum x-ray source for radiography or absorption spectroscopy. As this emission is quasi-continuous and the transmission of x-rays through a material varies with photon energy a well-characterized x-ray source is vital. Therefore, in order to optimize diagnostics reliant upon x-rays it is necessary to gain a better understanding of how the x-ray emission from these targets varies over time and varying beam energy. We will present experimental results studying the effect that beam energy and pulse length have on M-band and sub-keV x-ray emission generated from a 5 μm thick gold disk using time-resolved spectroscopy and a Henway crystal spectrometer. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0000850, and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.