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Sample records for capacitors crada final

  1. Geophysical tomography imaging system. Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.J.; Won, I.J.

    1998-05-20

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., and Geophex, Ltd., was established to investigate high-resolution, shallow acoustic imaging of the subsurface. The primary objectives of the CRADA were accomplished, including the evaluation of a new tomographic imaging algorithm and the testing and comparison of two different acoustic sources, the hammer/plate source and an electromagnetic vibratory source. The imaging system was composed essentially of a linear array of geophones, a digital seismograph, and imaging software installed on a personal computer. Imaging was most successful using the hammer source, which was found to be less susceptible to ground roll (surface wave) interference. It is conjectured that the vibratory source will perform better for deeper targets for which ground roll is less troublesome. Potential applications of shallow acoustic imaging are numerous, including the detection and characterization of buried solid waste, unexploded ordnance, and clandestine man-made underground structures associated with treaty verification (e.g., tunnels, underground storage facilities, hidden bunkers).

  2. Machining and inspection of structural ceramic components. CRADA final report for CRADA number Y-1292-0078

    SciTech Connect

    Counts, R.W.; Albright, S.; Ritland, M.

    1996-09-30

    This document is the final report of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) and the Coors Ceramics Company (Coors). The purpose of this CRADA was to develop advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting ceramic components. Specific CRADA objectives were accomplished through the completion of six projects at four separate Coors facilities. The projects included the development of an analytical model to simulate the mechanics of a powder rolling process, development and testing of a microwave-based system for measuring the density of conveyed ceramic material, and the development and testing of four machine vision inspection systems. This CRADA benefited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities associated with advanced heat engines, enhanced critical manufacturing skills within the DOE complex for fabricating precision, high quality workpieces from difficult-to-machine materials, and enabled U.S. industry to maintain a position of leadership in the structural ceramics field.

  3. Composite material fabrication techniques. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B J; Paulauskas, F L; Miller, J; Parzych, W

    1996-09-30

    This report describes a low cost method of fabricating components for mockups and training simulators used in the transportation industry. This technology was developed jointly by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Metters Industries, Incorporated (MI) as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) ORNL94-0288 sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Economic Impace and Diversity Minority Business Technology Transfer Consortium. The technology involves fabricating component replicas from fiberglass/epoxy composites using a resin transfer molding (RTM) process. The original components are used as masters to fabricate the molds. The molding process yields parts that duplicate the significant dimensional requirements of the original component while still parts that duplicate the significant dimensional requirements of the original component while still providing adequate strength and stiffness for use in training simulators. This technology permits MI to overcome an acute shortage in surplus military hardware available to them for use in manufacturing training simulators. In addition, the cost of the molded fiberglass components is expected to be less than that of procuring the original components from the military.

  4. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  5. HIP densification project. Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Finkelstein, W.

    1997-08-29

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of HIPed aluminum castings as near-net-shape blanks for large electrostatic focusing electrodes in ion lithography machines. The electrodes must have very smooth finishes which are free of pores and other defects. This has heretofore been achieved by rough-machining the blanks out of large forged aluminum billets and final diamond-turning. The use of a near-net-shape casting for the blank was expected to save a significant amount of money and time. The test was conducted on a single cast blank which was supplied by the Partner in the HIPed and stress relieved condition. Rough machining and diamond turning operations conducted by LMES/ER revealed that the casting contained unacceptably large defects. The conclusion was reached that HIPed aluminum castings in the large sizes and of the quality levels required would probably be unobtainable in a cost-effective manner. An alternative approach, using ring forgings assembled by electron beam welding was proposed and investigated by LMES/ER. Although an electrode blank was not obtained, the study indicated that this approach would be successful and cost-effective.

  6. Final report for the Tera Computer TTI CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, G.S.; Pavlakos, C.; Silva, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tera Computer and Sandia National Laboratories have completed a CRADA, which examined the Tera Multi-Threaded Architecture (MTA) for use with large codes of importance to industry and DOE. The MTA is an innovative architecture that uses parallelism to mask latency between memories and processors. The physical implementation is a parallel computer with high cross-section bandwidth and GaAs processors designed by Tera, which support many small computation threads and fast, lightweight context switches between them. When any thread blocks while waiting for memory accesses to complete, another thread immediately begins execution so that high CPU utilization is maintained. The Tera MTA parallel computer has a single, global address space, which is appealing when porting existing applications to a parallel computer. This ease of porting is further enabled by compiler technology that helps break computations into parallel threads. DOE and Sandia National Laboratories were interested in working with Tera to further develop this computing concept. While Tera Computer would continue the hardware development and compiler research, Sandia National Laboratories would work with Tera to ensure that their compilers worked well with important Sandia codes, most particularly CTH, a shock physics code used for weapon safety computations. In addition to that important code, Sandia National Laboratories would complete research on a robotic path planning code, SANDROS, which is important in manufacturing applications, and would evaluate the MTA performance on this code. Finally, Sandia would work directly with Tera to develop 3D visualization codes, which would be appropriate for use with the MTA. Each of these tasks has been completed to the extent possible, given that Tera has just completed the MTA hardware. All of the CRADA work had to be done on simulators.

  7. Cimstation/IM enhanced data verification, CRADA final report for CRADA number Y-1292-0162

    SciTech Connect

    Biddix, M.D.; Turner, J.

    1994-05-16

    This report discusses a CRADA code used to enhance the Cimstation in ramifaction of inspection part programs as they are being develop. This report briefly discussed the following topics and contains a code listing in the back: algorithm explanation; Cimstation CAD models; importing inspection point data; need for a new algorithm; details of the algorithms; formulas/mathematics used for the algorithm; algorithm software design diagram; and software function descriptions.

  8. [A variable frequency microwave furnace]. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL91-0055

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-12-08

    The goals of this CRADA were to: (1) development and demonstrate a highly frequency-agile microwave furnace; (2) explore applications of the furnace for materials processing; and (3) develop control systems and packaging that are robust, user-friendly, and suitable for sale as a turnkey system. Microwave Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) designed, built, and successfully brought to market a benchtop Variable Frequency Microwave Furnace (VFMF). The concept has demonstrated advantages in polymer curing, waste remediation, and diamond (CVD). Through experimentation and modeling, the VFMF approach has gained credibility within the technical community.

  9. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  10. Surface Inspection Machine Infrared (SIMIR). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.; Neu, J.T.; Beecroft, M.

    1997-02-28

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was a one year effort to make the surface inspection machine based on diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (Surface Inspection Machine-Infrared, SIMIR), being developed by Surface Optics Corporation, perform to its highest potential as a practical, portable surface inspection machine. The design function of the SIMIR is to inspect metal surfaces for cleanliness (stains). The system is also capable of evaluating graphite-resin systems for cure and heat damage, and for measuring the effects of moisture exposure on lithium hydride, corrosion on uranium metal, and the constituents of and contamination on wood, paper, and fabrics. Over the period of the CRADA, extensive experience with the use of the SIMIR for surface cleanliness measurements have been achieved through collaborations with NASA and the Army. The SIMIR was made available to the AMTEX CRADA for Finish on Yarn where it made a very significant contribution. The SIMIR was the foundation of a Forest Products CRADA that was developed over the time interval of this CRADA. Surface Optics Corporation and the SIMIR have been introduced to the chemical spectroscopy on-line analysis market and have made staffing additions and arrangements for international marketing of the SIMIR as an on-line surface inspection device. LMES has been introduced to a wide range of aerospace applications, the research and fabrication skills of Surface Optics Corporation, has gained extensive experience in the areas of surface cleanliness from collaborations with NASA and the Army, and an extensive introduction to the textile and forest products industries. The SIMIR, marketed as the SOC-400, has filled an important new technology need in the DOE-DP Enhanced Surveillance Program with instruments delivered to or on order by LMES, LANL, LLNL, and Pantex, where extensive collaborations are underway to implement and improve this technology.

  11. Final Report on CRADA ORNL05-0703

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, D. K.

    2010-04-27

    The work of this CRADA has been focused on the development of Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS)-based high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor technology that is in the pre-commercial development stage. Metal-Oxide Technologies, Inc. (MetOx) is a Houston-based small business that is developing and manufacturing second-generation (2G) HTS wire using an all-Metallo-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process, including the buffer layers and HTS coating. Advances toward commercialization were enabled by coordinated interactions that facilitated the synthesis, characterization, and iterative optimization of prototype 2G wire segments.

  12. The final technical report of the CRADA, 'Medical Accelerator Technology'

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.; Rawls, J.M.

    2000-06-12

    Under this CRADA, Berkeley Lab and the industry partner, General Atomics (GA), have cooperatively developed hadron therapy technologies for commercialization. Specifically, Berkeley Lab and GA jointly developed beam transport systems to bring the extracted protons from the accelerator to the treatment rooms, rotating gantries to aim the treatment beams precisely into patients from any angle, and patient positioners to align the patient accurately relative to the treatment beams. We have also jointly developed a patient treatment delivery system that controls the radiation doses in the patient, and hardware to improve the accelerator performances, including a radio-frequency ion source and its low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system. This project facilitated the commercialization of the DOE-developed technologies in hadron therapy by the private sector in order to improve the quality of life of the nation.

  13. Intermediate Temperature Carbon - Carbon Composite Structures. CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Synterials, Inc. (the "Participant") was to demonstrate promising processing methods, which can lead to producing Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC), with tensile and interlaminar properties comparable to those of organic matrix composites and environmental stability at 1200 F for long periods of time. The participant synthesized carbon-carbon composites with two different fiber coatings and three different matrices. Both parties evaluated the tensile and interlaminar properties of these materials and characterized the microstructure of the matrices and interfaces. It was found that fiber coatings of carbon and boron carbide provided the best environmental protection and resulted in composites with high tensile strength.

  14. Capacitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Donald M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a historical backdrop for a discussion of capacitor design and function. Discusses the production, importance, and function of two types of miniature capacitors; electrolytic and multilayer ceramic capacitors. Describes the function of these miniature capacitors in comparison to the Leyden jar, a basic demonstration of capacitance. (CW)

  15. Advanced austenitic alloys for fossil power systems. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Cole, N.C.; Canonico, D.A.; Henry, J.F.

    1998-08-01

    In 1993, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ABB Combustion Engineering t examine advanced alloys for fossil power systems. Specifically, the use of advanced austenitic stainless steels for superheater/reheater construction in supercritical boilers was examined. The strength of cold-worked austenitic stainless steels was reviewed and compared to the strength and ductility of advanced austenitic stainless steels. The advanced stainless steels were found to retain their strength to very long times at temperatures where cold-worked standard grades of austenitic stainless steels became weak. Further, the steels exhibited better long-time stability than the stabilized 300 series stainless steels in either the annealed or cold worked conditions. Type 304H mill-annealed tubing was provided to ORNL for testing of base metal and butt welds. The tubing was found to fall within range of expected strength for 304H stainless steel. The composite 304/308 stainless steel was found to be stronger than typical for the weldment. Boiler tubing was removed from a commercial boiler for replacement by newer steels, but restraints imposed by the boiler owners did not permit the installation of the advanced steels, so a standard 32 stainless steel was used as a replacement. The T91 removed from the boiler was characterized.

  16. Development of a dry-type shunt capacitor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grahame, F.W.; Chai, H.M.; Newcomb, G.R.; Reed, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the results of a project to determine whether it is feasible to make a liquid-free 200 kVAR, 7200 Vac power factor correction capacitor. After evaluating many solid and gaseous candidate systems, the combination of vapor deposited electrodes on polypropylene sheet dielectric, encapsulated in polyurethane resin was selected. Cell capacitors were used for the initial screening. Next a series of mid size model capacitors were built to evaluate the bushing and the terminal-to-case insulation. Capacitors with vapor deposited electrodes can sometimes generate enough gas at end of life to rupture the case. While no liquid will emerge from a dry capacitor in this situation, there can be a brief jet of flame from an arc. To avoid this, a presence actuated protector device was developed to prevent excess pressure buildup at time of failure. Full size capacitors passed extended life tests, fault tests and radio noise tests. Finally, field trials were run at five widely dispersed installations. The field trials were successful. The present projected cost of dry power capacitors is significantly greater than their liquid counterparts. Future changes in environmental requirements, together with further technical development, may change this situation.

  17. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-08-27

    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The

  18. CRADA Final Report: ErbB2 Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    SciTech Connect

    Lupu, Ruth

    2002-08-27

    The aim of the study was to design novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of carcinomas which overexpress the erbB-2 oncogene product and/or the activator (HRG). erbB-2 is a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor, that overexpression of which in invasive breast, prostate, ovarian and lung carcinomas correlates with poor prognosis and poor overall survival. In breast carcinomas, erbB-2 is overexpressed in 25%-30% of the invasive phenotype and in 70% of ductal carcinomas in situ. On the other hand, the erbB-2 activator, heregulin (HRG) is expressed in about 30% of invasive breast carcinomas and it is highly expressed in other carcinoIl1as including, ovarian, lung, and prostate. Interestingly, only 6% of invasive breast carcinomas co-express both HRG and erbB-2. It is known today that tumors that overexpress erbB-2 are a leading cause of death, making erbB-2 and its activator HRG critical targets for therapy. Targeting both the receptors and the activator would be beneficial for a significant number of cancer patients. At the final stages of the project we had obtained significant improvements over the peptide quality but not significant improvements were made towards the generation of humanized monoclonal antibodies.

  19. Cost effective machining and inspection of structural ceramics. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1292-0088

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, J.D.; Kalish, Y.

    1996-12-06

    This CRADA supports the objective of demonstrating feasibility and minimizing manufacturing costs associated with the use of ceramic components in a heavy duty diesel engine manufactured by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). Studies were conducted to evaluate existing, known data for ceramic material, and to identify additional data needed to better characterize a valve of ceramic composition. Tests were conducted to provide important information required for redesign of existing metal valves and other engine head components. A vendor was selected by DDC to produce the valve shapes for testing and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) provided design modeling/analysis support. The effort also included the development of a bench-test apparatus to simulate the environment of a valve in operation that provided material data and confirmation of analytical results.

  20. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Rober; Paulauskas, Felix; Naskar, Amit; Kaufman, Michael; Yarborough, Ken; Derstine, Chris

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  1. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; West, Brian H; Toops, Todd J; Adelman, Brad; Derybowski, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure compound experiments

  2. Frito-Lay North America/NREL CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-176

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2013-06-01

    Frito Lay North America (FLNA) requires technical assistance for the evaluation and implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in production facilities and distribution centers across North America. Services provided by NREL do not compete with those available in the private sector, but rather provide FLNA with expertise to create opportunities for the private sector renewable/efficiency industries and to inform FLNA decision making regarding cost-effective projects. Services include: identifying the most cost-effective project locations based on renewable energy resource data, utility data, incentives and other parameters affecting projects; assistance with feasibility studies; procurement specifications; design reviews; and other services to support FNLA in improving resource efficiency at facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) establishes the terms and conditions under which FLNA may access capabilities unique to the laboratory and required by FLNA. Each subsequent task issued under this umbrella agreement would include a scope-of-work, budget, schedule, and provisions for intellectual property specific to that task.

  3. Improved catalyst materials and emission control systems. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL 92-0115

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; Domingo, N.; Storey, J.M.; LaBarge, W.; Beckmeyer, R.F.; Theis, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    The overall goal of this CRADA was the improvement of performance and/or development of alternate systems for conventional fuel, flex-fuel, and alternate fuel vehicles in order to meet stringent future emission standards. The objectives had three major thrusts: (1) the characterization of the structural and chemical evolution of the precious metals and washcoat during aging under bench flow reactor, engine dynamometer, and vehicle conditions; (2) the correlation of measured catalyst performance and degradation over time with details of microstructural changes under bench flow reactor and engine dynamometer conditions; and (3) the simulation and testing of an in-cylinder catalyst system to determine the effect on emissions of a single-cylinder engine. Catalyst formulations for both gasoline and natural gas applications were studied. The emission testing and structural characterization were performed on alternate formulations and processing variables in order to evaluate the relative conversion efficiency, lifetime, and stability. The aging parameters were correlated with the evolving structure and properties of the tested catalytic converters. A major portion of the second thrust area was the construction and validation of both the bench flow reactor and engine dynamometer test facility and the identification of deactivation/regeneration mechanisms associated with alternative fuels relative to those for conventional fuel. A number of microstructural changes were identified that could contribute to the deactivation of the catalyst during aging. The stability of several catalyst formulations and alternate processing procedures relative to these microstructural changes and changes in conversion efficiency and lifetime were studied.

  4. CRADA Final Report for CRADA No. ORNL99-0544, Interfacial Properties of Electron Beam Cured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.

    2005-10-17

    Electron beam (EB) curing is a technology that promises, in certain applications, to deliver lower cost and higher performance polymer matrix composite (PMC) structures compared to conventional thermal curing processes. PMCs enhance performance by making products lighter, stronger, more durable, and less energy demanding. They are essential in weight- and performance-dominated applications. Affordable PMCs can enhance US economic prosperity and national security. US industry expects rapid implementation of electron beam cured composites in aircraft and aerospace applications as satisfactory properties are demonstrated, and implementation in lower performance applications will likely follow thereafter. In fact, at this time and partly because of discoveries made in this project, field demonstrations are underway that may result in the first fielded applications of electron beam cured composites. Serious obstacles preventing the widespread use of electron beam cured PMCs in many applications are their relatively poor interfacial properties and resin toughness. The composite shear strength and resin toughness of electron beam cured carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites were about 25% and 50% lower, respectively, than those of thermally cured composites of similar formulations. The essential purpose of this project was to improve the mechanical properties of electron beam cured, carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites, with a specific focus on composite shear properties for high performance aerospace applications. Many partners, sponsors, and subcontractors participated in this project. There were four government sponsors from three federal agencies, with the US Department of Energy (DOE) being the principal sponsor. The project was executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), NASA and Department of Defense (DOD) participants, eleven private CRADA partners, and two subcontractors. A list of key project contacts is provided in Appendix A. In order to properly

  5. An evaluation of optical tool inspection and compensation technologies. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1291-0052

    SciTech Connect

    Babelay, E.F.; Centola, J.; Zorger, W.; Serafin, W.

    1994-05-15

    A Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) was established April 1992 between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and United Technologies Corporation, Pratt and Whitney Division to evaluate the existing applicability of the Energy Systems optical tool inspection and compensation system (OTICS) for use at Pratt and Whitney`s East Hartford Plant. The OTICS was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and optically measures the shape of a single point cutting tool. The tool shape inspection provides process information relating to tool wear and if desired the tool shape geometry can be used to generate a new numerical control machining program that is compensated for the tool forms errors. The tool wear measurement capability of OTICS was successfully evaluated in the Phase-1 testing. The testing verified that OTICS can easily detect tool wear and the {+-} 0.0001 inch resolution obtained was sufficient for the larger cutter inserts used by Pratt and Whitney (P and W). During the tool wear experiments at P and W, a second potential use identified for OTICS was the accurate on-machine dimensional verification of special ground contour forming tools. The OTICS tool path compensation experiment demonstrated the varied technologies that are integrated in the tool path compensation process. The OTICS system was successful at inspecting the 0.125 in. radius tool and compensating the tool path for tool form errors. The need for automated interfaces between the OTICS computer and controller along with the part program requirements and the overall compensation methodology were highlighted in the demonstration.

  6. Inverted Metamorphic Cell Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-156

    SciTech Connect

    Wanlass, M.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA targeted technology transfer of the inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) solar cell innovation from NREL to Emcore Photovoltaics. The technology transfer was successfully completed. Additionally, NREL provided materials characterization of solar cell structures produced at Emcore.

  7. Optical Probe for Semiconductor: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-206

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.

    2011-02-01

    This CRADA involves development of a new semiconductor characterization tool, Optical Probe, which can be commercialized by GT Solar. GT Solar will participate in the design and testing of this instrument that will be developed under an IPP project.

  8. Centralized Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment - CRADA Final Report For CRADA Number NFE-11-03562

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, R. K.; Peters, Scott

    2014-05-28

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  9. Reduced dust emission industrial vacuum system. Final report/project accomplishments summary, CRADA Number KCP941001

    SciTech Connect

    Yerganian, S.; Wilson, S.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify the design of a Billy Goat Industries VQ series industrial litter vacuum cleaner currently in production to allow it to be effective in a dusty environment. Other desired results were that the new design be easily and economically manufacturable, safe and easy for the operator to use and maintain, and easily adaptable to the rest of the Billy Goat Industries product line. To meet these objectives, the project plan was divided into four main phases. The first phase consisted of design overview and concept development. The second phase consisted of developing a detailed design based on the lessons learned from the prototype built in the first phase. The third phase consisted of refinement of the detailed design based on testing and marketing review. The fourth phase consisted of final reporting on the activities of the CRADA. The project has been terminated due to technical difficulties and a lack of confidence that practical, marketable solutions to these problems could be found.

  10. Molecular engineering of polymer alloys: A final report of results obtained on CRADA No. 1078

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S.; Honeycutt, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made in the past three years on CRADA No. 1078, Molecular Engineering of Polymer Alloys. The thrust of this CRADA was to start with the basic ideas of PRISM theory and develop it to the point where it could be applied to modeling of polymer alloys. In this program, BIOSYM, Sandia and the University of Illinois worked jointly to develop the theoretical techniques and numerical formalisms necessary to implement the theoretical ideas into commercial software aimed at molecular engineering of polymer alloys. This CRADA focused on developing the techniques required to make the transition from theory to practice. These techniques were then used by BIOSYM to incorporate PRISM theory and other new developments into their commercial software.

  11. Integrated Biorefinery Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-390

    SciTech Connect

    Chapeaux, A.; Schell, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Amyris-NREL CRADA is a sub-project of Amyris?s DOE-funded pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR). The primary product of the Amyris IBR is Amyris Renewable Diesel. Secondary products will include lubricants, polymers and other petro-chemical substitutes. Amyris and its project partners will execute on a rapid project to integrate and leverage their collective expertise to enable the conversion of high-impact biomass feedstocks to these advanced, infrastructure-compatible products. The scope of the Amyris-NREL CRADA includes the laboratory development and pilot scale-up of bagasse pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification conditions by NREL for subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to Amyris Diesel and chemical products by Amyris. The CRADA scope also includes a techno-economic analysis of the overall production process of Amyris products from high-impact biomass feedstocks.

  12. Development of lifetime test procedure for powder evacuated panel insulation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K E; Graves, R S; Childs, K W

    1996-03-01

    This CRADA is between Appliance Research Consortium (ARC) of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) and the Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. A Powder Evacuated Panel (PEP) is a "super" thermal insulation, having a thermal resistivity (R) substantially above that of existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blown foam.

  13. Supply of purified Th228 for Ra224 generators. Final CRADA Report .

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    CRADA was terminated when it was determined that the Russians could not perform the terms of the subcontract. It became apparent that the Russians would not be a reliable source of Th228, as a precursor in the decay chain which leads to Ra224. Their government policies will prohibit the export of Th228 in quantities needed for commercial cancer therapy.

  14. Advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting metal matrix composites. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0092

    SciTech Connect

    Fell, H.A.; Shelton, J.E.; LaMance, G.M.; Kennedy, C.R.

    1995-02-26

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) and the Lanxide Corporation (Lanxide) negotiated a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting metal matrix composites (MMC). The objective of this CRADA was to develop machining parameters to allow manufacturing of automotive components from MMCs. These parts exhibit a range of shapes and dimensional tolerances and require a large number of machining operations. The common characteristic of the components is the use of the light weight MMC materials to replace heavier materials. This allows smaller and lighter moving parts and supporting structural components thereby increasing fuel mileage. The CRADA was divided into three areas: basic investigation of cutting parameters, establishment of a mock production line for components, and optimization of parameters in the mock facility. This report covers the manufacturing of MMCs and preliminary Phase I testing for silicon carbide having various loading percentages and extensive Phase I testing of cutting parameters on 30% alumina loaded aluminum. On January 26, 1995, a letter from the vice president, technology at Lanxide was issued terminating the CRADA due to changes in business. 9 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Final CRADA Report ORNL-00-0609, Real-Time Control of Diesel Combustion Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) and ORNL established this CRADA to improve heavy-duty engine efficiency with reduced emissions at relatively extreme operating regimes such has high EGR, low-load, and cold-start, with an emphasis on the application of advanced control strategies. The approach used in this collaborative effort was to include the application of novel analysis and modeling techniques developed from the application of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. More specifically, analytical techniques derived from these theories were to used to detect, characterize, and control the combustion instabilities that are responsible for poor combustion performance and corresponding high emissions. The foundation of this CRADA was established based on ORNL expertise on the fundamentals of advanced combustion operation and experience with nonlinear dynamics and controls in combustion systems. The initial plan was all data generation would be performed at DDC with an agreed upon experimental plan formed by both organizations. While numerous experiments were performed at DDC and the data was exchanged with ORNL researchers, the team decided to transfer an engine to ORNL to allow more flexibility and data generation opportunities. A prototype DDC Series 60 with a common rail fuel system was selected and installed at ORNL. DDC and ORNL maintained a strong collaboration throughout much of this project. Direct funding from DOE ended in 2004 and DDC continued to fund at a reduced amount through 2007. This CRADA has not been funded in more recent years but has been maintained active in anticipation of restored funding. This CRADA has led to additional collaborations between DDC and ORNL. The objectives are to: (1) Explore and establish boundaries of high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes on a DDC heavy-duty diesel engine; (2) Improve fundamental understanding of combustion instabilities for use in the development of predictive controls and diagnostics; and (3) Develop

  16. Enhanced control and sensing for the REMOTEC ANDROS Mk VI robot. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Harvey, H.W.

    1998-08-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., and REMOTEC, Inc., explored methods of providing operator feedback for various work actions of the ANDROS Mk VI teleoperated robot. In a hazardous environment, an extremely heavy workload seriously degrades the productivity of teleoperated robot operators. This CRADA involved the addition of computer power to the robot along with a variety of sensors and encoders to provide information about the robot`s performance in and relationship to its environment. Software was developed to integrate the sensor and encoder information and provide control input to the robot. ANDROS Mk VI robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists, as well as in a variety of other hazardous environments. Further, this platform has potential for use in a number of environmental restoration tasks, such as site survey and detection of hazardous waste materials. The addition of sensors and encoders serves to make the robot easier to manage and permits tasks to be done more safely and inexpensively (due to time saved in the completion of complex remote tasks). Prior research on the automation of mobile platforms with manipulators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR, B&R code KC0401030) Laboratory, a BES-supported facility, indicated that this type of enhancement is effective. This CRADA provided such enhancements to a successful working teleoperated robot for the first time. Performance of this CRADA used the CESAR laboratory facilities and expertise developed under BES funding.

  17. Pulse Capacitors for Next Generation Linear Colliders. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, M.W.

    2000-03-03

    During this Phase I SBIR research program, Nanomaterials Research Corporation (NRC) successfully demonstrated high-voltage multilayer capacitors produced from sub-100 nm ceramic powders. The devices produced by NRC exhibited properties that make them particularly useful for pulse power applications. These properties include (1) high capacitance (2) low loss (3) high breakdown voltage (4) high insulation resistance and (5) rapid discharge characteristics. Furthermore, the properties of the nanostructured capacitors were consistently found to exceed those of components that represent the state of the art within the industry. Encouraged by these results, NRC is planning to submit a Phase II proposal with the objective of securing seed capital to continue this development effort.

  18. Machine tool evaluation (development of environmentally conscious machining fluids and systems). CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Sigman, M.E.; Yang, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The overall purpose of this CRADA is to select or develop as required a group of cutting fluids, for use with metals and/or ceramic materials, which are more environmentally benign and which will reduce or eliminate the environmental problems associated with management and disposal of these cutting fluids. This CRADA was initially funded by DOE/DP, and was expanded to include DOE/ER funding with an added focus on environmental issues related to synthetic cutting fluids. The specific objective of this DOE-ER funded project (one of ten technical tasks within the CRADA) is to determine and demonstrate chemical methods of degrading and/or improving the disposability of synthetic cutting fluids. Photochemical advanced oxidation processes were developed and demonstrated to successfully remove all carbon from new and used cutting fluids, and from surrogate solutions containing up to 15,000 ppm of total organic carbon in the initial solutions. Chemical and energy costs for the process were evaluated. Commercial providers of advanced oxidation process technologies were consulted concerning scale-up, and associated costs in industrial systems were estimated to be well represented by the laboratory bench-scale measured values. Engineering aspects and alternative oxidation methodologies were explored through consultation with an internationally recognized chemical engineer, and it was concluded that no clear alternatives were available for treating aqueous fluids with extremely high initial carbon content (i.e., 15,000 popm total organic carbon).

  19. Rhenium labeled peptides and antibodies for cancer therapy. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.; Rhodes, B. A.

    1996-08-12

    This CRADA involved development of optimal methods for attachment of rhenium radioisotopes to antibodies and peptides which can be used for cancer treatment. Rhenium-186 and the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators were provided from ORNL to RhoMed for peptide labeling studies. The rhenium-186 and carrier-free rhenium-188 were then used to optimize the labeling of various small peptides....A system has been developed at ORNL which provides the rhenium-188 radioisotope, which has excellent therapeutic properties for cancer treatment.

  20. Prevention of iron-sulfide deposition in petroleum processing. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Panchal, C. B.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-25

    The purpose of this CRADA extension which effectively ended in 2003 was to quantify the effect of iron-sulfide formation on the fouling propensity of crude oil. The specific objectives are focused on fouling of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU-1) at the Shell Refinery in Mobile, Alabama. The technical approach consists of analyzing the plant data, chemical analysis of crude oil to detect key precursors, performing refinery tests using the Argonne Field Fouling Unit, and verifying the effectiveness of a physical device of tube insert and enhanced tubes to change threshold conditions and thereby reducing fouling.

  1. DEDALOS NREL: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-237

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.

    2013-06-01

    Currently High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) terrestrial modules are based on the combination of optic elements that concentrate the sunlight into much smaller GaAs space cells to produce electricity. GaAs cell technology has been well developed for space applications during the last two decades, but the use of GaAs cells under concentrated sunlight in terrestrial applications leaves unanswered questions about performance, durability and reliability. The work to be performed under this CRADA will set the basis for the design of high-performance, durable and reliable HCPV terrestrial modules that will bring down electricity production costs in the next five years.

  2. Efficiency Improvement of Nitride-Based Solid State Light Emitting Materials -- CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke

    2010-05-13

    The development of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} N/GaN thin film growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy has opened a new route towards energy efficient solid-state lighting. Blue and green LED's became available that can be used to match the whole color spectrum of visible light with the potential to match the eye response curve. Moreover, the efficiency of such devices largely exceeds that of incandescent light sources (tungsten filaments) and even competes favorably with lighting by fluorescent lamps. It is, however, also seen in Figure 1 that it is essential to improve on the luminous performance of green LED's in order to mimic the eye response curve. This lack of sufficiently efficient green LED's relates to particularities of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N materials system. This ternary alloy system is polar and large strain is generated during a lattice mismatched thin film growth because of the significantly different lattice parameters between GaN and InN and common substrates such as sapphire. Moreover, it is challenging to incorporate indium into GaN at typical growth temperatures because a miscibility gap exists that can be modified by strain effects. As a result a large parameter space needs exploration to optimize the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and to date it is unclear what the detailed physical processes are that affect device efficiencies. In particular, an inhomogeneous distribution indium in GaN modifies the device performance in an unpredictable manner. As a result technology is pushed forward on a trial and error basis in particular in Asian countries such as Japan and Korea, which dominate the market and it is desirable to strengthen the competitiveness of the US industry. This CRADA was initiated to help Lumileds Lighting/USA boosting the performance of their green LED's. The tasks address the distribution of the indium atoms in the active area of their blue and green LED's and its relation to internal and external quantum efficiencies. Procedures to

  3. Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, R.; Kelly, R.

    1997-05-30

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

  4. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  5. Multiphase Flow Modeling - Validation and Application CRADA MC94-019, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal; Philip A. Nicoletti

    1995-08-31

    For the development and validation of multiphase flow modeling capability, a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) is in effect between Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and Fluent Inc. To validate the Fluent multiphase model, several simulations were conducted at METC and the results were compared with the results of MFIX, a multiphase flow code developed at METC, and with experimental data. The results of these validation studies will be presented. In addition, the application of multiphase flow modeling will be illustrated by presenting the results of simulations of a filter back- flushing and a fluidized bed coal gasifier. These simulations were conducted only with MFIX, since certain features needed in these simulations will be available only in the next release of Fluent.

  6. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  7. CRADA ORNL 91-0046B final report: Assessment of IBM advanced computing architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with IBM to assess their advanced computer architectures. Over the course of this project three different architectures were evaluated. The POWER/4 RIOS1 based shared memory multiprocessor, the POWER/2 RIOS2 based high performance workstation, and the J30 PowerPC based shared memory multiprocessor. In addition to this hardware several software packages where beta tested for IBM including: ESSO scientific computing library, nv video-conferencing package, Ultimedia multimedia display environment, FORTRAN 90 and C++ compilers, and the AIX 4.1 operating system. Both IBM and ORNL benefited from the research performed in this project and even though access to the POWER/4 computer was delayed several months, all milestones were met.

  8. Gelcasting of CRYSTAR{reg_sign} silicon carbide ceramics. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Willkens, C.A.

    1998-12-31

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to assess the applicability the gelcasting process for forming ceramic green bodies using Saint-Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation`s proprietary CRYSTAR{reg_sign} silicon carbide powder. A gelcasting process, specifically tailored to Saint-Gobain/Norton`s powder composition, was developed and used successfully to form green bodies for property evaluation. This preliminary evaluation showed that the gelcast material had characteristics and properties comparable to Norton`s baseline material. Wafer carrier molds were received from Norton for gelcasting a complex-shaped configuration with CRYSTAR{reg_sign} silicon carbide. Gelcasting experiments showed that Norton`s standard plaster of paris molds were incompatible with the gelcasting process. Mold surface treatments and the use of alternative castable mold materials were investigated, however, a successful process was not identified. The highest quality parts were cast in either glass or aluminum molds.

  9. Recycling end-of-life vehicles of the future. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Daniels, E.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (the Contractor) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the following Participants: Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC (VRP, which consists of General Motors [GM], Ford, and Chrysler), and the American Chemistry Council - Plastics Division (ACC-PD). The purpose of this CRADA is to provide for the effective recycling of automotive materials. The long-term goals are to (1) enable the optimum recycling of automotive materials, thereby obviating the need for legislative mandates or directives; (2) enable the recovery of automotive materials in a cost-competitive manner while meeting the performance requirements of the applications and markets for the materials; and (3) remove recycling barriers/reasons, real or perceived, to the use of advanced lightweighting materials or systems in future vehicles. The issues, technical requirements, and cost and institutional considerations in achieving that goal are complex and will require a concerted, focused, and systematic analysis, together with a technology development program. The scope and tasks of this program are derived from 'A Roadmap for Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles of the Future,' prepared in May 2001 for the DOE Office of Energy, Efficiency, and Renewable Energy (EERE)-Vehicle Technologies Program. The objective of this research program is to enable the maximum recycling of automotive materials and obsolete vehicles through the development and commercialization of technologies for the separation and recovery of materials from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). The long-term goals are to (1) enable the optimum recycling of automotive materials, thereby obviating the need for legislative mandates or directives; (2) enable the recovery of automotive materials in a cost-competitive manner while meeting the performance requirements of the applications and markets for the materials; and (3) remove recycling barriers/reasons, real or perceived, to the use of

  10. Evaluation of Durable Metallic Supports for Catalytic Combustors, CRADA Final Report ORNL 00-0570

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, B. A.; Wright, I. G.; Lara-Curzio, E.; McCarty, J.; Barnes, J.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Catalytica Energy Systems Incorporated (CESI) to determine the properties of current metallic catalyst supports and examine new candidate alloys for this application. A team was established at ORNL to examine oxidation-limited lifetime of these thin-walled metallic components using standard lifetime models and to measure the mechanical properties of the foils (40-200:m in thickness) which can differ substantially from bulk properties. Oxidation experiments were conducted on foil specimens at 700/-1100/C in laboratory air and in air with 10 vol.% water vapor to better simulate the combustor environment. At the higher test temperatures, time to oxidation-induced (i.e. breakaway oxidation) failure was determined in 1h cycles in order to verify predictions from a standard reservoir-type oxidation lifetime model. Selected specimens were run for >10,000h in 100 or 500h cycles at lower test temperatures in order to determine the oxidation kinetics for the model. The creep properties of selected foils were measured for 4,000-8,000h at operation-relevant stresses and temperatures. None of the new candidate alloys significantly out-performed currently used alloys in laboratory testing, particularly in oxidation lifetime testing. Therefore, engine testing was not performed on any of the new candidate alloys. Both the oxidation- and creep-resistance of FeCrAl alloys was greater than expected and the results of the CRADA allowed CESI to extend life or increase operating temperatures for these lower cost substrate alloys in the next generation of catalyst modules.

  11. Science and Technology Development for Renewable Energy Applications: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-00122

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.

    2010-07-01

    This CRADA PTS is a vital element of a larger GE effort to design and build higher-power next-generation wind turbine generators with a cost of energy production competitive or less than conventional fuel-based generation.

  12. Development of YBCO Superconductor for Electric Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-150

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2013-03-01

    The proposed project will be collaborative in exploration of high temperature superconductor oxide films between SuperPower, Inc. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This CRADA will attempt to develop YBCO based high temperature oxide technology.

  13. Telemedicine. Final report/project accomplishments summary CRADA number 95-KCP-1014

    SciTech Connect

    VanDeusen, A.L.

    1997-04-01

    This project was initiated to fill existing voids in the telemedicine equipment market. Currently, when a medical facility adds telemedicine capability to their video conference system, they must purchase expensive and bulky encoders and decoders in order to send information over the available data channel. Even with this expensive equipment, only one data type (stethoscope or ECG) can be sent at a time. In addition, since existing encoders and decoders are not designed specifically for telemedicine, special cables must be built to connect with this equipment. This project resulted in the design and construction of an encoder/decoder system that resolved these issues. The unit (referred to as the Telecoder) is designed specifically for the telemedicine market. The Telecoder is compact, handles two types of data (stethoscope and ECG) simultaneously, integrates with existing medical equipment, and is less expensive. In addition to the Telecoder module, a prototype was built that adds all the necessary logic and interfaces necessary to integrate the basic encoder design into additional Cardionics products. Although a complete integration into other Cardionics products was not in the scope of this CRADA, all the basic design work has been done to allow Cardionics to complete the work.

  14. Micro-toughened titanium-based intermetallics for high-temperature service. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Liu, C.T.; Blue, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) report deals with the composition development, processing parameter development, microstructural evaluation, and mechanical properties development of the {beta} TiAl alloys. Two series of alloy compositions were identified. The first series consisted of four alloys, and the second series consisted of three alloys. The powders were packed in titanium cans, evacuated, and sealed. The titanium cans were hot extruded at 1150, 1250, and 1400{degrees}C to an area reduction ratio of 16:1. The extruded bars were heat treated between 800 and 1320{degrees}C, and their microstructure characterized in the extended and heat-treated condition by optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructural features such as colony size, width of colony boundary {beta} layer, interlamellar spacing, {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 2} spacing, {beta}lamellar width, and {alpha}{sub 2}-{beta} layer ratio were quantified. Tensile bars were prepared from the extruded bars by electrodischarge machining followed by grinding. Tensile tests were conducted from room temperature to 1000{degrees}C. Three-point-bend tests were used to measure the fracture toughness at both room temperature and 800{degrees}C. The effect of long-term annealing at 800 and 1000{degrees}C on one of the alloys was measured at room temperature. Tensile properties of the alloys of this study were compared with the data reported in literature.

  15. Advanced compact laser scanning system enhancements for gear and thread measurements. Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    McKeethan, W.M.; Maxey, L.C.; Bernacki, B.E.; Castore, G.

    1997-04-04

    The measurement, or metrology, of physical objects is a fundamental requirement for industrial progress. Dimensional measurement capability lies at the heart of ones ability to produce objects within the required technical specifications. Dimensional metrology systems are presently dominated by touch-probe technologies, which are mature and reliable. Due to the intricate geometries required in certain fields of manufacturing, these contract probes cannot be physically brought in proximity to the measurement surface, or lack sufficient lateral resolution to satisfactorily determine the surface profile, which can occur in the measurement of gears, splines and thread. Optical probes are viable candidates to supplement the contact probes, since light can be focused to less than one micron (40 microinches), no contact occurs that can mar highly finished surfaces, and no probes must be replaced due to wear. However, optical probes typically excel only on one type of surface: mirror-like or diffuse, and the optical stylus itself is oftentimes not as compact as its contact probe counterpart. Apeiron, Inc. has pioneered the use of optical non-contact sensors to measure machined parts, especially threads, gears and splines. The Oak Ridge Metrology Center at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are world-class experts in dimensional metrology. The goal of this CRADA is to tap the expertise in Oak Ridge to evaluate Apeiron`s platform, and to suggest new or novel methods of optical surface sensing, if appropriate.

  16. Position and Orientation Tracking System three-dimensional graphical user interface. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.E.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.

    1997-09-30

    Under the Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR) program, a major effort is under way to develop technology for remediating the waste in underground storage tanks that contain radioactive and hazardous waste. A large part of the program`s effort has gone towards development of remotely operable robotics equipment, including the Houdini Vehicle and the Position and Orientation Tracking System (POTS). Since planned operation of this equipment is to be completely remote, a significant effort is needed to ensure that operators have sufficient system information to operate the equipment efficiently and safely. ORNL developed POTS and RedZone Robotics, Inc. developed Houdini which can be operated together to provide both position and orientation descriptions of the Houdini vehicle, relative to a world reference frame, while operating inside an underground storage tank. The Houdini vehicle has been outfitted with an optical detection system that houses infrared detectors. The infrared detectors are part of the POTS tracking system. The sensors provide a set of timing pulses to the POTS control computer whenever a laser beam from one of the four POTS laser scanners strikes a detector. Using the pointing angle information from each POTS laser scanners, the POTS control computer is able to compute the pose of the Houdini vehicle at a rate of approximately 25 Hz. This information, along with the orientation of the Houdini`s Schilling Titan II robot arm, is used to present the pose information to the operator in a 3-D graphical user interface using software that has been developed by this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The graphical display presents the data to the operator in a format that is readily understood. The equipment operators are able to use the information in real-time to enhance the operator`s ability to safely and efficiently control the remotely-operated vehicle.

  17. Performance improvement of silicon nitride ball bearings by ion implantation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Miner, J.

    1998-03-01

    The present report summarizes technical results of CRADA No. ORNL 92-128 with the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies Corporation. The stated purpose of the program was to assess the 3effect of ion implantation on the rolling contact performance of engineering silicon nitride bearings, to determine by post-test analyses of the bearings the reasons for improved or reduced performance and the mechanisms of failure, if applicable, and to relate the overall results to basic property changes including but not limited to swelling, hardness, modulus, micromechanical properties, and surface morphology. Forty-two control samples were tested to an intended runout period of 60 h. It was possible to supply only six balls for ion implantation, but an extended test period goal of 150 h was used. The balls were implanted with C-ions at 150 keV to a fluence of 1.1 {times} 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. The collection of samples had pre-existing defects called C-cracks in the surfaces. As a result, seven of the control samples had severe spalls before reaching the goal of 60 h for an unacceptable failure rate of 0.003/sample-h. None of the ion-implanted samples experienced engineering failure in 150 h of testing. Analytical techniques have been used to characterize ion implantation results, to characterize wear tracks, and to characterize microstructure and impurity content. In possible relation to C-cracks. It is encouraging that ion implantation can mitigate the C-crack failure mode. However, the practical implications are compromised by the fact that bearings with C-cracks would, in no case, be acceptable in engineering practice, as this type of defect was not anticipated when the program was designed. The most important reason for the use of ceramic bearings is energy efficiency.

  18. Drying and reconstitution of subbituminous coal - CRADA 90-004. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Nowak, M.A.; Killmeyer, R.P. |

    1991-10-30

    AMAX Coal Company (AMAX) has built a 200 tph, demonstration scale fluidized-bed drying process at their Belle Ayr Mine in Wyoming to dry the subbituminous coal of Wyodak seam from an average moisture content of 25-30 wt% to about 10 wt%. Currently, the dryer generates too many fines for proper transportation and handling. Though the raw coal is about 2-inch top size, about 80 wt% of the dryer product ends up finer than 28 mesh, and about 10 wt% of the dried coal is collected in the dryer bag house (minus 200 mesh). Paul Woessner, Director of Research and Development of AMAX, met with personnel from PETC Coal Preparation Division and expressed an interest in an investigation of the feasibility of applying the PETC`s humic acid binder to reconstitute the bag house fines from the dryer. This was an area in which PETC had been doing some research and had some expertise. As a result, AMAX and the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA, see appendix A) in June 1990 to produce, from fine subbituminous coal, economic low moisture reconstituted solid fuel forms that have suitable storage, handling, transportation, and combustion properties. PETC`s task in this agreement was to conduct broad, baseline studies in three areas: (1) to develop a humic acid binder from AMAX subbituminous coal using the PETC-developed Humic Acid Binder Process, (2) to reconstitute AMAX`s dried subbituminous coal fines from the bag house and the fluidized bed dryer product with humic acid binder, and (3) to produce low moisture, water-resistant pellets from raw subbituminous coal by the PETC-developed Lignipel Process. AMAX, on the other hand, agreed to produce 1-2 tons of reconstituted solid fuel for handleability and combustion tests and partially funded PETC`s efforts.

  19. Cost effective machining and inspection of structural ceramic components for advanced high temperature application. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0151

    SciTech Connect

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Haselkorn, M.

    1996-11-29

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was a mutual research and development (R and D) effort among the participants to investigate a range of advanced manufacturing technologies for two silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic materials. The general objective was to identify the most cost-effective part manufacturing processes for the ceramic materials of interest. The focus was determining the relationship between material removal rates, surface quality, and the structural characteristics of each ceramic resulting from three innovative processes. These innovated machining processes were studied using silicon nitride advanced materials. The particular (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) materials of interest were sintered GS-44 from the Norton Company, and reaction-bonded Ceraloy 147-3. The processes studied included the following activities: (1) direct laser machining; (2) rotary ultrasonic machining; and (3) diamond abrasive grinding, including both resinoid and vitreous-bonded grinding wheels. Both friable and non-friable diamond types were included within the abrasive grinding study. The task also conducted a comprehensive survey of European experience in use of ceramic materials, principally aluminum oxide. Originally, the effort of this task was to extend through a prototype manufacturing demonstration of selected engine components. During the execution of this program, however changes were made to the scope of the project, altering the goals. The Program goal became only the development of assessment of their impacts on product strength and surface condition.

  20. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  1. Application of a Barrier Filter at a High Purity Synthetic Graphite Plant, CRADA 99-F035, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-31

    Superior Graphite Company and the US Department of Energy have entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the application of ceramic barrier filters at its Hopkinsville, Kentucky graphite plant. Superior Graphite Company is a worldwide leader in the application of advanced thermal processing technology to produce high purity graphite and carbons. The objective of the CRADA is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating the use of high-temperature filters to improve the performance of the offgas treatment system. A conceptual design was developed incorporating the ceramic filters into the offgas treatment system to be used for the development of a capital cost estimate and economic feasibility assessment of this technology for improving particulate removal. This CRADA is a joint effort of Superior Graphite Company, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Ink Jet Printing for Silicon Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-00139

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D. S.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to combine the strengths of NREL and Evergreen Solar in the area of ink jet printing to develop a new manufacturing technology necessary to produce Si solar cells based on ribbon technology comparable to or exceeding current technologies.

  3. Metallization for Self Aligned Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-295

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D.

    2012-04-01

    In this CRADA NREL will modify/develop metallization inks that are compatible with 1366 Technologies technology. Various methods of deposition will be used to apply the inks to the textured silicon substrates. The goal of the project is to minimize the contact resistance while maximizing the cell efficiency.

  4. High Performance Photovoltaic Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-169

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M.

    2012-07-01

    NREL will provide certified measurements of the conversion efficiency at high concentration for several multijunction solar cells that were fabricated by Cyrium Technologies. In an earlier phase of the CRADA, Cyrium provided epitaxially-grown material and NREL processed the samples into devices and measured the performance.

  5. Electrical Characterization of Printed Nanocrystalline Silicon Films, Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00241

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    2011-05-01

    This CRADA helped Innovalight characterize and quantify their ink-based selective emitter technology. Controlled localized doping of selective emitter structures via Innovalight Silicon Ink technology was demonstrated. Both secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning capacitance microscopy revealed; abrupt lateral dopant profiles at ink-printed boundaries. Uniform doping of iso- and pyramidal surfaces was also verified using scanning electron microscopy dopant contrast imaging.

  6. Mobile Ocean Test Berth Support: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-413

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), headquartered at the Oregon State University, is establishing the capabilities to test prototype wave energy conversion devices in the ocean. This CRADA will leverage the technical expertise and resources at NREL in the wind industry and in ocean engineering to support and enhance the development of the NNMREC Mobile Ocean Test Berth (MOTB). This CRADA will provide direct support to NNMREC by providing design evaluation and review of the MOTB, developing effective protocols for testing of the MOTB and wave energy conversion devices in the ocean, assisting in the specification of appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition packages, and providing guidance on obtaining and maintaining A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) accreditation.

  7. 10MW Class Direct Drive HTS Wind Turbine: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00312

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarizes the work completed under the CRADA between NREL and American Superconductor (AMSC). The CRADA combined NREL and AMSC resources to benchmark high temperature superconducting direct drive (HTSDD) generator technology by integrating the technologies into a conceptual wind turbine design, and comparing the design to geared drive and permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD) wind turbine configurations. Analysis was accomplished by upgrading the NREL Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model to represent geared and PMDD turbines at machine ratings up to 10 MW and then comparing cost and mass figures of AMSC's HTSDD wind turbine designs to theoretical geared and PMDD turbine designs at 3.1, 6, and 10 MW sizes.

  8. Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-259

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.

    2011-10-01

    This agreement allowed NREL to serve as an advisor on SolarTAC - a collaborative effort between Xcel Energy, NREL, and the University of Colorado at Boulder. The collaboration was formed to accelerate pre-commercial and early commercial solar energy technologies to the marketplace. Through this CRADA, NREL participated in the deployment of solar energy generation technologies and related solar equipment for research, testing, validation, and demonstration purposes.

  9. Cooperation on Lidar for Improved Wind Turbine Performance. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-521

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul

    2015-05-12

    Research into the use of lidar for improved wind turbine performance is an area of considerable interest. Lidars have been proposed to analyze and improve wind turbine pitch control performance, yaw alignment and control performance, as well as to improve power curve assessments. In this CRADA, NREL, NRG Systems, Inc. (“NRG”) and Avent Lidar Technology SAS (“Avent”) will collaborate on testing these concepts.

  10. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    SciTech Connect

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  11. Boulder Wind Power Advanced Gearless Drivetrain: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-00463

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrell, J.

    2013-04-01

    The Boulder Wind Power (BWP) Advanced Gearless Drivetrain Project explored the application of BWP's innovative, axial-gap, air-core, permanent-magnet direct-drive generator in offshore wind turbines. The objective of this CRADA is to assess the benefits that result from reduced towerhead mass of BWP's technology when used in 6 MW offshore turbines installed on a monopile or a floating spar foundation.

  12. Post-Injection Geophysical Evaluation of the Winding Ridge Site CRADA 98-F012, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Connie Lyons; Richard Current; Terry Ackman

    1998-09-16

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from underground mines is a major environmental problem. The disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCB) is also a major national problem due to the large volumes produced annually and the economics associated with transportation and environmentally safe disposal. The concept of returning large volumes of the CCB to their point of origin, underground mines, and using the typically alkaline and pozzolanic attributes of the waste material for the remediation of AMD has been researched rather diligently during the past few years by various federal and state agencies and universities. As the result, the State of Maryland initiated a full-scale demonstration of this concept in a small, 5-acre, unmapped underground mine located near Friendsville, MD. Through a cooperative agreement between the State of Maryland and the U.S. Department of Energy, several geophysical techniques were evaluated as potential tools for the post-injection evaluation of the underground mine site. Three non-intrusive geophysical surveys, two electromagnetic (EM) techniques and magnetometry, were conducted over the Frazee Mine, which is located on Winding Ridge near Friendsville, MD. The EM surveys were conducted to locate ground water in both mine void and overburden. The presence of magnetite, which is naturally inherent to CCB'S due to the combustion process and essentially transparent in sedimentary rock, provided the reason for using magnetometry to locate the final resting place of the CCB grout.

  13. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  14. Dynamometer Testing of a NW2200 Drivetrain: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-394

    SciTech Connect

    Wallen, R.

    2012-04-01

    Northern Power Systems specializes in direct drive wind turbine designs. CRADA CRD-10-394 involved testing the NW2200 wind turbine power train. Power train testing is important because it allows validation of the generator design and some control algorithms prior to installation on a tower, where this data would be more difficult and time consuming to collect. In an effort to keep the commercial product schedule on time, Northern Power requested testing support from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for this testing. The test program was performed using NREL's 2.5 MW dynamometer test bed at the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, CO.

  15. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the General Motors Company (CRADA No. PNNL/271): “Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology”

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Kim, Chang H.; Oh, Se H.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Wiebenga, Michelle H.

    2011-12-13

    Diesel engines can offer substantially higher fuel efficiency, good driving performance characteristics, and reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emission compared to stoichiometric gasoline engines. Despite the increasing public demand for higher fuel economy and reduced dependency on imported oil, however, meeting the stringent emission standards with affordable methods has been a major challenge for the wide application of these fuel-efficient engines in the US market. The selective catalytic reduction of NOx by urea (urea-SCR) is one of the most promising technologies for NOx emission control for diesel engine exhausts. To ensure successful NOx emission control in the urea-SCR technology, both a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a urea-SCR catalyst with high activity and durability are critical for the emission control system. Because the use of this technology for light-duty diesel vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy the durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions, which is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations. In addition, it is imperative to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms to help develop improved catalyst materials. In this CRADA program, General Motors Company and PNNL have investigated fresh, laboratory- and vehicle-aged DOC and SCR catalysts. The studies have led to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of catalysts used in the urea-SCR technology, and have improved the correlation between laboratory and vehicle aging for reduced development time and cost. This Final Report briefly highlights many of the technical accomplishments and documents the productivity of the program in terms of peer-reviewed scientific publications

  16. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-29

    The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

  17. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-11-422

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this CRADA work is to support Eaton Innovation Center (Eaton) efforts to develop advanced load identification, management technologies, and solutions to reduce building energy consumption by providing fine granular visibility of energy usage information and safety protection of miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) in commercial and residential buildings. MELs load identification and prediction technology will be employed in a novel 'Smart eOutlet*' to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and design tools and building power management systems. The work scoped in this CRADA involves the following activities: development and validation of business value proposition for the proposed technologies through voice of customer investigation, market analysis, and third-party objective assessment; development and validation of energy saving impact as well as assessment of environmental and economic benefits; 'smart eOutlet' concept design, prototyping, and validation; field validation of the developed technologies in real building environments. (*Another name denoted as 'Smart Power Strip (SPS)' will be used as an alternative of the name 'Smart eOutlet' for a clearer definition of the product market position in future work.)

  18. [TDA`s hot gas desulfurization sorbent]. TDA Inc./FETC CRADA No. 97-F003, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.A.

    1997-11-14

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between TDA Incorporated and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The objective of this CRADA was to evaluate the performance of TDA`s hot gas desulfurization (HGD) sorbent for use in fossil fuel gasification processes. This particular sorbent, TNT-MB was developed for use in moving-bed HGD reactors in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. Two separate tests were conducted; a 10-cycle test, and a low-temperature scoping test. All 10 cycles absorbed H{sub 2}S for the prescribed 125 minutes without breakthrough. The H{sub 2}S concentration remained below 50 ppmv throughout the 125 minute test period. The sorbent showed an increase in attrition resistance from 1.8% (fresh) to 0.87% (reactor inlet) and 0.64% (reactor outlet) after 10 cycles. The results of an additional attrition test are also contained in this report.

  19. SWAY/NREL Collaboration on Offshore Wind System Testing and Analysis: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-459

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Amy

    2015-02-01

    This shared resources CRADA defines collaborations between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and SWAY. Under the terms and conditions described in this CRADA agreement, NREL and SWAY will collaborate on the SWAY 1/5th-scale floating wind turbine demonstration project in Norway. NREL and SWAY will work together to obtain measurement data from the demonstration system to perform model validation.

  20. Organic Based Nanocomposite Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-145

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This CRADA will focus on the development of organic-based solar cells. Key interfacial issues in these cells will be investigated. In this rapidly emerging technology, it is increasingly clear that cell architecture will need to be at the nanoscale and the interfacial issues between organic elements (small molecule and polymer), transparent conducting oxides, and contact metallizations are critical. Thus this work will focus on the development of high surface area and nanostructured nanocarpets of inorganic oxides, the development of appropriate surface binding/acceptor molecules for the inorganic/organic interface, and the development of next-generation organic materials. Work will be performed in all three areas jointly at NREL and Konarka (with their partner in the third area of the University of Delaware). Results should be more rapid progress toward cheap large-area photovoltaic cells.

  1. AIST-NREL Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Demonstration. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-402

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-05-11

    The purpose of the project is to demonstrate and quantitatively compare performance of CPV systems installed in Japan and in the United States. The deployment conditions (e.g. spectrum and temperature) are site dependent and the optimal design of the system may vary with location. The CPV systems will use multi-junction concentrator cells for the conversion of sunlight into electricity. The optimal design of the cell may depend on the location at which a CPV system is installed. Thus, the systems in Japan and in the U.S. will all use a combination of concentrator cells obtained from three different vendors. This CRADA pertains only to the equipment that will be installed in the U.S. This effort is a collaborative project between AIST and NREL.

  2. Blade Testing Equipment Development and Commercialization: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-346

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, D.; Hughes, S.

    2013-04-01

    Blade testing is required to meet wind turbine design standards, reduce machine cost, and reduce the technical and financial risk of deploying mass-produced wind turbine models. NREL?s National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Colorado is the only blade test facility in the U.S. capable of performing full-scale static and fatigue testing of multi-megawatt-scale wind turbine blades. Rapid growth in wind turbine size over the past two decades has outstripped the size capacity of the NWTC blade test facility leaving the U.S. wind industry without a suitable means of testing blades for large land-based and offshore turbines. This CRADA will develop and commercialize testing technologies and test equipment, including scaling up, value engineering, and testing of equipment to be used at blade testing facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  3. Acciona Solar Technology Performance Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-384

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Under this agreement, NREL will work with Acciona to conduct joint testing, evaluation, and data collection related to Acciona's solar technologies and systems. This work includes, but is not limited to, testing and evaluation of solar component and system technologies, data collection and monitoring, performance evaluation, reliability testing, and analysis. This work will be conducted at Acciona's Nevada Solar One (NSO) power plant and NREL test facilities. Specific projects will be developed on a task order basis. Each task order will identify the name of the project and deliverables to be produced under the task order. Each task order will delineate an estimated completion date based on a project's schedule. Any reports developed under this CRADA must be reviewed by both NREL and Acciona and approved by each organization prior to publication of results or documents.

  4. WindFloat Feasibility Study Support. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-419

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, Senu

    2015-05-07

    This shared resource CRADA defines research collaborations between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Principle Power, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“Principle Power”). Under the terms and conditions described in this CRADA agreement, NREL and Principle Power will collaborate on the DEMOWFLOAT project, a full-scale 2-MW demonstration project of a novel floating support structure for large offshore wind turbines, called WindFloat. The purpose of the project is to demonstrate the longterm field performance of the WindFloat design, thus enabling the future commercialized deployment of floating deepwater offshore wind power plants. NREL is the leading U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory for the development and advancement of renewable energy and has a strong interest in offshore wind and the development of deepwater offshore wind systems. NREL will provide expertise and resources to the DEMOWFLOAT project in assessing the environmental impacts, independent technical performance validation, and engineering analysis. Principle Power is a Seattle, Washington-based renewable energy company that owns all the intellectual property associated with the WindFloat. In return for NREL’s support of the DEMOWFLOAT project, Principle Power will provide NREL with valuable test data from the project that will be used to validate the numerical tools developed by NREL for analyzing offshore wind turbines. In addition, NREL will gain experience and knowledge in offshore wind designs and testing methods through this collaboration. 2 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. NREL and Principle Power will work together to advance floating offshore wind technology, and demonstrate its viability for supplying the world with a new clean energy source.

  5. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip; Bush, John; Bowerman, Biays; Cespedes, Ernesto; White, Timothy

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  6. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  7. FFP/NREL Collaboration on Hydrokinetic River Turbine Testing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-00473

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, F.

    2013-04-01

    This shared resources CRADA defines collaborations between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Free Flow Power (FFP) set forth in the following Joint Work Statement. Under the terms and conditions described in this CRADA, NREL and FFP will collaborate on the testing of FFP's hydrokinetic river turbine project on the Mississippi River (baseline location near Baton Rouge, LA; alternate location near Greenville, MS). NREL and FFP will work together to develop testing plans, instrumentation, and data acquisition systems; and perform field measurements.

  8. CRADA Final Report: Properties of Vacuum Deposited Thin Films of Lithium Phosphorous Oxynitride (Lipon) with an Expanded Composition Range

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.

    2003-12-29

    Thin films of an amorphous, solid-state, lithium electrolyte, referred to as ''Lipon'', were first synthesized and characterized at ORNL in 1991. This material is typically prepared by magnetron sputtering in a nitrogen plasma, which allows nitrogen atoms to substitute for part of the oxygen ions of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Lipon is the key component in the successful fabrication of ORNL's rechargeable thin film microbatteries. Cymbet and several other US Companies have licensed this technology for commercialization. Optimizing the properties of the Lipon material, particularly the lithium ion conductivity, is extremely important, yet only a limited range of compositions had been explored prior to this program. The goal of this CRADA was to develop new methods to prepare Lipon over an extended composition range and to determine if the film properties might be significantly improved beyond those previously reported by incorporating a larger N component into the film. Cymbet and ORNL investigated different deposition processes for the Lipon thin films. Cymbet's advanced deposition process not only achieved a higher deposition rate, but also permitted independent control the O and N flux to the surface of the growing film. ORNL experimented with several modified sputtering techniques and found that by using sectored sputter targets, composed of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}N ceramic disks, thin Lipon films could be produced over an expanded composition range. The resulting Lipon films were characterized by electrical impedance, infrared spectroscopy, and several complementary analytical techniques to determine the composition. When additional N plus Li are incorporated into the Lipon film, the lithium conductivity was generally degraded. However, the addition of N accompanied by a slight loss of Li gave an increase in the conductivity. Although the improvement in the conductivity was only very modest and was a disappointing conclusion of this study, forcing a higher N

  9. 76 FR 23837 - Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of the Commission's Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Electronics North America, Inc. of Smyrna, Georgia (collectively, ``Murata''). 74 FR 57193-94 (Nov. 4, 2009... issues it determined to review, and on remedy, the public interest and bonding. 76 FR 11275 (Mar. 1, 2011... COMMISSION Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of the Commission's...

  10. Dubose CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Schuttler, G.L.

    2000-01-25

    impossible to seal. To accomplish this, Mr. Dubose proposed to build a functional single-disc cylinder head to try different seal designs. Texas Tech had a Kawasaki single cylinder engine that was suitable for this use, and it was decided that a rotary valve cylinder head would be fabricated to fit this engine. To this end, Texas Tech provided assistance in creating the cylinder head design, assisted by Honeywell FM and T. Several design iterations were created, and both wax and stereolithography models were created at FM and T to assist the design process. The wax and stereolithography models were used for conceptual visualization of the designs, fit-up checks of the various components with the actual engine, and even flow testing of the intake and exhaust ports. When the design was finalized, two prototype cylinder head assemblies were machined, from aluminum and steel supplied by Texas Tech and Mr. Dubose, in the FM and T Model Shop. The engine was then to be assembled and tested at Texas Tech. At the time that this project was closed, the engine had not yet been completely assembled and tested.

  11. NREL Wind Turbine Blade Structural Testing of the Modular Wind Energy MW45 Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-354

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was a purely funds-in CRADA with Modular Wind Energy (MWE). MWE had a need to perform full-scale testing of a 45-m wind turbine blade. NREL/NWTC provided the capabilities, facilities, and equipment to test this large-scale MWE wind turbine blade. Full-scale testing is required to demonstrate the ability of the wind turbine blade to withstand static design load cases and demonstrate the fatigue durability. Structural testing is also necessary to meet international blade testing certification requirements. Through this CRADA, MWE would obtain test results necessary for product development and certification, and NREL would benefit by working with an industrial partner to better understand the unique test requirements for wind turbine blades with advanced structural designs.

  12. Wind Turbine Blade Test Definition of the DeWind DW90 Rotor Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-326

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was developed as a funds-in CRADA with DeWind to assess the suitability of facilities and equipment at the NWTC for performing certification blade testing on wind turbine blades made from advanced materials. DeWind produces a wind turbine blade which includes the use of high-strength and stiffness materials. NREL and DeWind had a mutual interest in defining the necessary facilities, equipment, and test methods for testing large wind turbine blades which incorporate advanced materials and adaptive structures, as the demands on test equipment and infrastructure are greater than current capabilities. Work under this CRADA would enable DeWind to verify domestic capability for certification-class static and fatigue testing, while NREL would be able to identify and develop specialized test capabilities based on the test requirements.

  13. Conceptual study of a SF/sub 6/ impregnated high voltage capacitor bank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Capacitor units with polypropylene film dielectric were wound, and impregnated with SF/sub 6/ gas at pressures from one to ten atmospheres. The discharge inception voltage (DIV) and the level of partial discharges as a function of voltage and pressure were measured. In the first series of tests the DIV for flattened rolls was found to be lower than expected. Stepped stress tests to breakdown were made to provide an indication of the appropriate voltage level for longer term tests. Accelerated life tests at 5 and 10 atmospheres were performed at room temperature and a time to failure as a function of stress was established. Failed units were dissected to determine the location of the breakdown and to search for microscopic evidence of damage in a scanning electron microscope. Failures were primarily located at the edges of the aluminum foil electrodes or around tabs (leads). Breakdowns in the bulk of the capacitor were concentrated in the inner half of the roll. This part of the capacitor undergoes the greatest amount of distortion during the flattening process. A theoretical analysis of voltage division between the solid dielectric and the gas gap indicates that the observed DIV can most likely be explained by field enhancement from edges (leads or foil) or particles. Tests with unflattened rolls with a retained arbor showed that omitting the forming step and increasing the tightness of the winding improved performance significantly. Failure sites for these capacitors were more evenly distributed. Conceptual designs for a large capacitor array in a pressurized tank and for a protective fuse element are presented.

  14. Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.

    2013-08-01

    NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

  15. THE DESIGN OF AN RF ANTENNA FOR A LARGE-BORE, HIGH POWER, STEADY STATE PLASMA PROCESSING CHAMBER FOR MATERIAL SEPARATION - CRADA FINAL REPORT for CRADA Number ORNL00-0585

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D. A.; Freeman, R. L.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC, (Contractor), and Archimedes Technology Group, (Participant) is to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure. The project objectives are to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure.

  16. Commercialization Plan Support for Development of Low Cost Vacuum Insulating Glazing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-449

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, Arrelaine

    2015-07-09

    During the duration of this CRADA, V-Glass and NREL will partner in testing, analysis, performance forecasting, costing, and evaluation of V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ process technology for creating a low cost hermetic seal for conventional and vacuum glazing. Upon successful evaluation of hermeticity, V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ will be evaluated for its potential use in highly insulating window glazing.

  17. Development of Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Solar Reflective Films. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-247

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this CRADA is to develop an abrasion-resistant coating, suitable for use on polymeric-based reflective films (e.g., the ReflecTech reflective film), that allows for improved scratch resistance and enables the use of aggressive cleaning techniques (e.g., direct contact methods like brushing) without damaging the specular reflectance properties of the reflective film.

  18. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  19. Development and Demonstration of Energy Savings Perform Contracting Methodologies for Hydroelectric Facilities: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-309

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.

    2012-04-01

    This CRADA explores the opportunities and challenges of funding federal hydro dam refurbishment projects through ESPCs. It assesses legal authorities for rehabilitating dams through ESPCs; roles and responsibilities of each party including the dam owner, Power Marketing Administration (PMA), ESCO, and preference customers; potential contract structure and flow of money; measurement and verification processes; risk and responsibility allocation; and financial viability of projects.

  20. Preliminary Structural Design Conceptualization for Composite Rotor for Verdant Power Water Current: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-296

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2011-02-01

    The primary thrust of the CRADA will be to develop a new rotor design that will allow higher current flows (>4m/s), greater swept area (6-11m), and in the process, will maximize performance and energy capture.

  1. Low-Defect Heteroepitaxy on Porous Si Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-534

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.

    2014-12-01

    In this collaboration, NREL will grow Ge, SiGe, and III-V layers on porous Si (pSi) substrates prepared either by Crystal Solar or at NREL. The intent is to grow low-defect epitaxial III-V alloys using the porous Si layer to prevent defect formation. Finally, we aim to fabricate solar cells from the III-V layers to prove the electronic quality.

  2. METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperation with the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between METC and 3M was to evaluate exposure of 3M SICONEX{trademark} fiber-reinforced ceramic and NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabric materials to a gasifying environment at high temperatures (1000--1100{degree}F) and high pressure (300 psia). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) provided two 60 mm I.D. {times} 0.5 m SICONEX{trademark} spools and one each of the NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabrics for exposure to coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the materials in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the CRADA are found in CRADA 94-024. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 94-024. Four gasifier runs were conducted over a five month period to accumulate 483 hours of operation. During this time, 2 LayCer{trademark} 70/3 filters were used for filtering the coal gas while the SICONEX{trademark} and NEXTEL{trademark} were exposed along side of the filters. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer{trademark} 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

  3. Inks for Ink Jet Printed Contacts for High Performance Silicon Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA No. CRD-06-199

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D.

    2013-01-01

    The work under the proposed CRADA will be a joint effort by BP Solar and NREL to develop new types of high performance inks for high quality contacts to silicon solar cells. NREL will develop inks that have electronic properties that will allow the formation of high quality ohmic contacts to n- and p-type crystalline silicon, and BP Solar will evaluate these contacts in test contact structures.

  4. METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperatation with Shell Synthetic Fuels, Incorporated to obtain data relevent to the design and operation of dry particulate solids filters, and Nahcolite as a chloride removal sorbent. Shell Synthetic Fuels Incorporated provided 60 mm O.D. {times} 40 mm I.D. {times} O.5 m long silicon carbide, LayCer{trademark} 70/3 candle filters for use in filtering coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the filters in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) are found in CRADA 93-011. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 93-011. Seven gasifier runs were conducted over an eighteen month period to accumulate 868 hours of operation. During this time, 3 filters were used 2 at a time to give individual candle usage of 254 hours, 525 hours, and 868 hours, respectively. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

  5. In-service testing of Ni{sub 3}Al coupons and trays in carburizing furnaces at Delphi Saginaw. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Viswanathan, S.; Swindeman, R.W.; Chatterjee, M.

    1998-08-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) report deals with the development of nickel aluminide alloy for improved longer life heat-resistant fixture assemblies for batch and continuous pusher carburizing furnaces. The nickel aluminide development was compared in both coupon and component testing with the currently used Fe-Ni-Cr heat-resisting alloy known as HU. The specific goals of the CRADA were: (1) casting process development, (2) characterization and possible modification of the alloy composition to optimize its manufacturing ability and performance under typical furnace operating conditions, and (3) testing and evaluation of specimens and prototype fixtures. In support of the CRADA objectives, coupons of nickel aluminide and the HU alloy were installed in both batch and pusher furnaces. The coupons were taken from two silicon levels and contained welds made with two different filler compositions (IC-221LA and IC-221W). Both nickel-aluminide and HU coupons were removed from the batch and pusher carburizing furnace at time intervals ranging from one month to one year. The exposed coupons were cut and mounted for metallographic, hardness, and microprobe analysis. The results of the microstructural analysis have been transmitted to General Motors Corporation, Saginaw Division (Delphi Saginaw) through reports that were presented at periodic CRADA review meetings. Based on coupon testing and verification of the coupon results with the testing of trays, Delphi Saginaw moved forward with the use of six additional trays in a batch furnace and two assemblies in a pusher furnace. Fifty percent of the trays and fixtures are in the as-cast condition and the remaining trays and fixtures are in the preoxidized condition. The successful operating experience of two assemblies in the pusher furnace for nearly a year formed the basis for a production run of 63 more assemblies. The production run required melting of 94 heats weighing 500 lb. each. Twenty

  6. NREL/University of Delaware Offshore Wind R&D Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-393

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, Walt

    2015-11-12

    Specifically, the work under this CRADA includes, but is not limited to, the development of test procedures for an offshore test site in Delaware waters; testing of installed offshore wind turbines; performance monitoring of those turbines; and a program of research and development on offshore wind turbine blades, components, coatings, foundations, installation and construction of bottom-fixed structures, environmental impacts, policies, and more generally on means to enhance the reliability, facilitate permitting, and reduce costs for offshore wind turbines. This work will be conducted both at NREL's National Wind Technology Center and participant facilities, as well as the established offshore wind test sites.

  7. CENER/NREL Collaboration in Testing Facility and Code Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-207

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, P.

    2014-11-01

    Under the funds-in CRADA agreement, NREL and CENER will collaborate in the areas of blade and drivetrain testing facility development and code development. The project shall include NREL assisting in the review and instruction necessary to assist in commissioning the new CENER blade test and drivetrain test facilities. In addition, training will be provided by allowing CENER testing staff to observe testing and operating procedures at the NREL blade test and drivetrain test facilities. CENER and NREL will exchange blade and drivetrain facility and equipment design and performance information. The project shall also include exchanging expertise in code development and data to validate numerous computational codes.

  8. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated PV Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-239

    SciTech Connect

    Stradins, P.

    2011-10-01

    In this CRADA, NREL's Silicon group members performed the following research activities: (1) investigation of the role of hydrogen in growth of a mixed-phase nc-Si:H/a-Si:H material; (2) role of hydrogen in light-induced degradation of a-Si:H and development of Staebler-Wronski effect resistive a-Si:H; and (3) performing characterizations of UniSolar's a-Si:H and nc-Si materials, with goal to help optimizing large-area uniformity and quality of the UniSolar's nanocrystalline Si:H.

  9. Equipment Only - Solar Resources Measurements at the University of Texas at Austin, TX: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-222

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty and staff at the University of Texas at Austin collected solar resource measurements at their campus using equipment on loan from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The equipment was used to train students on the operation and maintenance of solar radiometers and was returned to NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory upon completion of the CRADA. The resulting data augment the solar resource climatology information required for solar resource characterizations in the U.S. The cooperative agreement was also consistent with NREL's goal of developing an educated workforce to advance renewable energy technologies.

  10. NaREC Offshore and Drivetrain Test Facility Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-140

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Renewable Energy Centre (NaREC) in the United Kingdom (UK) have a mutual interest in collaborating in the development of full-scale offshore wind energy and drivetrain testing facilities. NREL and NaREC will work together to share resources and experiences in the development of future wind energy test facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) includes sharing of test protocols, infrastructure cost data, test plans, pro forma contracting instruments, and safe operating strategies. Furthermore, NREL and NaREC will exchange staff for training and development purposes.

  11. Improving Translation Models for Predicting the Energy Yield of Photovoltaic Power Systems. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-526

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Keith

    2015-08-04

    The project under this CRADA will analyze field data of various flat-plate and concentrator module technologies and cell measurements at the laboratory level. The field data will consist of current versus voltage data collected over many years on a latitude tilt test bed for Si, CdTe, amorphous silicon, and CIGS technologies. The concentrator data will be for mirror- and lens-based module designs using multijunction cells. The laboratory data will come from new measurements of cell performance with systematic variation of irradiance, temperature and spectral composition. These measurements will be labor-intensive and the aim will be to cover the widest possible parameter space for as many different PV samples as possible. The data analysis will require software tools to be developed. These tools will be customized for use with the specific NREL datasets and will be unsuitable for commercial release. The tools will be used to evaluate different translation equations against NREL outdoor datasets.

  12. Development of a High Volume Capable Process to Manufacture High Performance Photovoltaic Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-322

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basic PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.

  13. Cooperation Reliability Testing of the Clipper Windpower Liberty 2.5 MW Turbine: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-210

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    Clipper Windpower (CWP) has developed the Liberty 2.5 MW wind turbine. The development, manufacturing, and certification process depends heavily on being able to validate the full-scale system design and performance under load in both an accredited structural test facility and through accredited field testing. CWP requested that DOE/ NREL upgrade blade test capabilities to perform a scope of work including structural testing of the C-96 blade used on the CWP Liberty turbine. This funds-in CRADA was developed to upgrade NREL blade test capability, while enabling certification testing of the C-96 blade through the facility and equipment upgrades. NREL shared resource funds were used to develop hardware necessary to structurally attach a large wind turbine to the test stand at the NWTC. Participant funds-in monies were used for developing the test program.

  14. Development of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Using Inkjet Printed Silicon and Other Inkjet Processes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-260

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.

    2012-04-01

    The cost of silicon photovoltaics (Si-PV) can be greatly lowered by developing thin-film crystalline Si solar cells on glass or an equally lower cost substrate. Typically, Si film is deposited by thermal evaporation, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering. NREL and Silexos have worked under a CRADA to develop technology to make very low cost solar cells using liquid organic precursors. Typically, cyclopentasilane (CPS) is deposited on a glass substrate and then converted into an a-Si film by UV polymerization followed by low-temperature optical process that crystallizes the amorphous layer. This technique promises to be a very low cost approach for making a Si film.

  15. Development of ZnTe:Cu Contacts for CdTe Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-320

    SciTech Connect

    Dhere, R.

    2012-04-01

    The main focus of the work at NREL was on the development of Cu-doped ZnTe contacts to CdTe solar cells in the substrate configuration. The work performed under the CRADA utilized the substrate device structure used at NREL previously. All fabrication was performed at NREL. We worked on the development of Cu-doped ZnTe as well as variety of other contacts such as Sb-doped ZnTe, CuxTe, and MoSe2. We were able to optimize the contacts to improve device parameters. The improvement was obtained primarily through increasing the open-circuit voltage, to values as high as 760 mV, leading to device efficiencies of 7%.

  16. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-22

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal.

  17. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  18. Vented Capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  19. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Invertor Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motors - Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.W.; Downing, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J.M.; Seksarian, A.K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, J.

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under

  20. MOCVD capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lanagan, M.T.; Foster, C.

    1997-09-01

    A significant effort within the Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Technologies and the U.S. Navy`s Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) project has focused on reducing the size and weight of power electronic devices for electric and hybrid vehicles. Power electronic circuits, which are composed of active switching elements and passive components such as capacitors and inductors, provide motor control, power distribution, and DC/AC conversion functions in electric vehicles. Progress has been made on reducing the size and weight of power electronic components such as MOS-controlled thristors and insulated-gate bipolar transistors. Additional effort on high-power capacitors will be needed for load leveling and filter functions. The objective of this work is to fabricate a new class of high-power capacitors with reduced size and weight. Capacitors will be integrated with semiconductor components of electric motor and actuator control subsystems.

  1. Final report for contract research on electrochemical capacitors based on conducting polymers, January 15--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, J.P.

    1992-10-22

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have attracted attention as potentially useful materials for electrochemical capacitors due to their high energy storage capacity and their comparatively low cost. During the course of this research the authors explored a number of poly(heteroaromatic) systems, in conjunction with several nonaqueous electrolytes, that could be used as active materials in electrochemical capacitors. They identified a new configuration for such capacitors based on p- and n-dopable polymers and prepared a number4r of such materials. A new electrolyte, TMATFMS, which facilitates n-doping in these polymers was also synthesized and tested. A patent disclosure on these discoveries has been filed with Mr. Ray Wilson of LANL.

  2. Development of New Absorber Materials to Achieve Organic Photovoltaic Commercial Modules with 15% Efficiency and 20 Years Lifetime: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-498

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    Under this CRADA the parties will develop intermediates or materials that can be employed as the active layer in dye sensitized solar cells printed polymer systems, or small molecule organic photovoltaics.

  3. Equipment Loan for Concentrated PV Cavity Converter (PVCC) Research: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-285

    SciTech Connect

    Netter, Judy

    2015-07-28

    Interest in High Concentration Photovoltaics (HCPV) for terrestrial applications has significantly grown in recent years. A major driver behind this growth trend is the availability of high efficiency multi-junction (MJ) cells that promise reliable operation under high concentrations (500 to 1000 suns). The primary impact of HCPV on the solar electricity cost is the dramatic reduction in cell cost. For terrestrial HCPV systems, operating at concentrations ≥ 500 suns, the expensive MJ cells are marginally affordable. Most recently, triple-junction test cells have achieved a conversion efficiency of over 40% under concentrated sunlight. Photovoltaic Cavity Converter (PVCC) is a multi-bandgap, high concentration PV device developed by United Innovations, Inc., under subcontract to NREL. The lateral- (2- dimensional) structure of PVCC, as opposed to vertical multi-junction (MJ) structure, helps to circumvent most of the developmental challenges MJ technology has yet to overcome. This CRADA will allow the continued development of this technology by United Innovations. This project was funded by the California Energy Commission and is the second phase of a twopart demonstration program. The key advantage of the design was the use of a PVCC as the receiver. PVCCs efficiently process highly concentrated solar radiation into electricity by recycling photons that are reflected from the surface of the cells. Conventional flat, twodimensional receivers cannot recycle photons and the reflected photons are lost to the conversion process.

  4. METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/Shell CRADA 93-011. Online particulate monitoring began in August 1993 and ended in October 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in six MGCR runs (No. 5 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.07 MPa. Gas stream conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, (Modular Gas Cleanup Rig), from the FBG, pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit.

  5. METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/3M CRADA 94024. Online particulate monitoring began in June 1994 and ended in October, 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in four MGCR runs (No. 7 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.0 MPa. Gas stream conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, Modular Gas Cleanup Rig, from the FBG, pressurized Fluidized-Bed Gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit. The alkali monitor unit was not used during runs No. 7 through No. 10.

  6. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  7. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Ford Motor Company (CRADA No. PNNL/265): “Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials”

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

    2013-02-14

    the engine exhaust. For these reasons, automakers and engine manufacturers have difficulty improving their catalytic converters for meeting the stringent HC emission standards. In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this final report we will provide brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

  8. Electrochemical capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Liu, Kuo -Chuan; Mohr, Charles M.

    1999-10-05

    An inexpensive porous metal oxide material having high surface area, good conductivity and high specific capacitance is advantageously used in an electrochemical capacitor. The materials are formed in a sol-gel process which affords control over the properties of the resultant metal oxide materials.

  9. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Inverter Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Mermanent Magnet Motors - Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W; Lawler, Jack; Downing, Mark; Stahlhut, Ronnie D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; Seksarian, A. K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, Jon F

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under

  10. Final report for CRADA No. Y1293-0163 with the Tennessee Technology Foundation on behalf of the State of Tennessee. April 1993--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    During the time from April 1993 through April 1994, the State of Tennessee and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., were engaged in a jointly supported economic development effort. This project was accomplished through collaboration with the Tennessee Technology Foundation (TTF) and supported a consultant to the Tennessee Commission of Economic and Community Development. This document will serve as the final report of that effort and will summarize the activities during the effective period of the subject agreement.

  11. Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

  12. Mechanical capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, J. A.; Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    A new energy storage system (the mechanical capacitor), using a spokeless magnetically levitated composite ring rotor, is described and design formulas for sizing the components are presented. This new system is configured around a permanent magnet (flux biased) suspension which has active servo control in the radial direction and passive control in the axial direction. The storage ring is used as a moving rotor and electronic commutation of the stationary armature coils is proposed. There is no mechanical contact with the rotating spokeless ring; therefore, long life and near zero rundown losses are projected. A 7-kW h system is sized to demonstrate feasibility. A literature review of flywheel energy storage systems is also presented and general formulas are developed for comparing rotor geometries.

  13. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

  14. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  15. Final report on the Vitro CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    ORNL and Vitro investigated the application of advanced Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies to site characterization and environmental remediation work. The six tasks were to do feasibility studies for integrating GIS tools with DBMS, graphics, and other packages to aid in environmental analyses, develop environmental and geographic data standards and guidelines including data structures/quality assurance practices/metadata, investigate environmental and remediation predictive modeling and their integration with GIS, study remote sensing techniques including Global Positioning Systems techniques, and investigate display enhancement techniques including 2D/3D visualization coupled with GIS data bases.

  16. Advanced aircraft ignition CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Conventional commercial and military turbo-jet aircraft engines use capacitive discharge ignition systems to initiate fuel combustion. The fuel-rich conditions required to ensure engine re-ignition during flight yield less than optimal engine performance, which in turn reduces fuel economy and generates considerable pollution in the exhaust. Los Alamos investigated two approaches to advanced ignition: laser based and microwave based. The laser based approach is fuel ignition via laser-spark breakdown and via photo-dissociation of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygen. The microwave approach involves modeling, and if necessary redesigning, a combustor shape to form a low-Q microwave cavity, which will ensure microwave breakdown of the air/fuel mixture just ahead of the nozzle with or without a catalyst coating. This approach will also conduct radio-frequency (RF) heating of ceramic elements that have large loss tangents. Replacing conventional systems with either of these two new systems should yield combustion in leaner jet fuel/air mixtures. As a result, the aircraft would operate with (1) considerable less exhaust pollution, (2) lower engine maintenance, and (3) significantly higher fuel economy.

  17. Membranes for corrosive oxidations. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this project is to develop porous hydrophilic membranes that are highly resistant to oxidative and corrosive conditions and to deploy them for recovery and purification of high tonnage chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and other oxychemicals. The research team patented a process for membrane-based separation of hydrogen peroxide (US Patent No. 5,662,878). The process is based on using a hydrophilic membrane to separate hydrogen peroxide from the organic working solution. To enable this process, a new method for producing hydrophilic membrane materials (Patent No.6,464,880) was reported. We investigated methods of producing these hydrophilic materials and evaluated separations performance in comparison to membrane stability. It was determined that at the required membrane flux, membrane stability was not sufficient to design a commercial process. This work was published (Hestekin et al., J. Membrane Science 2006). To meet the performance needs of the process, we developed a membrane contactor method to extract the hydrogen peroxide, then we surveyed several commercial and pre-commercial membrane materials. We identified pre-commercial hydrophilic membranes with the required selectivity, flux, and stability to meet the needs of the process. In addition, we invented a novel reaction/separations format that greatly increases the performance of the process. To test the performance of the membranes and the new formats we procured and integrated reactor/membrane separations unit that enables controlled mixing, flow, temperature control, pressure control, and sampling. The results were used to file a US non-provisional patent application (ANL-INV 03-12). Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in pulp and paper applications, environmental treatment, and other industries. Virtually all hydrogen peroxide production is now based on a process featuring catalytic hydrogenation followed by auto-oxidation of suitable organic carrier molecules. This process has several drawbacks, particularly in the extraction phase. One general disadvantage of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide must be produced at large centralized plants where it is concentrated to 70% by distillation and transported to the users plant sites where it is diluted before use. Advanced membranes have the potential to enable more efficient, economic, and safe manufacture of hydrogen peroxide. Advanced membrane technology would allow filtration-based separation to replace the difficult liquid-liquid extraction based separation step of the hydrogen peroxide process. This would make it possible for hydrogen peroxide to be produced on-site in mini-plants at 30% concentration and used at the same plant location without distillation and transportation. As a result, production could become more cost-effective, safe and energy efficient.

  18. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  19. Practical Active Capacitor Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

  20. Robust Technique for Measuring and Simulating Silicon Wafer Quality Characteristics that Enable the Prediction of Solar Cell Electrical Performance of MEMC Silicon Wafer. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-438

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2015-12-01

    NREL and MEMC Electronic Materials are interested in developing a robust technique for monitoring material quality of mc-Si and mono-Si wafers -- a technique that can provide relevant data to accurately predict the performance of solar cells fabricated on them. Previous work, performed under two TSAs between NREL and MEMC, has established that dislocation clusters are the dominant performance-limiting factor in MEMC mc-Si solar cells. The work under this CRADA will go further in verifying these results on a larger data set, evaluate possibilities of faster method(s) for mapping dislocations in wafers/ingots, understanding dislocation generation during ingot casting, and helping MEMC to have an internal capability for basic characterization that will provide feedback needed for more accurate crystallization simulations. NREL has already developed dislocation mapping technique and developed a basic electronic model (called Network Model) that uses spatial distribution of dislocations to predict the cell performance. In this CRADA work, we will use these techniques to: (i) establish dislocation, grain size, and grain orientation distributions of the entire ingots (through appropriate DOE) and compare these with theoretical models developed by MEMC, (ii) determine concentrations of some relevant impurities in selected wafers, (iii) evaluate potential of using photoluminescence for dislocation mapping and identification of recombination centers, (iv) evaluate use of diode array analysis as a detailed characterization tool, and (v) establish dislocation mapping as a wafer-quality monitoring tool for commercial mc-Si production.

  1. Development of Novel RTP-like Processing for Solar Cell Fabrication using UV-Rich Light Sources: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA No. CRD-11-442

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.

    2013-01-01

    NREL and Mattson Technology are interested in developing new processing techniques for fabrication of solar cells using UV-rich optical processing. UV light has a very high absorption coefficient in most semiconductors, allowing the semiconductor surface to be heated locally and, in some cases, without a significant increase in the substrate temperature. NREL has several projects related to cell processing that currently use an optical furnace (having a spectrum rich in visible and infrared light). Mattson Technology has developed a UV rich light source that can be used in either pulse or continuous modes. The objective of this CRADA is to explore applications in solar cell processing where absorption characteristics of UV light can lead to lower cell cost and/or higher efficiencies.

  2. On lossless switched-capacitor power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, C.K.; Wong, S.C.; Chow, M.H.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper addresses the design of efficient switched-capacitor power converters. The discussion starts with a review of the fundamental limitation of switched-capacitor circuits which shows that the topology of such circuits and the ``forced`` step changes of capacitor voltages are the inherent attributes of power loss. Although the argument follows from a rather trivial result from basic circuit theory, it addresses an important issue on the maximum efficiency achievable in a switched-capacitor converter circuit. Based on the observed topological constraint of switched-capacitor converter circuits, the simplest lossless topology for AC/DC conversion is deduced. Also discussed is a simple version of lossless topology that achieves isolation between the source and the load. Finally, an experimental AC/DC switched-capacitor converter, based on the proposed idea, is presented which demonstrates an improved efficiency over other existing switched-capacitor converters. The proposed AC/DC converter contains no inductors and thus is suitable for custom IC implementation for very low power applications.

  3. CRADA opportunities in pressurized combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, D.J.; Norton, T.S.; Casleton, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center recently began operation of a Low Emissions Combustor Test and Research (LECTR) Facility. This facility was built to support the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems (ATS) by providing test facilities and engineering support to METC customers through the ATS University-Industry Consortium and through CRADA participation with industrial partners.

  4. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  5. Nonelectrolytic tantalum capacitors developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Large area, nonelectrolytic tantalum foil capacitor has capacitance of approximately 1 microfarad and is capable of operating at 125 deg C at 150 volts with an insulation resistance of at least 1 megohm. In tests at a potential of 100 volts, capacitors remained stable through a temperature range from 25 deg to 125 deg C.

  6. High power density capacitor and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis

    2012-11-20

    A ductile preform for making a drawn capacitor includes a plurality of electrically insulating, ductile insulator plates and a plurality of electrically conductive, ductile capacitor plates. Each insulator plate is stacked vertically on a respective capacitor plate and each capacitor plate is stacked on a corresponding insulator plate in alignment with only one edge so that other edges are not in alignment and so that each insulator plate extends beyond the other edges. One or more electrically insulating, ductile spacers are disposed in horizontal alignment with each capacitor plate along the other edges and the pattern is repeated so that alternating capacitor plates are stacked on alternating opposite edges of the insulator plates. A final insulator plate is positioned at an extremity of the preform. The preform may then be drawn to fuse the components and decrease the dimensions of the preform that are perpendicular to the direction of the draw.

  7. Final Report for CRADA Agreement , AL-C-2006-01 with Microsens Biotechnologies: Detection of the Abnormal Prion Protein in Blood by Improving the Extraction of this Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerr, Mary Jo

    2009-03-31

    Several conditions were examined to optimize the extraction protocol using Seprion beads for the abnormal prion protein. Different combinations of water, hexafluro-2-propanol and formic acid were used. The results of these extraction protocols showed that the magnetic beads coated with Seprion reagents were subject to degradation, themselves, when the extraction conditions that would solubilize the abnormal prion protein were used. These compounds caused interference in the immunoassay for the abnormal prion protein and rendered these protocols incompatible with the assay systems. In an attempt to overcome this problem, another approach was then used. The coated beads were used as an integral part of the assay platform. After washing away denaturing agents, the beads with the 'captured' abnormal prion were incubated directly in the immunoassay, followed by analysis by the capillary electrophoresis. When a capillary electrophoresis electro-kinetic separation was attempted, the beads disturbed the analysis making it impossible to interpret. A pressure separation method was then developed for capillary electrophoresis analysis. When 20 samples, 5 of which were positive were analyzed, the assay identified 4 of the 5 positives and had no false positives. When a larger number of samples were analyzed the results were not as good - there were false positives and false negatives. It was then observed that the amount of beads that were loaded was dependent upon how long the beads were allowed to settle before loading them into the capillary. This resulted in unacceptable variations in the results and explained that when large numbers of samples were evaluated the results were not consistent. Because the technical difficulties with using the Seprion beads could not be overcome at this time, another approach is underway that is outside of the scope of this CRADA. No further agreements have been developed. Because the results were not favorable, no manuscripts were written nor

  8. Capacitors in Series: A Laboratory Activity to Promote Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis D.; Kowalski, Ludwik

    1996-01-01

    Describes experiments designed to explore the distribution of potential difference between two uncharged capacitors when they are suddenly connected to a source of constant voltage. Enables students to explore the evolution of a system in which initial voltage distribution depends on capacitor values, and the final voltage distribution depends on…

  9. Development of a high-density energy-storage capacitor for Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, D.K.; Cooper, R.A.; Sevigny, J.A.; Merritt, B.T.; Carder, B.M.; Whitham, K.

    1981-10-22

    This paper covers Maxwell's approach to developing energy storage capacitors. Based on previous capacitor designs of 3 KJ, 5 KJ and 10 KJ, the final Nova 12.5 KJ capacitor evolved. At the outset of the Nova capacitor development program, a relatively new dielectric system, polypropylene-paper-DOP, seemed to show superiority in volumetric efficiency, life, and more importantly cost. However, as a result of studies performed at Maxwell, a high-density, energy-storage capacitor was developed utilizing new high-quality, high-density paper and caster oil as the dielectric. Test data have demonstrated that the Maxwell 12.5 KJ capacitor exceeds all LLNL's qualification requirements.

  10. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  11. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  12. Materials for electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2008-11-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices. PMID:18956000

  13. Materials for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2008-11-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

  14. Capacitors, Water Bottles, and Kirchoff's Loop Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an analogy between electrical potential and potential energy per unit mass. The analogy is used to solve the problem of calculating the final charges of two capacitors after they are connected and to help students understand the concept of electrical potential. (MDH)

  15. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  16. Promethium-147 capacitor.

    PubMed

    Kavetskiy, A; Yakubova, G; Lin, Q; Chan, D; Yousaf, S M; Bower, K; Robertson, J D; Garnov, A; Meier, D

    2009-06-01

    Beta particle surface fluxes for tritium, Ni-63, Pm-147, and Sr-90 sources were calculated in this work. High current density was experimentally achieved from Pm-147 oxide in silica-titana glass. A 96 GBq (2.6 Ci) Pm-147 4pi-source with flux efficiency greater than 50% was used for constructing a direct charge capacitor with a polyimide coated collector and vacuum as electrical insulation. The capacitor connected to high resistance (TOmega) loads produced up to 35 kV. Overall conversion efficiency was over 10% (on optimal load). PMID:19328703

  17. Engineering electrochemical capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitor (EC) applications have broadened tremendously since EC energy storage devices were introduced in 1978. Then typical applications operated below 10 V at power levels below 1 W. Today many EC applications operate at voltages approaching 1000 V at power levels above 100 kW. This paper briefly reviews EC energy storage technology, shows representative applications using EC storage, and describes engineering approaches to design EC storage systems. Comparisons are made among storage systems designed to meet the same application power requirement but using different commercial electrochemical capacitor products.

  18. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  19. High energy density electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a new type of electrolytic capacitor was developed. This capacitor, the Evans Hybrid, combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitors cathode. The resulting capacitor has four times the energy density of other electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electrical performance. The prototype, a 480 micro F, 200 V device, had an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now, a 680 micro F, 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. Potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V Hybrid capacitors and results of ongolng qualification status of the MJL-style tantalum.

  20. Capacitor Technologies, Applications and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of capacitor technologies and applications are discussed. Major emphasis is placed on: the causes of failures; accelerated testing; screening tests; destructive physical analysis; applications techniques; and improvements in capacitor capabilities.

  1. Automated System Tests Ferroelectric Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakata, Mark; Thakoor, Sarita

    1994-01-01

    Polarization-switching parameters measured under computer control. Ferroelectric-capacitor-testing system applies voltage pulses and measures responses of ferroelectric capacitor to determine write; "time dependence of polarization," polarization-retention and fatigue characteristics of capacitor. Highly integrated setup quite flexible, versatile, and interactive, and allows convenient computer storage and analysis of data.

  2. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Melcher, Cory; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.

  3. CRADAs: They're Not Just for NCI Anymore | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Karen Surabian, Thomas Stackhouse, and Jeffrey Thomas, Contributing Writers, and Bruce Crise, Guest Writer Advancing scientific discovery is increasingly dependent on diverse and innovative partnerships, and the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is an essential tool for establishing partnerships. CRADAs allow a federal laboratory to enter into collaborative research and development (R&D) projects with outside parties (commercial or nonprofit).

  4. Hermetically sealed aluminum electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors are used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed under NASA-MSFC SBIR contracts. This capacitor contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated at 250 to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and low internal pressure. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering concepts will be discussed.

  5. Advanced double layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Lessner, P.; Forchione, J.; Griffith, A.; Laconti, A. B.

    1989-01-01

    Work was conducted that could lead to a high energy density electrochemical capacitor, completely free of liquid electrolyte. A three-dimensional RuO sub x-ionomer composite structure has been successfully formed and appears to provide an ionomer ionic linkage throughout the composite structure. Capacitance values of approximately 0.6 F/sq cm were obtained compared with 1 F/sq cm when a liquid electrolyte is used with the same configuration.

  6. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  7. Integration of thin film decoupling capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, T.; Dimos, D.; Lockwood, S.

    1994-10-01

    Thin film decoupling capacitors consisting of submicron thick, sol-gel Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} layers between Pt electrodes on a Si substrate have recently been developed. Because the capacitor structure needs to be only {approximately}3 {mu}m thick, these devices offer advantages such as decreased package volume and ability to integrate so that interconnect inductance is decreased, which allows faster IC processing rates. To fully utilize these devices, techniques of integrating them onto packages such as multi-chip modules and printed wiring boards or onto IC dies must be developed. The results of our efforts at developing integration processes for these capacitors are described here. Specifically, we have demonstrated a process for printing solder on the devices at the Si wafer level and reflowing it to form bumps and have developed a process for fabricating the devices on thin (25 to 75 {mu}m) substrates to facilitate integration onto ICs and printed wiring boards. Finally, we assessed the feasibility of fabricating the devices on rough surfaces to determine whether it would be possible to fabricate these capacitors directly on multi-layer ceramic substrates.

  8. Lecture 4: transmission lines and capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The topic of this lecture is pulse forming networks. The first item of discussion will be transmission lines because they are so prevalent, even if only in the form of coaxial cable. From there the subject will proceed to pulse-forming networks: the practical problems encountered with them, their advantages, and disadvantages. Capacitors will be our final topic, as they are the limiting factor in lumped transmission elements.

  9. CRADA Final Report CRADA No. LB05-001820"Ion Beam Drift Compression Technology for NDCX"

    SciTech Connect

    First point Scientific, Inc.; E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Waldron, William L.

    2009-10-05

    Summary of the specific research and project accomplishments: Through this collaboration, LBNL and FPSI determined the specific energy manipulations that apply to the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) ion beam and developed the preliminary design of a Fast Induction Energy Corrector (FIEC). This effort was successfully completed, firmly establishing the technical feasibility of the proposed approach for regulating the longitudinal energy distribution of the NDCX ion beam. This is a critical step in achieving the NDCX goal of axial compression of the beam by a factor of 100 during neutralized drift.

  10. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-08-01671 Materials for Advanced Turbocharger Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P. J.; Wilson, M.

    2014-11-28

    Results were obtained on residual stresses in the weld of the steel shaft to the Ni-based superalloy turbine wheel for turbochargers. Neutron diffraction studies at the HFIR Residual Stress Facility showed asymmetric tensile stresses after electron-beam welding of the wheel and shaft. A post-weld heat-treatment was found to relieve and reduce the residual stresses. Results were also obtained on cast CF8C-Plus steel as an upgrade alternative to cast irons (SiMo, Ni-resist) for higher temperature capability and performance for the turbocharger housing. CF8C-Plus steel has demonstrated creep-rupture resistance at 600-950oC, and is more creep-resistant than HK30Nb, but lacks oxidation-resistance at 800oC and above in 10% water vapor. New modified CF8C-Plus Cu/W steels with Cr and Ni additions show better oxidation resistance at 800oC in 10% water vapor, and have capability to higher temperatures. For automotive gasoline engine turbocharger applications, higher temperatures are required, so at the end of this project, testing began at 1000oC and above.

  11. Development of a dry-type shunt capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Grahame, F.W.; Chai, H.M.; Newcomb, G.R.; Reed, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the results of a project to determine whether it is feasible to make a liquid-free 200 kVAR, 7200 Vac power factor correction capacitor. After evaluating many solid and gaseous candidate systems, the combination of vapor deposited electrodes on polypropylene sheet dielectric, encapsulated in polyurethane resin was selected. Cell capacitors were used for the initial screening. Next a series of mid size model capacitors were built to evaluate the bushing and the terminal-to-case insulation. Capacitors with vapor deposited electrodes can sometimes generate enough gas at end of life to rupture the case. While no liquid will emerge from a dry capacitor in this situation, there can be a brief jet of flame from an arc. To avoid this, a presence actuated protector device was developed to prevent excess pressure buildup at time of failure. Full size capacitors passed extended life tests, fault tests and radio noise tests. Finally, field trials were run at five widely dispersed installations. The field trials were successful. The present projected cost of dry power capacitors is significantly greater than their liquid counterparts. Future changes in environmental requirements, together with further technical development, may change this situation.

  12. Electrochemical fabrication of capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, A.N.; Melendres, C.A.

    1999-12-14

    A film of nickel oxide is anodically deposited on a graphite sheet held in position on an electrochemical cell during application of a positive electrode voltage to the graphite sheet while exposed to an electrolytic nickel oxide solution within a volumetrically variable chamber of the cell. An angularly orientated x-ray beam is admitted into the cell for transmission through the deposited nickel oxide film in order to obtain structural information while the film is subject to electrochemical and in-situ x-ray spectroscopy from which optimum film thickness, may be determined by comparative analysis for capacitor fabrication purposes.

  13. Electrochemical fabrication of capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Azzam N.; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    A film of nickel oxide is anodically deposited on a graphite sheet held in osition on an electrochemical cell during application of a positive electrode voltage to the graphite sheet while exposed to an electrolytic nickel oxide solution within a volumetrically variable chamber of the cell. An angularly orientated x-ray beam is admitted into the cell for transmission through the deposited nickel oxide film in order to obtain structural information while the film is subject to electrochemical and in-situ x-ray spectroscopy from which optimum film thickness, may be determined by comparative analysis for capacitor fabrication purposes.

  14. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    SciTech Connect

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  15. A Simple, Successful Capacitor Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, William

    2011-01-01

    Capacitors are a fundamental component of modern electronics. They appear in myriad devices and in an enormous range of sizes. Although our students are taught the function and analysis of capacitors, few have the opportunity to use them in our labs.

  16. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

  17. Moisture in multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahoe, Daniel Noel

    When both precious metal electrode and base metal electrode (BME) capacitors were subjected to autoclave (120°C/100% RH) testing, it was found that the precious metal capacitors aged according to a well known aging mechanism (less than 3% from their starting values), but the BME capacitors degraded to below the -30% criterion at 500 hours of exposure. The reasons for this new failure mechanism are complex, and there were two theories that were hypothesized. The first was that there could be oxidation or corrosion of the nickel plates. The other hypothesis was that the loss of capacitance was due to molecular changes in the barium titanate. This thesis presents the evaluation of these hypotheses and the physics of the degradation mechanism. It is concluded by proof by elimination that there are molecular changes in the barium titanate. Furthermore, the continuous reduction in capacitor size makes the newer base metal electrode capacitors more vulnerable to moisture degradation than the older generation precious metal capacitors. In addition, standard humidity life testing, such as JESD-22 THB and HAST, will likely not uncover this problem. Therefore, poor reliability due to degradation of base metal electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors may catch manufacturers and consumers by surprise.

  18. Process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1993-01-01

    A process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors in which microwave energy is used to sinter a tantalum powder compact in order to achieve higher surface area and improved dielectric strength. The process comprises cold pressing tantalum powder with organic binders and lubricants to form a porous compact. After removal of the organics, the tantalum compact is heated to 1300.degree. to 2000.degree. C. by applying microwave radiation. Said compact is then anodized to form a dielectric oxide layer and infiltrated with a conductive material such as MnO.sub.2. Wire leads are then attached to form a capacitor to said capacitor is hermetically packaged to form the finished product.

  19. Process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1993-02-02

    A process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors in which microwave energy is used to sinter a tantalum powder compact in order to achieve higher surface area and improved dielectric strength. The process comprises cold pressing tantalum powder with organic binders and lubricants to form a porous compact. After removal of the organics, the tantalum compact is heated to 1,300 to 2,000 C by applying microwave radiation. Said compact is then anodized to form a dielectric oxide layer and infiltrated with a conductive material such as MnO[sub 2]. Wire leads are then attached to form a capacitor to said capacitor is hermetically packaged to form the finished product.

  20. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 173.176 - Capacitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacitors. 173.176 Section 173.176 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.176 Capacitors. (a) Capacitors, including capacitors containing an electrolyte that does not meet the definition of any...

  2. 49 CFR 173.176 - Capacitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacitors. 173.176 Section 173.176 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.176 Capacitors. (a) Capacitors, including capacitors containing an electrolyte that does not meet the definition of any...

  3. CRADA Final Report, 2011S003, Faraday Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Faraday Technologies

    2012-12-12

    This Phase I SBIR program addressed the need for an improved manufacturing process for electropolishing niobium RF superconducting cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The ILC is a proposed particle accelerator that will be used to gain a deeper understanding of the forces of energy and matter by colliding beams of electrons and positrons at nearly the speed of light. The energy required for this to happen will be achieved through the use of advanced superconducting technology, specifically ~16,000 RF superconducting cavities operating at near absolute zero. The RF superconductor cavities will be fabricated from highly pure Nb, which has an extremely low surface resistance at 2 Kelvin when compared to other materials. To take full advantage of the superconducting properties of the Nb cavities, the inner surface must be a) polished to a microscale roughness < 0.1 µm with removal of at least 100 µm of material, and b) cleaned to be free of impurities that would degrade performance of the ILC. State-of-the-art polishing uses either chemical polishing or electropolishing, both of which require hydrofluoric acid to achieve breakdown of the strong passive film on the surface. In this Phase I program, Faraday worked with its collaborators at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) to demonstrate the feasibility of an electropolishing process for pure niobium, utilizing an environmentally benign alternative to chemical or electrochemical polishing electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid. Faraday utilized a 31 wt% aqueous sulfuric acid solution (devoid of hydrofluoric acid) in conjunction with the FARADAYICSM Process, which uses pulse/pulse reverse fields for electropolishing, to demonstrate the ability to electropolish niobium to the desired surface finish. The anticipated benefits of the FARADAYICSM Electropolishing process will be a simpler, safer, and less expensive method capable of surface finishing high purity niobium cavities. Another potential benefit would be for the medical industry that uses hydrofluoric acid to electropolish niobium-alloy materials. The FARADAYICSM Electropolishing process will eliminate the environmental hazards posed by the use of hydrofluoric acid employed by chemical polishing and conventional electropolishing. Further, improved performance benefits may be possible. The overall objective of the Phase I program was to demonstrate that FARADAYIC Electropolishing of niobium cavities in electrolytes free of hydrofluoric acid can meet the RF superconducting performance criteria of those cavities. The FARADAYIC Electropolishing Process developed in the Phase I program was used to polish 50 mm Nb disks to a surface roughness (RA) of < 1 nm over a small area through process and post-processing optimization. An excellent level of surface cleanliness was achieved. While the desired 2K RF performance has not yet been achieved, Faraday believes that surface oxide state can be controlled through manipulation of the process parameters, to meet the 2K RF standard. Faraday is establishing apparatus and facilities infrastructure for single-cell SRF cavity electropolishing, through a synergistic effort with the Fermi National Accelerator Facility (Fermilab) to scale-up electropolishing of superconducting RF cavities. Faraday proposes to commercialize the subject technology via an IP based strategic relationship with a partner with established market channels within two primary commercialization avenues: 1) the superconducting particle accelerator community, 2) the medical device and implant market. Faraday will initially maintain Low Rate Initial Production capabilities for an application, but latterly seek a strategic partner who is solely dedicated to high rate production.

  4. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C. J.; Howell, Dave; Norris, Robert E.

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  5. Novel CO{sub 2} capture. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2009-11-30

    The goal of this work was to use electrochemically driven pH control to develop a second generation, enzyme-based contained liquid membrane (CLM) permeator to extract CO{sub 2} from a variety of coal-based flue gas streams more efficiently than does the CLM current design, while achieving performance coincident with DOE targets of less than 45% Cost of electricity (COE) in 2007 and less than 20% COE in 2012. Central to this goal the CLM would be alkaline (>pH 8) at the feed gas side and acid (

  6. Advanced membrane separation technology for biosolvents. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Argonne and Vertec Biosolvents investigated the stability and perfonnance for a number of membrane systems to drive the 'direct process' for pervaporation-assisted esterification to produce lactate esters. As outlined in Figure 1, the target is to produce ammonium lactate by fennentation. After purification and concentration, ammonium lactate is reacted with ethanol to produce the ester. Esterification is a reversible reaction so to drive the reaction forward, the produced ammonia and water must be rapidly separated from the product. The project focused on selecting pervaporation membranes with (1) acid functionality to facilitate ammonia separation and (2) temperature stability to be able to perform that reaction at as high a temperature as possible (Figure 2). Several classes of commercial membrane materials and functionalized membrane materials were surveyed. The most promising materials were evaluated for scale-up to a pre-commercial application. Over 4 million metric tons per year of solvents are consumed in the U.S. for a wide variety of applications. Worldwide the usage exceeds 10 million metric tons per year. Many of these, such as the chlorinated solvents, are environmentally unfriendly; others, such as the ethylene glycol ethers and N Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP), are toxic or teratogenic, and many other petroleum-derived solvents are coming under increasing regulatory restrictions. High performance, environmentally friendly solvents derived from renewable biological resources have the potential to replace many of the chlorinated and petrochemical derived solvents. Some of these solvents, such as ethyl lactate; d-limonene, soy methyl esters, and blends ofthese, can give excellent price/perfonnance in addition to the environmental and regulatory compliance benefits. Advancement of membrane technologies, particularly those based on pervaporation and electrodialysis, will lead to very efficient, non-waste producing, and economical manufacturing technologies for production of ethyl lactate and other esters.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease gene discovery. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-09

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the human gene(s) responsible for the disorder known as IBD. The work was planned in two phases. The desired products resulting from Phase 1 were BAC clone(s) containing the genetic marker(s) identified by gene/Networks, Inc. as potentially linked to IBD, plasmid subclones of those BAC(s), and new genetic markers developed from these plasmid subclones. The newly developed markers would be genotyped by gene/Networks, Inc. to ascertain evidence for linkage or non-linkage of IBD to this region. If non-linkage was indicated, the project would move to investigation of other candidate chromosomal regions. Where linkage was indicated, the project would move to Phase 2, in which a physical map of the candidate region(s) would be developed. The products of this phase would be contig(s) of BAC clones in the region exhibiting linkage to IBD, as well as plasmic subclones of the BACs and further genetic marker development. There would also be continued genotyping with new polymorphic markers during this phase. It was anticipated that clones identified and developed during these two phases would provide the physical resources for eventual disease gene discovery.

  8. Intermetallic blades for fabric cutting. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A.; Sklad, S.; Shih, H.R.; Off, J.W.A.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of nickel- and iron-aluminide blades for cutting fabric as opposed to conventional steel blades. The aluminides were selected as blade material because of their extremely high work-hardening rate and the possibility of forming aluminum oxide on the surface to further enhance the wear resistance. Unlike steel blades, they do not require heat treating to become strong. A testing facility using an Eastman cutter was designed and built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing of blades. Denim fabric supplied by Levi Strauss was used. For lack of sufficient fabric, heavy paper was also used. Extensive testing revealed that there were several issues in getting the true comparison between various blades. The most important issue was the consistent sharpening of the blade edge. With all of the effort and precautions, identical edges could not be put on the blades of all the different materials. The second issue was the limited availability of fabric to evaluate the end-of-life limit for the blade edges. Two nickel- and three iron-aluminide compositions were evaluated. Under test conditions, the iron-aluminide alloy (PM-60), based on FeAl, was found to outperform other aluminides and the steel blade. Based on the data presented in this report, the authors recommend that additional testing be carried out on both the steel and aluminide blades to determine the number of times each blade can be sharpened prior to its replacement. However, the recommended testing needs to be conducted on blades for which the identical cutting edges and sharpening are incorporated. They further recommend that if the iron-aluminide blade is truly superior, a cost analysis be performed to determine its commercial feasibility. The best aluminide blades should be tested by commercial textile companies.

  9. Low emission advanced power cycle. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-07-13

    Today's gas turbines are based on the Brayton Cycle in which heat is added to the working fluid at constant pressure. An alternate approach, the Humphrey cycle, provides a higher theoretical thermal efficiency by adding heat at constant, or near constant volume. A few practical examples of such engines appeared in the mid 1900's, but they were largely superseded by the Brayton engine. Although the conventional gas turbine has been developed to a high level of efficiency and reliability, significant improvements in performance are becoming increasingly costly to obtain. Efficiencies of compressors, turbines and combustors are approaching theoretical limits. Cooling and materials technologies continue to improve but higher cycle temperatures may be limited by NOx emissions. While heat exchangers, intercoolers and other features improve cycle efficiency they add significantly to the cost, weight and volume of the basic engine and for flight applications may always be impractical. For these reasons there has been renewed interest in recent years in the constant volume Humphrey cycle focusing mainly on pulsing systems in which heat is added by a rapid series of detonations. Variations on this basic scheme are being evaluated for aircraft propulsions systems. General Electric has established a joint program with several Russian organizations to explore devices based on pressure rise combustion cycle and to make fundamental measurements of detonation properties of mixtures of hydrocarbon fuels and air.

  10. Ground penetrating radar mini-CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R.; Stump, G.; Weil, G.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to assess the ease of excavability prior to and during trenching operations. The project partners were EnTech Engineering Inc., Vermeer Manufacturing Co., and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technology (FM&T)/Kansas City Plant (KCP). Commercial GPRs were field tested as well as a system developed at AlliedSignal FM&T. The AlliedSignal GPR was centered around a HP8753 Network Analyzer instrument. Commercial GPR antennas were connected to the analyzer and data was collected under control of software written for a notebook PC. Images of sub-surface features were generated for varied system parameters including: frequency, bandwidth, FFT windowing, gain, antenna orientation, and surface roughness conditions. Depths to 10 feet were of primary interest in this project. Although further development is required, this project has demonstrated that GPR can be used to identify transitions between different sub-surface conditions, as in going from one rock type to another. Additionally, the average relative dielectric constant of the material can be estimated which can be used to help identify the material. This information can be used to characterize an excavation site for use in budgeting a job. A real-time GPR would provide the operator with sub-surface images that could help with setting the optimum feed and speed rates of the trenching machine.

  11. Failure Modes in Capacitors When Tested Under a Time-Varying Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David (Donhang)

    2011-01-01

    Power-on failure has been the prevalent failure mechanism for solid tantalum capacitors in decoupling applications. A surge step stress test (SSST) has been previously applied to identify the critical stress level of a capacitor batch to give some predictability to the power-on failure mechanism [1]. But SSST can also be viewed as an electrically destructive test under a time-varying stress (voltage). It consists of rapidly charging the capacitor with incremental voltage increases, through a low resistance in series, until the capacitor under test is electrically shorted. When the reliability of capacitors is evaluated, a highly accelerated life test (HALT) is usually adopted since it is a time-efficient method of determining the failure mechanism; however, a destructive test under a time-varying stress such as SSST is even more time efficient. It usually takes days or weeks to complete a HALT test, but it only takes minutes for a time-varying stress test to produce failures. The advantage of incorporating a specific time-varying stress profile into a statistical model is significant in providing an alternative life test method for quickly revealing the failure mechanism in capacitors. In this paper, a time-varying stress that mimics a typical SSST has been incorporated into the Weibull model to characterize the failure mechanism in different types of capacitors. The SSST circuit and transient conditions for correctly surge testing capacitors are discussed. Finally, the SSST was applied for testing Ta capacitors, polymer aluminum capacitors (PA capacitors), and multi-layer ceramic (MLC) capacitors with both precious metal electrodes (PME) and base metal electrodes (BME). The test results are found to be directly associated with the dielectric layer breakdown in Ta and PA capacitors and are independent of the capacitor values, the way the capacitors were built, and the capacitors manufacturers. The test results also show that MLC capacitors exhibit surge breakdown

  12. Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, for some applications, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors must be used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed. This contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated from 250 V to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and absence of gas generation. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering will be discussed, as well as the extension of this design concept to lower voltage ratings.

  13. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  14. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  15. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Manuel Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine Wk; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-03-29

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  16. Technology of Pulse Power Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shanshan

    Polymer film of pulse discharge capacitors operated at high repetition rate dissipates substantial power. The thermal conductivity of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) is measured as a function of metallization resistivity. The thermal conductivity in the plane of the film is about twice that of bulk polypropylene. Thermal design is optimized based on the measurement for large capacitors with multiple windings in a container. High discharge speed results in high current density at the wire arc sprayed end connections which tend to deteriorate gradually, resulting in capacitor failure during operation. To assure the end connection quality before assembly, a test procedure and apparatus for end connection integrity was developed based on monitoring the partial discharge pattern from end connection during discharge. The mechanism of clearing is analyzed which shows arc extinguishes due to the increased arc length and reduced energy so that capacitor can function normally after breakdown. In the case of a clearing discharge, the power dissipation appears to increase with time, although this is not a feature of previous models. Submicrosecond discharge requires minimizing inductance which can be achieved by optimizing the winding structure so that submicrosecond discharge becomes practical. An analysis of the inductance of multisection, very high voltage capacitors is carried out, which identifies low inductance structures for this type of capacitor.

  17. BioCapacitor: A novel principle for biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sode, Koji; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Lee, Inyoung; Hanashi, Takuya; Tsugawa, Wakako

    2016-02-15

    Studies regarding biofuel cells utilizing biocatalysts such as enzymes and microorganisms as electrocatalysts have been vigorously conducted over the last two decades. Because of their environmental safety and sustainability, biofuel cells are expected to be used as clean power generators. Among several principles of biofuel cells, enzyme fuel cells have attracted significant attention for their use as alternative energy sources for future implantable devices, such as implantable insulin pumps and glucose sensors in artificial pancreas and pacemakers. However, the inherent issue of the biofuel cell principle is the low power of a single biofuel cell. The theoretical voltage of biofuel cells is limited by the redox potential of cofactors and/or mediators employed in the anode and cathode, which are inadequate for operating any devices used for biomedical application. These limitations inspired us to develop a novel biodevice based on an enzyme fuel cell that generates sufficient stable power to operate electric devices, designated "BioCapacitor." To increase voltage, the enzyme fuel cell is connected to a charge pump. To obtain a sufficient power and voltage to operate an electric device, a capacitor is used to store the potential generated by the charge pump. Using the combination of a charge pump and capacitor with an enzyme fuel cell, high voltages with sufficient temporary currents to operate an electric device were generated without changing the design and construction of the enzyme fuel cell. In this review, the BioCapacitor principle is described. The three different representative categories of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are introduced. Further, the recent challenges in the developments of self-powered stand-alone biodevices employing enzyme fuel cells combined with charge pumps and capacitors are introduced. Finally, the future prospects of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are addressed. PMID:26278505

  18. High-Energy-Density Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenes, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Capacitors capable of storing energy at high densities are being developed for use in pulse-power circuits in such diverse systems as defibrillators, particle- beam accelerators, microwave sources, and weapons. Like typical previously developed energy-storage capacitors, these capacitors are made from pairs of metal/solid-dielectric laminated sheets that are wound and pressed into compact shapes to fit into cans, which are then filled with dielectric fluids. Indeed, these capacitors can be fabricated largely by conventional fabrication techniques. The main features that distinguish these capacitors from previously developed ones are improvements in (1) the selection of laminate materials, (2) the fabrication of the laminated sheets from these materials, and (3) the selection of dielectric fluids. In simplest terms, a high-performance laminated sheet of the type used in these capacitors is made by casting a dielectric polymer onto a sheet of aluminized kraft paper. The dielectric polymer is a siloxane polymer that has been modified with polar pendant groups to increase its permittivity and dielectric strength. Potentially, this polymer is capable of withstanding an energy density of 7.5 J/cm3, which is four times that of the previous state-of-the-art-capacitor dielectric film material. However, the full potential of this polymer cannot be realized at present because (1) at thicknesses needed for optimum performance (.8.0 m), the mechanical strength of a film of this polymer is insufficient for incorporation into a wound capacitor and (2) at greater thickness, the achievable energy density decreases because of a logarithmic decrease in dielectric strength with increasing thickness. The aluminized kraft paper provides the mechanical strength needed for processing of the laminate and fabrication of the capacitor, and the aluminum film serves as an electrode layer. Because part of the thickness of the dielectric is not occupied by the modified siloxane polymer, the

  19. Conduction barrier offset engineering for DRAM capacitor scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, Milan; Knebel, Steve; Cho, Kyuho; Jung, Changhwa; Chang, Jaewan; Lim, Hanjin; Kolomiiets, Nadiia; Afanas'ev, Valeri V.; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schroeder, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    DRAM capacitors are reaching the scaling limit and new approaches are necessary to enable further reduction of the physical thickness of the capacitor dielectric. The conduction band offset (CBO) of a platinum noble metal electrode on atomic layer deposited ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 is evaluated and compared to a titanium nitride electrode. Internal Photo Emission Spectroscopy and Photoconductivity measurement are used to estimate the barrier height and band gap, respectively. The barrier height difference between the two electrodes is evaluated in comparison with a previously reported model. Finally, the impact of an increased barrier height on dielectric scaling will be discussed based on a leakage current simulation of a ZrO2 capacitor.

  20. Ultra high energy density and fast discharge nanocomposite capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing high dielectric permittivity ceramics embedded in high breakdown strength polymers are currently of considerable interest as a solution for the development of high energy density capacitors. However, the improvement of dielectric permittivity comes at expense of the breakdown strength leading to limit the final energy density. Here, an ultra-high energy density nanocomposite was fabricated based on high aspect ratio barium strontium titanate nanowires. The pyroelectric phase Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 was chosen for the nanowires combined with quenched PVDF to fabricate high energy density nanocomposite. The energy density with 7.5% Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 nanowires reached 14.86 J/cc at 450 MV/m, which represented a 42.9% increase in comparison to the PVDF with an energy density of 10.4 J/cc at the same electric field. The capacitors have 1138% greater than higher energy density than commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors (1.2 J/cc at 640). These results demonstrate that the high aspect ratio nanowires can be used to produce nanocomposite capacitors with greater performance than the neat polymers thus providing a novel process for the development of future pulsed-power capacitors.

  1. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  2. Miniature capacitor functions as pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    1967-01-01

    Miniature capacitor operates as a differential pressure telemetry sensor during free flight of test model in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The capacitor incorporates a beryllium copper diaphragm. It is also used as an absolute pressure sensor.

  3. Super miniaturization of film capacitor dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavene, B.

    1981-01-01

    The alignment of the stable electrical characteristics of film capacitors in the physical dimensions of ceramic and tantalum capacitors are discussed. The reliability of polycarbonate and mylar capacitors are described with respect to their compatibility with military specifications. Graphic illustrations are presented which show electrical and physical comparisons of film, ceramic, and tantalum capacitors. The major focus is on volumetric efficiency, weight reduction, and electrical stability.

  4. Super Capacitor Development At NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines super capacitor development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The concept, proof of concept testing and the test set-ups are described. An overview of super capacitor classification is shown and several types of capacitors are detailed: Ni-C chemical double layer (CDL), Ru-Oxide pseudo-cap, and a Ru-Oxide 2 F 30 V capacitor.

  5. Capacitor-Chain Successive-Approximation ADC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A proposed successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter (ADC) would contain a capacitively terminated chain of identical capacitor cells. Like a conventional successive-approximation ADC containing a bank of binary-scaled capacitors, the proposed ADC would store an input voltage on a sample-and-hold capacitor and would digitize the stored input voltage by finding the closest match between this voltage and a capacitively generated sum of binary fractions of a reference voltage (Vref). However, the proposed capacitor-chain ADC would offer two major advantages over a conventional binary-scaled-capacitor ADC: (1) In a conventional ADC that digitizes to n bits, the largest capacitor (representing the most significant bit) must have 2(exp n-1) times as much capacitance, and hence, approximately 2(exp n-1) times as much area as does the smallest capacitor (representing the least significant bit), so that the total capacitor area must be 2(exp n) times that of the smallest capacitor. In the proposed capacitor-chain ADC, there would be three capacitors per cell, each approximately equal to the smallest capacitor in the conventional ADC, and there would be one cell per bit. Therefore, the total capacitor area would be only about 3(exp n) times that of the smallest capacitor. The net result would be that the proposed ADC could be considerably smaller than the conventional ADC. (2) Because of edge effects, parasitic capacitances, and manufacturing tolerances, it is difficult to make capacitor banks in which the values of capacitance are scaled by powers of 2 to the required precision. In contrast, because all the capacitors in the proposed ADC would be identical, the problem of precise binary scaling would not arise.

  6. Tunable circuit for tunable capacitor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkina, Tatiana; Ginley, David S.

    2006-09-19

    A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.

  7. All-tantalum electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Device uses single-compression tantalum-to-tantalum seal. Single-compression seal allows better utilization of volume within device. As result of all-tantalum case and lengthened cathode, electrical parameters, particularly equivalent series resistance and capacitance stability, improved over silver-cased capacitor.

  8. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-02

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation. 4 figs.

  9. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation.

  10. Method of making tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D.; Clausing, Robert E.; Vierow, William F.

    1998-01-01

    A method for manufacturing tantalum capacitors includes preparing a tantalum compact by cold pressing tantalum powder, placing the compact, along with loose refractory metal powder, in a microwave-transparent casket to form an assembly, and heating the assembly for a time sufficient to effect at least partial sintering of the compact and the product made by the method.

  11. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  12. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  13. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  14. Switched-Capacitor Voltage Multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind

    1991-01-01

    Dc-to-dc power converter multiplies input supply potential by factor of nearly 40. Design does not make use of transformers or inductors but effects voltage boost-up by capacitive energy transfer. Circuit primarily made up of banks of capacitors, connected by network of integrated-circuit relays. Converter functionally linear voltage amplifier with fixed gain figure. Bipolar in operation. Output fully floating, and excellent dc isolation between input and output terminals.

  15. Characterization of Tantalum Polymer Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Overview Reviewed data Caution must be taken when accelerating test conditions Data not useful to establish an acceleration model Introduction of new failure mechanism skewing results Evidence of Anti-Wear-Out De-doping of polymer Decreased capacitance Increased ESR Not dielectric breakdown Needs further investigation Further investigation into tantalum polymer capacitor technology Promising acceleration model for Manufacturer A Possibility for use in high-reliability space applications with suitable voltage derating.

  16. Carbon-based electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunabha; Lee, Young Hee

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors are one of the key devices for energy-storage applications. They have energy densities much higher than those of conventional capacitors and possess much better power delivery capabilities than batteries. This makes them unique devices that can outperform both batteries and conventional capacitors under special circumstances. Nanocarbons are the main electrode materials for supercapacitors. Abundant sources of nanocarbons and facile processes of modification have led to the fabrication of cheap electrodes. In this review, we focus on the capacitance performance of highly porous activated carbons and attempt to determine the role of different pores. Elaborate discussions are presented on individual contributions from micro- and mesopores and their mutual dependence. This article also presents a comparative performance report for both random and ordered porous nanocarbons. Novel carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, and their contributions in this context are discussed. We summarize key techniques for the functionalization of nanocarbons and their pseudocapacitive charge-storage mechanisms. Nanocarbon composites with redox-active transition-metal oxides and conducting polymers are highlighted along with their impact as electrode materials. Ideal composite structures are highlighted and an attempt is made to determine an ideal future electrode structure for capacitors with high energy and power density. PMID:22389329

  17. Capacitor-type micrometeoroid detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Griffis, D. P.; Bryan, S. R.; Kinard, W.

    1986-01-01

    The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor micrometeroid detector consists of a thin dielectric capacitor fabricated on a silicon wafer. In operation, the device is charged to a voltage level sufficiently near breakdown that micrometeoroid impacts will cause dielectric deformation or heating and subsequent arc-over at the point of impact. Each detector is capable of recording multiple impacts because of the self-healing characteristics of the device. Support instrumentation requirements consist of a voltage source and pulse counters that monitor the pulse of recharging current following every impact. An investigation has been conducted in which 0.5 to 5 micron diameter carbonized iron spheres traveling at velocities of 4 to 10 Km/sec were impacted on to detectors with either a dielectric thickness of 0.4 or 1.0 micron. This study demonstrated that an ion microprobe tuned to sufficiently high resolution can detect Fe remaining on the detector after the impact. Furthermore, it is also possible to resolve Fe ion images free of mass interferences from Si, for example, giving its spatial distribution after impact. Specifically this technique has shown that significant amounts of impacting particles remain in the crater and near it which can be analyzed for isotopic content. Further testing and calibration could lead to quantitive analysis. This study has shown that the capacitor type micrometeroid detector is capable of not only time and flux measurements but can also be used for isotopic analysis.

  18. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  19. Electrically Variable or Programmable Nonvolatile Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shangqing, Liu; NaiJuan, Wu; Ignatieu, Alex; Jianren, Li

    2009-01-01

    Electrically variable or programmable capacitors based on the unique properties of thin perovskite films are undergoing development. These capacitors show promise of overcoming two important deficiencies of prior electrically programmable capacitors: Unlike in the case of varactors, it is not necessary to supply power continuously to make these capacitors retain their capacitance values. Hence, these capacitors may prove useful as components of nonvolatile analog and digital electronic memories. Unlike in the case of ferroelectric capacitors, it is possible to measure the capacitance values of these capacitors without changing the values. In other words, whereas readout of ferroelectric capacitors is destructive, readout of these capacitors can be nondestructive. A capacitor of this type is a simple two terminal device. It includes a thin film of a suitable perovskite as the dielectric layer, sandwiched between two metal or metal oxide electrodes (for example, see Figure 1). The utility of this device as a variable capacitor is based on a phenomenon, known as electrical-pulse-induced capacitance (EPIC), that is observed in thin perovskite films and especially in those thin perovskite films that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. In EPIC, the application of one or more electrical pulses that exceed a threshold magnitude (typically somewhat less than 1 V) gives rise to a nonvolatile change in capacitance. The change in capacitance depends on the magnitude duration, polarity, and number of pulses. It is not necessary to apply a magnetic field or to cool the device below (or heat it above) room temperature to obtain EPIC. Examples of suitable CMR perovskites include Pr(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3, La(1-x)S-r(x)MnO3,and Nb(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3. Figure 2 is a block diagram showing an EPIC capacitor connected to a circuit that can vary the capacitance, measure the capacitance, and/or measure the resistance of the capacitor.

  20. GaAs series connected photovoltaic converters for high voltage capacitor charging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, B.H.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the design features of series connected photovoltaic arrays which will be required to charge capacitors to relatively high (400V) voltages in time periods on the order of 1 microsecond. The factors which determine the array voltage and the capacitor charge time are given. Individual element junction designs, along with an interconnect scheme, and a semiconductor process to realize them are presented. Finally, the input laser optical required to meet the requirements is determined.

  1. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  2. Low-Inductance Capacitor For Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Franke, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Planar capacitor made on epoxy/fiberglass printed-circuit board. Planar design and flat copper plates ensure low inductance and low series resistance. Planar construction minimized effects of thermal contraction, and epoxy/fiberglass substrate ensured high breakdown voltage. Design is simple, and this type of capacitor easy for any printed-circuit-board facility to fabricate. Design suitable for any small-capacitance, high-voltage capacitor, whether operating at low or high temperature.

  3. The tantalum-cased tantalum capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Tantalum-cased tantalum capacitors were tested with regard to temperature stability, capacitance ratio, surge current capabilities, shock, vibration, and thermal shock. They were found to be superior to the conventional wet slug tantalum capacitor cased in silver, since they are more resistant to sulfuric acid. The tantalum-cased tantalum capacitors are widely accepted for use in critical electronic equipment because of their excellent performance and reliability.

  4. MB C220 Centering System Capacitor Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worth, Daniel B.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the MB C220 Centering System Capacitor Fire is presented. The topics include: 1) Description of Incident/Mishap; 2) System Block Diagram; 3) Fault Tree Analysis; 4) Inspection and Repair of Cabinet; 5) Discussions with GSFC Experts; 6) Electrical Measurements of Capacitors; 7) Other Research; 8) Discussions with Capacitor Manufacturers; 9) Findings/Root Cause; and 10) Recommendations. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  5. A national laboratory/private industry cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA)

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.A.; MacEachin, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the history and process of establishing a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories and Magnavox Electronic Systems Company for the design, development, and testing of a 360-degree scanning, imaging, intrusion detection sensor. The subject of the CRADA is the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). It is intended for exterior use at ranges from 50 to 1,500 meters and uses a combination of three sensing technologies (infrared, visible, and radar) and a new data processing method to provide low false-alarm intrusion detection and tracking combined with immediate visual assessment. The establishment of this CRADA represents a new paradigm in the cooperation between the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Laboratories and Private Industry. Although a formal document has now been executed, a CRADA is, nonetheless, primarily an agreement to work with each other to achieve goals that might otherwise be unattainable.

  6. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation/Albany Research Center Crada Progress Report, September

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Paul C.; Schoenfield, Mark

    2004-09-13

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) has developed a new Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) process for fossil-fueled boilers. Pursuant to a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, ARC currently is studying the IPR process as applied to the oxygen fuel technology developed by Jupiter. As discussed further below, these two new technologies are complementary. This interim report summarizes the study results to date and outlines the potential activities under the next phase of the CRADA with Jupiter.

  7. Performance analysis of lithium-ion battery/electrochemical capacitor hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikha, Godfrey

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors are the most suitable power sources for high powered applications such as electric vehicles, power distribution systems, uninterrupted power supply, hybrid vehicles and other electronic devices due to their high power densities. However, their energy densities are considerably lower than those of high energy battery systems such as Lithium-ion. Although advanced battery systems and double layer electrochemical capacitors contrast with regard to energy-power relationship, in combination they can be utilized as an effective power source for various applications. So a systematic study of the performance of the combination of these energy sources (hybrid system) is indispensable. In this thesis, a hybrid system consisting of a lithium-ion battery coupled with a network of electrochemical capacitors was constructed and investigated in detail under pulse type of discharge. The impact of various operating parameters such as duty ratio, frequency, pulse current amplitude, number of capacitors in the capacitor network on the performance of the hybrid system was studied. To further understand and optimize the hybrid system a mathematical model for a lithium-ion/electrochemical capacitor network hybrid was developed from first principles. The prominent features of the model were its capability to predict the current shared by the battery and the capacitor network during discharge and its versatility to include any number of identical capacitors/batteries in series/parallel configuration. Specific energy and power relationships were simulated to identify the regime where the performance of the hybrids was better than the battery on a mass basis. The validity of the model was also tested against experimental data obtained from a Sony US 18650 lithium-ion battery/Maxwell PC100F electrochemical capacitor hybrid system. Finally a case study on the performance of the battery-alone system against a hybrid system was done for two different high

  8. Ultra-thin multilayer capacitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd C.

    2009-06-01

    The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this work was to increase the energy density of ceramic capacitors through the formation of a multilayer device with excellent materials properties, dielectric constant, and standoff voltage. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including achieving correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT, as well as the creation of a defect free homogenous film. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, although 900 C temperatures were necessary for PLZT perovskite phase formation. These temperatures were applied to a previously deposited multi-layer film which was then post-annealed to this temperature. The film exhibited mechanical distress attributable to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the various layers. This caused significant defects in the deposited films that led to shorts across devices. A follow-on single layer deposition without post-anneal produced smooth layers with good interface behavior, but without the perovskite phase formation. These issues will need to be addressed in order for ion beam deposited MLCCs to become a viable technology. It is possible that future in-situ heating during deposition may address both the CTE issue, and result in lowered processing temperatures, which in turn could raise the probability of successful MLCC formation.

  9. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  10. Semiautomated switched capacitor filter design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, D.

    1990-01-01

    A software system is described which reduces the time required to design monolithic switched capacitor filters. The system combines several software tools into an integrated flow. Switched capacitor technology and alternative technologies are discussed. Design time using the software system is compared to typical design time without the system.

  11. Simple Ways to Make Real Capacitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rhett

    2014-01-01

    Many of us have grabbed two pieces of aluminum foil and a paper towel, quickly sandwiched them together, and exclaimed in lecture, "Look! It's easy to make a capacitor!" Then we move on from there, calculating things such as capacitances with various dielectrics or plate sizes, the capacitance of capacitor networks, RC circuits,…

  12. Are the Textbook Writers Wrong about Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    Refutes a recent article which stated that the standard textbook treatment of two capacitors in series is wrong. States that the calculated capacitance is correct if measured immediately after a dc voltage is applied and that perhaps the effect is due to the choice of materials making up the capacitor. (MVL)

  13. Pyrrole-Based Conductive Polymers For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Di Stefano, Salvador

    1994-01-01

    Polypyrrole films containing various dopant anions exhibit superior capacitance characteristics. Used with nonaqueous electrolytes. Candidate for use in advanced electrochemical double-layer capacitors capable of storing electrical energy at high densities. Capacitors made of these films used in automobiles and pulsed power supplies.

  14. Simple Ways to Make Real Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Rhett

    2014-11-01

    Many of us have grabbed two pieces of aluminum foil and a paper towel, quickly sandwiched them together, and exclaimed in lecture, "Look! It's easy to make a capacitor!" Then we move on from there, calculating things such as capacitances with various dielectrics or plate sizes, the capacitance of capacitor networks, RC circuits, etc. We typically do these calculations with capacitance values that are far removed from what we just created in our quick demonstration of a capacitor. Students might justifiably question whether the capacitor that we blithely made has any relation to the values that we are using in our calculations. It may be useful to investigate the quality of such handmade capacitors so that our students get a more intuitive feel for these ubiquitous electrical components.

  15. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  16. Final Project Report Project 10749-4.2.2.1 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Frye, J. G.; Brown, Heather M.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Oberg, Aaron A.

    2009-05-11

    This is the final report for the DOE Project 10749-4.2.2.1 for the FY2007 - FY2009 period. This report is non-proprietary, and will be submitted to DOE as a final project report. The report covers activities under the DOE Project inside CRADA 269 (Project 53231) as well as project activites outside of that CRADA (Project 56662). This is the final report that is summarized from the non-proprietary quarterlies submitted to DOE over the past 2.5 years, which in turn are summaries from the proprietary technical reporting to UOP.

  17. Nonaqueous Electrolyte Development for Electrochemical Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    K. Xu; S. P. Ding; T. R. Jow

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate and develop new nonaqueous electrolytes that enable the development of high power (in excess of 2 kW/kg) and high energy (in excess of 8 Wh/kg) capacitors. Electrochemical capacitors are attractive to use because of their long cycle life and inherent high-power (or fast charge/discharge) capabilities. To realize the inherent high-power nature of the capacitor, the resistance of the capacitor needs to be low. The main focus of this project is on the ionic part of capacitor resistance, which is largely determined by the electrolyte, especially the electrolyte's conductivity. To achieve the objectives of this project, two approaches were used. The first was to search for the proper solvent mixtures within the commercially available quaternary ammonium salts such as tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et4NBF4) or tetraethyl ammonium hexafluorophosphate (Et4NPF6). The second approach was to use the commonly available solvent system s but develop new salts. Substantial advances were made in quaternary ammonium salts and solvent systems were identified that can withstand high voltage operations. However, improvement in the salt alone is not sufficient. Improvements in the low-temperature stability of a capacitor rely not only on the salts but also on the solvents. Likewise, the high-temperature stability of the capacitor will depend not only on the salts but also on the solvents and carbon electrode materials.

  18. CMOS compatible on-chip decoupling capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, A. M.; Göransson, G.; Desmaris, V.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-05-01

    On-chip decoupling capacitor of specific capacitance 55 pF/μm2 (footprint area) which is 10 times higher than the commercially available discrete and on-chip (65 nm technology node) decoupling capacitors is presented. The electrodes of the capacitor are based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) capable of being integrated directly on CMOS chips. The carbon nanofibers employed in this study were grown on CMOS chips using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique at CMOS compatible temperature. The carbon nanofibers were grown at temperature from 390 °C to 550 °C. The capacitance of the carbon nanofibers was measured by cyclic voltammetry and thus compared. Futhermore the capacitance of decoupling capacitor was measured using different voltage scan rate to show their high charge storage capability and finally the cyclic voltammetry is run for 1000 cycles to assess their suitability as electrode material for decoupling capacitor. Our results show the high specific capacitance and long-term reliability of performance of the on-chip decoupling capacitors. Moreover, the specific capacitance shown is larger for carbon nanofibers grown at higher temperature.

  19. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Capacitor Failure Root Cause Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur J.; Dunning, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing an advanced ion propulsion system for future NASA missions for solar system exploration. A critical element of the propulsion system is the Power Processing Unit (PPU) which supplies regulated power to the key components of the thruster. The PPU contains six different power supplies including the beam, discharge, discharge heater, neutralizer, neutralizer heater, and accelerator supplies. The beam supply is the largest and processes up to 93+% of the power. The NEXT PPU had been operated for approximately 200+ hr and has experienced a series of three capacitor failures in the beam supply. The capacitors are in the same, nominally non-critical location-the input filter capacitor to a full wave switching inverter. The three failures occurred after about 20, 30, and 135 hr of operation. This paper provides background on the NEXT PPU and the capacitor failures. It discusses the failure investigation approach, the beam supply power switching topology and its operating modes, capacitor characteristics and circuit testing. Finally, it identifies root cause of the failures to be the unusual confluence of circuit switching frequency, the physical layout of the power circuits, and the characteristics of the capacitor.

  20. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Capacitor Failure Root Cause Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Pinero, Luis; Schneidegger, Robert; Dunning, John; Birchenough, Art

    2012-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing an advanced ion propulsion system for future NASA missions for solar system exploration. A critical element of the propulsion system is the Power Processing Unit (PPU) which supplies regulated power to the key components of the thruster. The PPU contains six different power supplies including the beam, discharge, discharge heater, neutralizer, neutralizer heater, and accelerator supplies. The beam supply is the largest and processes up to 93+% of the power. The NEXT PPU had been operated for approximately 200+ hours and has experienced a series of three capacitor failures in the beam supply. The capacitors are in the same, nominally non-critical location the input filter capacitor to a full wave switching inverter. The three failures occurred after about 20, 30, and 135 hours of operation. This paper provides background on the NEXT PPU and the capacitor failures. It discusses the failure investigation approach, the beam supply power switching topology and its operating modes, capacitor characteristics and circuit testing. Finally, it identifies root cause of the failures to be the unusual confluence of circuit switching frequency, the physical layout of the power circuits, and the characteristics of the capacitor.

  1. Chemical modification of graphene aerogels for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Wie, Jeong Jae; Xu, Yu; Park, Ho Seok

    2015-12-14

    Graphene aerogel is a relatively new type of aerogel that is ideal for energy storage applications because of its large surface area, high electrical conductivity and good chemical stability. Also, three dimensional interconnected macropores offer many advantages such as low density, fast ion and mass transfer, and easy access to storage sites. Such features allow graphene aerogels to be intensively applied for electrochemical capacitor applications. Despite the growing interest in graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors, however, the graphene aerogels still suffer from their low capacitive performances and high fragility. Both relatively low capacitance and brittleness of physically crosslinked graphene aerogels remain a critical challenge. Until now, a number of alternative attempts have been devoted to overcome these shortcomings. In this perspective, we summarize the recent research progress towards the development of advanced graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors according to the different approaches (e.g. porosity, composition and structure controls). Then, the recently proposed chemical strategies to improve the capacitive performances and mechanical durability of graphene aerogels for practical applications are highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and perspectives in this emerging material are also discussed. PMID:26536234

  2. Cantilever and capacitor technique for measuring dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.; Monahan, E.

    1983-05-01

    The relationship of EerNisse's technique for measuring small dilatations caused by irradiation with short-range particles, which utilizes a metallized thin plate mounted as a cantilever below whose free end an electrode is placed (forming a capacitor), to a photoelastic technique and to an interferometric technique are derived. The effects of stray capacitance, the fringing field of the capacitor, the clamping stress on the cantilever plate, the electrical resistance of the metallic coating, the charging of the tank circuit of which the capacitor is an element, the flange bolting stress, and the beam heating are assessed, and examples of the manner in which they contaminate the data are given.

  3. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  4. Optimal design of capacitor-driven coilgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seog-Whan; Jung, Hyun-Kyo; Hahn, Song-Yop

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis and optimal design of a capacitor-driven inductive coilgun. An equivalent circuit is used for a launch simulation of the coilgun. The circuit equations are solved together with the equation of motion of the projectile by using the Runge-Kutta method. The numerical results are compared with the experimental values to verify the usefulness of the developed simulation program. It is shown that the numerical and the experimental results are in a good agreement. In the design of the system the optimization is achieved by employing the genetic algorithm. The resultant specifications of the coilgun optimally designed by the proposed algorithm are tested by experiment. Finally the obtained results are compared with those designed by approximate equations and by linear search methods as well. It is found that the proposed algorithm gives a better result in the energy efficiency of the system, namely it enables one to obtain a higher muzzle velocity of the projectile with the same amount of energy.

  5. A review of molecular modelling of electric double layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Burt, Ryan; Birkett, Greg; Zhao, X S

    2014-04-14

    Electric double-layer capacitors are a family of electrochemical energy storage devices that offer a number of advantages, such as high power density and long cyclability. In recent years, research and development of electric double-layer capacitor technology has been growing rapidly, in response to the increasing demand for energy storage devices from emerging industries, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, renewable energy, and smart grid management. The past few years have witnessed a number of significant research breakthroughs in terms of novel electrodes, new electrolytes, and fabrication of devices, thanks to the discovery of innovative materials (e.g. graphene, carbide-derived carbon, and templated carbon) and the availability of advanced experimental and computational tools. However, some experimental observations could not be clearly understood and interpreted due to limitations of traditional theories, some of which were developed more than one hundred years ago. This has led to significant research efforts in computational simulation and modelling, aimed at developing new theories, or improving the existing ones to help interpret experimental results. This review article provides a summary of research progress in molecular modelling of the physical phenomena taking place in electric double-layer capacitors. An introduction to electric double-layer capacitors and their applications, alongside a brief description of electric double layer theories, is presented first. Second, molecular modelling of ion behaviours of various electrolytes interacting with electrodes under different conditions is reviewed. Finally, key conclusions and outlooks are given. Simulations on comparing electric double-layer structure at planar and porous electrode surfaces under equilibrium conditions have revealed significant structural differences between the two electrode types, and porous electrodes have been shown to store charge more efficiently. Accurate electrolyte and

  6. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  7. Final report: Interamerican Metrology System (SIM) Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) capacitance comparison. SIM.EM-K4.1, 10 pF fused-silica standard capacitor at 1000 Hz and SIM.EM-S4.1, 100 pF fused-silica standard capacitor at 1000 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, H.; Castro, B. I.; Koffman, A. D.; Zhang, N. F.; Wang, Y.; Shields, S.

    2015-01-01

    Two bilateral capacitance comparisons between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) were carried out to demonstrate the significant improvements achieved in capacitance metrology by ICE. These comparisons were a follow-up to the 2006 SIM.EM-K4, -S3, and -S4 capacitance comparisons. These bilateral activities consist of capacitance comparison SIM.EM-K4.1, comparing a 10 pF fused-silica standard at 1000 Hz, and comparison SIM.EM-S4.1, comparing a 100 pF fused-silica standard at 1000 Hz. The result of these bilateral comparisons have provided improved degrees of equivalence between ICE and the participants of the SIM.EM-K4, -S3, and -S4 capacitance comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Effects of severe stressing on tantalum capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakar, J. F.; Fairfield, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    The ultimate capabilities of an all tantalum capacitor were determined and evaluated. The evaluation included: 175 C life; 100 cycle thermal shock; 70 g random vibration; 3000 g shock; and 90 C ase ripple current.

  9. Fabrication and Testing of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buritz, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    High energy density capacitors made from metallized polyvinylidene fluoride film were built and tested. Terminations of aluminum-babbitt, tin-babbitt, and all-babbitt were evaluated. All-babbit terminations appeared to be better. The 0.1 microfarad and 2 microfarad capacitors were made of 6 micrometer material. Capacitance, dissipation factor, and insulation resistance measurements were made over the ranges -55 C to 125 C and 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Twelve of forty-one 0.1 microfarad capacitors survived a 5000 hour dc plus ac life test. Under the same conditions, the 2 microfarad capacitors exhibited overheating because of excessive power loss. Some failures occurred after low temperature exposures for 48 hours. No failures were caused by vibration or temperature cycling.

  10. Automated Test Stand for HEV Capacitor Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Seiber, Larry Eugene; Armstrong, Gary

    2007-01-01

    As capacitor manufacturers race to meet the needs of the hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) of the future, many trade-offs at the system level as well as the component level must be considered. Even though the ultra-capacitor has the spot light for recent research and development (R&D) for HEVs, the electrostatic capacitor is also the subject of R&D (for HEVs as well as wireless communications). The Department of Energy has funded the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Power Electronic and Electric Machinery Research Center to develop an automated test to aid in the independent testing of prototype electrostatic capacitors. This paper describes the design and development of such a stand.

  11. Review of the NASA Voyager spacecraft polycarbonate capacitor failure incident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, F. M.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The premission failure of a Voyager spacecraft capacitor has prompted an investigation into the use of polycarbonate capacitors in high impedance circuits, during which capacitor failures were induced by thermal cycling together with extended periods at high temperature. Measurement of leakage path temperature coefficients indicates that there are two distinct leakage types whose mechanisms are complicated by movement within the capacitor during temperature changes. A novel system for pulse detection during capacitor burn-in and ramp testing has proven to be beneficial.

  12. Physical and Electrical Characterization of Aluminum Polymer Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer aluminum capacitors from several manufacturers with various combinations of capacitance, rated voltage, and ESR values were physically examined and electrically characterized. The physical construction analysis of the capacitors revealed three different capacitor structures, i.e., traditional wound, stacked, and laminated. Electrical characterization results of polymer aluminum capacitors are reported for frequency-domain dielectric response at various temperatures, surge breakdown voltage, and other dielectric properties. The structure-property relations in polymer aluminum capacitors are discussed.

  13. Physical and Electrical Characterization of Polymer Aluminum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer aluminum capacitors from several manufacturers with various combinations of capacitance, rated voltage, and ESR values were physically examined and electrically characterized. The physical construction analysis of the capacitors revealed three different capacitor structures, i.e., traditional wound, stacked, and laminated. Electrical characterization results of polymer aluminum capacitors are reported for frequency-domain dielectric response at various temperatures, surge breakdown voltage, and other dielectric properties. The structure-property relations in polymer aluminum capacitors are discussed.

  14. Monolithic ceramic capacitors for high reliability applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornley, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic multi-layer ceramic dielectric capacitors are widely used in high reliability applications in spacecraft, launch vehicles, and military equipment. Their relatively low cost, wide range of values, and package styles are attractive features that result in high usage in electronic circuitry in these applications. Design and construction of monolithic ceramic dielectric capacitors, defects that can lead to failure, and methods for defect detection that are being incorporated in military specifications are discussed.

  15. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  16. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  17. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2015-04-01

    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  18. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results. PMID:24517759

  19. Experimental electrochemical capacitor test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.; Rogers, S.A.; Sutula, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Various electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) are being developed for hybrid vehicles as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast-response engine. The envisioned primary functions of the ultracapacitor are to level the dynamic power loads on the primary propulsion device and recover available energy from regenerative breaking during off-peak power periods. This paper will present test data from selected US Department of Energy (DOE) supported ultracapacitor projects designed to meet the fast response engine requirements. This paper will address the temperature dependence of test data obtained from a set of three devices provided from Maxwell Energy Products, Inc. These devices are rated at 2,300 F at 2.3 V. Constant-current, constant-power, and self-discharge testing as a function of temperature have been conducted. From these tests were determined the capacitance, equivalent series resistance, specific energy and power, and the self-discharge energy loss factor as a function of the device operating temperature.

  20. Development of advanced polymer nanocomposite capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Miguel

    The current development of modern electronics has driven the need for new series of energy storage devices with higher energy density and faster charge/discharge rate. Batteries and capacitors are two of the most widely used energy storage devices. Compared with batteries, capacitors have higher power density and significant higher charge/discharge rate. Therefore, high energy density capacitors play a significant role in modern electronic devices, power applications, space flight technologies, hybrid electric vehicles, portable defibrillators, and pulse power applications. Dielectric film capacitors represent an exceptional alternative for developing high energy density capacitors due to their high dielectric constants, outstanding breakdown voltages, and flexibility. The implementation of high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires into polymer capacitors could lead to further enhancement of its energy density. Therefore, this research effort is focused on the development of a new series of dielectric capacitors composed of nanowire reinforced polymer matrix composites. This concept of nanocomposite capacitors combines the extraordinary physical and chemical properties of the one-dimension (1D) nanoceramics and high dielectric strength of polymer matrices, leading to a capacitor with improved dielectric properties and energy density. Lead-free sodium niobate (NaNbO3) and lead-containing lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.65PMN-0.35PT) nanowires were synthesized following hydrothermal and sol-gel approaches, respectively. The as-prepared nanowires were mixed with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix using solution-casting method for nanocomposites fabrication. The dielectric constants and breakdown voltages of the NaNbO3/PVDF and 0.65PMN-0.35PT/PVDF nanocomposites were measured under different frequency ranges and temperatures in order to determine their maximum energy (J/cm3) and specific (J/g) densities. The electrical properties of the

  1. Titanium-Alloy Power Capacitor: High-Power Titanate Capacitor for Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: There is a constant demand for better performing, more compact, lighter weight, and lower cost electronic devices. Unfortunately, the materials traditionally used to make components for electronic devices have reached their limits. Case Western is developing capacitors made of new materials that could be used to produce the next generation of compact and efficient high-powered consumer electronics and electronic vehicles. A capacitor is an important component of an electronic device. It stores an electric charge and then discharges it into an electrical circuit in the device. Case Western is creating its capacitors from titanium, an abundant material extracted from ore which can be found in the U.S. Case Western's capacitors store electric charges on the surfaces of films, which are grown on a titanium alloy electrode that is formed as a spinal column with attached branches. The new material and spine design make the capacitor smaller and lighter than traditional capacitors, and they enable the component to store 300% more energy than capacitors of the same weight made of tantalum, the current industry standard. Case Western's titanium-alloy capacitors also spontaneously self-repair, which prolongs their life.

  2. Design, Development, manufacture and qualification of wet-slug all-tantalum capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maher, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Specifications and qualification tests data are presented for over eleven hundred T3 case all-tantalum capacitors encompassing four ratings. The finalized product has all the advantages of the silver cased wet and is capable of withstanding some reverse potential ac ripple current.

  3. High-Temperature Capacitor Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Daniel; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Qin; Irwin, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Film capacitor technology has been under development for over half a century to meet various applications such as direct-current link capacitors for transportation, converters/inverters for power electronics, controls for deep well drilling of oil and gas, direct energy weapons for military use, and high-frequency coupling circuitry. The biaxially oriented polypropylene film capacitor remains the state-of-the-art technology; however, it is not able to meet increasing demand for high-temperature (>125°C) applications. A number of dielectric materials capable of operating at high temperatures (>140°C) have attracted investigation, and their modifications are being pursued to achieve higher volumetric efficiency as well. This paper highlights the status of polymer dielectric film development and its feasibility for capacitor applications. High-temperature polymers such as polyetherimide (PEI), polyimide, and polyetheretherketone were the focus of our studies. PEI film was found to be the preferred choice for high-temperature film capacitor development due to its thermal stability, dielectric properties, and scalability.

  4. A new switched-capacitor frequency modulated driver for light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weifeng; Shi, Frank G

    2007-11-01

    A new type of drivers for light emitting diodes (LEDs) is introduced based on the switched-capacitor frequency modulation. In contrast to conventional constant dc current drivers, the current pulse is provided by this new switched-capacitor LED driver. In the present driver, the charging capacitor is charged and discharged through a LED and the current flow direction is controlled by a metal oxide semiconductor switch. The input current (and thus the LED brightness) is proportional to the switch clock frequency at relatively low frequencies and becomes saturated at relatively high frequencies. This new driver circuit is simple and robust and maintains high efficiency for a wide range of input powers. In addition, the dimming control is easily realized by modulating clock frequency. Finally, this LED driver consumes no dc current and thus provides inherent protection to LED in standby mode. PMID:18052494

  5. BioCapacitor--a novel category of biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Nakayama, Daisuke; Tomiyama, Masamitsu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2009-03-15

    This research reports on the development of an innovative biosensor, known as BioCapacitor, in which biological recognition elements are combined with a capacitor functioning as the transducer. The analytical procedure of the BioCapacitor is based on the following principle: a biocatalyst, acting as a biological recognition element, oxidizes or reduces the analyte to generate electric power, which is then charged into a capacitor via a charge pump circuit (switched capacitor regulator) until the capacitors attains full capacity. Since the charging rate of the capacitor depends on the biocatalytic reaction of the analyte, the analyte concentration can be determined by monitoring the time/frequency required for the charge/discharge cycle of the BioCapacitor via a charge pump circuit. As a representative model, we constructed a BioCapacitor composed of FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) as the anodic catalyst, and attempted a glucose measurement. Charge/discharge frequency of the BioCapacitor increased with the increasing glucose concentration, exhibiting good correlation with glucose concentration. We have also constructed a wireless sensing system using the BioCapacitor combined with an infrared light emitting diode (IRLED), an IR phototransistor system. In the presence of glucose, the IRLED signal was observed due to the discharge of the BioCapacitor and detected by an IR phototransistor in a wireless receiver. Therefore, a BioCapacitor employing FADGDH as its anodic catalyst can be operated as a self-powered enzyme sensor. PMID:19013784

  6. 77 FR 48165 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity With the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity With the Department of Homeland Security for the Efficacy Testing of Vaporous Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) and Chlorine Dioxide (ClO 2 )...

  7. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  8. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  9. Cylindrical Asymmetrical Capacitor Devices for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An asymmetrical capacitor system is provided which creates a thrust force. The system is adapted for use in space applications and includes a capacitor device provided with a first conductive element and a second conductive element axially spaced from the first conductive element and of smaller axial extent. A shroud supplied with gas surrounds the capacitor device. The second conductive element can be a wire ring or mesh mounted on dielectric support posts affixed to a dielectric member which separates the conductive elements or a wire or mesh annulus surrounding a barrel-shaped dielectric member on which the h t element is also mounted. A high voltage source is connected across the conductive elements and applies a high voltage to the conductive elements of sufficient value to create a thrust force on the system inducing movement thereof.

  10. Internal fuse modules for solid tantalum capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Miniature fuse modules were designed for and incorporated into two styles of solid tantalum capacitors. One is an epoxy molded, radial leaded, high frequency decoupling capacitor; the other is an hermetically sealed device with axial lead wires. The fusible element for both devices consists of a fine bimetallic wire which reacts exothermically upon reaching a critical temperature and then disintegrates. The desirability of having fused devices is discussed and design constraints, in particular those which minimize inductance and series resistance while optimizing fuse actuation characteristics, are reviewed. Factors affecting the amount of energy required to actuate the fuse and reliability of acuation are identified.

  11. Electron waiting times for the mesoscopic capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Dasenbrook, David; Flindt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the distribution of waiting times between electrons emitted by a driven mesoscopic capacitor. Based on a wave packet approach we obtain analytic expressions for the electronic waiting time distribution and the joint distribution of subsequent waiting times. These semi-classical results are compared to a full quantum treatment based on Floquet scattering theory and good agreement is found in the appropriate parameter ranges. Our results provide an intuitive picture of the electronic emissions from the driven mesoscopic capacitor and may be tested in future experiments.

  12. Large capacitor performs as a distributed parameter pulse line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Capacitor of extended foil construction performs as a distributed parameter pulse line in which current, amplitude, and period are readily controlled. The capacitor is used as the energy storage element in a pulsed plasma accelerator.

  13. Capacitors: operating principles, current market and technical trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Atsushi

    The worldwide market for capacitors was approximately US$ 12.3 billion in 1993, of which production within Japan accounted for approximately 50% and the combined domestic and overseas production of Japanese manufacturers accounted for approximately 70%. The worldwide capacitor market continues to grow by approximately 20% per year as the demand for ICs and LSIs is growing. In conjunction with this special issue on capacitors, this paper presents a corporate perspective on current trends in the capacitor market: capacitor principles; capacitor materials; capacitor types and major characteristics; recent technical trends in capacitors and the future market outlook, and technical problems in the hope of facilitating the understanding of ideas and concepts presented in other papers in this issue.

  14. The Application of Perfluorocarbons as Impregnants for Plastic Film Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid impregnated, plastic film (wet) capacitor was developed that is thought to be the most reliable and space efficient capacitor of any type ever produced for high voltage, pulse discharge service. The initial design stores five times the energy of a premium quality dry capacitor of equivalent energy and reliability. The technology, as well as a production capacitor design using this technology are described.

  15. Iodine encapsulation in CNTs and its application for electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Rashid, M.; Syakirin, A.; Al-zubaidi, A.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the experimental results for new type electrochemical capacitor using iodine redox reaction in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It was found that the energy density of the present redox capacitor using SWCNTs is almost three times larger than that of the normal electric double layer capacitor.

  16. Two Theorems on Dissipative Energy Losses in Capacitor Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    This article examines energy losses in charge motion in two capacitor systems. In the first charge is transferred from a charged capacitor to an uncharged one through a resistor. In the second a battery charges an originally uncharged capacitor through a resistance. Analysis leads to two surprising general theorems. In the first case the fraction…

  17. Dynamics of a Liquid Dielectric Attracted by a Cylindrical Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Rafael; Lemos, Nivaldo A.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of a liquid dielectric attracted by a vertical cylindrical capacitor are studied. Contrary to what might be expected from the standard calculation of the force exerted by the capacitor, the motion of the dielectric is different depending on whether the charge or the voltage of the capacitor is held constant. The problem turns out to…

  18. Improved fabrication of electrolytic capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamari, F. J.; Moresi, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    After processing parts for assembly, insulative cup is fitted to bottom of can, then electrolytic solution consisting of white sulfuric acid gel is inserted into can. Pellet is put in can and is fitted tightly into cup. Finally, bead weld is formed between can and header plug.

  19. Negative Capacitance transients in a ferroelectric capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-03-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here we demonstrate the negative differential capacitance in a thin, single crystalline ferroelectric film, by constructing a simple R-C network and monitoring the voltage dynamics across the ferroelectric capacitor6. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time-in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. The results are analyzed on the basis of the Landau-Khalatnikov equation, which shows that as the ferroelectric polarization switches its direction, it passes through the unstable negative capacitance region resulting in the characteristic ``negative capacitance transients.'' Analysis of this ``inductance''-like behavior from a capacitor allows us to calculate the value of the negative capacitance directly and presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material.

  20. Scintillation Breakdowns in Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Scintillations in solid tantalum capacitors are momentarily local breakdowns terminated by a self-healing or conversion to a high-resistive state of the manganese oxide cathode. This conversion effectively caps the defective area of the tantalum pentoxide dielectric and prevents short-circuit failures. Typically, this type of breakdown has no immediate catastrophic consequences and is often considered as nuisance rather than a failure. Scintillation breakdowns likely do not affect failures of parts under surge current conditions, and so-called "proofing" of tantalum chip capacitors, which is a controllable exposure of the part after soldering to voltages slightly higher than the operating voltage to verify that possible scintillations are self-healed, has been shown to improve the quality of the parts. However, no in-depth studies of the effect of scintillations on reliability of tantalum capacitors have been performed so far. KEMET is using scintillation breakdown testing as a tool for assessing process improvements and to compare quality of different manufacturing lots. Nevertheless, the relationship between failures and scintillation breakdowns is not clear, and this test is not considered as suitable for lot acceptance testing. In this work, scintillation breakdowns in different military-graded and commercial tantalum capacitors were characterized and related to the rated voltages and to life test failures. A model for assessment of times to failure, based on distributions of breakdown voltages, and accelerating factors of life testing are discussed.

  1. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  2. Coaxial capacitor used to determine fluid density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkisson, E. A.

    1965-01-01

    Sensing device measures directly the density of compressible fluid existing simultaneously in both liquid and gaseous phases. The device is comprised of a capacitor connected as one leg of a bridge circuit, a power source, and an indicator calibrated to indicate density as a direct measurement.

  3. Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Foster, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.

  4. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Ocapacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity. 8 figs.

  5. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Prakash, Jai; Thackeray, Michael M.; Dees, Dennis W.; Vissers, Donald R.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1998-01-01

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Ocapacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity.

  6. Reliability performance of pulse discharge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.

    1997-02-01

    There is a void of public specifications for pulse discharge capacitor applications. Sandia National Laboratories has developed, over the past 25 years, specifications and test procedures for evaluating capacitor designs for this specialized use. There are three primary destructive tests that are used to assess the reliability potential of a given design at a required rated voltage. These are ultimate short time breakdown strength, life at voltage, and pulse discharge life. The strategy of the method is to accelerate the test conditions so that failures are observable and then extrapolate to the desired use conditions where the failure rates are low. This paper will present the statistical methodologies employed to analyze experimental data and to provide a point estimate of reliability with a lower confidence bound as a function of rated voltage. In addition, methods for establishing lot-acceptance-criteria specifications will be discussed. The techniques will be illustrated with actual data on a commercially available, low-inductance, pulse-discharge capacitor. The capacitor is an impregnated dual dielectric (mica-paper/polymer film), extended-foil type.

  7. Electrostatic spray deposition based lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Richa; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Chunlei

    2016-05-01

    Conventional Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are well suited as power devices that can provide large bursts of energy in short time periods. However, their relatively inferior energy densities as compared to their secondary battery counterparts limit their application in devices that require simultaneous supply of both high energy and high power. In the wake of addressing this shortcoming of EDLCs, the concept of hybridization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs has attracted significant scientific interest in recent years. Such a device, generally referred to as the "lithium-ion capacitor" typically utilizes a lithium intercalating electrode along with a fast charging capacitor electrode. Herein we have constructed a lithium hybrid electrochemical capacitor comprising a Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 (LTO-TiO2) anode and a reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite cathode using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the individual electrodes and the full hybrid cells.

  8. Negative Capacitance in a Ferroelectric Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef; UC Berkeley Team

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here we demonstrate the negative differential capacitance in an epitaxial ferroelectric film, by constructing a simple R-C network and monitoring the voltage dynamics across the ferroelectric capacitor. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time-in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. The results are analyzed on the basis of the Landau-Khalatnikov equation, which shows that as the ferroelectric polarization switches its direction, it passes through the unstable negative capacitance region. Analysis of this behavior from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material.

  9. Method of making electrolytic capacitor anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, B.; Eickelberg, E.W.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of making an anode for an electrolytic capacitor. The method comprises providing a powder consisting of a film-forming metal, polyethylene oxide, and ammonium carbonate; pressing the powder to form an anode body; and heating the anode body to remove the polyethylene oxide and ammonium carbonate.

  10. Special Section: Electrochemical capacitors: Guest Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitors (i.e., supercapacitors) are nowadays considered as one of the most important electrochemical storage devices. Thanks to their high power, extraordinary cycle life and high reliability these devices are currently used in a large number of applications, rendering them indispensible for our daily life.

  11. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  12. Capacitors and Resistance-Capacitance Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman; Root, Augustin A.

    This programed textbook was developed under a contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 5 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is divided into three parts--(1) capacitors, (2) voltage-current relationships, and (3) simple resistance-capacitance networks. (DH)

  13. Charge and Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Using a data-acquisition system, the charge and energy stored in a capacitor are measured and displayed during the charging/discharging process. The experiment is usable as a laboratory work and/or a lecture demonstration. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Single-poly EEPROM cell with lightly doped MOS capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Riekels, James E.; Lucking, Thomas B.; Larsen, Bradley J.; Gardner, Gary R.

    2008-05-27

    An Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) memory cell and a method of operation are disclosed for creating an EEPROM memory cell in a standard CMOS process. A single polysilicon layer is used in combination with lightly doped MOS capacitors. The lightly doped capacitors employed in the EEPROM memory cell can be asymmetrical in design. Asymmetrical capacitors reduce area. Further capacitance variation caused by inversion can also be reduced by using multiple control capacitors. In addition, the use of multiple tunneling capacitors provides the benefit of customized tunneling paths.

  15. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  16. Non-ideal effects of MOS capacitor in a switched capacitor waveform recorder ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yi-Nong

    2016-07-01

    SCAs (Switched Capacitor Arrays) have a wide range of uses, especially in high energy physics, nuclear science and astrophysics experiments. This paper presents a method of using a MOS capacitor as a sampling capacitor to gain larger capacitance with small capacitor area in SCA design. It studies the non-ideal effects of the MOS capacitor and comes up with ways to reduce these adverse effects. A prototype SCA ASIC which uses a MOS capacitor to store the samples has been designed and tested to verify this method. The SCA integrates 32 channels and each has 64 cells and a readout amplifier. The stored voltage is converted to a pair of differential currents (±4 mA max) and multiplexed to the output. All the functionalities have been verified. The power consumption is less than 2 mW/ch. The INL of all the cells in one channel are better than 0.39%. The equivalent input noise of the SCA has been tested to be 2.2 mV with 625 kHz full-scale sine wave as input, sampling at 40 MSPS (Mega-samples per Second) and reading out at 5 MHz. The effective resolution is 8.8 bits considering 1 V dynamic range. The maximum sampling rate reaches up to 50 MSPS and readout rate of 15 MHz to keep noise smaller than 2.5 mV. The test results validate the feasibility of the MOS capacitor. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375100), Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04060606-06) and State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics

  17. CRADA 2009S001: Investigation of the Supercondcuting RF Properties of Large Grain Ingot Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, Terry; Hollister, Jerry L.; Kolka, Ahren; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-12-18

    This CRADA intended to explore the properties of large grain ingot niobium by fabricating four single cell TESLA shaped accelerating cavities. Once the cavities were fabricated, SRF performance would be measured. Niowave received four discs of large grain ingot niobium from JLAB in February 2009. Niowave cut samples from each disc and tested the RRR. After the RRR was measured with disappointing results, the project lost interest. A no cost extension was signed in July 2009 to allow progress until June 2010, but ultimately no further work was accomplished by either party. No firm conclusions were drawn, as further investigations were not made. Large grain ingot niobium has shown real potential for high accelerating gradient superconducting cavities. However, this particular CRADA did not gather enough data to reach any conclusions in this regard.

  18. Evaluation and Characterization of Magnets and Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Seiber, L.E.; Cunningham, J.P.; Golik, S.S.; Armstrong, G.

    2006-10-15

    Advanced vehicle, fuel cell, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), and plug in hybrid research and development is conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of this program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally safe highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are done at the system and component levels. This report will discuss component level testing of prototype capacitors and magnets. As capacitor and magnet technologies mature, it is important to ascertain the limitations of these new technologies by subjecting the components to standardized tests to evaluate their capabilities. Test results will assist in the determination of their ability to provide improvements in power electronics and motor designs to meet the FCVT goals.

  19. Progress on electrocaloric multilayer ceramic capacitor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Sakyo; Usui, Tomoyasu; Crossley, Sam; Nair, Bhasi; Ando, Akira; Moya, Xavier; Mathur, Neil D.

    2016-06-01

    A multilayer capacitor comprising 19 layers of 38 μm-thick 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 has elsewhere been shown to display electrocaloric temperature changes of 2.2 K due to field changes of 24 V μm-1, near ˜100 °C. Here we demonstrate temperature changes of 1.2 K in an equivalent device with 2.6 times the thermal mass, i.e., 49 layers that could tolerate 10.3 V μm-1. Breakdown was compromised by the increased number of layers, and occurred at 10.5 V μm-1 near the edge of a near-surface inner electrode. Further optimization is required to improve the breakdown strength of large electrocaloric multilayer capacitors for cooling applications.

  20. High-Energy-Density Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in weight and volume make new application possible. Supercapacitors and improved ultracapacitors advanced electrolytic capacitors developed for use as electric-load-leveling devices in such applications as electric vehicle propulsion systems, portable power tools, and low-voltage pulsed power supplies. One primary advantage: offer power densities much higher than storage batteries. Capacitors used in pulse mode, with short charge and discharge times. Derived from commercially available ultracapacitors. Made of lightweight materials; incorporate electrode/electrolyte material systems capable of operation at voltages higher than previous electrode/electrolyte systems. By use of innovative designs and manufacturing processes, made in wide range of rated capacitances and in rated operating potentials ranging from few to several hundred volts.

  1. Recent progress of multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takeshi

    1998-02-01

    Recently, reduction of production costs with maintaining high reliability is required for wider applications of capacitors. Ni-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) of BaTiO3-based dielectrics and AgPd-electrode MLCCs of relaxor materials were developed to meet the requirements. Thinner dielectriclayers, miniaturization, and high capacitance are also major requirements for MLCCs. In these circumstances, much effort has been paid in order to achieve higher reliability. Ni-electrode MLCCs are promising way to satisfy the requirements of high capacitance, low cost, and high reliability. Major problems about the reliability were mechanical fracture, degradation of insulation resistance, and capacitance aging. These phenomena are strongly affected by both chemical composition and producing process.

  2. Agreement Execution Process Study: CRADAs and NF-WFO Agreements and the Speed of Business

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, Bruce J.; Cejka, Cheryl L.; Macklin, Richard; Miksovic, Ann

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a study on the execution of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) and Non-Federal Work for Others (NF-WFO) agreements across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory complex. The study provides quantitiative estimates of times required to negotiate and execute these agreements across the DOE complex. It identifies factors impacting on cycle times and describes best practicies used at various laboratories and site offices that reduce cycle times.

  3. Diagnostics and performance evaluation of multikilohertz capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    McDuff, G.; Nunnally, W.C.; Rust, K.; Sarjeant, J.

    1980-01-01

    The observed performance of nanofarad polypropylene-silicone oil, mica paper, and polytetrafluoroethylene-silicone oil capacitors discharged in a 100-ns, 1-kA pulse with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz is presented. The test facility circuit, diagnostic parameters, and the preliminary test schedule are outlined as a basis for discussion of the observed failure locations and proposed failure mechanisms. Most of the test data and discussion presented involves the polypropylene-silicone oil units.

  4. Cryogenic Cermic Multilayer Capacitors for Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Alberta, E. F.; Hackenberger, W. S.

    2006-03-31

    Recent advances in the areas of high temperature superconductors and low temperature MOSFET devices have opened the door to the possibility of developing highly efficient low-temperature power electronics. The most commonly used high-efficiency capacitors are based on high dielectric constant (K {approx} 1000-4000) barium titanate doped to yield and X7R temperature dependence ({+-}15% change in capacitance from -55 deg. C to 125 deg. C); however, below their minimum use temperature the capacitance drops-off quickly leading to a low volumetric efficiency and high temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) at cryogenic temperatures.A series of low temperature materials with moderate to high dielectric constants have been specifically developed for low temperature operation (below 80K). The capacitors fall into three main categories: low TCC, high volumetric efficiency, and energy storage. In the low TCC category, co-fired multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) were fabricated with capacitance values up to 62nF at 30K, TCCs from 0.9 to 2% below 80K, and losses on the order of 0.0001. In the high volumetric efficiency category, dielectrics with permittivities ranging from 1,000 to 30,000 were demonstrated.

  5. Evaluation of SAFT America, Inc. electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.

    1997-12-01

    The electrochemical capacitor devices described in this report were deliverables from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Contract No. 4606510 with SAFT America, Inc., as part of LBNL`s exploratory research program. Dr. Kimio Kinoshita is the Program Manager at LBNL. The contract was in support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) exploratory electrochemical energy storage program which includes development projects for a wide variety of advanced high-energy/high-power energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicle programs. The DOE is currently developing various electrochemical capacitors as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast-response engine requirements. The LBNL contract with SAFT America, Inc., was intended to evaluate various activated carbon-based electrode formulations and develop an electrical model of the double-layer capacitor. The goal is to design and deliver prototypes meeting the DOE requirement of > 1,000 W/kg, 16 Wh/kg. Deliverables were sent to the INEEL EST laboratory for independent testing and evaluation. The following report describes performance testing on ten devices received September 2, 1996. Due to the initial performance of these early devices, life-cycle testing was not conducted. Additional devices, with improved performance, are expected to be tested. Future results will be reported in a follow-on report.

  6. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. PMID:26140707

  7. Thermal Modeling of Snap-in Type Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Katsuhiro; Ishizuka, Masaru; Nakagawa, Shinji; Hatakeyama, Tomoyuki

    The electrolytic capacitor is one of the most important components for the thermal analysis of electronic equipment. To predict component and system temperatures, the thermal flow simulation technique has been applied to thermal design of electronic equipment. In this study, we examined a compact modeling method for electrolytic capacitors in order to simulate thermal flow based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. To obtain fundamental data for the thermal modeling method, first, we conducted experiments to identify the major thermal path of electrolytic capacitors in actual electronic equipment by using a switch mode power supply unit. Next, to verify the validity of the thermal model, a benchmark experiment was conducted to obtain actual measurement data of the temperature rise of electrolytic capacitors under various operating conditions. The thermal model of the electrolytic capacitor was presented based on the CFD code. In this paper, we describe in particular the snap-in type electrolytic capacitor.

  8. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  9. Method of manufacturing a shapeable short-resistant capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2013-04-02

    A method that employs a novel combination of conventional fabrication techniques provides a ceramic short-resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The method allows thinner and more flexible ceramic capacitors to be made. The method includes forming a first thin metal layer on a substrate; depositing a thin, ceramic dielectric layer over the metal layer; depositing a second thin metal layer over the dielectric layer to form a capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode; and separating the capacitor from the substrate. The method may also include bending the resulting capacitor into a serpentine arrangement with gaps between the layers that allow venting of evaporated electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  10. Energy-storage pulsed-power capacitor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Laghari, J.R.; Sarjeant, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses fundamentals of dielectric capacitor technology and multifactor stress aging of all classes of insulating media that form elements of this technology. It is directed toward the delineation of failure processes in highly stressed compact capacitors. Factors affecting the complex aging processes such as thermal, electromechanical, and partial discharges are discussed. Diagnostic measurement techniques available and those being developed to determine material degradation affecting available life and failure probability of capacitors are presented.

  11. MOSFET and MOS capacitor responses to ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetto, J. M.; Boesch, H. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The ionizing radiation responses of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) and MOS capacitors are compared. It is shown that the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift correlates closely with the shift in the MOS capacitor inversion voltage. The radiation-induced interface-state density of the MOSFETs and MOS capacitors was determined by several techniques. It is shown that the presence of 'slow' states can interfere with the interface-state measurements.

  12. High energy density capacitor testing for the AFWL SHIVA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SHIVA II Prime upgrade consists of replacing the existing 3.3 kJ, 1.85 ..mu..F capacitors with plug-in higher energy density capacitors. Based on capacitor development work by manufacturers it appears that a nominal 6 ..mu..F, 60 kV capacitor in an 11'' x 14'' can is near the limits of current technology. Using the 6 ..mu..F, 10.8 kJ capacitor results in a factor of 3 increase in stored energy at no increase in operational voltage. The equivalent system capacitance will then be 864 ..mu..F at 120 kV (+-60 kV) or 6.22 MJ. The best testing technique is one which duplicates, as nearly as reasonable, the actual parameters the capacitors would see in the full-scale system. Lifetime testing and analysis of small samples of high energy density (HED) discharge capacitors at the AFWL were conducted to find a component suitable for upgrading the SHIVA capacitor bank to a 6 MJ facility. Evaluation was performed with discharge conditions of approximately 250 kA per capacitor at 60 to 70% reversal and < 2 ..mu..s quarter period. Dielectric systems including Kraft paper with caster oil impregnant and Kraft paper, polypropylene with DiOctyl Phthalate (DOP) impregnant were tested.

  13. Pressure Effects Analysis of National Ignition Facility Capacitor Module Events

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S; Ma, C; Newton, M; Pastrnak, J; Price, D; Prokosch, D

    1999-11-22

    Capacitors and power conditioning systems required for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have experienced several catastrophic failures during prototype demonstration. These events generally resulted in explosion, generating a dramatic fireball and energetic shrapnel, and thus may present a threat to the walls of the capacitor bay that houses the capacitor modules. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of the capacitor bay walls to withstand the overpressure generated by the aforementioned events. Two calculations are described in this paper. The first one was used to estimate the energy release during a fireball event and the second one was used to estimate the pressure in a capacitor module during a capacitor explosion event. Both results were then used to estimate the subsequent overpressure in the capacitor bay where these events occurred. The analysis showed that the expected capacitor bay overpressure was less than the pressure tolerance of the walls. To understand the risk of the above events in NIF, capacitor module failure probabilities were also calculated. This paper concludes with estimates of the probability of single module failure and multi-module failures based on the number of catastrophic failures in the prototype demonstration facility.

  14. Ceramic capacitor exhibiting graceful failure by self-clearing, method for fabricating self-clearing capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, David Y.; Saha, Sanjib

    2006-08-29

    A short-resistant capacitor comprises an electrically conductive planar support substrate having a first thickness, a ceramic film deposited over the support substrate, thereby defining a ceramic surface; and a metallic film deposited over the ceramic surface, said film having a second thickness which is less than the first thickness and which is between 0.01 and 0.1 microns.

  15. Simulation of capacitor charging power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, S. R.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    By neglecting losses and other nonidealities, the authors were able to derive a simple single-loop equivalent circuit for each mode of operation of the series resonant converter. From these equivalent circuits, a good approximation of the current and voltages within the converter was obtained, despite the simplified approach taken. It is pointed out that designers of capacitor charging power supplies can utilize this approach in deciding what type of control strategy is needed to obtain a desired characteristic. Once the basic topology of the power supply has been determined, a detailed simulation could be implemented using one of the general-purpose software packages available.

  16. Soft capacitor fibers for electronic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-09-01

    A highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. The fiber is fabricated using fiber drawing method, where a multimaterial macroscopic preform is drawn into a submillimeter capacitor microstructured fiber. A typical measured capacitance per unit length of our fibers is 60-100 nF/m which is about 3 orders magnitude higher than that of a coaxial cable of a comparable diameter. The fiber has a transverse resistivity of 5 kΩ m. Softness, lightweight, absence of liquid electrolyte, and ease of scalability to large production volumes make the fibers interesting for various smart textile applications.

  17. Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.E.; Sullivan, P.F.; Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J.; Adams, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.

  18. Westinghouse multi-annular swirl burner CRADA 95-029. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The FLUENT computational fluid dynamic code has been used to aid design of the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB). After successful comparison of FLUENT predictions to test data, design studies using FLUENT have indicated that backwall holes are unnecessary in the MASB design. FLUENT was then used to study the adaptation of the MASB design to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Preliminary steady-state and transient simulations of the propane-fueled start-up process indicate that flame structure is dependent on the choice turbulence closure and the resultant variation in swirl levels and recirculation zones. Due to the effect of duct geometry on swirl dissipation, a more accurate representation of the transition duct connecting the MASB to the turbine will be needed to better describe the flame structure.

  19. CRADA Final Report: Optimized Catalysts for the Cracking of Heavier Petroleum Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2003-01-02

    Catalysts lower the activation energy required for chemical reactions to proceed and are widely used in petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing. The useful lifetime and, thus, the value of an industrial catalyst are limited by a process known as deactivation in which the efficiency of the catalyst declines over time. Understanding this deactivation process is essential for developing new catalysts with longer useful lifetimes. In this project a new surface science tool, ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, was used to identify chemical species on the surfaces of catalysts in-situ under actual reaction conditions. In collaboration with Catalytica this tool was applied to study deactivation in a series of important industrial catalysts. In the specific case of "reforming" catalysts are used to dehydrogenate and cyclize n-hexane and n-heptane to form benzene and toluene for the production of high octane gasoline, the buildup and polymerization of carbonaceous reaction byproducts on the surface of the catalyst was studied in-situ by this new method. The information on catalyst reaction and deactivation mechanisms has been found to be useful to the industrial partner in improving their catalysts. These improvements could have a major impact on the efficiency of petroleum refining and gasoline production. In addition, the new surface science tools developed by this project will have general applicability to the study of catalysis and to the field of surface science in general.

  20. Equipment Loan: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-250

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.

    2013-08-01

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensing validation; support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  1. Pulsed DC deposition of near-frictionless carbon. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G.; Energy Systems

    2005-06-30

    Near-Frictionless Carbon (NFC) coatings, CemeCon, Inc. arranged for the loan of a Pinnacle Plus pulsed DC power supply with ancillary support equipment and appropriate sputter targets for the deposition of CemeCon's graded Cr-based bond coat. A process engineer from CemeCon AG also came to Argonne to install and operate the new power supply, and work with ANL scientists on process development. By any measure, these results are extremely encouraging. It has now been established that NFC coatings can be deposited in the CemeCon CC800/9sx unit using pulsed DC to generate the plasma, and further that the DLC3000 bond coat technology can be used with PACVD coatings. In terms of process variables, it should be possible to increase the deposition rate by increasing either or both the deposition pressure and/or the pulsed bias voltage without adversely affecting the coating quality. Other structural characterization may be performed on the coatings, including fluctuation microscopy, ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  2. CRADA SC94-1259 final report: Dielectric mirror masks for laser processing of microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Peebles, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods were examined for the fabrication of dielectric mirror masks. In the first method, a commercial laser mirror was patterned with photoresist and the dielectric film etched with ammonium bifluoride. The ammonium bifluoride etch showed strong kinetic anisotropy with the fastest etch rate in the vertical direction. However, horizontal etching still resulted in significant undercutting of the photomask. In the second method, a photoresist coated laser mirror was etched with an argon plasma. The argon plasma caused significant damage to the photoresist and underlying dielectric layer without adequate removal of the dielectric film in the open areas of the mask. Neither of the two methods examined were able to produce usable dielectric masks. During the course of this project, it was discovered that a foreign company, Balzers AG of Liechtenstein, had recently developed successful fabrication procedures for dielectric mirror masks. A mask purchased from Balzers for testing showed distinguishable pattern features down to 2 {mu}m in size. This mask was used in ablative projection etching experiments to form microstructures in Mylar polymer films. A thin film resistor pattern with 7.0 {mu}m wide lines was etched 5.4 {mu}m deep into a Mylar substrate. The etch pattern showed uniform linewidths but exhibited some thinning of the lines in areas where U-turns occurred. The ablative projection etching technique shows promise as a method for the rapid fabrication of contact masks in microstructuring applications.

  3. Project Liberty: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00245

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.

    2010-08-01

    NREL hosted two teams of POET Project Liberty analysts for week-long biomass compositional analysis (wet chemical analysis) classes (one in 2008, one in 2009). NREL also performed biomass compositional on over 70 samples of corn stover feedstock and pretreated corn stover provided by POET.

  4. Removal of heteroatoms and metals from heavy oils by bioconversion processes. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E N; Borole, A P

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this Cooperative research and Development Agreement project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( O W ) and Baker Performance Chemicals (BPC), Chevron, Energy BioSystems, Exxon, UNOCAL and Texaco is to investigate the biological desukrization of crude oil. Biological removal of organic s&%r fiom crude oil offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. In order for biodesulfbrization to realize commercial success, reactors must be designed which allow for sufficient liquid / liquid and gas / liquid mass transfer while simultaneously reducing operating costs. To this end we have been developing advanced bioreactors for biodesufirization and have been studying their performance using both actual crude oil as well as more easily characterized model systems.

  5. Algae Biofuels Collaborative Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-371

    SciTech Connect

    French, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project is to advance biofuels research on algal feedstocks and NREL's role in the project is to explore novel liquid extraction methods, gasification and pyrolysis as means to produce fuels from algae. To that end several different extraction methods were evaluated and numerous gasification and pyrolysis conditions were explored. It was found that mild hydrothermal treatment is a promising means to improve the extraction and conversion of lipids from algae over those produced by standard extraction methods. The algae were essentially found to gasify completely at a fairly low temperature of 750 degrees C in the presence of oxygen. Pyrolysis from 300-550 degrees C showed sequential release of phytene hydrocarbons, glycerides, and aromatics as temperature was increased. It appears that this has potential to release the glycerides from the non-fatty acid groups present in the polar lipids to produce a cleaner lipid. Further research is needed to quantify the pyrolysis and gasification yields, analyze the liquids produced and to test strategies for removing organic-nitrogen byproducts produced because of the high protein content of the feed. Possible strategies include use of high-lipid/low-protein algae or the use of catalytic pyrolysis.

  6. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A.; Wierman, C.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  7. Evaluation of Hydrogen Sensors: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-547

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, William

    2015-10-01

    In preparation for the projected 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, KPA has been contracted by Toyota Motors to develop a hydrogen safety system for vehicle repair facilities. Repair facility safety designs will include hydrogen sensors. KPA will identify critical sensor specifications for vehicle repair facilities. In collaboration with NREL, KPA will select and purchase commercial hydrogen sensors that meet or nearly meet requirements for deployment in vehicle repair facility. A two-phase field deployment plan to verify sensor performance has been developed.

  8. Brandon Research, Inc. Orthopedic Implant Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.R.

    1999-04-22

    The project was a joint research effort between the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Brandon Research, Inc. to develop ways to improve implants used for orthopedic surgery for joint replacement. The primary product produced by this study is design information, which may be used to develop implants that will improve long-term fixation and durability in the host bone environment.

  9. Racing Radiators Utilizing ORNL’s Graphite Foam. CRADA Final Report, ORNL-98-0551

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James

    1998-10-10

    The recent development of light-weight foams has led to novel light-weight, high strength carbon based materials and structures. These materials exhibit very high specific strengths and low thermal conductivities. Likewise, the novel development of very high thermal conductivity graphite foam will lead to novel ''out-of-the-box'' solutions for thermal management problems. With a thermal conductivity equivalent to aluminum 6061 and 1/5th the weight, this material is an enabling technology for thermal management problems ranging from heat sinks to radiators and satellite panels to aircraft heat exchangers. In addition, the open porosity will lead to novel designs that ncorporate porous media heat exchangers and phase change materials. For example, by utilizing the foam as a heat exchanger, heat transfer coefficients over two orders of magnitude greater than current metallic designs have been measured. To further demonstrate this phenomenon, a heat exchanger (radiator) for a passenger automobile has been developed that is significantly smaller in size, and testing has demonstrated feasibility to improve the automobiles aerodynamic efficiency and reduce weight.

  10. University of Arkansas Pine Bluff. Final report/project accomplishments summary, CRADA Number 95-KCPP-004

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to help develop and transfer technologies to improve the production of the catfish segment of American aquaculture. This project was organized to leverage two DOE programs, DOE Historical Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) funds and Defense Program Technology Transfer Initiative. The emphasis was to be directed toward utilizing engineering and manufacturing capabilities to develop solutions to the industry problems through the technology transfer program. The project scope included the following: (1) review the technical needs of the aquaculture industry in the state of Arkansas; (2) match the technical capabilities of FM and T with the needs of the industry; (3) form joint projects between FM and T and UAPB. Four areas of immediate interest were identified: (1) dissolved oxygen sensor system improvements; (2) alternatives to seining; (3) fish inventory and sizing; (4) improved off-flavor detection. In the first project a technical literature search was conducted by UAPB with consultation from FM and T. It was determined that commercial dissolved oxygen sensor equipment is available that could be used to upgrade the monitoring for aquaculture use. Initial results of the Alternatives to Seining project concluded that either acoustic or electric field technology can be used to herd the fish as the traditional seine does. The balance of the project was canceled when project funding at UAPB was canceled.

  11. University of Pittsburgh and FETC CRADA PC96-004, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    DoE/FETc-99/lo90 Cellular deposition is a dynamic phenomenon that may involve both adhesion and detachment, as in thrombosis and thromboembolism. Current techniques for assessing the blood compatibility of opaque biomaterials are limited to endpoint analysis of cellular deposition. To investigate temporal changes in deposition multiple trials with varying duration are generally required.

  12. Monolithic circuits for barium fluoride detectors used in nuclear physics experiments. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, R.L.; Blankenship, J.L.; Beene, J.R.; Todd, R.A.

    1998-02-01

    Custom monolithic electronic circuits have been developed recently for large detector applications in high energy physics where subsystems require tens of thousands of channels of signal processing and data acquisition. In the design and construction of these enormous detectors, it has been found that monolithic circuits offer significant advantages over discrete implementations through increased performance, flexible packaging, lower power and reduced cost per channel. Much of the integrated circuit design for the high energy physics community is directly applicable to intermediate energy heavy-ion and electron physics. This STTR project conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sought to develop a new integrated circuit chip set for barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) detector arrays based upon existing CMOS monolithic circuit designs created for the high energy physics experiments. The work under the STTR Phase 1 demonstrated through the design, simulation, and testing of several prototype chips the feasibility of using custom CMOS integrated circuits for processing signals from BaF{sub 2} detectors. Function blocks including charge-sensitive amplifiers, comparators, one shots, time-to-amplitude converters, analog memory circuits and buffer amplifiers were implemented during Phase 1 effort. Experimental results from bench testing and laboratory testing with sources were documented.

  13. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  14. Development and demonstration of biosorbents for clean-up of uranium in water. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Faison, B.D.; Hu, M.Z.C.; Norman, J.M.; Reeves, M.E.; Williams, L.; Schmidt-Kuster, W.; Darnell, K. |

    1997-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU, a nongenetically engineered bacterial strain known to bind dissolved hexavalent uranium, shows particular promise as the basis of an immobilized-cell process for removal of dissolved uranium from contaminated wastewaters. It was characterized with respect to its sorptive active. Living, heat-killed, permeabilized, and unreconstituted lyophilized cells were all capable of binding uranium. The uranium biosorption equilibrium could be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The rate of uranium adsorption increased following permeabilization of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by organic solvents such as acetone. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was significantly more sorptive toward uranium than certain novel, patented biosorbents derived from algal or fungal biomass sources. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was also competitive with commercial cation-exchange resins, particularly in the presence of dissolved transition metals. Uranium binding by P. aeruginosa was clearly pH dependent. Uranium loading capacity increased with increasing pH under acidic conditions, presumably as a function of uranium speciation and due to the H{sup +} competition at some binding sites. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests that this microorganism is also capable of binding anionic hexavalent uranium complexes. Ferric iron was a strong inhibitor of uranium binding to P. aeruginosa CSU biomass, and the presence of uranium also decreased the Fe{sup 3+} loading when the biomass was not saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, suggesting that Fe{sup 3+} and uranium may share the same binding sites on biomass.

  15. A Study of the Electromedics Autotransfusion System, CRADA PC93-010, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin Shaffer; Mehrdad Shahnam

    1995-03-31

    This report describes the work at PETC to evaluate flow dynamics in the Electromedics autotransfusion system. First, a literature survey was conducted for flow studies in centrifuge systems. Although no flow studies were identified for Latham-type bowls, pertinent literature for general centrifugal separation was found and reviewed. Sample measurements were taken with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). The data indicates that LDV is a useful tool in flow analysis. Velocity, turbulence intensity, and bowl vibration are all accurately measured with LDV. For optical imaging of particle separation it is necessary to use fluorescent doped particles and color separation. This allows each type of particle to be observed in a mixture. A market survey was completed and sources for fluorescent dyed particles of three different emission wavelengths and corresponding optical bandpass filters were identified.

  16. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  17. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  18. Winnebago Resource Study. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-329

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Robichaud, R.

    2015-03-01

    Since 2005 the NREL Native American Tall Tower Loan program has assisted Native American tribes to assess their wind resource by lending tall (30m - 50m) anemometer. This program has allowed tribes a lower risk way to gather financeable wind data for potential utility scale wind energy projects. These projects offer Tribes a significant economic development opportunity.

  19. Phase 1 STTR flywheel motor/alternator for hybrid electric vehicles. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; Kessinger, R.L. Jr.; Robinson, S.T.; Seymour, K.P.; Dockstadter, K.D.

    1997-12-31

    Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed, through a Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an advanced, low-cost motor/alternator drive system suitable for Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) applications. During Phase 1, system performance and design requirements were established, design concepts were generated, and preliminary motor/alternator designs were developed and analyzed. ORNL provided mechanical design and finite element collaboration and Lynx Motion Technology, a spin-off from VCS to commercialize their technology, constructed a proof-of-concept axial-gap permanent magnet motor/alternator that employed their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) with a survivable design speed potential of 10,000 rpm. The VCS motor/alternator was successfully tested in ORNL`s Motor Test Tank using an ORNL inverter and ORNL control electronics. It was first operated as an unloaded motor to 6,000 rpm and driven as an unloaded generator to 6,000 rpm. Output from the generator was then connected to a resistance bank, which caused the loaded generator to decelerate to 3,860 rpm where data was collected. After about 4-1/2 minutes, the test was terminated because of an impact noise. Subsequent inspection and operation at low speeds did not reveal the source of the noise. Electrical performance of the motor was excellent, encouraging continued development of this technology. Phase 2 efforts will focus on further design development and optimization, manufacturing development and prototype construction, testing, and evaluation.

  20. Heart pathology determination from electrocardiogram signals by application of deterministic chaos mathematics. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, N.E.; Hively, L.M.; Stickney, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    It is well known that the electrical signals generated by the heart exhibit nonlinear, chaotic dynamics. A number of heart pathologies alter heartbeat dynamics and/or the electrical properties of the heart, which, in turn, alter electrocardiogram signals. Electrocardiogram techniques in common use for diagnosing pathologies have limited sensitivity and specificity. This leads to a relatively high misdiagnosis rate for ventricular fibrillation. It is also known that the linear analysis tools utilized (such as fast Fourier transforms and linear statistics) are limited in their ability to find subtle changes or characteristic signatures in nonlinear chaotic electrocardiogram signals. In contrast, the authors` research indicates that chaotic time-series analysis tools that they have developed allow quantification of the nonlinear nature of dynamic systems in the form of nonlinear statistics, and also enable characteristic signatures to be identified. The goal of this project is to modify these tools to increase and enhance the medically useful information obtained from electrocardiogram signals through the application of chaotic time series analysis tools. In the one year of the project, the tools have been extended to enhance the capabilities for detecting ventricular fibrillation. Chaotic time-series analysis provides a means to increase sensitivity in detecting general heart dynamics. Oak Ridge National Laboratory specialists have worked with Physio-Control and their medical collaborators to extend the capabilities of state-of-the-art electrocardiogram systems and interpretation of results.

  1. Radiometer Evaluation - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-00382

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, S.

    2013-10-01

    This project will place instrumentation at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in cooperation with Yankee Environmental Systems (Participant). One or more Participant instruments will be deployed for the purpose of evaluation under controlled conditions. The scope of the project will be a year-long comparison of the instruments vs. other NREL baseline instruments with awell-characterized history.

  2. CRADA Final Report: Genetic Testing for Evaluation of Heart Disease Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Ronald M.

    2002-01-21

    We have examined relationships of common genotypes in candidate genes to variations in plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lipoprotein subfractions, and other parameters related to cardiovascular disease risk in two study cohorts. The first cohort consisted of 395 healthy individuals studied on their usual diets, and again after consumption of high fat (40-46%) and low fat (20-24%) diets. The second cohort consisted of 369 subjects selected for leanness (body mass index < 25 kg/m{sup 2}). For both cohorts, 30 genotypes in 14 genes were examined by PCR using reagents from Roche Molecular Systems. In the diet study cohort, significant associations with various lipoprotein measurements were observed for variants in 9 genes related to lipoprotein metabolism. Some of these associations were significant for the high fat or low fat diet only, andlor for diet-induced lipoprotein changes. In addition some associations were significant in the cohort oflean subjects only. Collectively these preliminary analyses suggest that analysis of these genotypes, together with others that will be added on the basis of new gene discovery, can be of value in delineating gene-diet interactions of importance for cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Solar Trough Performance Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00289

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.

    2011-05-01

    New HCEs were installed on the hot sides of the thermal loops at SEGS VIII and IX from mid-2007 to mid-2008. Due to significant increases in plant performance, an interest in a further increase performance by installing new HCEs on the cold portions of the loop developed. Although it was assumed that the plant performance would increase, the exact amount was unknown. The objective of this project was to estimate the performance improvements with new HCEs installed on the cold sides of the loop, with performance being evaluated as potential increases in electrical power production (megawatt-hours). A comparison of performance prior to and post installation of new HCEs on the hot sides of the loops was done. For completeness, an estimate of performance losses - such as the optical efficiency, mirror reflectivity, and optical accuracy - was also included in this analysis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) HCE Survey System was used to determine if the HCEs were hot or cold.

  4. Carbon-carbon composites for orthopedic prosthesis and implants. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T D; Klett, J W; Strizak, J P; Baker, C

    1998-01-21

    The prosthetic implant market is extensive. For example, because of arthritic degeneration of hip and knee cartilage and osteoporotic fractures of the hip, over 200,000 total joint replacements (TJRs) are performed in the United States each year. Current TJR devices are typically metallic (stainless steel, cobalt, or titanium alloy) and are fixed in the bone with polymethylacrylate (PMMA) cement. Carbon-carbon composite materials offer several distinct advantages over metals for TJR prosthesis. Their mechanical properties can be tailored to match more closely the mechanical properties of human bone, and the composite may have up to 25% porosity, the size and distribution of which may be controlled through processing. The porous nature of carbon-carbon composites will allow for the ingrowth of bone, achieving biological fixation, and eliminating the need for PMMA cement fixation.

  5. Feasibility of correlating V-Cr-Ti alloy weld strength with weld chemistry. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Odom, R.W.

    1998-06-01

    The mechanical properties of refractory metals such as vanadium are determined to a large extent by the interstitial impurities in the alloy. In the case of welding, interstitial impurities are introduced in the welding process from the atmosphere and by dissolution of existing precipitates in the alloy itself. Because of the necessity of having an ultra-pure atmosphere, a vacuum chamber or a glove box is necessary. In the V-Cr-Ti system, the titanium serves as a getter to control the concentration of oxygen and nitrogen in solid solution in the alloy. In this project the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique was used to detect, measure, and map the spacial distribution of impurity elements in welds in the alloy V-4Cr-4Ti. An attempt was then made to correlate the concentrations and distributions of the impurities with mechanical properties of the welds. Mechanical integrity of the welds was determined by Charpy V-notch testing. Welds were prepared by the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) method. Charpy testing established a correlation between weld impurity concentration and the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Higher concentrations of oxygen resulted in a higher DBTT. An exception was noted in the case of a low-oxygen weld which had a high hydrogen concentration resulting in a brittle weld. The concentrations and distributions of the impurities determined by SIMS could not be correlated with the mechanical properties of the welds. This research supports efforts to develop fusion reactor first wall and blanket structural materials.

  6. Optimization of electron-cyclotron-resonance charge-breeder ions : Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.; Physics; Far-Tech, Inc.

    2009-10-09

    Measurements of 1+ beam properties and associated performance of ECR Charge Breeder source determined by total efficiency measurement and charge state distributions from the ECR Charge Breeder. These results were communicated to Far-Tech personnel who used them to benchmark the newly developed programs that model ion capture and charge breeding in the ECR Charge Breeder Source. Providing the basic data described above and in the discussion below to Far-Tech allowed them to improve and refine their calculational tools for ECR ion sources. These new tools will be offered for sale to industry and will also provide important guidance to other research labs developing Charge Breeding ion sources for radioactive beam physics research.

  7. Noncomposite Counterelectrode Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-203

    SciTech Connect

    Engtrakul, C.

    2014-06-01

    New counter electrode materials under development at NREL have the potential to positively impact electrochromic window technology. The current generation of nanocomposite materials is designed to provide rapid transport of lithium ions to nanoparticles of anodic coloring materials. They may improve the coloration efficiency of the entire films stack while also improving the speed and depth of coloration. We expect an added benefit of greater film durability. To date, encouraging results have been obtained in the laboratory. Performance and durability tests will be carried out to characterize any improvements obtained as a result of the new counter electrode materials. In addition to process improvement, the project also has the secondary goal of improving the basic understanding of the electrochromic process in Sage?s counter electrode.

  8. Nondestructive testing of ceramic engine components. Final progress report for completed CRADAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Happoldt, G.P.

    1993-07-15

    This report describes a method for the nondestructive testing of ZrO{sub 2} plasma-sprayed layers with intentional disbonds. A theoretical analysis was conducted to determine the surface-temperature difference for each disbond using a given input heat pulse.

  9. CRADA Final Report: Identification of New Therapies with Potential for Treatment of Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-10-21

    This project represents a collaboration between two research groups at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the research facility at the Chiron corporation, in which each group supplied unique and essential contributions. Mina Bissell, at LBNL, provided the resources and expertise of her research group in a physiologically relevant culture system with particular utility for investigating the development of breast cancer. Chiron Corporation, of Emeryville, California, generated high-quality cDNA microarrays, hybridized cDNA prepared from cultures and cell lines developed in the Bissell laboratory, and performed preliminary analysis of the resultant dataset. Saira Mian, at LBNL, used sophisticated statistical and Bayesian techniques for analysis of the enormously complex dataset to reveal key genes involved in signaling pathways responsible for development of breast cancer. These results have indicated separate and distinct groups of genes associated only with the nonmalignant cells, with the malignant cells, and the reverted cells. Currently, the project team is involved in data verification, to be followed by testing selected genes for utility as potential tumor suppressors. However, the results already obtained were so striking that a disclosure has been filed on 367 of the selected genes for potential use in therapy.

  10. Letter to Eduard Smetanin, dated March 2, 2007: Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-02

    The IPP/DOE program office has finished its evaluation of the alpha-emitting isotope work with Kurchatov Institute and IPPE, and they have made an important decision about the future of this work. IPP/DOE has directed us to re-program the work and add more funds, so the emphasis will be on production of Th228. By making this re-direction of the isotope work, IPPE will see several important benefits: (a) the payments will be made faster to IPPE by using the ISTC Agreement; (b) a larger amount of money will be paid to IPPE; and (c) a profitable future business opportunity for IPPE is more probable.

  11. Ceramicrete stabilization of radioactive-salt-containing liquid waste and sludge water. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-04

    It was found that the Ceramicrete Specimens incorporated the Streams 1 and 2 sludges with the adjusted loading about 41.6 and 31.6%, respectively, have a high solidity. The visible cracks in the matrix materials and around the anionite AV-17 granules included could not obtain. The granules mentioned above fixed by Ceramicrete matrix very strongly. Consequently, we can conclude that irradiation of Ceramecrete matrix, goes from the high radioactive elements, not result the structural degradation. Based on the chemical analysis of specimens No.462 and No.461 used it was shown that these matrix included the formation elements (P, K, Mg, O), but in the different samples their correlations are different. These ratios of the content of elements included are about {+-} 10%. This information shows a great homogeneity of matrix prepared. In the list of the elements founded, expect the matrix formation elements, we detected also Ca and Si (from the wollastonite - the necessary for Ceramicrete compound); Na, Al, S, O, Cl, Fe, Ni also have been detected in the Specimen No.642 from the waste forms: NaCl, Al(OH){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fe(OH){sub 3}, nickel ferrocyanide and Ni(NO{sub 3})2. The unintelligible results also were found from analysis of an AV-17 granules, in which we obtain the great amount of K. The X-ray radiographs of the Ceramicrete specimens with loading 41.4 % of Stream 1 and 31.6% of Stream 2, respectively showed that the realization of the advance technology, created at GEOHKI, leads to formation of excellent ceramic matrix with high amount of radioactive streams up to 40% and more. Really, during the interaction with start compounds MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the present of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and Wollastonite this process run with high speed under the controlled regimes. That fact that the Ceramicrete matrix with 30-40% of Streams 1 and 2 have a crystalline form, not amorphous matter, allows to permit that these matrix should be very stable, reliable for incorporation of a radionuclides.

  12. Buried Anode Device Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-451

    SciTech Connect

    Tenent, R.

    2015-03-01

    The possibility of a reflecting electrochromic device is very attractive, and the 'Buried Anode' architecture developed at NREL could yield such a device. The subject of this cooperative agreement will be the development and refinement of a Buried Anode device process. This development will require the active involvement of NREL and US e-Chromic personnel, and will require the use of NREL equipment as much as possible. When this effort is concluded, US e-Chromic will have enough information to construct a pilot production line, where further development can continue.

  13. Fusion welding of advanced borated stainless steels. Final report: CRADA No. CR1042

    SciTech Connect

    Robino, C.V.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    This work addressed two major areas concerning joining of advanced borated stainless steels. These areas included the development of a understanding of the physical metallurgy of borated stainless steels and the development of welding processes and post-weld heat treatments for these alloys. Differential thermal analysis experiments were conducted on ten heats of borated stainless steel to determine the transformation temperatures and melting behavior of the alloys. On-heating solidus temperatures were measured for all of the alloys and were used to define the temperatures associated with the fusion line during welding. Isothermal heat treatments designed to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature exposures on the toughness of the borated grades were conducted. These tests were used to determine if significant changes in the microstructure or mechanical properties of weld heat-affected zones (HAZ) occur. Specifically, the tests addressed the solid-state region of the HAZ. The test matrix included a variety of alloy compositions and thermal exposures at temperatures near the on-heating solidus (as determined by the DTA experiments). Welding experiments designed to assess the mechanical properties and microstructure of gas-tungsten arc and electron beam welds were conducted.

  14. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

  15. Design of 3x3 focusing array for heavy ion driver. Final report on CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2005-03-30

    This memo presents a design of a 3 x 3 quadrupole array for HIF. It contains 3 D magnetic field computations of the array build with racetrack coils with and without different shields. It is shown that it is possible to have a low error magnetic field in the cells and shield the stray fields to acceptable levels. The array design seems to be a practical solution to any size array for future multi-beam heavy ion fusion drivers.

  16. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Ludtka, G.M.; Bjerke, M.A.; Gray, W.H.

    1997-12-01

    The overall scope of this endeavor was to develop an integrated computer system, running on a network of heterogeneous computers, that would allow the rapid development of tool designs, and then use process models to determine whether the initial tooling would have characteristics which produce the prototype parts. The major thrust of this program for ORNL was the definition of the requirements for the development of the integrated die design system with the functional purpose to link part design, tool design, and component fabrication through a seamless software environment. The principal product would be a system control program that would coordinate the various application programs and implement the data transfer so that any networked workstation would be useable. The overall system control architecture was to be required to easily facilitate any changes, upgrades, or replacements of the model from either the manufacturing end or the design criteria standpoint. The initial design of such a program is described in the section labeled ``Control Program Design``. A critical aspect of this research was the design of the system flow chart showing the exact system components and the data to be transferred. All of the major system components would have been configured to ensure data file compatibility and transferability across the Internet. The intent was to use commercially available packages to model the various manufacturing processes for creating the die and die inserts in addition to modeling the processes for which these parts were to be used. In order to meet all of these requirements, investigative research was conducted to determine the system flow features and software components within the various organizations contributing to this project. This research is summarized.

  17. Production of Ra225 precursor for Ac225/Bi213 generators. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    Russian subcontractors shipped two small deliveries of Ra225 to PNNL for evaluation. The activity was close to the requisite amount in the subcontract. The first labeled properly; the second did not. This showed that the Russians could supply Ra225 to the US; however they proved unable to meet future demands for larger amounts of activity. The US DOE attempts to get Ra225 from Russian should be terminated; the Russians, under Rosatom, are not interested in this business.

  18. Evaluation of high temperature capacitor dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Myers, Ira T.

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate four candidate materials for high temperature capacitor dielectric applications. The materials investigated were polybenzimidazole polymer and three aramid papers: Voltex 450, Nomex 410, and Nomex M 418, an aramid paper containing 50 percent mica. The samples were heat treated for six hours at 60 C and the direct current and 60 Hz alternating current breakdown voltages of both dry and impregnated samples were obtained in a temperature range of 20 to 250 C. The samples were also characterized in terms of their dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and conductivity over this temperature range with an electrical stress of 60 Hz, 50 V/mil present. Additional measurements are underway to determine the volume resistivity, thermal shrinkage, and weight loss of the materials. Preliminary data indicate that the heat treatment of the films slightly improves the dielectric properties with no influence on their breakdown behavior. Impregnation of the samples leads to significant increases in both alternating and direct current breakdown strength. The results are discussed and conclusions made concerning their suitability as high temperature capacitor dielectrics.

  19. Capacitors Would Help Protect Against Hypervelocity Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Hovater, Mary

    2007-01-01

    A proposal investigates alternatives to the present bumper method of protecting spacecraft against impacts of meteoroids and orbital debris. The proposed method is based on a British high-voltage-capacitance technique for protecting armored vehicles against shaped-charge warheads. A shield, according to the proposal, would include a bare metal outer layer separated by a gap from an inner metal layer covered with an electrically insulating material. The metal layers would constitute electrodes of a capacitor. A bias potential would be applied between the metal layers. A particle impinging at hypervelocity on the outer metal layer would break apart into a debris cloud that would penetrate the electrical insulation on the inner metal layer. The cloud would form a path along which electric current could flow between the metal layers, thereby causing the capacitor to discharge. With proper design, the discharge current would be large enough to vaporize the particles in the debris cloud to prevent penetration of the spacecraft. The shield design can be mass optimized to be competitive with existing bumper designs. Parametric studies were proposed to determine optimum correction between bias voltage, impacting particle velocity, gap space, and insulating material required to prevent spacecraft penetration.

  20. A Magnesium-Activated Carbon Hybrid Capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, HD; Shterenberg, I; Gofer, Y; Doe, RE; Fischer, CC; Ceder, G; Aurbach, D

    2013-12-11

    Prototype cells of hybrid capacitor were developed, comprising activated carbon (AC) cloth and magnesium (Mg) foil as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. The electrolyte solution included ether solvent (TBF) and a magnesium organo-halo-aluminate complex 0.25 M Mg2Cl3+-Ph2AlCl2-. In this solution Mg can be deposited/dissolved reversibly for thousands of cycles with high reversibility (100% cycling efficiency). The main barrier for integrating porous AC electrodes with this electrolyte solution was the saturation of the pores with the large ions in the AC prior to reaching the potential limit. This is due to the existence of bulky Mg and Al based ionic complexes consisting Cl, alkyl or aryl (R), and THF ligands. This problem was resolved by adding 0.5 M of lithium chloride (LiCl), thus introducing smaller ionic species to the solution. This Mg hybrid capacitor system demonstrated a stable cycle performance for many thousands of cycles with a specific capacitance of 90 Fg(-1) for the AC positive electrodes along a potential range of 2.4 V. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of high temperature capacitor dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Myers, Ira T.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate four candidate materials for high temperature capacitor dielectric applications. The materials investigated were polybenzimidazole polymer and three aramid papers: Voltex 450, Nomex 410, and Nomex M 418, an aramid paper containing 50 percent mica. The samples were heat treated for six hours at 60 C and the direct current and 60 Hz alternating current breakdown voltages of both dry and impregnated samples were obtained in a temperature range of 20 to 250 C. The samples were also characterized in terms of their dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and conductivity over this temperature range with an electrical stress of 60 Hz, 50 V/mil present. Additional measurements are underway to determine the volume resistivity, thermal shrinkage, and weight loss of the materials. Preliminary data indicate that the heat treatment of the films slightly improves the dielectric properties with no influence on their breakdown behavior. Impregnation of the samples leads to significant increases in both alternating and direct current breakdown strength. The results are discussed and conclusions made concerning their suitability as high temperature capacitor dielectrics.

  2. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  3. Performance of electric double layer capacitors with polymer gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Kishino, Takahiro; Katada, Naoji; Morita, Masayuki

    2000-07-01

    Polymer gel electrolytes consisting of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}), and propylene carbonate (PC) as a plasticizer have been investigated for electric double layer capacitors. The PVdF gel electrolytes showed high ionic conductivity (ca. 6 mS/cm at 298 K). To assemble model capacitors with the PVdF gel electrolytes and activated carbon fiber cloth electrodes, a pair of the fixed electrodes was soaked in a precursor solution containing PC, PVdF, and TEABF{sub 4}, followed by evaporation of the PC solvent in a vacuum oven. The resulting gel electrolytes were in good contact with the electrodes. The model capacitors with the PVdF gel electrolytes showed a large value of capacitance and high coulombic efficiency in operation voltage ranges of 1--2 and 1--3 V. It is worth noting that the capacitors with the PVdF electrolytes showed long voltage retention in a self-discharge test. These good characteristics of the gel capacitors were comparable to those of typical double layer capacitors with a liquid organic electrolyte containing PC and TEABF{sub 4}; rather, the voltage retentivity of the PVdF gel capacitors was much superior to that of the capacitors with the organic electrolyte.

  4. Two-Capacitor Problem: A More Realistic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the two-capacitor problem by considering the self-inductance of the circuit used and by determining how well the usual series RC circuit approximates the two-capacitor problem when realistic values of L, C, and R are chosen. (GA)

  5. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  6. Absorption Voltages and Insulation Resistance in Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Time dependence of absorption voltages (Vabs) in different types of low-voltage X5R and X7R ceramic capacitors was monitored for a maximum duration of hundred hours after polarization. To evaluate the effect of mechanical defects on Vabs, cracks in the dielectric were introduced either mechanically or by thermal shock. The maximum absorption voltage, time to roll-off, and the rate of voltage decrease are shown to depend on the crack-related leakage currents and insulation resistance in the parts. A simple model that is based on the Dow equivalent circuit for capacitors with absorption has been developed to assess the insulation resistance of capacitors. Standard measurements of the insulation resistance, contrary to the measurements based on Vabs, are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects and fail to reveal capacitors with cracks. Index Terms: Ceramic capacitor, insulation resistance, dielectric absorption, cracking.

  7. Evaluation of Commercial Automotive-Grade BME Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Donhang

    2014-01-01

    Three Ni-BaTiO3 ceramic capacitor lots with the same specification (chip size, capacitance, and rated voltage) and the same reliability level, made by three different manufacturers, were degraded using highly accelerated life stress testing (HALST) with the same temperature and applied voltage conditions. The reliability, as characterized by mean time to failure (MTTF), differed by more than one order of magnitude among the capacitor lots. A theoretical model based on the existence of depletion layers at grain boundaries and the entrapment of oxygen vacancies has been proposed to explain the MTTF difference among these BME capacitors. It is the conclusion of this model that reliability will not be improved simply by increasing the insulation resistance of a BME capacitor. Indeed, Ni-BaTiO3 ceramic capacitors with a smaller degradation rate constant K will always give rise to a longer reliability life.

  8. Robust Two-Dimensional Stack Capacitor Technologies for 64 Mbit One-Transistor-One-Capacitor Ferroelectric Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju-Young; Joo, Heung-Jin; Park, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Seung-Kuk; Kim, Hwi-San; Choi, Do-Yeon; Kim, Jai-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Sun; Hong, Young-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kang, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yung; Jeong, Hong-Sik; Kim, Kinam

    2007-04-01

    It is very important to develop capacitor module technologies such as robust Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) film technology at nm scaled PZT thickness and damage minimized ferroelectric capacitor etching technology are crucial for the success of high density one-transistor-one-capacitor (1T1C) ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM). We resolved this issue from the change of the capacitor etching system and optimization of the PZT/SrRuO3 (SRO) deposition process. As a result, we realized a highly reliable sensing window for 64 Mbit 1T1C FRAM that were realized by novel technologies such as robust MOCVD PZT deposition technologies, optimized SRO electrode and damage minimized ferroelectric capacitor etching technologies.

  9. Building Diagnostic Market Deployment - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, S.; Gayeski, N.

    2012-04-30

    provided validation data sets and the WBE software tool to validate the KGS implementation. OAE diagnostician automatically detects and diagnoses problems with outdoor air ventilation and economizer operation for air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings using data available from building automation systems (BASs). As part of this CRADA, PNNL developed implementation documentation and provided technical support to KGS to implement the tool into their software suite. PNNL also provided validation data sets and the OAE software tool to validate the KGS implementation. Finally, as part of this CRADA project, PNNL developed new processes to automate parts of the re-tuning process and transfer those process to KGS for integration into their software product. The transfer of DOE-funded technologies will transform the commercial buildings sector by making buildings more energy efficient and also reducing the carbon footprint from the buildings. As part of the CRADA with PNNL, KGS implemented the whole building energy diagnostician, a portion of outdoor air economizer diagnostician and a number of measures that automate the identification of re-tuning measures.

  10. Gelcasting of aluminum titanate. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Stephan, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to assess the applicability of the gelcasting process for forming automotive exhaust port liner green bodies using Golden Technologies` proprietary aluminum titanate powder composition. A gelcasting process, specifically tailored to Golden Technologies` powder, was developed and used successfully to form green bodies for property evaluation. Using appropriate milling and firing conditions, it was found that the gelcast material had properties which compared favorably with Golden Technologies` baseline material. Tubular gelcast samples simulating exhaust port liners were prepared and shipped to Golden Technologies for final process evaluation.

  11. Design definition of a mechanical capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelis, T. D.; Schlieban, E. W.; Scott, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design study and analyses of a 10 kW-hr, 15 kW mechanical capacitor system was studied. It was determined that magnetically supported wheels constructed of advanced composites have the potential for high energy density and high power density. Structural concepts are analyzed that yield the highest energy density of any structural design yet reported. Particular attention was paid to the problem of 'friction' caused by magnetic and I to the second power R losses in the suspension and motor-generator subsystems, and low design friction levels have been achieved. The potentially long shelf life of this system, and the absence of wearing parts, provide superior performance over conventional flywheels supported with mechanical bearings. Costs and economies of energy storage wheels were reviewed briefly.

  12. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  13. Low temperature double-layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J. (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors capable of operating at extremely low temperatures (e.g., as low as -75.degree. C.) are disclosed. Electrolyte solutions combining a base solvent (e.g., acetonitrile) and a cosolvent are employed to lower the melting point of the base electrolyte. Example cosolvents include methyl formate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, propionitrile, butyronitrile, and 1,3-dioxolane. An optimized concentration (e.g., 0.10 M to 0.75 M) of salt, such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate, is dissolved into the electrolyte solution. In some cases (e.g., 1,3-dioxolane cosolvent) additives, such as 2% by volume triethylamine, may be included in the solvent mixture to prevent polymerization of the solution. Conventional device form factors and structural elements (e.g., porous carbon electrodes and a polyethylene separator) may be employed.

  14. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  15. Solar Resource Measurements in El Paso, Texas (Equipment CRADA Only): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-273

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, A.

    2013-11-01

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensing validation; support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  16. Defibrillation thresholds are lower with smaller storage capacitors.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, F M; Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E

    1995-09-01

    Present implantable cardioverter defibrillators use a wide range of capacitance values for the storage capacitor. However, the optimal capacitance value is unknown. We hypothesized that a smaller capacitor, by delivering its charge in a time closer to the heart chronaxie, should lower the defibrillation threshold (DFT). We compared the energy required to defibrillate 10 open-chest dogs, after 15 seconds of ventricular fibrillation, with a monophasic, time-truncated waveform delivered from either a 85-microF or a 140-microF capacitor. Shocks were delivered through a pair of 14-cm2 epicardial patch electrodes: The two capacitors were randomly tested twice with each dog using a modified 3-reversal method for each DFT determination. The average stored and delivered DFT energies for the 85-microF capacitor were 6.0 +/- 1.7 joules and 5.2 +/- 1.5 joules, respectively, compared to 6.7 +/- 1.7 joules and 6.0 +/- 1.5 joules for the 140-microF capacitor (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The mean leading edge voltages were higher, the pulse duration shorter, and the mean impedance lower for the 85-microF capacitor. The impedance was inversely related to the pulse duration and the voltage decay suggesting that, at least in part, the mechanism of improved defibrillation could be accounted for by the waveform electrical characteristics. There was an equal number of episodes of postshock bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias following discharges from each capacitor. Moreover, there was no relationship between the likelihood of these arrhythmias and either the initial voltage or the delivered current nor there was a higher number of episodes of postshock hypotension following the smaller capacitor discharges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7491309

  17. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  18. Challenges facing lithium batteries and electrical double-layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Soon; Chen, Zonghai; Freunberger, Stefan A; Ji, Xiulei; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil; Yushin, Gleb; Nazar, Linda F; Cho, Jaephil; Bruce, Peter G

    2012-10-01

    Energy-storage technologies, including electrical double-layer capacitors and rechargeable batteries, have attracted significant attention for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and "load leveling" of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Transforming lithium batteries and electric double-layer capacitors requires a step change in the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, new electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of the processes on which the devices depend. The Review will consider some of the current scientific issues underpinning lithium batteries and electric double-layer capacitors. PMID:22965900

  19. Negative capacitor paves the way to ultra-broadband metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabar, Silvio; Krois, Igor; Bonic, Ivan; Kiricenko, Aleksandar

    2011-12-01

    Experimental demonstration of the overcoming of basic dispersion-energy constraints in metamaterials with the help of active non-Foster negative capacitors is reported. The experimental metamaterial operates in RF regime, and it is based on air transmission line loaded with negative capacitors. Measurement results clearly show almost dispersionless Epsilon-Near-Zero behavior, accompanied with superluminal both phase and group velocities, over a bandwidth of more than four octaves (2 MHz-40 MHz). The principle of periodic loading of transmission line with negative capacitors may find applications in ultra-broadband active metamaterials for antennas and cloaking technology.

  20. Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kang, J H; Kim, D S; Park, Q-Han

    2009-03-01

    We present a local capacitor model that enables a simple yet quantitatively accurate description of lightning rod effect in nanoplasmonics. A notion of lambda-zone capacitance is proposed and applied to predict the strongly induced electric field by a light source near nanoscale metal edges such as metal tip or metal gap. The enhancement factor, calculated from the local capacitor model, shows excellent agreement with more rigorous results. The lambda-zone capacitor allows a blockwise treatment of nano-optical devices and constitutes a basic element of optical nanocircuits. PMID:19392523

  1. Matching properties, and voltage and temperature dependence of MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    A technique for designing MOS capacitor arrays is discussed, which includes a method of calculating capacitance ratio errors and subsequent total yield. Data illustrating the sensitivity of the ratio matching to capacitor layout, structures, and technology are presented, and measured voltage coefficients of MOS capacitors as function of surface concentration are compared with the calculated coefficients. It is demonstrated that the temperature dependence of space charge capacitance, thermal expansion, and temperature dependence of the dielectric constant are the major components of the temperature coefficient of capacitance. It is also shown that to a first-order, heavily doped polysilicon accumulates and depletes similar to crystalline silicon.

  2. An overview of carbon materials for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Chen, Wanjun; Gao, Caitian; Zhou, Jinyuan; Li, Xiaodong; Xie, Erqing

    2013-10-01

    Under the background of the quick development of lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic devices in our society, a flexible and highly efficient energy management strategy is needed for their counterpart energy-storage systems. Among them, flexible electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates because of their significant advantages in power and energy densities, and unique properties of being flexible, lightweight, low-cost, and environmentally friendly compared with current energy storage devices. In a common EC, carbon materials play an irreplaceable and principal role in its energy-storage performance. Up till now, most progress towards flexible ECs technologies has mostly benefited from the continuous development of carbon materials. As a result, in view of the dual remarkable highlights of ECs and carbon materials, a summary of recent research progress on carbon-based flexible EC electrode materials is presented in this review, including carbon fiber (CF, consisting of carbon microfiber-CMF and carbon nanofiber-CNF) networks, carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene coatings, CNT and/or graphene papers (or films), and freestanding three-dimensional (3D) flexible carbon-based macroscopic architectures. Furthermore, some promising carbon materials for great potential applications in flexible ECs are introduced. Finally, the trends and challenges in the development of carbon-based electrode materials for flexible ECs and their smart applications are analyzed. PMID:23934430

  3. An overview of carbon materials for flexible electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongmin; Chen, Wanjun; Gao, Caitian; Zhou, Jinyuan; Li, Xiaodong; Xie, Erqing

    2013-09-01

    Under the background of the quick development of lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic devices in our society, a flexible and highly efficient energy management strategy is needed for their counterpart energy-storage systems. Among them, flexible electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates because of their significant advantages in power and energy densities, and unique properties of being flexible, lightweight, low-cost, and environmentally friendly compared with current energy storage devices. In a common EC, carbon materials play an irreplaceable and principal role in its energy-storage performance. Up till now, most progress towards flexible ECs technologies has mostly benefited from the continuous development of carbon materials. As a result, in view of the dual remarkable highlights of ECs and carbon materials, a summary of recent research progress on carbon-based flexible EC electrode materials is presented in this review, including carbon fiber (CF, consisting of carbon microfiber-CMF and carbon nanofiber-CNF) networks, carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene coatings, CNT and/or graphene papers (or films), and freestanding three-dimensional (3D) flexible carbon-based macroscopic architectures. Furthermore, some promising carbon materials for great potential applications in flexible ECs are introduced. Finally, the trends and challenges in the development of carbon-based electrode materials for flexible ECs and their smart applications are analyzed.

  4. Investigation of Tantalum Wet Slug Capacitor Failures in the Apollo Telescope Mount Charger Battery Regulator Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. F.; Wiedeman, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation describes the capacitor failures and to identify the cause of the failure mechanism. Early failures were thought to have happened because of age and/or abuse since the failed capacitors were dated 1967. It is shown that all 1967 capacitors were replaced with 1972 capacitors.

  5. Compact 20-kiloampere pulse-forming-network capacitor bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posta, S. J.; Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bank uses commercially available high-energy-density capacitors for energy storage and silicon-controlled rectifiers for switching. Low voltage design employing solid-state switching is utilized in lieu of conventional gas discharge switching.

  6. Performance comparison: Aluminum electrolytic and solid tantalum capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthornthwaite, B. G.; Piper, J.; Holland, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Several key electrical and environmental parameters of latest technology aluminum electrolytic and solid tantalum capacitors were evaluated in terms of price fluctuations of tantalum metal. Performance differences between solid tantalums and aluminum electrolytics are examined.

  7. Improvement program for polycarbonate capacitors. [hermetically sealed, and ac wound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. R.; Waterman, K. D.

    1973-01-01

    Hermetically sealed, wound, AC, polycarbonate capacitors incorporating design improvements recommended in a previous study were designed and built. A 5000 hour, 400 Hz ac life test was conducted using 384 of these capacitors to verify the adequacy of the design improvements. The improvements incorporated in the capacitors designed for this program eliminated the major cause of failure found in the preceding work, termination failure. A failure cause not present in the previous test became significant in this test with capacitors built from one lot of polycarbonate film. The samples from this lot accounted for 25 percent of the total test complement. Analyses of failed samples showed that the film had an excessive solvent content. This solvent problem was found in 37 of the total 46 failures which occurred in this test. The other nine were random failures resulting from causes such as seal leaks, foreign particles, and possibly wrinkles.

  8. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  9. Absorption Voltages and Insulation Resistance in Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Time dependence of absorption voltages (V(sub abs)) in different types of low-voltage X5R and X7R ceramic capacitors was monitored for a maximum duration of hundred hours after polarization. To evaluate the effect of mechanical defects on V(sub abs)), cracks in the dielectric were introduced either mechanically or by thermal shock. The maximum absorption voltage, time to roll-off, and the rate of voltage decrease are shown to depend on the crack-related leakage currents and insulation resistance in the parts. A simple model that is based on the Dow equivalent circuit for capacitors with absorption has been developed to assess the insulation resistance of capacitors. Standard measurements of the insulation resistance, contrary to the measurements based on V(sub abs)), are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects and fail to reveal capacitors with cracks.

  10. Fringe Capacitance of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to measure the forces between charged parallel plates, and determines the relationship among the effective electrode area, the measured capacitance values, and the electrode spacing of a parallel plate capacitor. (GA)

  11. Characteristics of Radio-Frequency Circuits Utilizing Ferroelectric Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Michael; Gui, Xiao; MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric capacitors, most commonly used in memory circuits and variable components, were studied in simple analog radio-frequency circuits such as the RLC resonator and Colpitts oscillator. The goal was to characterize the RF circuits in terms of frequency of oscillation, gain, etc, using ferroelectric capacitors. Frequencies of oscillation of both circuits were measured and studied a more accurate resonant frequency can be obtained using the ferroelectric capacitors. Many experiments were conducted and data collected. A model to simulate the experimental results will be developed. Discrepancies in gain and frequency in these RF circuits when conventional capacitors are replaced with ferroelectric ones were studied. These results will enable circuit designers to anticipate the effects of using ferroelectric components in their radio- frequency applications.

  12. Multilayer ceramic capacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 for temperature stable and high energy density capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitish; Ionin, Aleksey; Ansell, Troy; Kwon, Seongtae; Hackenberger, Wesley; Cann, David

    2015-06-01

    The need for miniaturization without compromising cost and performance continues to motivate research in advanced capacitor devices. In this report, multilayer ceramic capacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BT-BZT) were fabricated and characterized. In bulk ceramic embodiments, BT-BZT has been shown to exhibit relative permittivities greater than 1000, high resistivities (ρ > 1 GΩ-cm at 300 °C), and negligible saturation up to fields as high as 150 kV/cm. Multilayer capacitor embodiments were fabricated and found to exhibit similar dielectric and resistivity properties. The energy density for the multilayer ceramics reached values of ˜2.8 J/cm3 at room temperature at an applied electric field of ˜330 kV/cm. This represents a significant improvement compared to commercially available multilayer capacitors. The dielectric properties were also found to be stable over a wide range of temperatures with a temperature coefficient of approximately -2000 ppm/K measured from 50 to 350 °C, an important criteria for high temperature applications. Finally, the compatibility of inexpensive Ag-Pd electrodes with these ceramics was also demonstrated, which can have implications on minimizing the device cost.

  13. Inline sidewall angle monitoring of memory capacitor profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Ben M.; Bushman, Scott G.; Celii, Francis G.; Ayres, Stephen F.; Kris, Roman

    2005-05-01

    The integration of embedded ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) into a standard CMOS flow requires significant control and characterization of the patterned capacitor sidewall angle. The electrical functionality of the FRAM capacitor is highly dependent on the post-etch sidewall characteristics of the TiAlN hardmask and Ir/PZT/Ir capacitor film stack. In this study, we explored various options for determining the sidewall profile of these capacitors including scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scatterometry. A series of capacitor samples with ranges of sidewall slopes from 60 degrees to 80 degrees was generated to test each measuring technique's robustness. All of the techniques demonstrated relatively accurate sidewall angle measurements of the high-angle capacitor profiles relative to cross-section SEMs. However, the CD SEM had difficulty identifying the top edge of the low-angle capacitor samples due to the large amount of profile roughness, which induced a large measurement error range. Additional optimization is required to improve the CD SEM's precision, before it would be a viable in-line monitor for the FRAM process. The AFM provided good accuracy and precision on the high-angle capacitor profiles, but the tip size limited the measurements to spaces larger than 120 nm. Furthermore, the AFM had a long move-acquire-measure (MAM) time of 5 minutes/site, which limited its throughput as an inline monitor. The scatterometer predicted bottom-stack sidewall angle measurements (2 trapezoid model) that were consistent with the cross-section SEMs, and it produced the lowest across wafer sidewall angle range. It also had the fastest MAM time of 5 seconds/site compared to the other techniques. However, it was difficult to generate an accurate scatterometry model due to the complex optical film stack that incorporated low surface reflectivity and higher surface roughness. While each technique had limitations, scatterometry

  14. Capacitor bonding techniques and reliability. [thermal cycling tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, D. L.; Graff, S. M.; Allen, R. V.; Caruso, S. V.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of thermal cycling on the mechanical failure of bonded ceramic chip capacitors mounted on alumina substrates is studied. It is shown that differential thermal expansion is responsible for the cumulative effects which lead to delayed failure of the capacitors. Harder or higher melting solders are found to be less susceptible to thermal cycling effects, although they are more likely to fail during initial processing operations.

  15. Ruthenium Oxide Electrochemical Super Capacitor Optimization for Pulse Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merryman, Stephen A.; Chen, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Electrical actuator systems are being pursued as alternatives to hydraulic systems to reduce maintenance time, weight and costs while increasing reliability. Additionally, safety and environmental hazards associated with the hydraulic fluids can be eliminated. For most actuation systems, the actuation process is typically pulsed with high peak power requirements but with relatively modest average power levels. The power-time requirements for electrical actuators are characteristic of pulsed power technologies where the source can be sized for the average power levels while providing the capability to achieve the peak requirements. Among the options for the power source are battery systems, capacitor systems or battery-capacitor hybrid systems. Battery technologies are energy dense but deficient in power density; capacitor technologies are power dense but limited by energy density. The battery-capacitor hybrid system uses the battery to supply the average power and the capacitor to meet the peak demands. It has been demonstrated in previous work that the hybrid electrical power source can potentially provide a weight savings of approximately 59% over a battery-only source. Electrochemical capacitors have many properties that make them well-suited for electrical actuator applications. They have the highest demonstrated energy density for capacitive storage (up to 100 J/g), have power densities much greater than most battery technologies (greater than 30kW/kg), are capable of greater than one million charge-discharge cycles, can be charged at extremely high rates, and have non-explosive failure modes. Thus, electrochemical capacitors exhibit a combination of desirable battery and capacitor characteristics.

  16. Test Demonstration of Magnet Power Supply with Floating Capacitor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Morita, Yuichi; Sagawa, Ryu; Kurimoto, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Shu; Miura, Kazuki

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) aims at achieving a MW-class proton accelerator facility. We plan to increase the beam power by shortening the repetition period of the Main Ring (MR) from the present period of 2.5 to 1 s in the future. In this scheme, there are serious concerns regarding the main magnets. One involves the increasing output voltage, and the other is related to the power variation of the electric system. We propose an innovative floating capacitor method to produce a high output voltage and suppress the power variation with capacitor energy storage for addressing these concerns. Nevertheless, the driving power supply used with this method needs to establish control of the floating capacitor voltage. We developed and introduced recovery control of the floating capacitor voltage for each accelerator cycle. We also confirmed that the tracking error can be corrected by iterative learning control with the floating capacitor method. In this article, the magnet power supply with the floating capacitor method is described, and test results achieved with the mini model power supply are presented.

  17. Physics Based Modeling and Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Ceyla, Jose R.; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes first principles based modeling and prognostics approach for electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors have become critical components in electronics systems in aeronautics and other domains. Degradations and faults in DC-DC converter unit propagates to the GPS and navigation subsystems and affects the overall solution. Capacitors and MOSFETs are the two major components, which cause degradations and failures in DC-DC converters. This type of capacitors are known for its low reliability and frequent breakdown on critical systems like power supplies of avionics equipment and electrical drivers of electromechanical actuators of control surfaces. Some of the more prevalent fault effects, such as a ripple voltage surge at the power supply output can cause glitches in the GPS position and velocity output, and this, in turn, if not corrected will propagate and distort the navigation solution. In this work, we study the effects of accelerated aging due to thermal stress on different sets of capacitors under different conditions. Our focus is on deriving first principles degradation models for thermal stress conditions. Data collected from simultaneous experiments are used to validate the desired models. Our overall goal is to derive accurate models of capacitor degradation, and use them to predict performance changes in DC-DC converters.

  18. Space Vehicle Power System Comprised of Battery/Capacitor Combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarotte, C.; Lancaster, G. S.; Eichenberg, D.; Butler, S. M.; Miller, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent improvements in energy densities of batteries open the possibility of using electric rather that hydraulic actuators in space vehicle systems. However, the systems usually require short-duration, high-power pulses. This power profile requires the battery system to be sized to meet the power requirements rather than stored energy requirements, often resulting in a large and inefficient energy storage system. Similar transient power applications have used a combination of two or more disparate energy storage technologies. For instance, placing a capacitor and a battery side-by-side combines the high energy density of a battery with the high power performance of a capacitor and thus can create a lighter and more compact system. A parametric study was performed to identify favorable scenarios for using capacitors. System designs were then carried out using equivalent circuit models developed for five commercial electrochemical capacitor products. Capacitors were sized to satisfy peak power levels and consequently "leveled" the power requirement of the battery, which can then be sized to meet system energy requirements. Simulation results clearly differentiate the performance offered by available capacitor products for the space vehicle applications.

  19. Cryogenic Heat Engines Made Using Electrocaloric Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Justin; Ordonez, Carlos A.

    2001-10-01

    It is possible to operate a heat engine using a cold substance, such as liquid nitrogen, as a heat sink and the atmosphere as a heat source.(C. A. Ordonez, American Journal of Physics 64), (1996) 479-481. With sufficient work produced per unit mass of liquid nitrogen, such a cryogenic heat engine may be suitable for powering short range, non-polluting automobiles.(C. A. Ordonez, Energy Conversion and Management 41) (2000) 331-341. Using existing liquid nitrogen plants to produce liquid nitrogen at about 50% of Carnot efficiency, and using renewable energy to power the liquid nitrogen plants, the cost to use liquid nitrogen to power an automobile per mile driven would be a few times the cost of using gasoline in the U.S. The increased ``fuel" cost may be acceptable for short range vehicles provided such vehicles have an acceptable price. We report on thermal-to-electrical energy conversion systems being studied for use as cryogenic heat engines. Specifically, capacitors made using paraelectric materials can provide energy conversion based on the electrocaloric effect. The electrocaloric effect is a change in electric field across a material that results from a change in temperature of the material.

  20. Capattery double layer capacitor life performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David A.; Clark, Nancy H.; Baca, W. E.; Miller, John R.; Barker, Thomas B.

    Double layer capacitors (DLCs) have received increased use in computer memory backup applications for consumer products during the past ten years. Their extraordinarily high capacitance density along with their maintenance-free operation makes them particularly suited for these products. These same features also make DLCs very attractive in military type applications. Unfortunately, lifetime performance data has not been reported in the literature for any DLC component. Our objective in this study was to investigate the effects that voltage and temperature have on the properties and performance of single and series-connected DLCs as a function of time. Evans model RE110474, 0.47-farad, 11.0-volt Capatteries were evaluated. These components have a tantalum package, use welded construction, and contain a glass-to-metal seal, all incorporated to circumvent the typical DLC failure modes of electrolyte loss and container corrosion. A five-level, two-factor Central Composite Design was used in the study. Single and series-connected Capatteries rated at 85 C, 11.0-volts operation were subjected to test temperatures between 25 and 95 C, and voltages between 0 and 12.9 volts (9 test conditions). Measured responses included capacitance, equivalent series resistance, and discharge time. Data were analyzed using a regression analysis to obtain response functions relating DLC properties to their voltage, temperature, and test time history. These results are described and should aid system and component engineers in using DLCs in critical applications.

  1. Nonlinear acoustic effects in multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Kim, S. A.; Quinn, T. P.; White, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear resonant acoustics was explored as an approach for nondestructively evaluating the susceptibility of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors to electrical failure during service. The acoustic nonlinearity was characterized through measurements of the dependence of the frequency of a selected dominant mode near 1.16 MHz on driving amplitude, employing direct ferroelectric tone-burst transduction, time-domain signal acquisition, and frequency-domain spectral analysis. Finite-element modeling and consideration of the symmetry of the excitation led to identification of the selected mode as the lowest-order extensional mode. Measurements as a function of the number of thermal treatments (of two types) provided evidence for increases in acoustic nonlinearity arising from thermal-stress-induced material damage. No evidence for further systematic changes in nonlinearity was found after nine heat treatments. Signals and analysis for some samples were complicated by the emergence of a second resonance in the waveforms and an apparent reduction in acoustic nonlinearity as a function of time under DC bias. The second of these effects is suggested as being associated with changes in nonlinear elements of the material (presumably, microcracks) that arise from interactions of internal stresses during domain reorientation.

  2. Current Density Scaling in Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF

    2015-02-18

    Electrochemical flow capacitors (EFCs) are a recently developed energy storage technology. One of the principal performance metrics of an EFC is the steady-state electrical current density that it can accept or deliver. Numerical models exist to predict this performance for specific cases, but here we present a study of how the current varies with respect to the applied cell voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, and slurry properties using scaling laws. The scaling relationships are confirmed by numerical simulations and then subsequently by comparison to results from symmetric cell EFC experiments. This modeling approach permits the delimitation of three distinct operational regimes dependent on the values of two nondimensional combinations of the pertinent variables (specifically, a capacitive Graetz number and a conductivity ratio). Lastly, the models and nondimensional numbers are used to provide design guidance in terms of criteria for proper EFC operation. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  3. Discharger Using Cascaded Switched Capacitor Converters and Selectable Intermediate Taps for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) offer several advantages over traditional batteries, such as long cycle life, high power capability, good low-temperature performance, etc. However, their major drawbacks, such as low specific energy and large voltage variation due to charge/discharge cycling, necessitate the use of high-efficiency power conversion electronics that can be used to efficiently discharge EDLCs and thus completely utilize the precious stored energy. In this study, we propose a novel discharger for EDLCs; this discharger uses cascaded switched capacitor converters (SCCs) and selectable intermediate taps. Although the voltage conversion ratio of SCCs is fixed, the load voltage can be maintained within a desired voltage range by the selectable intermediate taps. The circuit configuration, operating principle, and procedure for designing SCCs and selectable intermediate taps are presented. Experimental tests were performed using an EDLC module and a 200W prototype of the discharger. The obtained results showed that the 60V EDLC could be discharged to 30V with an average efficiency of 96% when the load voltage was maintained within the range 30-40V.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical flow capacitors (EFCs) for grid-scale energy storage are a new technology that is beginning to receive interest. Prediction of the expected performance of such systems is important as modeling can be a useful avenue in the search for design improvements. Models based off of circuit analogues exist to predict EFC performance, but these suffer from deficiencies (e.g. a multitude of fitting constants that are required and the ability to analyze only one spatial direction at a time). In this paper mathematical models based off of three-dimensional macroscopic balances (similar to models for porous electrodes) are reported. Unlike existing three-dimensional porous electrode-based approaches for modeling slurry electrodes, advection (i.e., transport associated with bulk fluid motion) of the overpotential is included in order to account for the surface charge at the interface between flowing particles and the electrolyte. Doing so leads to the presence of overpotential boundary layers that control the performance of EFCs. These models were used to predict the charging behavior of an EFC under both flowing and non-flowing conditions. Agreement with experimental data was good, including proper prediction of the steady-state current that is achieved during charging of a flowing EFC. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email: oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  5. Announcement of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity for a Large-Scale Blade Test Facility Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is seeking government, private, or non-profit partners to design, construct, and assist in operating one or more wind turbine blade test facilities capable of testing blades up to at least 70 m (230 ft) in length. DOE/NREL encourages interested parties to respond to this CRADA announcement with a proposal by September 1, 2006.

  6. Development of electrochemical super capacitors for EMA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, J. A.; Dunning, T.; Laconti, A. B.

    1995-01-01

    In a NASA SBIR Phase I program (Contract No. NAS8-40119), Giner, Inc. evaluated the feasibility of fabricating an all-solid-ionomer multicell electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils. This capacitor can possibly be used by NASA as a high-rate energy source for electromechanical actuator (EMA) activation for advanced space missions. The high unit cell capacitance and low repeating element thickness will allow for the fabrication of a low-volume, low-weight device, favorable characteristics for space applications. These same characteristics also make the capacitor attractive for terrestrial applications, such as load-leveling batteries or fuel cells in electric vehicle applications. Although the projected energy densities for electrochemical capacitors are about two orders of magnitude lower than that of batteries, the high-power-density characteristics of these devices render them as potentially viable candidates for meeting pulse or peak electrical power requirements for some anticipated aerospace mission scenarios, especially those with discharge times on the millisecond to second time scale. On a volumetric or gravimetric basis, the advantages of utilizing electrochemical capacitors rather than batteries for meeting the peak power demands associated with a specific mission scenario will largely depend upon the total and pulse durations of the power peaks. The effect of preparation conditions on RuO(x), the active component in an all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, was evaluated during this program. Methods were identified to prepare RuO(x) having a surface areagreater than 180 sq m/g, and a capacitance of greater than 2 F/sq cm. Further efforts to reproducibly obtain these high-surface-area materials in scaled-up batches will be evaluated in Phase 2. During this Phase 1 program we identified a superior Nafion 105 membrane, having a film thickness of 5 mils, that showed

  7. Graphene-Based Flexible and Transparent Tunable Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Man, Baoyuan; Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzheng; Liu, Aihua; Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Hengwei; Li, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    We report a kind of electric field tunable transparent and flexible capacitor with the structure of graphene-Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 (BMN)-graphene. The graphene films with low sheet resistance were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The BMN thin films were fabricated on graphene by using laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. Compared to BMN films grown on Au, the samples on graphene substrates show better quality in terms of crystallinity, surface morphology, leakage current, and loss tangent. By transferring another graphene layer, we fabricated flexible and transparent capacitors with the structure of graphene-BMN-graphene. The capacitors show a large dielectric constant of 113 with high dielectric tunability of ~40.7 % at a bias field of 1.0 MV/cm. Also, the capacitor can work stably in the high bending condition with curvature radii as low as 10 mm. This flexible film capacitor has a high optical transparency of ~90 % in the visible light region, demonstrating their potential application for a wide range of flexible electronic devices. PMID:26138450

  8. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  9. Performance and Reliability of Solid Tantalum Capacitors at Cryogenic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Performance of different types of solid tantalum capacitors was evaluated at room and low temperatures, down to 15 K. The effect of temperature on frequency dependencies of capacitance, effective series resistances (ESR), leakage currents, and breakdown voltages has been investigated and analyzed. To assess thermo-mechanical robustness of the parts, several groups of loose capacitors and those soldered on FR4 boards were subjected to multiple (up to 500) temperature cycles between room temperature and 77 K. Experiments and mathematical modeling have shown that degradation in tantalum capacitors at low temperatures is mostly due to increasing resistance of the manganese cathode layer, resulting in substantial decrease of the roll-off frequency. Absorption currents follow a power law, I approximately t(sup -m), with the exponent m varying from 0.8 to 1.1. These currents do not change significantly at cryogenic conditions and the value of the exponent remains the same down to 15 K. Variations of leakage currents with voltage can be described by Pool-Frenkel and Schottky mechanisms of conductivity, with the Schottky mechanism prevailing at cryogenic conditions. Breakdown voltages of tantalum capacitors increase and the probability of scintillations decreases at cryogenic temperatures. However, breakdown voltages measured during surge current testing decrease at liquid nitrogen (LN) compared to room-temperature conditions. Results of temperature cycling suggest that tantalum capacitors are capable of withstanding multiple exposures to cryogenic conditions, but the probability of failures varies for different part types.

  10. The ISR Asymmetrical Capacitor Thruster: Experimental Results and Improved Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    A variety of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters has been built and tested at the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The thrust produced for various voltages has been measured, along with the current flowing, both between the plates and to ground through the air (or other gas). VHF radiation due to Trichel pulses has been measured and correlated over short time scales to the current flowing through the capacitor. A series of designs were tested, which were increasingly efficient. Sharp features on the leading capacitor surface (e.g., a disk) were found to increase the thrust. Surprisingly, combining that with sharp wires on the trailing edge of the device produced the largest thrust. Tests were performed for both polarizations of the applied voltage, and for grounding one or the other capacitor plate. In general (but not always) it was found that the direction of the thrust depended on the asymmetry of the capacitor rather than on the polarization of the voltage. While no force was measured in a vacuum, some suggested design changes are given for operation in reduced pressures.

  11. Porous Ge based Electric Double Layer Capacitors with High Compatibility for Low Threshold Voltage Diode Rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, A.; Hara, M.; Oguchi, H.; Kuwano, H.

    2014-11-01

    The final goal of this study is to develop all-Ge-based energy harvesting modules consisting of mechanical generators, rectifiers, capacitors and power managing digital circuits. To make basis for the development of modules, we focused on development of the Ge electrodes for electric double layer capacitors (EDLC). Firstly, to establish a method to make high surface area Ge electrodes, we studied surface etching of the Ge(100) substrates in the acid solution. We found that the substrates with higher dopant concentration forms smaller size micro-pores with higher area density that leads to higher surface area. Secondly we studied stability of Ge in the ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte by ac impedance measurements. The impedance plots verified that Ge is reactive in IL electrolyte, thus not appropriate for electrodes without surface modification. Finally we oxidized Ge surface and tested the stability again. The impedance plot of the surface- oxidized Ge showed little reaction, proving that we succeeded to improve the surface stability.

  12. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  13. MIS capacitor studies on silicon carbide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopanski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Cubic SIC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with thermally grown or chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) insulators were characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V), conductance-voltage (G-V), and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the four charge densities commonly present in an MIS capacitor (oxide fixed charge, N(f); interface trap level density, D(it); oxide trapped charge, N(ot); and mobile ionic charge, N(m)) and to determine the stability of the device properties with electric-field stress and temperature. The section headings in the report include the following: Capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage measurements; Current-voltage measurements; Deep-level transient spectroscopy; and Conclusions (Electrical characteristics of SiC MIS capacitors).

  14. Limiting factors for carbon based chemical double layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank; Johnson, C.; Owens, T.; Stevens, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Double Layer (CDL) capacitor improves energy storage density dramatically when compared with conventional electrolytic capacitors. When compared to batteries, the CDL Capacitor is much less energy dense; however, the power density is orders of magnitude better. As a result, CDL-battery combinations present an interesting pulse power system with many potential applications. Due to the nature of the CDL it is inherently a low voltage device. The applications of the CDL can be tailored to auxiliary energy and burst mode storages which require fast charge/discharge cycles. Typical of the applications envisioned are power system backup, directed energy weapons concepts, electric automobiles, and electric actuators. In this paper, we will discuss some of the general characteristics of carbon-based CDL technology describing the structure, performance parameters, and methods of construction. Further, analytical and experimental results which define the state of the art are presented and described in terms of impact on applications.

  15. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  16. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  17. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  18. Low Temperature Characterization of Ceramic and Film Power Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Overton, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Among the key requirements for advanced electronic systems is the ability to withstand harsh environments while maintaining reliable and efficient operation. Exposures to low temperature as well as high temperature constitute such stresses. Applications where low temperatures are encountered include deep space missions, medical imaging equipment, and cryogenic instrumentation. Efforts were taken to design and develop power capacitors capable of wide temperature operation. In this work, ceramic and film power capacitors were developed and characterized as a function of temperature from 20 C to -185 C in terms of their dielectric properties. These properties included capacitance stability and dielectric loss in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed on the capacitors. The manuscript presents the results that indicate good operational characteristic behavior and stability of the components tested at low temperatures.

  19. A Universal Equivalent Circuit Model for Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaga, Koh; Amakawa, Shuhei; Masu, Kazuya; Sato, Takashi

    A physics-based equivalent circuit model of the ceramic capacitor is proposed, which can reproduce frequency characteristics of its impedance including the often observed yet hitherto physically unexplained kinks appearing above the primary series resonance frequency. The model can also account for parasitic effects of external inductances. In order to efficiently analyze and gain engineering insight into ceramic capacitors with a large number of metallic laminae, a two-dimensional method of moments is developed that treats the laminar structure as a uniform, effective medium. It turns out that the primary resonance and the kinks can be well understood and modeled by a lossy transmission line stub with a drastic wavelength reduction. The capacitor model is completed by adding components describing the skin effect and external inductances. The modeled impedance stays within a 4% margin of error up to 5GHz. The proposed model could greatly improve the accuracy of power distribution network simulation.

  20. Evaluation of Capacitors at Cryogenic Temperatures for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced electronic systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions must operate efficiently and reliably under the extreme cold temperatures of deep space environment. In addition, spacecraft power electronics capable of cold temperature operation will greatly simplify the thermal management system by eliminating the need for heating units and associated equipment and thereby reduce the size and weight of the overall power system. In this study, film, mica, solid tantalum and electric double layer capacitors were evaluated as a function of temperature from room to liquid nitrogen in terms of their dielectric properties. These properties included capacitance stability and dielectric loss in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed on the capacitors. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors investigated for low temperature applications.

  1. Effect of Mechanical Stresses on Characteristics of Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of compressive mechanical stresses on chip solid tantalum capacitors is investigated by monitoring characteristics of different part types under axial and hydrostatic stresses. Depending on part types, an exponential increase of leakage currents was observed when stresses exceeded 10 MPa to 40 MPa. For the first time, reversible variations of leakage currents (up to two orders of magnitude) with stress have been demonstrated. Mechanical stresses did not cause significant changes of AC characteristics of the capacitors, whereas breakdown voltages measured during the surge current testing decreased substantially indicating an increased probability of failures of stressed capacitors in low impedance applications. Variations of leakage currents are explained by a combination of two mechanisms: stress-induced scintillations and stress-induced generation of electron traps in the tantalum pentoxide dielectric.

  2. Electrical properties of teflon and ceramic capacitors at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, A. N.; Baumann, E. D.; Myers, I. T.; Overton, E.

    1992-01-01

    Space power systems and components are often required to operate efficiently and reliably in harsh environments where stresses, such as high temperature, are encountered. These systems must, therefore, withstand exposure to high temperature while still providing good electrical and other functional properties. Experiments were carried out to evaluate Teflon and ceramic capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The capacitors were characterized in terms of their capacitance and dielectric loss as a function of temperature, up to 200 C. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed in a temperature range from 25 to 200 C. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors studied for high temperature applications.

  3. A comparison of screening techniques for ceramic capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiernan, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques involved are ultrasonic scanning, neutron radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy, and voltage conditioning. The test capacitor, for this first phase, is a 0.47 uF, 50V capacitor style CKR06. Eighteen of 768 devices failed in voltage conditioning with elapsed times from 15 minutes to 1239 hours. Eleven of the failures were detected by ultrasonic scanning. Four failures were found by neutron radiography. Fourteen failures showed up in the acoustic microscopy test. Three failures in voltage conditioning were not detected by any of the techniques. Failures were confirmed by destructive physical analysis. There is no direct relationship between the size of the defect and electrical failure.

  4. Switched-capacitor neuromorphs with wide-range variable dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elias, J G; Northmore, D M

    1995-01-01

    The use of switched capacitors as wide-range, programmable resistive elements in spatially extensive artificial dendritic trees (ADT's) is described. We show that silicon neuro-morphs with ADT's can produce impulse responses that last millions of times longer than the initiating impulse and that dynamical responses are tunable in both shape and duration over a wide range. The switched-capacitor resistors forming a dendritic tree are shown indirectly to have a useful programmable resistance range between 500 KOmega and 1000 GOmega. Experimental results are presented that show variable impulse response functions, tunable frequency selectivity, and rate-invariance of spatiotemporal pattern responses. PMID:18263448

  5. Breakdown voltage of discrete capacitors under single-pulse conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingos, H.; Scaturro, J.; Hayes, L.

    1981-01-01

    For electrostatic capacitors the breakdown voltage is inherently related to the properties of the dielectric, with the important parameters being the dielectric field strength which is related to the dielectric constant and the dielectric thickness. These are not necessarily related to the capacitance value and the rated voltage, but generally the larger values of capacitance have lower breakdown voltages. Foil and wet slug electrolytics can withstand conduction currents pulses without apparent damage (in either direction for foil types). For solid tantalums, damage occurs whenever the capacitor charges to the forming voltage.

  6. The possibility of giant dielectric materials for multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tatsuya; Endo, Makoto; Masuda, Kenichiro; Ishida, Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    There have been numerous reports on discovery of giant dielectric permittivity materials called internal barrier layer capacitor in the recent years. We took particular note of one of such materials, i.e., BaTiO3 with SiO2 coating. It shows expressions of giant electric permittivity when processed by spark plasma sintering. So we evaluated various electrical characteristics of this material to find out whether it is applicable to multilayer ceramic capacitors. Our evaluation revealed that the isolated surface structure is the sole cause of expressions of giant dielectric permittivity.

  7. Polymer-Ceramic Nanocomposites Based on New Concepts for Embedded Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akio; Kakimoto, Masa-Aki; Tsurumi, Taka-Aki; Hao, Jianjun; Li, Li; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Miwa, Takao; Ohno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Shinji; Takezawa, Yoshitaka

    A rapid growth of mixed-signal integrated circuits is driving the needs of multifunction and miniaturization of the component in electronics applications. Polymer-ceramic composites have been of great interest as embedded capacitor materials because they enabled companies to combine the processability of polymers with the high dielectric constant of ceramics. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites based on new concepts were developed for embedded capacitor applications. The dielectric constant was above 80 at 1 MHz and the specific capacitance was successfully achieved 8 nF/cm2. By use of this nanocomposites, multilayer printed wiring boards with embedded passive components were fabricated for prototypes. The following technologies are reported in this paper. Firstly, based on the investigation of barium titanium oxide (BaTiO3) crystallites, various particles with the sizes from 17 nm to 100 nm were prepared by the 2-step thermal decomposition method from barium titanyl oxalate (BaTiO(C2O4)2·4H2O). It was clarified that BaTiO3 particles with a size of around 70 nm exhibited a maximum dielectric constant of over 15,000 by FEM analysis from the measured dielectric constants of BaTiO3 suspensions. Secondary, the BaTiO3 surface modification based on a new concept was applied to improve the affinity between BaTiO3 particles and polymer matrix. Thirdly, the blend polymer of an aromatic polyamide (PA) and an aromatic bismaleimide (BMI) was employed as the matrix from a view-point of both the processabilty during fabricating the substrates with embedded passive components and the thermal stability during assembling LSI chips. Finally, these technologies were combined and optimized for embedded capacitor materials.

  8. Reliability Modeling Development and Its Applications for Ceramic Capacitors with Base-Metal Electrodes (BMEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Donhang

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes a summary of NEPP-funded deliverables for the Base-Metal Electrodes (BMEs) capacitor task, development of a general reliability model for BME capacitors, and a summary and future work.

  9. Reliability Evaluation of Base-Metal-Electrode Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David (Donhang); Sampson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Base-metal-electrode (BME) ceramic capacitors are being investigated for possible use in high-reliability spacelevel applications. This paper focuses on how BME capacitors construction and microstructure affects their lifetime and reliability. Examination of the construction and microstructure of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) BME capacitors reveals great variance in dielectric layer thickness, even among BME capacitors with the same rated voltage. Compared to PME (precious-metal-electrode) capacitors, BME capacitors exhibit a denser and more uniform microstructure, with an average grain size between 0.3 and 0.5 m, which is much less than that of most PME capacitors. BME capacitors can be fabricated with more internal electrode layers and thinner dielectric layers than PME capacitors because they have a fine-grained microstructure and do not shrink much during ceramic sintering. This makes it possible for BME capacitors to achieve a very high capacitance volumetric efficiency. The reliability of BME and PME capacitors was investigated using highly accelerated life testing (HALT). Most BME capacitors were found to fail with an early avalanche breakdown, followed by a regular dielectric wearout failure during the HALT test. When most of the early failures, characterized with avalanche breakdown, were removed, BME capacitors exhibited a minimum mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of more than 105 years at room temperature and rated voltage. Dielectric thickness was found to be a critical parameter for the reliability of BME capacitors. The number of stacked grains in a dielectric layer appears to play a significant role in determining BME capacitor reliability. Although dielectric layer thickness varies for a given rated voltage in BME capacitors, the number of stacked grains is relatively consistent, typically around 12 for a number of BME capacitors with a rated voltage of 25V. This may suggest that the number of grains per dielectric layer is more critical than the

  10. ZR Marx capacitor vendor evaluation and lifetime test results.

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, Gerold Raymond; Savage, Mark Edward; Smith, David Lewis; Starbird, Robert L.

    2004-08-01

    The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world's largest and most powerful laboratory X-ray source. The Z Refurbishment Project (ZR) is presently underway to provide an improved precision, more shot capacity, and a higher current capability. The ZR upgrade has a total output current requirement of at least 26 MA for a 100-ns standard Z-pinch load. To accomplish this with minimal impact on the surrounding hardware, the 60 high-energy discharge capacitors in each of the existing 36 Marx generators must be replaced with identical size units but with twice the capacitance. Before the six-month shut down and transition from Z to ZR occurs, 2500 of these capacitors will be delivered. We chose to undertake an ambitious vendor qualification program to reduce the risk of not meeting ZR performance goals, to encourage the pulsed-power industry to revisit the design and development of high- energy discharge capacitors, and to meet the cost and delivery schedule within the ZR project plans. Five manufacturers were willing to fabricate and sell SNL samples of six capacitors each to be evaluated. The 8000-shot qualification test phase of the evaluation effort is now complete. This paper summarizes how the 0.279 x 0.356 x 0.635-m (11 x 14 x 25-in) stainless steel can, Scyllac-style insulator bushing, 2.65-{micro}F, < 30-nH, 100-kV, 35%-reversal capacitor lifetime specifications were determined, briefly describes the nominal 260-kJ test facility configuration, presents the test results of the most successful candidates, and discusses acceptance testing protocols that balance available resources against performance, cost, and schedule risk. We also summarize the results of our accelerated lifetime testing of the selected General Atomics P/N 32896 capacitor. We have completed lifetime tests with twelve capacitors at 100 kV and with fourteen capacitors at 110-kV charge voltage. The means of the fitted Weibull distributions for these two cases are about 17,000 and 10

  11. Influence of current needs on the advancement of aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moresi, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The need for cost effective, high performance, long life capacitors with improved reliability is discussed. It is shown that a low cost, miniature aluminum capacitor, with improved reliability and proven life, can be produced with existing technology. It is further shown that the capacitor can be specified for 125 C life and shelf test requirements, and meet established standards for their parametric performance.

  12. The effect of integration of Strontium-Bismuth-Tantalate capacitors onto SOI wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Vikram; Ohno, Morifumo; Ida, Jiro; Nagatomo, Yoshiki; Strauss, Karl

    2005-01-01

    We report for the first time the successful integration of Strontium-Bismuth-Tantalate ferroelectric capacitors on an SOI Substrate. We have verified that the unique processing requirements of SBT capacitors does not affect the properties of the surrounding FD-SOI transistors, and, conversely, we have verified that the SOI processing does not affect the quality of the SBT capacitors.

  13. The Two-Capacitor Problem Revisited: A Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Keeyung

    2009-01-01

    The well-known two-capacitor problem, in which exactly half the stored energy disappears when a charged capacitor is connected to an identical capacitor, is discussed based on the mechanical harmonic oscillator model approach. In the mechanical harmonic oscillator model, it is shown first that "exactly half" the work done by a constant applied…

  14. The Effect of Integration of Strontium-Bismuth-Tantalate Capacitors onto SOI Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Joshi, Vikram; Ohno, Morifumo; Ida, Jiro; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2006-01-01

    We report for the first time the successful integration of Strontium-Bismuth-Tantalate ferroelectric capacitors on an SOI Substrate. We have verified that the unique processing requirements of SBT capacitors does not affect the properties of the surrounding FD-SOI transistors, and, conversely, we have verified that the SOI processing does not affect the quality of the SBT capacitors.

  15. Ferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors As Ultraviolet Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1995-01-01

    Advantages include rapid response, solar blindness, and relative invulnerability to ionizing radiation. Ferroelectric capacitor made to function as photovoltaic detector of ultraviolet photons by making one of its electrodes semitransparent. Photovoltaic effect exploited more fully by making Schottky barrier at illuminated semitransparent-electrode/ferroelectric interface taller than Schottky barrier at other electrode/ferroelectric interface.

  16. Frequency shifting with a solid-state switching capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Viola, T. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Frequency shifting, commonly used in electronic signal processing, is applied in tuning, automatic frequency control, antenna element switching, phase shifting, etc. Frequency shifting can be accomplished economically and reliably with simple circuit comprising conventional resistor and solid-state switching device which can be equivalent to two capacitors, depending on switching state.

  17. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  18. Study of surge current effects on solid tantalum capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of a 2,000 hour cycled life test program conducted to determine the effect of short term surge current screening on approximately 47 micron f/volt solid tantalum capacitors. The format provides average values and standard deviations of the parameters, capacitance, dissipation factor, and equivalent series resistance at 120 Hz, 1KHz, abd 40 KHz.

  19. Novel dielectric reduces corona breakdown in ac capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric system was developed which consists of two layers of 25-gage paper separated by one layer of 50-gage polypropylene to reduce corona breakdown in ac capacitors. System can be used in any alternating current application where constant voltage does not exceed 400 V rms. With a little research it could probably be increased to 700 to 800 V rms.

  20. Thermodynamic model for bouncing charged particles inside a capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeizadeh, Amin; Mameghani, Pooya

    2013-08-01

    We introduce an equation of state for a conducting particle inside a charged parallel-plate capacitor and show that it is similar to the equation of state for an ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic process. We describe a simple experiment that shows reasonable agreement with the theoretical model.

  1. Thin-film decoupling capacitors for multi-chip modules

    SciTech Connect

    Dimos, D.: Lockwood, S.J.; Schwartz, R.W.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    Thin-film decoupling capacitors based on ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) films are being developed for use in advanced packages, such as multi-chip modules. These thin-film decoupling capacitors are intended to replace multi-layer ceramic capacitors for certain applications, since they can be more fully integrated into the packaging architecture. The increased integration that can be achieved should lead to decreased package volume and improved high-speed performance, due to a decrease in interconnect inductance. PLZT films are fabricated by spin coating using metal carboxylate/alkoxide solutions. These films exhibit very high dielectric constants ({var_epsilon} {ge} 900), low dielectric losses (tan{delta} = 0.01), excellent insulation resistances ({rho} > 10{sup 13} {Omega}-cm at 125{degrees}C), and good breakdown field strengths (E{sub B} = 900 kV/cm). For integrated circuit applications, the PLZT dielectric is less than 1 {mu}m thick, which results in a large capacitance/area (8--9 nF/mm{sup 2}). The thin-film geometry and processing conditions also make these capacitors suitable for direct incorporation onto integrated circuits and for packages that require embedded components.

  2. The evaluation of Federal Fabrics-Fibers electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.

    1997-09-01

    The electrochemical capacitor devices described in this report were deliverables from the US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) High Power Energy Storage Program. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has the responsibility for technical management, testing, and evaluation of high-power batteries and electrochemical capacitors under this Program. The DOE is currently developing various electrochemical capacitors as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast response engine requirement. This contract with Federal Fabrics-Fibers was intended to evaluate the use of their novel Z-axis carbon fiber materials as candidate electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Deliverables were sent to the INEEL`s Energy Storage Technologies (EST) Laboratory for independent testing and evaluation. This report describes performance testing on four selected devices delivered over a 2-year period. Due to the highly experimental nature of the packages, life cycle testing was not conducted.

  3. Carbons, ionic liquids and quinones for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Raul; Doherty, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Carbons are the main electrode materials used in electrochemical capacitors, which are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power densities and long cycling lifetimes. However, increasing their energy density will improve their potential for commercial implementation. In this regard, the use of high surface area carbons and high voltage electrolytes are well known strategies to increase the attainable energy density, and lately ionic liquids have been explored as promising alternatives to current state of the art acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Also, in terms of safety and sustainability ionic liquids are attractive electrolyte materials for electrochemical capacitors. In addition, it has been shown that the matching of the carbon pore size with the electrolyte ion size further increases the attainable electric double layer (EDL) capacitance and energy density. The use of pseudocapacitive reactions can significantly increase the attainable energy density, and quinonic-based materials offer a potentially sustainable and cost effective research avenue for both the electrode and the electrolyte. This perspective will provide an overview of the current state of the art research on electrochemical capacitors based on combinations of carbons, ionic liquids and quinonic compounds, highlighting performances and challenges and discussing possible future research avenues. In this regard, current interest is mainly focused on strategies which may ultimately lead to commercially competitive sustainable high performance electrochemical capacitors for different applications including those requiring mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility.

  4. Laboratory and Theoretical Investigations of a Ring-Capacitor Sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-capacitor sensors are used widely for real-time estimation of volumetric soil water content ' from measured resonant frequency fr which is affected by the complex bulk soil permittivity ' = '’ + i'’’. However, the relationship fr(') requires improved investigation in terms of the dependence of ...

  5. Characterization of an energy storage capacitor in abnormal thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.; Chen, K.C.; Baron, R.V.

    2000-01-05

    There are applications of high-voltage, energy-storage, capacitors where it is desirable that the energy storage capability can be reliably and predictably negated in abnormal environments such as fire. This property serves as a safety feature to prevent events of unintended consequence. The present paper describes studies of the thermal response characteristics of a cylindrically wound, discrete Mylar film/foil capacitor design. The experimental setups that simulate fires will be presented. Three different heat input geometries were employed: uniform radial input, spot radial input, and axial input. Heat input was controlled via feedback system to maintain specific temperature ramp rates. Both capacitor voltage and current were monitored during the thermal excursion to ascertain the failure temperature, i.e. when the capacitor permanently shorts. Temperature of failure data is presented for the three heat input cases along with a statistical analysis of the results and application implications. The physics of failure will be described in terms of the thermal/mechanical properties of the Mylar.

  6. Capacitors, thermal rating/derating (ac-dc operation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borough, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Application techniques for determining performance and ratings of cased capacitors under combined operation as a function of the actual operating conditions are described. Thermal impedances between the case and external environment and between the internal hot spot and case are taken into account.

  7. Multi-megagauss field-generation using capacitor banks

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.G.; Bartsch, R.R.; Scudder, D.W.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.

    1996-09-01

    Design of a high-field (6 MG) production experiment on the Pegasus capacitor bank is presented. One and two dimensions MHD simulations are benchmarked against Alikhanov`s previous experiments and used to support the design for the Pegasus experiment. Possible extensions to the Atlas facility, where production of 20 Mg fields may be possible, are also discussed.

  8. Pulsed current signals in capacitor type particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of pulsed current signals in capacitor type sensors, due to drifting surface charge domain is considered for the analysis of the operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors. In this article, the models of the formation of the pulsed currents have been analyzed in vacuum and dielectric filled capacitor-like detectors. Injected charge drift regimes such as Shockley-Ramo's-type (large charge drift) and free flight within Coulomb's force field (small charge drift) are discussed. It has been shown that solutions of the injected charge drift in the vacuum gap capacitor can be employed to emulate charge drift over free path in dynamic solution of the problem with scattering. Pulsed current signals and charge drift in the detectors of the capacitor filled with dielectric type have been analyzed, where the bipolar charge injection and various drift regimes appear. The bipolar carrier drift transformation to a monopolar one is considered, after either electrons or holes, injected within the material, reach the external electrode. The impact of the dynamic capacitance and load resistance in the formation of drift current transients is highlighted. It has been illustrated that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms.

  9. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  10. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids for Electrochemical Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, Heather; Yowell, Leonard; Moloney, Padraig G.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, P.; Huffman, C.; Ready, Jud; Higgins, C.D.; Turano, S. P.; Kohl, P.A.; Kim, K.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) used as electrolytes in carbon-nanotube-based, electrochemical, double-layer capacitors. Unlike the previous electrolyte (EtNB4 in acetonitrile), the RTIL used here does not produce cyanide upon thermal decomposition and does not have a moisture sensitivity.

  11. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  12. Effects of microstructural defects on the performance of base-metal multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantaray, Malay M.

    effects, the dielectric layer thickness is reduced from 2.0mum to 0.5mum in the three-dimensional microstructure keeping the same electrode morphology. It is seen that the effect of microstructure defects is more pronounced as one approaches thinner layers, leading to higher local electric field concentrations and a concomitant drop in insulation resistance. It is also seen that the electric field values are as high as 3.8 times the average field in termination regions due the disintegrated structure of the electrodes. In order to assess the effect of microstructure on MLCC performance, two sets of multilayer capacitors subjected to two vastly different sintering rates of 150ºC/hr and 3000ºC/hr are compared for their electrical properties. Capacitors with higher electrode continuity exhibit proportionally higher capacitance, provided the grain size distributions are similar. From the leakage current measurements, it is found that the Schottky barrier at the electrode-dielectric interface controls the conduction mechanism. This barrier height is calculated to be 1.06 eV for slow-fired MLCCs and was 1.15 for fast-fired MLCCs. This shows that high concentration of electrode defects cause field perturbations and subsequent drop in the net Schottky barrier height. These results are further supported by frequency-dependent impedance measurements. With temperature dependence behavior of current-voltage trends we note that below temperatures of 135°C, the conduction is controlled by interfacial effects, whereas at higher temperatures it is consistent with bulk-controlled space charge limited current for the samples that are highly reoxidized. The final part of this work studies the various aspects of the initial stages of degradation of MLCCs. MLCCs subjected to unipolar and bipolar degradation are studied for changes in microstructure and electrical properties. With bipolar degradation studies new insights into degradation are gained. First, the ionic accumulation with oxygen

  13. New series half-bridge converters with the balance input split capacitor voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bor-Ren; Chiang, Huann-Keng; Wang, Shang-Lun

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a new dc/dc converter to perform the main functions of zero voltage switching (ZWS), low converter size, high switching frequency and low-voltage stress. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high switching frequency are used to reduce the converter size and increase circuit efficiency. To overcome low-voltage stress and high turn-on resistance of MOSFETs, the series half-bridge topology is adopted in the proposed converter. Hence, the low-voltage stress MOSFETs can be used for medium-input voltage applications. The asymmetric pulse-width modulation is used to generate the gating signals and achieve the ZWS. On the secondary side, the parallel connection of two diode rectifiers is adopted to reduce the current rating of passive components. On the primary side, the series connection of two transformers is used to balance two output inductor currents. Two flying capacitors are used to automatically balance the input split capacitor voltages. Finally, experiments with 1000 W rated power are performed to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of proposed converter.

  14. Technological development of cylindrical and flat shaped high energy density capacitors. [using polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelik, J. A.; Parker, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Cylindrical wound metallized film capacitors rated 2 micron F 500 VDC that had an energy density greater than 0.3 J/g, and flat flexible metallized film capacitors rated at 2 micron F 500 VDC that had an energy density greater than 0.1 J/g were developed. Polysulfone, polycarbonate, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) were investigated as dielectrics for the cylindrical units. PVF2 in 6.0 micron m thickness was employed in the final components of both types. Capacitance and dissipation factor measurements were made over the range 25 C to 100 C, and 10 Hz to 10 kHz. No pre-life-test burning was performed, and six of ten cylindrical units survived a 2500 hour AC plus DC lift test. Three of the four failures were infant mortality. All but two of the flat components survived 400 hours. Finished energy densities were 0.104 J/g at 500 V and 0.200 J/g at 700 V, the energy density being limited by the availability of thin PVF2 films.

  15. Final report for 1.7 megajoule prototype bank testing

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    American Control Engineering is pleased to submit to LLNL this Final Report describing the final assembly and preliminary testing of the 1.7 megajoule prototype capacitor bank that is located at our facility. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate and characterize the performance of this capacitor bank. These tests were necessary in order to proceed with the design of a final building block module that is to be used to create a reliable and cost effective multi-hundred megajoule energy storage system. The period of performance covered by this contract is from January 1, 1991 through August 31, 1992. American Control Engineering has provided all of the necessary facilities, personnel and materials that were required to perform this testing effort (except for the existing capacitor bank, the LLNL provided flashlamp assembly and E-size ignitron switch tube), An overall view of the assembled capacitor bank system as it appeared at the completion of this subcontract is shown. The initial statement-of-work for the testing and characterization of the capacitor bank was as follows: (1) Measure all of the principal electrical parameters for the 1.7 megajoule prototype capacitor bank at low voltage before proceeding to high voltage testing. This low voltage testing is to include measurement of both normal and fault current and voltage waveforms, starting with the smallest building block grouping and proceeding systematically through to the capacitor bank load. (2) Assemble and attach each of the major subsystem elements to the capacitor bank as they are required for low voltage testing including the ignition output switch structure, coaxial transmission line and load assembly. (3) Make comparison of the test results collected through low voltage testing with those forecasted by the computer mode. Evaluate and resolve any discrepancies between the two results until the computer model achieves reasonable agreement with the actual measured test results.

  16. Electrochemical Double Layered Capacitor Development and Implementation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunk, Gavin P.

    Electrochemical Double Layered Capacitors (EDLC's) are becoming a more popular topic of research for hybrid power systems, especially vehicles. They are known for their high power density, high cycle life, low internal resistance, and wider operating temperature compared to batteries. They are rarely used as a standalone power source; however, because of their lack of energy density compared to batteries and fuel cells. Researchers are now discovering the benefits of using them in hybrid systems. The increased complexity of a hybrid power source presents many challenges. A major drawback of this complexity is the lack of design tools to assist a designer in translating a simulation all the way to a full scale implementation. A full spectrum of tools was designed to assist designers at all stages of implementation including: single cell testing, a multi-cell management system, and a full scale vehicle data acquisition system to monitor performance. First, the full scale vehicle data acquisition is described. The system is isolated from the electric shuttle bus it was tested on to allow the system to be ported to other vehicles and applications. This was done to modularize the system to characterize a wide variety of full scale applications. Next, a single cell test system was designed that allows the designer to characterize cell specifications, as well as, test control and safety systems in a controlled environment. The goal is to ensure safety systems can be thoroughly tested to ensure robustness as the bank is scaled up. This system also includes simulation models that provide examples of using the simulation to predict the behavior of a cell and the test system to validate the results of the simulation. This information is then used by the designer to more effectively design sensor ranges for the bank. Finally, a multi-cell EDLC management system was designed to implement a bank. It incorporates 12 series EDLC cells per control module, and the modular design

  17. CRADA opportunities with METC`s gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, E.N.; Rockey, J.M.; Tucker, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    Opportunities exist for Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to support commercialization of IGCC power systems. METC operates an integrated gasifier and hot gas cleanup facility for the development of gasification and hot gas cleanup technologies. The objective of our program is to gather performance data on gasifier operation, particulate removal, desulfurization and regeneration technologies. Additionally, slip streams are provided for developing various technologies such as; alkali monitoring, particulate measuring, chloride removal, and contaminate recovery processes. METC`s 10-inch diameter air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG) provides 300 lb/hr of coal gas at 1100{degrees}F and 425 psig. The particulate laden gas is transported to METC`s Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR). The gas pressure is reduced to 285 psig before being fed into a candle filter vessel. The candle filter vessel houses four candle filters and multiple test coupons. The particulate free gas is then desulfurized in a sorbent reactor. Starting in 1996 the MGCR system will be able to regenerate the sorbent in the same vessel.

  18. Research into the use of pyrolytic oxides and polymers for the fabrication of thin film high energy capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    Construction, capacitance and dissipation factor, and electrode materials for single layer capacitors are discussed. Basic construction, phosphosilicate glass, ten layer capacitors, twenty layer capacitors, stress measurements, buffered oxide layers, and 30 layer capacitors are also discussed. Spin-on phosphosilicate glass is addressed. Polymers as dielectric materials are also considered.

  19. Recent advances on multi-component hybrid nanostructures for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Pan; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    With the continuously growing energy demand and ever-escalating environmental problems, the great energy transition from conventional fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy is under way, and requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices, such as electrochemical capacitors (also called as supercapacitors). In order to achieve high energy and power densities of supercapacitors, numerous efforts are devoted to the development of advanced multi-component hybrid electrode materials for realizing high-performance. This review summarizes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for energy storage, with a particular focus on these nanostructures that integrate carbon materials, metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymers for enhancing energy storage performances via taking advantage of each component's unique functionality and their synergetic effects. Finally, we give some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this intriguing field.

  20. A Wireless Implantable Switched-Capacitor Based Optogenetic Stimulating System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Kwon, Ki-Yong; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a power-efficient implantable optogenetic interface using a wireless switched-capacitor based stimulating (SCS) system. The SCS efficiently charges storage capacitors directly from an inductive link and periodically discharges them into an array of micro-LEDs, providing high instantaneous power without affecting wireless link and system supply voltage. A custom-designed computer interface in LabVIEW environment wirelessly controls stimulation parameters through the inductive link, and an optrode array enables simultaneous neural recording along with optical stimulation. The 4-channel SCS system prototype has been implemented in a 0.35-μm CMOS process and combined with the optrode array. In vivo experiments involving light-induced local field potentials verified the efficacy of the SCS system. An implantable version of the SCS system with flexible hermetic sealing is under development for chronic experiments. PMID:25570099

  1. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    DOEpatents

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  2. Impedance characteristics of coaxial and planar magnetoplasma capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    A theory has been developed for the impedance of a homogeneous magnetoplasma enclosed between two specular reflecting coaxial electrodes, with a static magnetic field parallel to the electrode axes. The parallel-plate magnetoplasma capacitor is treated as a sub-case. Starting with the Vlasov equation, an integral equation is derived for the electric field. Solving this equation, and integrating to obtain the voltage, gives the capacitor impedance. This includes a capacitive component, and a resistive component expressing the Landau damping associated with the open orbits of electrons reflected at the electrodes. A direct numerical solution of the field integral equation has been carried out for a range of values of magnetic field, plasma density, and signal frequency. The values of impedance so obtained are compared with the predictions of macroscopic theory, and of an approximate microscopic theory in which open orbits are ignored and solutions are obtained using finite Fourier transform methods. The mathematical relations between these theories are demonstrated.

  3. A wireless implantable switched-capacitor based optogenetic stimulating system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Kwon, Ki-Yong; Li, Wen; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a power-efficient implantable optogenetic interface using a wireless switched-capacitor based stimulating (SCS) system. The SCS efficiently charges storage capacitors directly from an inductive link and periodically discharges them into an array of micro-LEDs, providing high instantaneous power without affecting wireless link and system supply voltage. A custom-designed computer interface in LabVIEW environment wirelessly controls stimulation parameters through the inductive link, and an optrode array enables simultaneous neural recording along with optical stimulation. The 4-channel SCS system prototype has been implemented in a 0.35-μm CMOS process and combined with the optrode array. In vivo experiments involving light-induced local field potentials verified the efficacy of the SCS system. An implantable version of the SCS system with flexible hermetic sealing is under development for chronic experiments. PMID:25570099

  4. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  5. Graphene oxide-based flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, A.; Hota, M. K.; Mallik, S.; Maiti, C. K.

    2013-05-01

    This work explores the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO)-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Electrical properties are studied in detail. A high capacitance density of ˜4 fF µm-2 measured at 1 MHz and permittivity of ˜6 have been obtained. A low voltage coefficient of capacitance, VCC-α, and a low dielectric loss tangent indicate the potential of GO-based MIM capacitors for RF applications. The constant voltage stressing study has shown a high reliability against degradation up to a projected period of 10 years. Degradation in capacitance of the devices on flexible substrates has been studied by bending radius down to 1 cm even up to 6000 times of repeated bending.

  6. Characteristics of tantalum electrolytic capacitors using soluble polypyrrole electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kwan Sik; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Eung Ju; Lee, Hoosung

    Polypyrrole (Ppy) electrolyte solutions in various organic solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP; chloroform; trifluoroacetic acid) were prepared using Ppy powder doped with di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (Ppy-DEHS) and butylnaphthalene sulfonate sodium salt (Ppy-BNS), respectively. Several tantalum electrolytic capacitors were fabricated by dip coating in these solutions and their electrical properties such as capacitance and tan δ were measured. The capacitors prepared with Ppy-DEHS electrolyte in trifluoroacetic acid showed both high capacitance and low tan δ. Usage of a Ppy electrolyte solution containing both surfactant and a coupling agent also resulted in high capacitance and low tan δ. These phenomena were interpreted in terms of electrical conductivity and chemical structure of the electrolyte, and interactions such as hydrogen bonding, radical addition reaction, covalent bonding between the tantalum oxide layer and the solvent.

  7. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  8. Graphene Quantum Capacitors for High Frequency Tunable Analog Applications.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Clara F; Vitale, Wolfgang A; Sharma, Pankaj; Tamagnone, Michele; Mosig, Juan R; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2016-08-10

    Graphene quantum capacitors (GQC) are demonstrated to be enablers of radio-frequency (RF) functions through voltage-tuning of their capacitance. We show that GQC complements MEMS and MOSFETs in terms of performance for high frequency analog applications and tunability. We propose a CMOS compatible fabrication process and report the first experimental assessment of their performance at microwaves frequencies (up to 10 GHz), demonstrating experimental GQCs in the pF range with a tuning ratio of 1.34:1 within 1.25 V, and Q-factors up to 12 at 1 GHz. The figures of merit of graphene variable capacitors are studied in detail from 150 to 350 K. Furthermore, we describe a systematic, graphene specific approach to optimize their performance and predict the figures of merit achieved if such a methodology is applied. PMID:27387370

  9. Reliability Effects of Surge Current Testing of Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Solid tantalum capacitors are widely used in space applications to filter low-frequency ripple currents in power supply circuits and stabilize DC voltages in the system. Tantalum capacitors manufactured per military specifications (MIL-PRF-55365) are established reliability components and have less than 0.001% of failures per 1000 hours (the failure rate is less than 10 FIT) for grades D or S, thus positioning these parts among electronic components with the highest reliability characteristics. Still, failures of tantalum capacitors do happen and when it occurs it might have catastrophic consequences for the system. This is due to a short-circuit failure mode, which might be damaging to a power supply, and also to the capability of tantalum capacitors with manganese cathodes to self-ignite when a failure occurs in low-impedance applications. During such a failure, a substantial amount of energy is released by exothermic reaction of the tantalum pellet with oxygen generated by the overheated manganese oxide cathode, resulting not only in destruction of the part, but also in damage of the board and surrounding components. A specific feature of tantalum capacitors, compared to ceramic parts, is a relatively large value of capacitance, which in contemporary low-size chip capacitors reaches dozens and hundreds of microfarads. This might result in so-called surge current or turn-on failures in the parts when the board is first powered up. Such a failure, which is considered as the most prevalent type of failures in tantalum capacitors [I], is due to fast changes of the voltage in the circuit, dV/dt, producing high surge current spikes, I(sub sp) = Cx(dV/dt), when current in the circuit is unrestricted. These spikes can reach hundreds of amperes and cause catastrophic failures in the system. The mechanism of surge current failures has not been understood completely yet, and different hypotheses were discussed in relevant literature. These include a sustained scintillation

  10. Water-absorbing capacitor system for measuring relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus using a known water-absorbent polymer as a capacitor which is operated at a dc voltage for measuring relative humidity is presented. When formed as a layer between porous electrically-conductive electrodes and operated in an RC oscillator circuit, the oscillator frequency varies inversely with the partial pressure of the moisture to be measured. In a preferred embodiment, the capacitor is formed from Nafion and is operated at a low dc voltage with a resistor as an RC circuit in an RC oscillator. At the low voltage, the leakage current is proper for oscillation over a satisfactory range. The frequency of oscillation varies in an essentially linear fashion with relative humidity which is represented by the moisture being absorbed into the Nafion. The oscillation frequency is detected by a frequency detector.

  11. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation.

  12. Radio Frequency Characteristics of Printed Meander Inductors and Interdigital Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllymaki, Sami; Teirikangas, Merja; Nelo, Mikko; Tulppo, Joel; Sobociński, Maciej; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli; Sloma, Marcin; Jakubowska, Malgorzata

    2013-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) characterizations of printed silver ink inductors manufactured at low (150 °C) and high (850 °C) temperatures and interdigital capacitors manufactured at high (850 °C) temperatures were carried out in the 500 MHz to 6 GHz range. The S-parameter responses of the components were measured with a probe station and an Agilent 8510C network analyzer. Electrical parameters such as inductance, capacitance, and a quality factor were estimated from experimental results and numerical calculation. Component parameters are dependent on physical dimensions and material properties. The components were created in a 4 ×4 mm2 area with line widths/gaps of 500/500, 250/250, and 200/200 µm. Windings in the coils varied from 2 to 5 turns and finger counts in the capacitors, from 5 to 11 within the defined area and line widths. As a result, low-T-cured (150 °C) silver ink meander line inductors achieved 8 to 18 nH inductances at 1 and 2 GHz with a quality value of 10-25. High-T-cured (850 °C) silver ink meander line inductors had 6-15 nH inductances and quality values were around 100, indicating a conductivity challenge with low-T-cured inks. Interdigital capacitors with 1 to 4 pF capacitances and sufficient quality values were created. A low-loss BaTiO3 coating was printed over the interdigital capacitors; they exhibited suitable electrical characteristics to allow decreasing the physical size of the component.

  13. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  14. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

  15. Embedded Resistors and Capacitors in Organic and Inorganic Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerke, Robert David; Ator, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    Embedded resistors and capacitors were purchased from two technology; organic PWB and inorganic low temperature co-fire ceramic (LTCC). Small groups of each substrate were exposed to four environmental tests and several characterization tests to evaluate their performance and reliability. Even though all passive components maintained electrical performance throughout environmental testing, differences between the two technologies were observed. Environmental testing was taken beyond manufacturers' reported testing, but general not taken to failure. When possible, data was quantitatively compared to manufacturer's data.

  16. Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis

    2012-12-11

    A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; and a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

  17. Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis

    2013-11-26

    A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more of the preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

  18. FTTA AGREEMENT BETWEEN CH2M HILL, INC. AND THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY-ATHENS (NERL) CRADA FILE #0168-99

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act mandates that water quality standards must be met everywhere except in limited permitted areas surrounding wastewater discharges. Mixing zone models, such as Visual Plumes, the modeling platform being developed under this CRADA, are used to establish permit li...

  19. Solutions for ASD nuisance tripping caused by utility capacitor switching

    SciTech Connect

    Alegria, E.; Hensley, G.

    1995-06-01

    In the last ten years, there has been increasing market penetration of small and medium size adjustable speed drives (ASDs). The dominant topology for these drives in sizes up to 200 HP is the voltage source variable frequency drive which uses a smoothing capacitor on the DC link. This topology is used because of the low cost and simplicity of the drive and also because the existing induction motor can be used when the ASD is used for retrofitting a system. Because of the popularity of these drives, there is increased concern about the drives` sensitivity to utility transients. Two of the most con-anon utility events are fault-clearing voltage sags and capacitor switching transients. Unfortunately, voltage source variable frequency drives are sensitive to both types of events (DC drives and current source variable frequency drives are only sensitive to voltage sags). This paper win address the voltage source variable frequency drive capacitor switching sensitivity. We will discuss the cost effective solution to the problem and comment on other beneficial effects of solving this problem.

  20. Nanoscale memory cell based on a nanoelectromechanical switched capacitor.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Eun; Cha, Seung Nam; Choi, Young Jin; Kang, Dae Joon; Butler, Tim P; Hasko, David G; Jung, Jae Eun; Kim, Jong Min; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2008-01-01

    The demand for increased information storage densities has pushed silicon technology to its limits and led to a focus on research on novel materials and device structures, such as magnetoresistive random access memory and carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, for ultra-large-scale integrated memory. Electromechanical devices are suitable for memory applications because of their excellent 'ON-OFF' ratios and fast switching characteristics, but they involve larger cells and more complex fabrication processes than silicon-based arrangements. Nanoelectromechanical devices based on carbon nanotubes have been reported previously, but it is still not possible to control the number and spatial location of nanotubes over large areas with the precision needed for the production of integrated circuits. Here we report a novel nanoelectromechanical switched capacitor structure based on vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes in which the mechanical movement of a nanotube relative to a carbon nanotube based capacitor defines 'ON' and 'OFF' states. The carbon nanotubes are grown with controlled dimensions at pre-defined locations on a silicon substrate in a process that could be made compatible with existing silicon technology, and the vertical orientation allows for a significant decrease in cell area over conventional devices. We have written data to the structure and it should be possible to read data with standard dynamic random access memory sensing circuitry. Simulations suggest that the use of high-k dielectrics in the capacitors will increase the capacitance to the levels needed for dynamic random access memory applications. PMID:18654446

  1. Random Vibration Testing of Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Advanced wet tantalum capacitors allow for improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the systems that is especially beneficial for space electronics. Due to launch-related stresses, acceptance testing of all space systems includes random vibration test (RVT). However, many types of advanced wet tantalum capacitors cannot pass consistently RVT at conditions specified in MIL-PRF-39006, which impedes their use in space projects. This requires a closer look at the existing requirements, modes and mechanisms of failures, specifics of test conditions, and acceptance criteria. In this work, different lots of advanced wet tantalum capacitors from four manufacturers have been tested at step stress random vibration conditions while their currents were monitored before, during, and after the testing. It has been shown that the robustness of the parts and their reliability are mostly due to effective self-healing processes and limited current spiking or minor scintillations caused by RVT do not increase the risk of failures during operation. A simple model for scintillations events has been used to simulate current spiking during RVT and optimize test conditions. The significance of scintillations and possible effects of gas generation have been discussed and test acceptance criteria for limited current spiking have been suggested.

  2. Asymmetric capacitors using lignin-based hierarchical porous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Torres, David; Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro; Valero-Romero, María José; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás; Morallón, Emilia; Cazorla-Amorós, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchical porous carbons (HPC) were fabricated from lignin by hard template method using Beta and Y zeolites as templates. Textural properties were dictated by the hard template, obtaining a bi-modal pore size distribution with similar micropore sizes but different mesopore sizes. These HPCs provide a well-connected and developed porosity that show capacitance values near to 140 F g-1 in 1 M H2SO4 at 1 A g-1 and a capacitance retention of ca. 50% and 40% when the specific current is increased from 1 to 64 A g-1 for the Y and the Beta-based carbons, respectively. A symmetric capacitor working at 1.2 V with energy densities of 4.2 Wh kg-1 at 1.3 kW kg-1 has been obtained using the Beta-based HPC. Asymmetric in mass design allowed to operate the capacitor safely at 1.4 V, yielding an energy density of 6.3 Wh kg-1 at 1.3 kW kg-1, an increase of 50% with respect to the symmetric configuration, while keeping a maximum power near to 50 kW kg-1. This capacitor has an energy density comparable to that of a symmetric supercapacitor built using a commercial activated carbon of much higher porosity development, outperforming it in terms of energy, coulombic efficiencies and maximum power.

  3. Research of on-line detection system for power capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junda; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    The hidden danger exists in the power capacitor of power system due to long-time operation under the environment of high voltage. Thus, it is possible to induce serious fault, and the on-line detection system is urgently required. In this paper, two methods of the on-line detection system are compared in order to realize the better real-time condition detection. The first method is based on the STM microprocessor with an internal 12 bit A/D converter, which converts analog signals which is arrived from the sample circuit into digital signals, and then the FFT algorithm is used to accomplish the measurement of the voltage and current values of the capacitor. The second method is based on the special electric energy metering IC, which can obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) of voltage and current by processing the sampled data of the voltage and current, and store RMS of voltage and current in its certain registers. The operating condition of the capacitor can be obtained after getting the values of voltage and current. By comparing the measuring results of two methods, the second method could achieve a higher measurement accuracy and more simple construction.

  4. Cyanate ester based multifunctional nanocomposites for structural capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weixing

    Two multifunctional cyanate ester based composites with nanofillers of core-shell microstructures were synthesized and investigated for dielectric, mechanical, and other particular properties for the application of multifunctional structural capacitors. The weight reduction and device integration in spacecraft can contribute to significant energy saving by employing multifunctional structural capacitors. Si nanoparticles/Bisphenol E cyanater ester (Si/BECy) nanocomposites show a significant increase in dielectric constant compared to neat BECy. A low dielectric loss tangent is still maintained in this system thanks to the core-shell (Si-SiO2) microstructure of Si particles. Incorporation of Si nanoparticles also results in a large increase in composite's storage modulus. Furthermore, the AC conductivity of the composite was observed to decrease under compressive mechanical stresses due to the piezoresistive effect of Si. Agglomerates of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with SiO2 are synthesized and incorporated into BECy to obtain nanocomposites, revealing an enhanced dielectric constant and storage modulus, and a relatively low loss tangent over a wide frequency and temperature range similar to Si/BECy system. Therefore, these novel cyanate ester based nanocomposites simultaneously display mechanical load-carrying, electric energy-storing and other functional properties, promising for multifunctional devices, in this case, structural capacitors.

  5. Plasma-Assisted Dry Etching of Ferroelectric Capacitor Modules and Application to a 32M Ferroelectric Random Access Memory Devices with Submicron Feature Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Woo; Joo, Suk-Ho; Cho, Sung Lae; Son, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Kyu-Mann; Nam, Sang-Don; Park, Kun-Sang; Lee, Yong-Tak; Seo, Jung-Suk; Kim, Young-Dae; An, Hyeong-Geun; Kim, Hyoung-Joon; Jung, Yong-Ju; Heo, Jang-Eun; Lee, Moon-Sook; Park, Soon-Oh; Chung, U-In; Moon, Joo-Tae

    2002-11-01

    In the manufacturing of a 32M ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) device on the basis of 0.25 design rule (D/R), one of the most difficult processes is to pattern a submicron capacitor module while retaining good ferroelectric properties. In this paper, we report the ferroelectric property of patterned submicron capacitor modules with a stack height of 380 nm, where the 100 nm-thick Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) films were prepared by the sol-gel method. After patterning, overall sidewall slope was approximately 70° and cell-to-cell node separation was made to be 80 nm to prevent possible twin-bit failure in the device. Finally, several heat treatment conditions were investigated to retain the ferroelectric property of the patterned capacitor. It was found that rapid thermal processing (RTP) treatment yields better properties than conventional furnace annealing. This result is directly related to the near-surface chemistry of the PZT films, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The resultant switching polarization value of the submicron capacitor was approximately 30 μC/cm2 measured at 3 V.

  6. Electrical Characterization of Metal Insulator Metal Capacitors with Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Dielectrics for Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Jian; Huang, Yue; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ran

    2007-10-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 dielectric and TaN electrodes are investigated for rf integrated circuit applications. For 12 nm HfO2, the fabricated capacitor exhibits a high capacitance density of 15.5 fF/μm2 at 100 kHz, a small leakage current density of 6.4×10-9 A/cm2 at 1.8 V and 125°C, a breakdown electric field of 2.6 MV/cm as well as voltage coefficients of capacitance (VCCs) of 2110 ppm/V2 and -824 ppm/V at 100 kHz. Further, it is deduced that the conduction mechanism in the high field range is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel emission, and the conduction mechanism in the low field range is possibly related to trap-assisted tunnelling. Finally, comparison of various HfO2 MIM capacitors is present, suggesting that the present MIM capacitor is a promising candidate for future rf integrated circuit application.

  7. A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

  8. Microalgal Production of Jet Fuel: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-208

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E. E.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2012-06-01

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can use CO2 and sunlight to generate the complex biomolecules necessary for their survival. These biomolecules include energy-rich lipid compounds that can be converted using existing refinery equipment into valuable bio-derived fuels, including jet fuel for military and commercial use. Through a dedicated and thorough collaborative research, development and deployment program, the team of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Chevron will identify a suitable algae strain that will surpass the per-acre biomass productivity of terrestrial plant crops.

  9. Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-03-00129

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R. B.

    2010-07-01

    Midwest Research Institute (MRI) and AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc. (AVL) have executed a Software and Trademark License Agreement (Software License) by which AVL is granted the exclusive right to use, modify and improve and to commercialize by reproducing, distributing and granting sublicenses in, certain computer software known as ADVISOR 2003.

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research Initiative: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-291

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  11. Amorphous Diamond Flat Panel Displays - Final Report of ER-LTR CRADA project with SI Diamond Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, Joel W.

    1998-05-08

    The objective of this project was to determine why diamond-based films are unusually efficient electron emitters (field emission cathodes) at room temperature. Efficient cathodes based on diamond are being developed by SI Diamond Technology (SIDT) as components for bright, sunlight-readable, flat panel displays. When the project started, it was known that only a small fraction (<1%) of the cathode area is active in electron emission and that the emission sites themselves are sub-micron in size. The critical challenge of this project was to develop new microcharacterization methods capable of examining known emission sites. The research team used a combination of cathode emission imaging (developed at SIDT), micro-Raman spectroscopy (LBNL), and electron microscopy and spectroscopy (National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL) to examine the properties of known emission sites. The most significant accomplishment of the project was the development at LBNL of a very high resolution scanning probe that, for the first time, measured simultaneously the topography and electrical characteristics of single emission sites. The increased understanding of the emission mechanism helped SIDT to develop a new cathode material,''nano-diamond,'' which they have incorporated into their Field Emission Picture Element (FEPix) product. SIDT is developing large-format flat panel displays based on these picture elements that will be brighter and more efficient than existing outdoor displays such as Jumbotrons. The energy saving that will be realized if field emission displays are introduced commercially is in line with the energy conservation mission of DOE. The unique characterization tools developed in this project (particularly the new scanning microscopy method) are being used in ongoing BES-funded basic research.

  12. Flow Visualization Studies in the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System CRADA PC91-002, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Borovetz, H.S.; Shaffer, F.; Schaub, R.; Lund, L.; Woodard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of experiments to visualize and measure flow fields in the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS). The experiments utilize a multiple exposure, optical imaging technique called fluorescent image tracking velocimetry (FITV) to hack the motion of small, neutrally-buoyant particles in a flowing fluid.

  13. CRADA with the Belhaven group and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-081): Automated soil moisture measuring systems. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop an improved, full- scale, inexpensive, soil moisture sensor, using innovative porous ceramic materials as the moisture wicking component and (2) demonstrate the performance of the sensor in the laboratory and in field to determine its reliability and accuracy. The opportunity for this project arose as a result of an inquiry from Belhaven to whom the soil moisture sensor developed at PNNL by John Cary was licensed. The existing Cary sensor needed research and development effort in order to create the type of soil moisture sensor envisioned by the Belhaven for use in an integrated soil moisture systems in the field. PNNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this Collaborative project.

  14. Assessment of U.S. Energy Wave Resources: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-328

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.

    2012-06-01

    In terms of extractable wave energy resource for our preliminary assessment, the EPRI/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) assumed that 15% of the available resource could be extracted based on societal constraints of a 30% coverage of the coastline with a 50% efficient wave energy absorbing device. EPRI recognizes that much work needs to be done to better define the extractable resource and we have outlined a comprehensive approach to doing this in our proposed scope of work, along with specific steps for refining our estimate of the available wave energy resources.

  15. Economic and Performance Analysis of Gear Box Failures. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-236

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, CO, USA is forming a collaborative within the wind energy industry to address reliability issues on wind turbines. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), leading the collaborative effort, will allow gearbox manufacturers, bearing manufacturers, wind turbine owner/operators, and wind turbine manufacturers to team up for joint projects that address specific issues regarding design and reliability of wind turbine gearboxes. The primary means of investigation will be through full scale testing and analysis of actual gearboxes, both in the field and in the NREL 2.5 MW dynamometer test facility. These teams would contribute resources into a campaign that is intended to serve the mutual interests of a majority of the wind and gearbox industry stakeholders in addition to the specific project team objectives. that address specific issues regarding design and reliability of wind turbine gearboxes. The primary means of investigation will be through full scale testing and analysis of actual gearboxes, both in the field and in the NREL 2.5 MW dynamometer test facility. These teams would contribute resources into a campaign that is intended to serve the mutual interests of a majority of the wind and gearbox industry stakeholders in addition to the specific project team objectives.

  16. Southern California Edison Grid Integration Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-376

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Barry

    2015-07-09

    The objective of this project is to use field verification to improve DOE’s ability to model and understand the impacts of, as well as develop solutions for, high penetration PV deployments in electrical utility distribution systems. The Participant will work with NREL to assess the existing distribution system at SCE facilities and assess adding additional PV systems into the electric power system.

  17. Biomass Resource Demand Characterization Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-436

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Competing demands for U.S. biomass resources and resulting impacts on regional feedstock availability could have a significant impact on the ability of the biofuels industry to transition to lower cost feedstocks, such as wood, agricultural residues, and energy crops, as well as on the ability of U.S. electric utilities and consumers to meet Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and transition to lower carbon-footprint sources of electricity. Promulgation of regulations that place a cost on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels will also impact this situation as biomass to power applications become increasingly cost competitive. This increased competition for biomass feedstocks could create technical and economic risks for the Government, industry, and investors, and has the potential to impede commercialization of bio-energy in the U.S. at a meaningful scale.

  18. Renewable Energy Institute International (REII): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-387

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.

    2014-11-01

    NREL will provide the Renewable Energy Institute with detailed on-site biomass gasifier syngas monitoring, using the NREL transportable Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometer. This information will be used to optimize the parameters of the gasifier operation, insuring the quality of the syngas made in the Red Lion Bioenergy gasifier and its compatibility with catalytic conversion to fuels.

  19. Technical Support for China's Village Electrification Program: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00235

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, D.

    2010-07-01

    This work has two main goals: First, it provides for the analysis of data collected from systems developed in the previous phase of China's rural power program, the Township Electrification Program Second, it will comprise joint IEE-NREL work in support of the upcoming phase, 'Electrification of Unelectrified Areas'.

  20. Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Technology Transfer and Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-461

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.

    2014-12-01

    During the last 15 years, NREL has been utilizing its unique expertise and capabilities to work with industry partners on battery thermal testing and electric and hybrid vehicle simulation and testing. Further information and publications about NREL's work and unique capabilities in battery testing and modeling can be found at NREL's Energy Storage website: http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/. Particularly, NREL has developed and fabricated a large volume isothermal battery calorimeter that has been made available for licensing and potential commercialization (http://techportal.eere.energy.gov/technology.do/techID=394). In summer of 2011, NREL developed and fabricated a smaller version of the large volume isothermal battery calorimeter, called hereafter 'cell-scale LVBC.' NETZSCH Instruments North America, LLC is a leading company in thermal analysis, calorimetry, and determination of thermo-physical properties of materials (www.netzsch-thermal-analysis.com). NETZSCH is interested in evaluation and eventual commercialization of the NREL large volume isothermal battery calorimeter.